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asdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyu iopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer REPORT ON VOCATIONAL TRAININING tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq AT wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio BSNL, BHOPAL
22/06/2010 to 16/07/2010
PRASHANT KUMAR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION TCT,BHOPAL
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This is to certify that PRASHANT KUMAR of 4th year Bachelor of Engineering (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ) THAKRAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL has successfully undergone practical training in BSNL Jamshedpur. His conduct throughout the period was satisfactory and he was a good asset to our institution. We highly appreciate the effort and the initiatives taken by him during the training, in the process he has gained handy knowledge about the internal and external systems and working of this institution.
__________________ (S.D.E. Phones) DATE:
We thank the GMTD Jamshedpur, Mr.A.K.Pahi for allowing us to undergo Practical Training in BSNL Jamshedpur . Moreover, we wish to extend our gratitude to Mrs. T. S. Pillai, SDE Phones, who was a constant source of information and help. We would also wish to thank Mr. Madhukar D.E.T., Mr. Prabhakar Bharti (SDE NIB), Mr. C.S.P. Choudhary Mr. Niren, Mr. Mannan, who all guided us every moment throughout our training period and made the atmosphere cheerful. Last but not the least we would like to thank all the staff members of BSNL (Garamnala ,Jamshedpur). Without their co-operation this training would not have been possible.
Multiplay (6)The main distribution frame (MDF) (7)Switching (8)Conclusion (9) Appendix .An Overview (2) Services offered by the BSNL (3)Call Center (4)Broad Band (5)A new technology.BSNL4 CONTENTS (1)Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
With the frantic activity in the communication sector in India. BSNL is India's no. it became a corporation in 2000.500 data customers. Pre-activated Mobile connections are available at many places across India.32 billion. Web telephony. Since it became a corporation in October 2000. and long term target of 120 million lines by 2010. VPN.FETEX. BSNL plans to add 20 million subscribers annually for the next three years. EWSD. DIAS. . and commands over 40 million landlines and 123 million mobile subscribers. 1 Telecom Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for people of India. DWDM system up to 80 Gbit/s.An Overview BSNL or Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is India's largest Communication Service Provider (CSP). the number will be easily achievable. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader. BSNL is the No.5 Gbit/s.BSNL. Previously known as DoT (Department of Telecommunications) when it was under federal government control. and widespread transmission network including SDH system up to 2. one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle . BSNL has also unveiled very cost-effective Broadband internet access plans (DataOne) targeted at homes and small businesses. Broadband and more than 400. AXE-10. NEC etc. BSNL has footprints in entire India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which are managed by MTNL. and seventh largest in the world. When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation.BSNL5 Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. BSNL has been actively providing connections in both Urban and Rural areas and the efficiency of the company has drastically improved from the days when one had to wait for years to get a phone connection to now when one can get a connection in even hours. and much beyond. With latest digital switching technology like OCB. 1 Telecommunications Company and the largest Public Sector Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of $ 3977 million and networth of $ 14. Today.
CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service.per month only. Multicasting. Video-on-Demand. for web browsing and E-mail applications. BSNL launched DataOne broadband service in January 2005 which shall be extended to 198 cities very shortly. Subsequently. 250/. The minimum speed offered to the customer is 256 Kbps at Rs.7 million for . Countrywide telephone Service through 32.BSNL6 Services offered by the BSNL Basic Telephone Services The Plain old. Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) with a host of Phone Plus value additions. Video Conferencing.000 electronic exchanges. the facility which no other ISP has. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. other services such as VPN. Broadcast application etc will be added. You can use your dialup sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' . Keeping the global network of Networks networked. the countrywide Internet Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line access. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.
It offers x. data and image transfer over the same line. x. Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection) and frame relay services. ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital network providing high speed and high quality voice.BSNL7 sancharnet service. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video conferencing.25 x. . BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104 cities of the country. such as: Free Phone Service (FPH) India Telephone Card (Prepaid card) Account Card Calling (ACC) Virtual Private Network (VPN) Tele-voting Premium Rae Service (PRM) Universal Access Number (UAN) and more I-Net India s x.28 leased.
BSNL8 Leased Lines & Datacom BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various application on point to point basis. useful for Internet leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs). Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps. • Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network. unified messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. GPRS. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS. Wireless in Local Loop This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. medium and low speed leased data circuits as well as dial-up lines. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi). Cellular Mobile Service Postpaid and Prepaid BSNL?s GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2 million. Email. It offers a choice of high. Bandwidth is available on demand in most cities. • Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based . Voice Mail. You can use BSNL Mobile in over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes.
• Limited mobility without any air-time charge CALL CENTER .BSNL9 network in urban areas. • Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas.
e. Bill enquiry 3. Status advice note . Information 2. Services provided by helpline 1. Current meter reading 4. In a call centre one learns how to patiently listen to customers and how to efficiently solve their complications. g. 2227900 (for problems related to mobiles exclusively). activation/deactivation of services provided by the network). Helpline numbers are provided which the customers can call and discuss and resolve their difficulties. 177 (Hindi seva). d.BSNL10 CALL CENTRE is the section which deals with the diverse problems and queries of the customers. f. Broadband c. Complaints regarding a. Call Centre at Garamnala exchange was inaugurated on 15th Aug 2007. The common helpline numbers are 1500 (queries for latest offers and schemes. WLL 5. Mobile Lease line Internet Bill Complaints h. 198 (computerized service provided for recording problems related to the set). One can thus earn quality job experience and virtue of customer handling which always helps one in the future. B-phone b.
Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. We receive broadband and caller facility on . In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II puts India at par with more advanced nations. through the Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS). countrywide spanning 198 cities. Booking of NTC. Cases of DMK. The services includes always-on broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers. multi-protocol. DTJ. To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volume-based billing. convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II). To provide multicast video services. multi-gigabit. The Broadband service is based on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone). etc. The subscriber accesses the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System (SSSS) portal. Audio and Video conferencing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services BROADBAND is a form of internet service. Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming.BSNL11 6. video-on-demand. The only difference between broadband and internet is the speed. which provides convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network. IP Telephony. Messaging: plain and feature rich. SSAS BROADBAND BSNL has commissioned a world class. Key Objectives • • • • • • To provide high speed Internet connectivity (upto 8 Mbps) To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers To provide dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers. Content based services. request of shifting & restoration 7. Video multicasting. Distance learning.
Since we require less uploading compared to downloading. making a phone call while accessing the Internet does In order to be able to use Broadband one needs • • BSNL's Bfone (Basic phone) connection Personel Computer with 10/100 Ethernet Port ADSL CPE (Customer Premise Equipment). so broadband provides higher bandwidth and speed for downlink as compared to uplink to suit our necessity. BSNL provides a staggering speed of 2 MBPS which is the fastest in India. ‘Always-On’ means that the broadband sets up a permanent connection to the Internet that lets you access the Internet as soon as you switch on the computer and the CPE and do an instant log-in with your user name and password. It provides ‘always-on’ Internet connection that is automatically established once the PC and ADSL modem are switched on and instant log-in procedure is completed. ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.BSNL12 the same copper wire with the help of a SPLITTER. . It is a technology that allows copper telephone pairs to be used to provide a broadband connection. which is a kind of low pass filter which separates a normal call from the broadband data. There will be no separate Internet telephone call charges. Conversely. ADSL uses a different set of frequencies and does not interfere with telephone conversation. This can be taken from BSNL at nominal rental per month. Since the uplink and downlink speed and bandwidth is different so a process called ADSL is used.
Always On-Line” • . On power failure. a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over analog telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. Standard telephony devices that normally work over telephone line can be used with ADSL simultaneously (i. ADSL allows them to use the higher speed direction for the "download" from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would require bandwidth in the other direction. The typical home ADSL connection has 512 kbps downstream and 256 kbps upstream. Packages designed for offices or businesses have a 20:1 contention ratio and range from 512 kbps to 26 Mbps in downstream speed.. ADSL Benefits • • • • So in more specific terms what are the advantages ? ADSL permits. simultaneously access to web and telephone removing the need for a second telephone line for dialup. Providers usually market ADSL as a service for people to connect to the Internet in a relatively passive mode.. the line is still available like with a standard telephone line. i.BSNL13 Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line • Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) offers a form of DSL. “No More Dialup.e. Downstream rates start at 64 kbps and typically reach 8 Mbps but can go as high as 26 Mbps over short ranges (ADSL2+). As compared to other forms of DSL. Fax).e. Upstream rates start at 64 kbps and typically max reach 800 kbps . asymmetrically. with a 50:1 contention ratio. ADSL has the distinguishing characteristic that the data can flow faster in one direction than the other.
