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Hydrology: study of water - occurrence, distribution, movement and chemistry of all waters of the earth. Hydrogeology: study of the interrelationships of geologic materials, geologic processes with water. Estimate of the water balance of the world Parameter Oceans Ice caps and glaciers groundwater soil moisture lakes rivers Volume by % 97.2% 2.14% 0.61% 0.005% 0.017% 0.0001%

Hydrologic cycle Only a small % of the worlds total water is available to humans as fresh water. More than 98% of the available fresh water is groundwater, which far exceeds the volume of surface water. Precipitation that falls on the land surface enters various pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Some water may be temporarily stored on the land surface as ice and snow or water in puddles, which is known as depression storage. Some of the rain or melting snow will drain across the land to a stream channel. This is termed overland flow. If the soil surface is porous, some of the rain or melting snow will seep into the ground by a process called infiltration. The infiltrated water can flow laterally in the soil zone as interflow or percolate to beneath the water-table and become part of the groundwater. Water flowing in a stream can come from overland flow or from groundwater that has seeped into the streambed (baseflow). The total flow in a stream is referred to as runoff. Vadose zone/ zone of aeration This is the zone below the land surface were soil pores contain both air and water. Water stored in the vadose zone is called vadose water. Water table At some depth, the pores of the soil or rock are saturated with. The top of the zone of saturation is called the water table. HYDROLOGIC EQUATION The hydrologic equation provides a quantitative means of evaluating the hydrologic cycle. This equation is based on the law of conservation. inflow = outflow +/- changes in storage

Baseflow of the stream decreases during a dry period because. it is possible to break down the hydrograph into its components of overland flow. After 100days. The baseflow recession equation is: Q = Qoe-at where Q = flow at some time t after the recession started Q = flow at the start of the recession a = recession constant for the basin t = time since the start of the recession The recession constant is a function of the topography.STREAM HYDROGRAPHS A stream hydrograph shows the discharge of a river at a single location as a function of time. as groundwater drains into the stream. soils and geology. As the stream drains water from the groundwater reservoir. Q = 1500 ft3/s. the water table falls.1 given that Qo is 3500 ft3/s. drainage pattern. GAINING AND LOSING STREAMS Fig 2. Question Find the recession constant for the basin of figure 1. A lower water table means that the rate at which groundwater seeps into the stream declines. Baseflow recessions The hydrograph of stream during a period with no