BSNL14 ADSL Applications • Because of the Multimedia benefits of ADSL all of the following applications are available: Internet Access (SOHO) LAN Access (Telecommuting) Distance Learning Tele-medicine Broadcast TV Home Shopping Interactive Games Movies .
BSNL15 ADSL Technology Description Frequency Spectrum of ADSL .
Upstream/Downstream channels Up to 4 sub-channels on the downstream separated by either FDM using Low Pass Filter (LPF) / High Pass Filter (HPF) or a combination of FDM and echo cancellation. 30 < f < 138 KHz Upstream and 138 < f < 1104 KHz Downstream. ADSL Capabilities . ADSL uses a pass band scheme which allows the data traffic to be placed strategically in the available frequency spectrum so as not to interfere with the standard analog voice service.BSNL16 Fig 2a. The POTS Channel is separated by a POTS splitter. 0 < f < 4 KHz POTS or ISDN. Up to 3 bi-direction sub-channels • ADSL offers unique flexibility utilizing the available transmission spectrum of the local loop.1 – Frequency Spectrum of ADSL • ADSL uses a Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM) system with bandwidth divided in three parts. In addition it allows the provider to power the telephone service centrally thereby maintaining critical voice traffic even in the event of a power failure.
2 – ADSL Capabilities ADSL offers three information channels: A high speed downstream channel (1. Wire gauge. Cross-Couple interference. A POTS or an ISDN channel. ADSL Modulation . Presence of bridged taps. Other factors which the data rate depend on are: Length of copper line. A medium speed duplex channel (16 Kbps to 3 Mbps).5 to 26 Mbps).BSNL17 • Fig 2a. • The Data Rate is proportional to 1 / Distance.
Fig 2a.3 – Quadrate Amplitude Modulation Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is the basis for both types of modulation used by ADSL so it is therefore worth looking at how it works. Basically by using a combination of phase shifts and amplitudes we can represent data bits by analog signals. Using 12 phase shifts and 2 amplitudes we have 16 unique signal types, each of which can represent 4 bits per line (24 = 16). This is clearly demonstrated in the diagram. Such a map of phase shifts and amplitudes is generally termed a constellation.
• Discrete Multitone (DMT) and Carrierless Amplitude and Phase Modulation (CAP) are the line codes most frequently used in ADSL. These line codes determine how the digital signal is sent and received down the line. CAP is closely related to Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM) while DMT is more complex and is the open standard chosen for ADSL by ANSI • The AN-2000IB IP-DSLAM uses DMT so we will only consider it from here.
Discrete Multitone (DMT)
Fig 2a.4 – DMT Transmitter and Receiver Discrete Multitone (DMT) • DMT divides the entire bandwidth range into a large number of equally spaced sub channels called sub carriers. This bandwidth extends from 0 Hz to 1.1 MHz. This bandwidth is divided into 256 sub carriers with each occupying 4.3125 KHz giving a total bandwidth of 1.104 MHz on the loop. A number of these channels are special and others are not used, i.e. channel 64 is reserved as a pilot channel at 276 KHz. The lower channels 1-6 reserved to pass the 4 KHz analogue voice. There are 32 upstream channels starting from channel 7 and 250 possible downstream channels however it is typically limited to 218 channels for downstream. Echo Cancellation (EC) • The Echo Cancellation (EC) for ADSL occurs at 4w/2w hybrid circuit when the transmit signal and the receiving signal are joined together and connected to the twisted-pair telephone line. Adaptive EC upgrades the ADSL transceiver system. EC should be 60 dB to maintain residual EC level. In the DMT ADSL, EC improves the bandwidth throughput in the downstream direction because of the asymmetrical function.
EC technique can be used in many systems. In the PSTN, it allowed to transmit 9.6 Kbps and now more than 28.8 Kbps. Also it reduce the crosstalk noise level if information and signal process share between the ADSL transceiver connected to the two different telephone lines.
Fig 2a.5 – DMT Parameters
D TD n M ow
Symbol Rate FFT size Cyclic prefix
Support O .BSNL21 ADSL Channels Fig 2a. The C channel runs at 16 Kbps. Duplex Channels • Bi-directional duplex channels can be supported at the same time as the downstream simplex channels. Down Stream S – • • AS0 . The max number of sub channels that can be active at any time and the max number of bearer channels that can be transported at the same time depends on the transport class. The maximum transport class speed of 6.144 Mbps is not permitted on all bearers at the same time. if supported the ATM cells run on the optional LS2 channel.Support M Supports D AS1 . The bidirectional channels also have the option to transport ATM cells. In addition to the C channel two optional Bearer channels can be carried. The LS0 is a mandatory channel which carries the C channel signalling messages for selection of services and call setup. The transport class support depends on the achievable line rate of the specific ADSL loop connection.6 – ADSL Channels Downstream Channels • ADSL has established sub channel data rates for the default bearer bit rates. AS0 is mandatory.
Local Loop • In ADSL. Line units • ATU-C The ADSL Termination Unit at the Central Office is an integral part of the Access Node. they are generally used for upstream in actual implementations. • ATU-R The ADSL Termination unit at the Remote site is the customer premises modem which connects to the ATU-C at the other end of the line. It also provides a POTS port and a LAN interface for the customer to access the available services. It was originally designed for voice transmission only using analog transmission technology on a single voice channel. It operated the simplex and bi-directional channels. ADSL POTS Splitter . the classes of operation and the throughput through these channels depending on the connected line quality. the local loop can carry digital signals from CO to RT or RT to CO with very high bandwidth. The local loop comprise of a pair of twisted copper wire. a local loop is the wire connection from a CO to CPE at homes and business.BSNL22 Although the LS0 to LS1 are bi-directional duplex channels. With ADSL technology.
8 – ADSL POTS Splitter POST Splitter Structure • In the ADSL. the POTS splitter divides the incoming signal into a low frequency to send to voice device and high frequency for data to the computer. DSL • A mathematical formula can be used to find inductor L and capacitor C. Users getting connected to the internet through the ADSL modem may have a POTS splitter installed at the SOHO.BSNL23 Fig 2a. L(2m-1) = 2R1 Sin((4m-3)pi/2n)/ω c C(2m) = 2 sin((4m-1)pi/2n)/R1 ω c ADSL System Model . CO of the Service Provider also uses the POTS splitter to send the low frequency voice signals on to the voice telephone network and to send high frequency data to a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) for transmission to the Internet. while the LPF may be separated from ADSL transceiver or may be within ADSL transceiver or could be in the telephone handset. a POTS splitter device which separates a telephone signal into two or more signals. The HPF is located at the ADSL transceiver. each signal is carrying a selected frequency range and can also reassemble signal from multiple signal sources into a single signal.8. For ADSL. 2a. • The structure of a POTS splitter at the ATU-C or ATU-R is made of a lowpass filter for the POTS interface and a high-pass filter for the upstream/downstream as shown in the POTS splitter Fig.
It may have multiple or single physical connections with different digital carrier facilities i. • U-C Interface Interface between POTS splitter and loop on network side.7 – ADSL System Model ADSL Reference Points • VC Interface Interface between access node and broadband (or ATM) network. DS-3. it is not considered as a physical interface. .BSNL24 Fig 2a. a SONET STS-3C. • U-R Interface Interface between loop and POTS splitter on the customer premises side. SDH STM-1..e. As this interface will often be within circuits on a common board(s). • U-C2 Interface Interface between POTS splitter & ATU-C. • VA Interface Logical interface between ATU-C and access node. Defining both ends of the loop interface separately arises due to asymmetry of signals on the line. etc. • U-R2 Interface Interface between POTS splitter & ATU-R.
The T-SM interface may be integrated within service module. E1/T1 connection and Ethernet connection).BSNL25 • T-SM Interface Interface between ATU-R and Premises Distribution Network (PDN). The particular Transport class used is dependant on the line conditions and the possible data rate that can be transferred across the link as a result of the line conditions.AS3) Maximum duplex throughput is 640 Kbps for two channels (LS1.. Class1 Maximum simplex throughput is 6. LS2) Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps • The ADSL Specification has defined four Transport Classes for the downstream simplex bearers. • T Interface Interface between PDN and service modules and may be same as T-SM when network is point-to-point passive wiring.g.. . It may be same as T interface when network is point-to-point passive wiring. The particular Transport class used is dependant on the line conditions and the possible data rate that can be transferred across the link as a result of the line conditions.144 Mbps for four channels (AS0. ADSL Transport Classes • The ADSL Specification has defined four Transport Classes for the downstream simplex bearers. Note that an ATU-R may have more than one type of T-SM interface (e.
. LS2) Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps Simplex throughput is 1.144 Mbps for four channels (AS0.AS2) Maximum duplex throughput is 608 Kbps for one channels (LS1or LS2) Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps Maximum simplex throughput is 3.BSNL26 Class1 Maximum simplex throughput is 6..5 Mbps for AS0 Duplex throughput is 160 Kbps for LS1 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 16 Kbps Class2 Class3 Class4 ADSL Framing .07 Mbps for two channels (AS0.6 Mbps for three channels (AS0.AS1) Maximum duplex throughput is 608 Kbps for one channels (LS1. LS2) Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps Maximum simplex throughput is 4.AS3) Maximum duplex throughput is 640 Kbps for two channels (LS1.
BSNL27 Fig 2a. followed by AS1.9 – ADSL Framing • This describes the frame structure between the ATU-C and ATU-R on the line. the frame simply takes a given number of octets for the AS0 bearer channel. Re-transmission of errored frames allowed Pure data applications as file transfer. fast or interleaved. AS2 etc. LS1 and finally LS2. Fast data portion Delay-sensitive but error tolerant applications Audio & Video applications Transmitted with minimum latency (delay) Error Correction by FEC but not retransmission Interleaved data portion Delay insensitive but error-intolerant applications Certain amount of latency acceptable CRC for error detection. • In the ATUs the Fast Data Buffer is a low latency data buffer while the interleave data buffer transport bits whose application is not dependant on a low latency. Frames are grouped in superframes with 68 frames per superframe.9. If there are no octets for a particular AS or LS then these bytes are simply left . Each ADSL frame in a superframe has a fixed structure as demonstrated in Fig 2a. Internet Access First byte is the SYNC byte • For each data buffer. These bytes are followed by LS0.
The superframes are made of 68 ADSL data frames which are encoded and modulated into DMT symbols at the rate of 4000 baud. A special sync frame follows the superframe and it carries no user information. • 8 bits per superframe are reserved for the CRC. Frame 0 and 1 carry error control information and indicator bits that are used to manage the link. The fast data buffer carries CRC. Frames 34 and 35 also carry indicator bits. and multiplexed into two data buffer (fast and interleave). ADSL superframe is shown in the Fig 2a.BSNL28 empty.10 – ADSL Superframe The length of the ADSL frame is determined by the adapted bit rate of interface.10. The DMT symbol rate is (69/68) × 4000 baud because the sync symbol is inserted to the end of each superframe. The upstream and downstream data channels are synchronized to the 4 KHz ADSL DMT symbol rate. ADSL Frame • • Fig 2a. This is topped off with some overhead bytes shared by all channels. and 24 indicator bits are assigned for OAM functions. . One Superframe is passed every 17mS and each frame is sent every 250 μS.
2. • Exchange Process: Shares expected transmission settings. ADSL Operation Initialization • Transceiver training and channel analysis: Each receiver determines the relevant attributes of the channel through procedures. each user data stream is assigned to the fast or interleave path. During the initialization. Each receiver communicates: Number of bits used for each DMT subcarrier Power Level used by each DMT subcarrier Final Data Rate Other messages Activation and acknowledgement Fig 2a.4 REV-EILLE .3.11 – Activation and acknowledgement • ATU-R transmits tones to ATU-C • ATU-C & ATU-R negotiate the timing method & determination of master • Reach a state capable of analyzing line conditions • Tones used during initialization phase R/C-ACT 1.BSNL29 EOC or Sync bits in “Fast Byte”.
Division Multiplexing Echo Cancellation • Signal Tones used during Transceiver Training R/C-REVERB R/C-SEGUE Channel Analysis Fig 2a.BSNL30 Transceiver Training Fig 2a.13 – Channel Analysis • Modems exchange information on o Upstream Bearer Channels o Latency Paths o Bandwidth o Specific Features supported & desired configuration • Perform test to determine loop quality & SNR for each DMT channel • Signal Tones used during Channel Analysis – MEDLY .12 – Transceiver Training • ATU-R & ATU-C determine line conditions & adjust equalization • Determine ADSL Mode of operation Freq.
992.“ShowTime” • Signal Tones used during Channel Analysis o R/C-REVERB o R/C-SEGUE OTHER DSL Variants ADSL2+ G.14 – Exchange • Modems configure themselves & exchange configuration information • Requested bandwidth allocated to bearer channels • Specific DMT tones & amount of data encoded in each tone determined & assigned • Connection is both directions tested • Notifies peer to enter normal communications .BSNL31 Exchange Fig 2a.5 .
• As well as this obvious benefit ADSL2+ inherits from ADSL2 Enhanced diagnostic capabilities. transmits data via a data network rather than the Carriers voice network. The result is.5 describes ADSL Transceivers which allow high-speed data transmission between the network operator end (ATU-C) and the customer end (ATU-R). downstream data rates increased to up to 25 Mbps on lines as long as 1. RADSL is Carrierless Amplitude Modulation/Phase Modulation (CAP) based. • This standard doubles the maximum frequency used for downstream data transmission from 1.2 MHz. IDSL • ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL) transmits data digitally across existing ISDN lines. Gspan+ Gspan++ • Gspan+ and Gspan++ are based on proprietary Quad spectrum technology from the chipmaker Globespan Semiconductor Inc.000 M. This had been more or less superseded by ADSL2+ • G. using extended bandwidth.6 M. improved power management.1 MHz to 2. RADSL Rate Adaptive ADSL is derived from early ADSL technologies. It can automatically adjust the line speed based on the gauge . Gspan+ offers speeds up to 26 Mbps downstream and up to 3 Mbps upstream.BSNL32 • Extended Bandwidth ADSL2 recommendation G. at a rate of 128 Kbps. The benefits of IDSL over ISDN are that IDSL provides always-on connections.992. bonding for higher data rates. reduced cross-talk through dynamic rate adaptation.span++ offers speeds up to 50 Mbps downstream and up to 3 Mbps upstream. and avoids per-call fees by being billed at a flat-rate. and 20 Mbps on lines as long as 1.
data and Internet access services. The shorter the distance.048 Mbps of bandwidth each way over two copper twisted pairs. which connect to the central • VDSL isn't widely deployed yet as standards have not been finalized with differing opinions as to the final line coding scheme some favoring Discrete Multitone (DMT).BSNL33 Other DSL Variants SDSL • Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) eliminates analog voice capabilities of ADSL in favor of full-duplex data transmission.991. Beside being faster and stretching longer distances.992. a multi-carrier system and others a line coding scheme based on Quadature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). multi-rate DSL combining the best of SDSL and HDSL2. interexchange POPs.55 Mbps range over short distances.SHDSL is a symmetric. VDSL • Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line transmits data in the 13 Mbps .320 kbps at 3.3 Mbps per second compared to 2. Internet servers. It has been standardized by the ITU-T as G. Because HDSL provides E1/T1 speed.088 Mbps.SHDSL • G. • Speed and distance are other factors that strengthen G. Service Providers have been using HDSL to provision local access to E1/T1 services whenever possible. The new standard delivers up to 2.1500 meters.SHDSL. The program was integrated into the SHDSL program in September 2002. The operating range of HDSL is limited to 3. HDSL requires two twisted pairs.SHDSL carries an international pedigree. of twisted pair copper wire. G. so signal repeaters are installed to extend the service.65 Km. a single-carrier system that is less expensive and consumes less power. • HDSL2 Second Generation HDSL program was formed in May 1999. HDSL • High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line based on ITU-T in G.0 Mbps for SDSL. and private data networks.5 Km and 144 kbps at 8 Km. so it is deployed primarily for PBX network connections. SDSL offers an alternative to E1 / T1 and supports data rates up to 3. digital loop carrier systems. HDSL delivers 2.2. usually between 300 . VDSL connects to neighborhood Optical Network Units (ONUs). • As the final length of cable into the home or office.2. G. the faster the connection rate. xDSL Applications . it's aimed at users of DSL for voice. It can also be deployed nearly twice as far from the central office (CO) than SDSL with 2.
Range and Media The charts in Fig 2a.18 – xDSL Applications Fig 2a. OSI 7 Layer Model Tech .19 – xDSL Speed.BSNL34 Fig 2a.19 summarise the differing variants and their various attributes.18 and 2a.
Examples at this layer include Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). providing freedom from compatibility problems. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy..g. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Presentation • This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. Control is passed from one layer to the next. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. e-mail. or Open System Interconnection. Everything at this layer is application-specific. Communication partners are identified. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. and vice versa. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. OSI Layer 7 6 Applicat Presenta . model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.BSNL35 Fig 2g.1 – OSI 7 Layer Model The OSI. encryption) by translating from application to network format. and proceeding to the bottom layer. This layer provides application services for file transfers. and other network software services. Application • This layer supports application and end-user processes. user authentication and privacy are considered. starting at the application layer in one station. quality of service is identified.
and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. The session layer sets up. and dialogues between the applications at each end. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). and terminates conversations.BSNL36 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG). It deals with session and connection coordination. or hosts. coordinates. manages and terminates connections between applications.2). Session Layer protocols include Structured Query Language (SQL). OSI 7 Layer Model Fig 2g. Remote Procedure Call (RPC). Unix X Windows. In IP this function is achieved using a connection oriented mechanism called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or a non connection oriented protocol called User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG). exchanges. They negotiate a connection agreement which is the parameters of the connection which are agreeable to both sides. . Session This layer establishes.2 – Connection Oriented Connection Transport • This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems. • A Connection oriented connection like TCP requires that the initiation device establish a peer session with the other device (See Fig 2g. It ensures complete data transfer.
e. The LLC layer controls frame • . Address – Network or Host route is about. delay. The MAC sublayer controls how a host on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. interface type etc. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. In this way all the data is transferred intact. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer (802. This layer has two basic packet types: • Data Packets Used to transport data through the internetwork. congestion control and packet sequencing. These route updates take the form of. • Metric – The distance to the network or host expressed as a hop count or bandwidth. Network • This layer provides switching and routing technologies. known as virtual circuits.3) and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer (802. error handling. as well as addressing. flow control and frame synchronization. internetworking. OSPF. handles errors in the physical layer. • The data is transferred in these window blocks with each being acknowledged. if the receiving side misses a segment it simply acknowledges the last one received and the transmitting side sends from the segment requested in the acknowledgement. • Another feature of TCP is buffering and flow control. • Route Update Packets Used to update neighboring routers of new routing information i. EIGRP and RIP. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge.2). • Interface – The Router Interface associated with this network or host.BSNL37 • Window size – Quantity of data segments that the transmitting host is permitted to send without an acknowledgement. creating logical paths. The receiving host can notify the transmitting one that its buffer is full and to stop sending temporarily. for transmitting data from node to node. Data link • At this layer. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer. The transmitting side will hold off until it gets the OK from the receiving side to proceed.
flow control and error checking. electrical impulse. including defining cables. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. which describes the layers of a protocol stack. Bridges are devices which manage the interconnection of Physical segments using a mainly software function whereas Switches (sometimes called Layer 2 Switches) handle the bridging function using hardware Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and such switching is often termed wire speed switching. light or radio signal through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. and Frame Relay are protocols with physical layer component TCP/IP and DoD Model Fig 2g.6 – TCP/IP and DoD Model • The Internet protocol suite is the set of protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. cards and the physical aspects. • The Internet Protocol suite can be described by analogy with the OSI model. It is sometimes called the TCP/IP protocol suite after two of the many protocols that make up the suite: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). Physical • This layer conveys the bit stream. Fast Ethernet. This layer is managed by Bridge and Switching devices. RS232. not all of which .BSNL38 synchronization. Ethernet.
In a protocol stack. Different protocols are selected from this layer. each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. Higher layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data. It is helpful to have an understanding of the OSI model before learning TCP/IP. • The four layers in the DoD model: The Network Access Layer is responsible for delivering data over the particular hardware media in use. TCP/IP M . but are easier to understand in the OSI model. and was built by committee. DoD Four-Layer Model Fig 2g. Therefore. The OSI model. relying on lower layers to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically manipulated.BSNL39 correspond well with Internet practice. was a more theoretical approach. but the TCP/IP model is more practical. depending on the type of physical network. the OSI model is easier to understand. as the same principles apply. on the other hand. • The Internet model was designed as the solution to a practical engineering problem.7 – DoD Four-Layer Model • The DoD Four-Layer Model was developed in the 1970s for the DARPA Internetwork Project that eventually grew into the Internet.
a lengthy login procedure is required. and other generic data flow management. (FTP) is a protocol used to transfer files between machines with widely different operating systems. • Telnet is a client-server protocol. file transfer and remote login. The objectives of FTP are: To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data). It is an 8bit protocol. . the Internet's fundamental protocol. as is the IP Protocol. DoD Process / Application layer • Here we will describe some of the applications and services that are used in IP Networks. Telnet is insecure and Username and Password details pass in ‘clear’ across the network. flow control. The Host-to-Host Layer handles connection rendezvous. The Process Layer contains protocols that implement user-level functions. Routing protocols are most closely associated with this layer. Partly because of the design of the protocol and partly because of the flexibility typically provided by telnet programs it is also possible to use a Telnet program to establish an interactive TCP connection to some other service on an internet host. FTP has extremely high latency. A classic use of this is telnetting to port 25 (where typically an SMTP server is to be found) to debug a mail server. capable of handling any type of file without further processing such as MIME or UUEncode. • The File Transfer Protocol.BSNL40 The Internet Layer is responsible for delivering data across a series of different physical networks that interconnect a source and destination machine. based on TCP. The mutually exclusive TCP and UDP protocols are this layer's most important members. Where possible Telnet should be replaced by Secure Shell (ssh). and clients generally connect to port 23 on the host providing the service (though like many protocols in use on the Internet which port to use is fairly easy to change). retransmission of lost data. such as mail delivery. the time between beginning the request and starting to receive the required data can be quite long. However.
To transfer data reliably and efficiently. where one or more recipients of a message are specified (and in most cases verified to exist) and then the message text is transferred. It is intended to replace rlogin. Often used to transfer small files between hosts on a network. Secure shell (SSH) is both a program and a network protocol for logging into and executing commands on a remote computer. including Microsoft Windows (where one of the most popular is PuTTY). To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts. it was a complement to UUCP which was better suited to handle e-mail transfers between machines that were intermittently connected. Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) is a very simple file transfer protocol like a basic version of FTP. A later version of the protocol was released under the name SSH2.BSNL41 To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers. It is quite easy to test a SMTP server using the telnet program. OpenSSH is an open source implementation of SSH. • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task . on the other hand. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. telnet and rsh. Disadvantages are: Passwords are sent in plaintext. SMTP. • • • • SMTP started becoming widely used in the early 1980s. It utilizes UDP as its transport protocol. The program is a common Unix shell program. It is possible to tell a server to send to an arbitrary port of a third computer. but there exists implementations for most modern platforms. SMTP is a relatively simple. text-based protocol. At the time. works best when both the sending and receiving machines are connected to the network all the time. and provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. TFTP is commonly used for downloading code to routers and other network devices. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for email transmission across the internet.
net instead of 195. DNS implements a hierarchical name space by allowing name service for parts of a name space to be "delegated" Host to Host layer • This layer provides a Transport function. A Management Information Base (MIB) describes the specific data that will be managed. the agent will send the specific piece of information requested. It allows for the creation of a session between two end-points over an underlying IP Network.40. These agents collect information and store it locally in memory. NFS is implemented using a connectionless protocol (UDP) in order to make it stateless. DoD Process / Application layer • Domain Name System (DNS). It is part of what is commonly referred to as the TCP/IP protocol stack.11. is a core feature of the Internet. and the numerical Internet addresses. • Network File System (NFS) is a protocol developed by Sun Microsystems and defined in RFC 1094. • It uses small programs called agents that are based on the machine that you want to monitor. When the information is requested by a network management station.7. it acts much like a phone book. That is.linuxusergroup. . so you can use www. a network file system which allows a computer to access files over a network as if they were on its local disks. which are more convenient for humans. It is a distributed database that handles the mapping between host names (domain names). TCP is at the Transport layer of the OSI model. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a stream based protocol for a point to point connection between hosts.BSNL42 Force. The protocol can be used to monitor any network attached devices for any conditions that warrant it.
.... = Push: Not set . .. Src Port: 2763 (2763).. TCP also takes care of reordering packets that may have taken different routes around the internet in to the correct sequence. .0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 16384 Checksum: 0x475e (correct) Options: (8 bytes) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core internet protocols. Transmission Control Protocol... Len: 0 Source port: 2763 (2763) Destination port: 21 (21) Sequence number: 2396708517 Header length: 28 bytes Flags: 0x0002 (SYN) 0.... • Here is an example of an initial SYN segment for an FTP request.BSNL43 • Unlike UDP. It is a layer 4 protocol (Transport layer of the OSI model) within the Internet protocol suite.. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not set ... Generally applications that are time-critical (streaming media. = ECN-Echo: Not set . . 0.0.0 .. multi-player games) sacrifice reliability for speed and use UDP where as things like the HTTP and FTP use reliable TCP. Ack: 0...... Dst Port: 21 (21).. TCP transparently provides an error free connection to higher layers by utilizing checksums and sequence numbers to verify when packets are sent and received. • There is a certain amount of extra processing power and bandwidth associated with the protocol which can influence the choice of TCP over UDP. Note the Port number.. = Syn: Set . It provides a mechanism to identify different endpoints on a single host by means of ports...1...0. Missing packets are taken care of by retransmission requests. . = Urgent: Not set .. = Acknowledgment: Not set ..0. Seq: 2396708517... UDP doesn't have the .. ...... . = Reset: Not set .
and data that arrives late is worthless. and one or more higher-level protocols that add functionality. • Here is an example UDP Datagram in use for web traffic. the packet length. UDP deals with single packet delivery. hence its common usage is for real time applications like videoconferencing. IP is complemented by one or more lower-level protocols that deal with the particular network hardware (for example. every connected host must understand it. which consists of a checksum. Internet Protocol • Internet Protocol (IP) is the defining element of the Internet. voice over IP and other streaming media. and destination ports. User Datagram Protocol. The benefit of this smaller feature set is quicker data transmittal. Dst Port: 1900 (1900) Source port: 1070 (1070) Destination port: 1900 (1900) Length: 140 Checksum: 0x0b37 (correct) Hypertext Transfer Protocol Internet layer • The Internet Layer is the routing layer and the domain of the IP Protocol itself. Src Port: 1070 (1070). plus source. • UDP packets (also known as datagram’s) contain. . in addition to the lower level headers. and lower total overhead. The whole collection of protocols is referred to as a protocol stack. a UDP header. online gaming. There are a number of other protocols at this layer which we will look at. provided by the underlying IP. • As a stateless protocol it is often used in such applications where data must arrive quickly. an Ethernet).BSNL44 handshake overhead of TCP to establish connections. and does not have features like flow control and reliability unlike TCP.
168. Each packet is routed independently.168.1. while IPv6 can accommodate 2128.168. no more. which was formalized in 1978. and a payload of variable length.6). Although there are far less than 4.6 (192.296 connected hosts. no less. packing them too densely produces increasingly complex routing issues so there is a push to migrate to version 6. In contrast to channel switched networks like the phone system. The next generation is version 6 which has been deployed in Japan and Korea to date.1. decide where the best next stop for the packet would be. until the destination is reached. Additional features can be attained by putting another protocol layer on top of that. or a certain number of hops is exceeded. Dst Addr: 192. The source host. • A packet's journey consists of one or more hops. IP divides its packets into an IP header (including a fixed part.294. Internet Protocol.967. The chief features of the header are the already mentioned destination address. The IP in widespread use in 2002/3. followed by zero or more options). is version 4.168. Once the next stop is reached.10 (192. and the length of the packet (header plus payload).10) . and arbitrary content. datagram’s that have the same source and destination hosts and may as well belong to the same connection on a higher level could travel through the net on completely different paths.1. the protocol version. • Similar to most protocols. this process begins anew. One major difference between versions is the number of addressable hosts. and any intermediate points. the Internet knows (on that level) nothing of connections. Internet Layer IP Packet Format • Here is an IPv4 Packet which in this instance is carrying a TCP Session. the topology and state of nearby connections.1. the source address. • The main strength of IP is packet switching: Transferring packets of data (called datagram’s) from a source host to a destination host. IPv4 has enough address bits to distinguish 232 (4. Src Addr: 192. based on the destination address.294.BSNL45 • IP's designers believed strongly in layering: Every protocol has an explicit functionality.296) machines. and the one described here.967.
. ECN: 0x00) 0000 00.1... TCP or UDP Protocol: TCP 6 (0x06) or UDP 17 (0x11) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is part of the TCP-IP suite of protocols.6 (192.. The ping utility is implemented using the ICMP "Echo" and "Echo reply" messages.0. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00) .0. . ICMP messages are typically generated in response to errors in IP datagrams or for diagnostic or routing purposes.10) Transmission Control Protocol Note the different fields in the header Protocol Field • This field shows the protocol at the Host to Host Layer i.. • Many commonly used network utilities are based on ICMP messages..1.BSNL46 Version: 4 Header length: 20 bytes Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default.1.168.6) Destination: 192.168.0 = ECN-CE: 0 Total Length: 48 Identification: 0xf263 Flags: 0x04 . Every machine (such as intermediate routers) that forwards an IP datagram has to .e.1. The related traceroute command is implemented by transmitting UDP datagrams with manipulated IP Time-to-live (TTL) header fields and looking for ICMP "Time to live exceeded in transit" and "Destination unreachable" messages in response.1....10 (192.168.168... = Don't fragment: Set . = More fragments: Not set Fragment offset: 0 Time to live: 128 Protocol: TCP (0x06) Header checksum: 0x8503 (correct) Source: 192. . = ECN-Capable Transport (ECT): 0 ..
• List of permitted control messages: 0 .Parameter Problem 13 . Each host maintains a cache of address translations to reduce delay and loading. • Here is an ARP request and a reply. ARP allows the Internet address to be independent of the Ethernet address but it only works if all hosts support it.Echo Request 9 . • Each ICMP message is encapsulated directly within a single IP datagram and thus.Router Advertisement 10 . an ICMP "Time to live exceeded in transit" message is sent to the source of the datagram.Router Solicitation 11 . like UDP. If the Target address was not on the same .1.Echo Reply 3 .Timestamp Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a method for finding a host's Ethernet (MAC) address from its IP address.168.Time Exceeded 12 . If the TTL reaches 0. The sender broadcasts an ARP packet containing the Internet address of another host and waits for it (or some other host) to send back its Ethernet address.Redirect 8 .10 and the reply returns a MAC address of 00:50:da:05:0a:cb. ICMP does not guarantee delivery. In the Request frame we see a Target of 192.Destination Unreachable 4 .Source Quench 5 .BSNL47 decrement the TTL by one.
. Address Resolution Protocol (request) Hardware type: Ethernet (0x0001) Protocol type: IP (0x0800) Hardware size: 6 Protocol size: 4 Opcode: request (0x0001) Sender MAC address: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb) Sender IP address: 192.168.168.168.BSNL48 network as the Sender address the the ARP request would be for the router on the network called the Default Gateway.6 (192.10 (192. Ethernet II Destination: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) Source: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb) Type: ARP (0x0806) Trailer: 00000000000000000000000000000000.10) Ethernet II Destination: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb) Source: 00:00:86:56:32:95 (00:00:86:56:32:95) Type: ARP (0x0806) Address Resolution Protocol (reply) Hardware type: Ethernet (0x0001) Protocol type: IP (0x0800) Hardware size: 6 Protocol size: 4 IP Addressing • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) routing is based on a two-level hierarchical routing in which an IP address is divided into a network portion and a host portion..188.8.131.52.6) Target MAC address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 (00:00:00:00:00:00) Target IP address: 192.1. Gateways use only the network portion until an IP datagram reaches a gateway that can .
20 = 1 21 = 2 22 = 4 23 = 8 24 = 16 25 = 32 26 = 64 27 = 128 • So for and address group of eight bits as follows. Additional levels of hierarchical routing are introduced by the addition of subnetworks. That means that the address is broken into four groups of eight bits and each is converted to decimal. In decimal each bits position represents a power of 2. Binary to Decimal Conversion • To convert binary addresses to decimal and vica versa we must understand Binary to Decimal conversion techniques.1 10101000 (168) 00000001 (1) 00000001 .1. 10101000 23 + 25 + 27 8 + 32 + 128 = 168 • IP Addresses are 32 bits represented in a dotted decimal notation. 11000000101010000000000100000001 11000000 (192) (1) 192.168. As the IP address breaks down the address into equal 8 bit groups for conversion we need only understand the process for 8 bits. • Before commencing into the IP Addressing section lets review a few mathematical concepts.BSNL49 deliver it directly. So a bit in position 3 (Starting the count at 0) is represented in decimal as 23 = 8.
If the first octet is between: 1 and 126 it is a Class A address. • The are several reasons why you might want to subnet a network. Class C addresses start with 110. Implementing subnets helps to control network traffic. Class B addresses start with 10. In heavy traffic situations this can result in collisions making the network performance painfully slow. • Classes can also be distinguished in decimal notation. • Now we can see how the class of address determines which part belongs to the network (N) and which part belongs to the node (h). On an ethernet network every machine on the same physical network sees all the packets of data sent out on the network. The first byte of the first octet determines the class of the address. Address Classes • There are 5 different address classes. hhhhhhhh. The network portion is shared by all the hosts on the same LAN . Class E addresses start with 1111. You may want to incorporate different types of physical networks into your IP network.NNNNNNNN. hhhhhhhh .hhhhhhhh. Class D addresses start with 1110. Class A -. hhhhhhhh Class B -.NNNNNNNN. 128 and 191 it is a Class B address 192 and 223 it is a Class C address 224 and 239 it is a Class D address 240 and 255 it is a Class E address. Class A addresses start with 0. • 127 is reserved for loopback and is used for internal testing on the local machine. In both these situations routers or gateways are used to separate networks.NNNNNNNN. hhhhhhhh. The router breaks the network into multiple subnets.BSNL50 Each IP address is further divided into a network portion and a host portion.
255.000 -------------------------------------------------------10010110.0. However there are some restrictions on the subnet address.00000000 Subnetting • Additional bits can be added on to the self encoded subnet mask for a given class to further subnet a network.11010111. Class A Class B Class C 255.255.009 255.11111111.215.00000000 150.00000000.0 255.0.hhhhhhhh Subnet masking • Applying a subnet mask to an address allows you to identify the network and node sections of an IP address.11111111.000 • This result may seem familiar to you because Class A.11111111.00000000.00000000 Class B .255.00001001 11111111.0 255.00010001.0.11111111.00000000 Class C . B and C addresses have a self encoded or default subnet mask built in.255.00000000.017.000.000.11111111.215.11010111. When a bitwise AND is performed between the subnet mask and IP address the result from the addition bits defines the subnet address.11111111.NNNNNNNN. For example: 10010110.00000000.BSNL51 Class C -. Doing a bitwise AND on the IP address and the subnet mask results in the network address.NNNNNNNN. Network addresses of all 0's and all 1's are reserved for specifying this network (when a host does not know .00000000 150.11111111.00000000.NNNNNNNN.0 /8 /16 /24 • Or in binary form Class A .
BSNL52 its network address) and all hosts (broadcast address) respectively. Therefore: A subnet address cannot be all 0's or all 1's. This also implies that a 1 bit subnet mask is not allowed. . This also applies to subnets.
224 192. 32. There are 14 subnets available with this mask (remember subnets with all 0's and all 1's are not allowed).0 27 – 24 = 3 23 – 2 = 6 /24 How many hosts/subnet: 25 – 2 = 30 Valid Subnets 192. Subnetting always reduces the number of possible nodes for a given network. 96.2 • multiplying the number of subnets by the number of nodes available per subnet gives you the total number of nodes available for you class and subnet mask.255.1. The subnet in this case was 184.108.40.206/27 Original Mask: Subnet bits No.316 nodes for the entire class B address. This gives a total of 57.255. 160.255.0 255. 192. 224 • Breakdown the following Subnet .1. 0. of Subnets Class C 255. Note that although subnet masks with noncontiguous mask bits are allowed they are not recommended. Max nodes = 2n . Notice that this is less than the 65.094 nodes (because of broadcast and network restrictions).534 nodes an unsubnetted class B address would have.168.168. Subnetting Examples • Breakdown the following Subnet 192. To calculate the number of subnets or nodes use the following where n = number of bits in either the subnet or node field.168.BSNL53 IP Subnet Addressing • In the previous example a 4 bit subnet mask was used. 128. 64. Each subnet has 4.
• The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). That solution became known as classless routing. This led to the original system being called. sixteen . The wild popularity of the net had triggered a flood of new classful networks. and every one had to be included in the routing tables. Classless routing came into use in the mid 1990s due to the inefficiencies of the classful system. • A variable length subnet mask is a means of allocating IP addressing resources to subnets according to their individual need rather than some general network-wide rule. So therefore the network/host division can occur at any bit boundary in the address. recognizing the urgency of these twin problems. and spending far too much time doing address lookups. and is the addressing scheme currently used in the Internet. classful routing. or CIDR. supernetting. it had become apparent that the pace of requests for new Class B networks would soon exhaust the available supply. to allow for the accelerating expansion of the Internet. The routers were running out of memory.BSNL54 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) using variable length subnet masks (VLSM) was created to allow for greater flexibility with routed IP networks. the new system was called classless routing. Furthermore. • Another purpose of CIDR was the possibility of routing prefix aggregation: for example. • By 1990. the Internet was facing serious growth pains. Because the normal class distinctions are ignored. The two most severe problems were the explosion of routing table size and the looming exhaustion of Class B networks. assigned the ROAD group to develop a solution. by back-formation.
the line side and the exchange side. defining the size of the network in question. preventing 'routing table explosion' from overwhelm routers and stopping the Internet from expanding further. The subscriber is connected to the exchange via the MDF. It not only connects the exchange with the subscriber but also protects the exchange from environmental hazards such as lightning strike. and a variable length set of up to 8 16-bit hexadecimal fields for IPv6). The connection between the exchange and the subscriber is made in various stages.BSNL55 contiguous /24 networks could now be aggregated together. Flexibility is the high point of this system. This allowed a significant reduction in the number of routes that had to be advertised over the Internet. The Line Side: . This not only enables convenient distribution possible but also makes the line testing more flexible. • The standard notation for a CIDR block includes a network number (padded on the right with zero bits up to 4 octets for IPv4. The line side belongs to the outdoor while the exchange side belongs to the exchange. in bits. and advertised to the outside world as a single /20 route. effectively preventing small networks from obtaining full public Internet routing without going through a routing aggregator such as an ISP. and so forth. • Nowadays most ISPs on the public Internet will not route anything smaller than a /19 prefix. and a prefix length. There are two sides in a MDF. Two contiguous /20s could then be aggregated to a /19. THE MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME (MDF) The main distribution frame acts as a link between the exchange indoor and the exchange outdoor. On the exchange side of the MDF the connections are digital while the line side there are analog connections.
BSNL56 As mentioned earlier. The line wires emanating from the verticals are connected to a cabinet from where it is taken to a pillar which then is connected to a distribution pole (DP). For line testing on the line side the dial tone is tested on the vertical first. From here the subscribers are directly connected. The line testing for the exchange is done first here using a dial tone checker. If it is found to be ok then the testing is carried forward to the cabinet. One distribution pole is set up to provide connection to around 15 to 20 homes. This side of the exchange consists of verticals. A pillar is usually located in the central part of an area where the pillar is established so that distribution is convenient and less expensive. Each vertical corresponds to a particular pillar. The DLU is then connected to the LTG (Line Trunk Groups) from here the switching network is connected. The Exchange Side: On the exchange side the MDF is directly connected to the DLU in the SN (Switching Network). the two sides are connected through a jumper wire. It represents the location in the DLU from where the connection is provided. the exchange side belongs to the subscriber.e. For rectifying errors each subscriber is assigned an Equipment Number (NE). This number is the identification mark of the subscriber for the exchange. . In the MDF. From here the lines are distributed to the subscribers. Each vertical has 100 trans and receive pairs connected to it. From here line wires are carried forward in a cluster of around 100 pairs to the pillar. i. 100 subscribers are connected to the exchange via one vertical.
The subscriber would ask the operator to connect to another subscriber. a circuit switching network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. CIRCUIT SWITCHING In telecommunications. In any case. which sets up a dedicated connection between the two nodes for their exclusive use for the duration of the communication. namely CIRCUIT Switching and PACKET Switching. Early telephone exchanges are a suitable example of circuit switching. Even if no actual communication is taking place in a dedicated circuit then.BSNL57 SWITCHING There are two types of switching. even if the subscribers were in fact not talking and the line was silent. The copper wire used for the connection could not be used to carry other calls at the same time. to minimize the transmission latency . whether on the same exchange or via an inter-exchange link and another operator. Channels that are available for new calls to be set up are said to be idle. circuit switching. PACKET SWITCHING Packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (units of information carriage) are routed between nodes over data links shared with other traffic. This contrasts with the other principal paradigm. the end result was a physical electrical connection between the two subscribers’ telephones for the duration of the call. that channel still remains unavailable to other users. Each circuit that is dedicated cannot be used by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Packet switching is used to optimize the use of the channel capacity available in a network.
the message is broken into packets. and to increase robustness of communication. In March. that are routed over a shared network. The resources remain dedicated to the circuit during the entire transfer and the entire message follows the same path. Packet switching networks do not require a circuit to be established and allow many pairs of nodes to communicate almost simultaneously over the same channel. Circuit Switching vs. scalability for innovation and a rapid return on investment. set in “copper” if you will. and service roll out and maintenance of the network.BSNL58 (i. and high-speed Internet services across the country while providing the operator with network flexibility. and we are honoured to be . has announced that Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Circuit switching contrasts with packet switching which splits traffic data (for instance. In packet-switched networks. In circuit-switched networks. BSNL Multiplay Broadband UTStarcom. a provider of IP-based. (BSNL) has successfully launched its multiplay broadband Internet services in India. from the sender to receiver before the start of the transfer. thus creating a “circuit”. UTStarcom has been the turnkey provider for this deployment. each of which can take a different route to the destination where the packets are recompiled into the original message. called packets. deployment. the time it takes for data to pass across the network). network resources are static. video multicast. with full responsibility for the network design and planning. VPN services. This contract firmly established UTStarcom as the largest broadband equipment supplier in India. UTStarcom was awarded a contract from BSNL for the deployment of 13 lakh lines of UTStarcom's iAN-8000 multiservice access node (MSAN) solution in approximately 900 cities throughout India. Packet Switching: In principle. Each packet is individually addressed precluding the need for a dedicated path to help the packet find its way to its destination. end-to-end networking solutions and services. circuit switching and packet switching both are used in high-capacity networks.e. UTStarcom's ADSL 2+-based broadband solutions will now enable BSNL to offer new broadband-based. triple-play services such as video-on-demand (VoD). digital representation of sound. or computer data) into chunks. "BSNL's deployment of UTStarcom's innovative broadband solutions will revolutionise the broadband framework in India.
will now enable BSNL to offer a compelling array of services that." said Vijay Yadav. multicasting over VPN and others—to its customers over the existing broadband network. UTStarcom's NetRing product suite provides service providers with a high level of network resilience and carrier-grade quality of service towards subscribers to ensure trouble-free offering of real-time mission critical data and video applications. VoD. in the past were not possible. given bandwidth and access constraints in the country. managing director of UTStarcom's South Asia operations." said David King." UTStarcom has also deployed its NetRing 10000 optical transport solution in support of this service for the aggregation of DSL traffic in BSNL's network. BSNL has started new Multiplay services which will provide following services from one ADSL/VDSL connection compiling to all TR-64/69 1 Basic Broadband 2 IPTV 3 Bandwidth on Demand 4 Gaming On Demand 5 Audio on Demand 6 Tele education 7 VPN over Broadband ." BSNL can now focus on offering other value added services—such as IPTV. senior VP of international sales and marketing at UTStarcom. we believe operators will continue to realise the value of deploying our IP-based solutions to expand and optimise their broadband networks in this region. "India's fast growing telecom environment continues to be a promising market for UTStarcom to offer its products and solutions. "Our iAN-8000 technology.BSNL59 partnering with India's leading telecom service provider to bring these innovations into the country. VPN service. "As in the past. VoIP. coupled with our expertise in the management of turnkey projects.
MPLS/L3PE 2.DSLAM 7. ISPs will better be able to manage different kinds of data streams based on priority and service plan. For instance. latency.OCLAN 6.BNG 3.RPR-2 5. and bottlenecks. an IETF initiative that integrates Layer 2 information about network links (bandwidth. those who subscribe to a . congestion.CONTENT PROVIDER MPLS Short for Multiprotocol Label Switching. From a QoS standpoint. utilization) into Layer 3 (IP) within a particular autonomous system--or ISP--in order to simplify and improve IP-packet exchange. MPLS gives network operators a great deal of flexibility to divert and route traffic around link failures.RPR-1 4.BSNL60 8 Video Conferencing 9 Video telephony 10 VoIP 11 Internet Policy Server for URL Filtering Basic contents of multiplay: 1.
destination.. Label Edge Routers (LERs) give them a label (identifier). and other metrics). where Label Switch Routers (LSRs) place outgoing labels on the packets. but also refer to the IP header field (source IP address). Once this classification is complete and mapped. business continuance and distance learning. These labels not only contain information based on the routing table entry (i. The advantage is that existing TDM services are maintained. multipoint functionality and scalability of data applications such as VoIP. efficient. With these LSPs. bandwidth. RPR maintains its own protection scheme and uses physical-layer alarm information and Layer 2 protocol communications to detect node and/or link failures. while a smooth migration to packet-based services is enabled. which are optimized for TDM services but also can support advanced data applications via RPR over SONET. Therefore. RPR (Resilient Packet Ring) An effort to bring SONET-like abilitites to metro Ethernet networks. while delivering multipoint Ethernet/IP services. Being defined by the IEEE's 802.BSNL61 premium service plan. the RPR switching mechanism restores networks in less than 50 millisec.e. delay. by adding support for a ring topology and fast recovery from fiber cuts and link failures at Layer 2. packet video. corporations can reap the benefits of RPR by having it ride over the SONET network to deliver the resilient. network operators can divert and route traffic based on datastream type and Internet-access customer.17 working group. When a failure is detected. . Layer 4 socket number information. including SONET. different packets are assigned to corresponding Labeled Switch Paths (LSPs). Because RPR is a Layer 2 MAC-based technology. or those who receive a lot of streaming media or highbandwidth content can see minimal latency and packet loss. Or they can install multiservice provisioning platforms. it can operate over multiple physical layers. and differentiated service. When packets enter a MPLS-based network. RPR uses Ethernet switching and a dual counter-rotating ring topology to provide SONET-like network resiliency and optimized bandwidth usage.
regardless of use. that connects multiple customer Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) to a high-speed Internet backbone line using multiplexing techniques. located near the customer's location. . RPR also uses statistical multiplexing so that bandwidth can be oversubscribed. To further enhance the network efficiency and support multimedia applications. best effort (Internet type) data traffic is ensured equal access and a "fair" share of the remaining ring bandwidth. while establishing committed information rate (CIR) and peak-rate thresholds on a per-application basis. This guarantees that jitter. Widespread corporate adoption of RPR will help usher in the cost-effective transport of popular Ethernet and IP communications services. This guarantees each enterprise application a CIR and the ability to burst up to the peak rates when bandwidth is available. It is a network device. often pronounced deeslam) allows telephone lines to make faster connections to the Internet. DSLAM A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM.and delay-sensitive traffic is always given higher-priority access to the network. each department is charged only for using extra bandwidth rather than being billed for a larger. Rather than requiring traffic to traverse the entire ring even though a destination node is only a hop away. RPR sends it there directly. Unlike older ring-based data networks such as token ring or FDDI.BSNL62 Another major advantage of RPR's dual-rotating ring design is that Ethernet traffic is sent in both directions on the ring to achieve the maximum bandwidth utilization. nailed-up circuit. Meanwhile. With such a mechanism. the IEEE has included a classification scheme and a fairness algorithm in the RPR specification. telephone companies are now providing DSL service to consumers who previously did not live close enough for the technology to work. By locating DSLAMs at locations remote to the telephone company central office (CO). RPR uses a spatial reuse mechanism. RPR transport will provide efficient bandwidth protection. keeping the rest of the ring bandwidth available for use by other stations on the network. accommodate bursty data traffic and provide the quality of service needed for these advanced packet applications.
Main Distribution Frame (MDF): a wiring rack that connects outside subscriber lines with internal lines. DSLAMs are also used by . Receiving on that side.. or Internet Protocol networks (i. frame relay. it accepts and separates outgoing phone and data signals from the customer. a DSLAM would aggregate the DSL lines with some combination of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). IP-DSLAM that uses the PTM-TC stack)(Packet Transfer Mode . and the phone signals towards the voice switch. Residential/commercial source: DSL modem plugged into the customer's computer. traveling through an access network (AN)—also known as a Network Service Provider (NSP)—at speeds of up to 10 Gbit/s and connecting to the Internet-backbone. Sending on the customer or downstream side. The aggregated signal is then loaded onto the telco's backbone switching equipment. Local loop: the telephone company wires from a customer to the telephone company's central office. At the telco. the DSLAM acts like a massive network switch since its functionality is purely Layer 2. often called the "last mile". the MDF is generally in proximity to the cable vault and not far from the telephone switch. 3. Role of the DSLAM The DSLAM equipment at the telephone company (telco) collects the digital signals from its many modem ports and combines them into one signal via multiplexing. it intermixes voice traffic and VDSL traffic onto the customer's DSL line. Depending on the product being used. sometimes in association with a digital loop carrier. A DSLAM is not always located in the telephone company's central office. It is used to connect public or private lines coming into the building to internal networks.Transmission Convergence). 4. In terms of the OSI 7 Layer Model.e. It directs the data signals upstream towards the appropriate carrier's network.BSNL63 • Path taken by data to DSLAM 1. 2. DSLAM: a device for DSL service. but may also serve customers within a neighborhood Serving Area Interface (SAI).
2 miles) Based on 0.14 miles) 16 Mbit/s at 7.BSNL64 hotels.000 feet (~5.8 km or ~1. often necessitating a closer DSLAM to bring acceptable speeds: • • • • • • • • • • 25 Mbit/s at 1. hence the longer the wire between DSLAM and subscriber.8 miles) 800 kbit/s at 17. a DSLAM is also a collection of modems. Additional features A DSLAM may offer the ability to tag VLAN traffic as it passes from the subscribers to upstream routers.000 feet (~1. the integrated DSL modem has the ability to probe the line and train itself to compensate for forward echoes and other impairments in order to move data at the maximum rate the telephone line allows. and other corporations setting up their own private telephone exchange.33 miles) 1. residential neighbourhoods.000 feet (~1. Each modem on the aggregation card communicates with a subscriber's DSL modem. Besides being a data switch and multiplexer.95 miles) 19 Mbit/s at 6.5 km or ~2. some DSLAMs also offer packet filtering facilities like dropping inter-port traffic and dropping certain protocols.5 Mbit/s at 15.1 km or ~1.2 km or ~3.40mm copper.000 feet (~600 m) 23 Mbit/s at 3. voice-band modems.000 feet (4.2 km) 21 Mbit/s at 5. The modem function is integrated into the DSLAM itself. The following is a rough guide to the relation between wire distance and maximum data rate.000 feet (~2. Though not a full stateful firewall. Local conditions may vary. Like traditional. rather than being separate hardware like a traditional computer modem.000 feet (~900 m) 22 Mbit/s at 4. This is also why twisted pair DSL services have a longer range than physically similar unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Ethernet.5 km or ~. lodges. Speed versus distance Balanced pair cable has higher attenuation at higher frequencies.000 feet (~300 m) 24 Mbit/s at 2. the slower the maximum possible data rate.000 feet (~1. . especially beyond 2 km.
aggregation cards. and upstream links. which are connected to the PSTN network via typical unshielded twisted pair telephone lines. which provide last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms. In the Broadband MultiPlay network. Typically a single DSLAM aggregation card has 24 ports. slight modification has been done in . The density of DSLAM will vary from 64Port to 960 Ports. Technical Overview of the Network: Important Network element (NE): The important network elements of the Broadband MultiPlay Network are: 1 DSLAM: The DSLAMs shall in general be collocated with existing PSTN exchanges. 2 Aggregation Network: In NIB-II. The connectivity between DSLAM & Tier 2 LAN Switch and between Tier 2 LAN Switch & Tier 1 LAN Switch is Ethernet. 240P and 480P DSLAM will have 1+1 GE uplink interface. which are supplied with (nominal) 48 volts DC.BSNL65 The DSLAM also supports quality of service (QoS) features like contention. DSLAM chassis. but this number can vary with each manufacturer. The most common upstream links in these DSLAMs use gigabit ethernet or multi-gigabit fiber optic links. differentiated services ("DiffServ") and priority queues. Each DSLAM has multiple aggregation cards. The 64 P DSLAM will have one GE uplink interface. cabling. The 960P DSLAM will have 2+2 GE uplink interface. Hence a typical DSLAM setup may contain power converters. and each such card can have multiple ports to which the customers lines are connected. The most common DSLAMs are housed in a telco-grade chassis. Hardware details Customers connect to the DSLAM through ADSL modems or DSL routers. The 120P. the aggregation network is Ethernet based.
1 Options for two technologies have been given in the aggregation network in the said tender for cities upto type B2.3 RPR Tier2 Switch / L2PEs shall be connected to RPR Tier1 . Statesman House. The maximum driving distance between DSLAMs and RPR Tier 2 Switch / L2PE is 20k. Except 64P DSLAM.m. 011-23734284 2. 813. Only one technology will be deployed in the BSNL network through the said tender. and the second is VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) based on MPLS technology. The cities classified as ‘OC’ will be aggregated through Ethernet interface (Fast Ethernet over STM-1) as was done in NIB-II 2. (Resilience Packet Ring). The equivalent of Tier 2 Switch and Tier 1 Switch in RPR / VPLS are RPR Tier 2 Switch/ L2PE and RPR Tier 1 Switch / L2PE aggregators.BSNL66 the architecture to ensure increased network resiliency. all other DSLAMs will have redundant connectivity to the same RPR Tier 2 switch/ L2PE through two different paths. Room No. Ph. 011-23734094 Fax. 2. effective bandwidth management and better fibre management. The First one is RPR.2 The DSLAMs will be aggregated to RPR Tier 2 Switch/ L2PE on Gigabit Ethernet interface on dark fibre.
subscriber authentication. It further hands over the traffic to NIB-II Core. sessions) and also do resource admission.4 Broadband Network Gateway (BNG): This is equivalent to Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) of NIB-II with some added functionalities. The number of nodes planned in a ring will vary from four to six. which makes it aware of the potential congestion point in the aggregation network. A2 . In case of A1. 2.m.BSNL67 Switch/ L2PE aggregators by optical n x GE or 10 GE links as per traffic requirement. Maximum driving distance between RPR Tier 2 / L2PE and RPR Tier 1 / L2PE aggregator is 40 k.5 Layer 3 MPLS PE (L3PE) Router: This is used for aggregating traffic from multiple BNG and converting it from IP to MPLS. It also stores the VPN profile of the VPN customers and continuously updates through MP-BGP (Multi Protocol Border Gateway Protocol) with other PE (Provider Edge) Routers. IP address allotment and policing. For B1 and B2 cities the aggregation will be through GE. This is the most critical point of the network in terms of guaranteeing the Quality of Service and to avoid congestion as it keeps tracks of the various traffic flows of each type and take appropriate decisions based on the resources available (bandwidth. 2. In case of A type cities the aggregation of RPR Tier 2 Switch/ L2PE will be over 10 GE.
6 Other Common Applications: This network consist of various common control applications required for network management. The detailed guidelines on the same along with its connectivity will be issued separately. separate L3PE Router will be deployed for taking care of broadband Multi Play requirement. automated broadband installation & On going service support etc which will be deployed in the Five Regional POPs viz Bangalore.BSNL68 and A3 cities. . Kolkatta and NOIDA and NOCs (Main NOC at Bangalore and DR NOC at Pune). Pune. the existing NIB-II MPLS PE router will also act as L3PE router for broadband Multi Play. 2. Chennai. In other cities. subscriber creation.
. We are very grateful to those persons who helped directly & indirectly in the successful completion of this practical training and this will surely be fruitful in future.BSNL69 CONCLUSION This Practical Training has given us an opportunity to know about various technologies working behind in today’s advanced world of telecommunication .We have learned about the technology behind Broadband and have an experience to attend Call Center.
BSNL70 APPENDIX PHONE CODES AND THEIR EXCHANGE CODE PHONE CODE 2758 2756 2421 243 244 248 222 223 265 240 220 2370-3 2380-3 2386-87 246 & 236 29.228 221 232 2249 EXCHANGE JSR JSR JSR JSR JSR JSR JSR JSR SNK ADR ADR ADR ADR GMR MNG WJSR GVP GVP TAT PSD KDM GOL TLC SDG LIC KHL . 7 DIGIT 2270 2277 2290-95 2296 230-231 234 226.
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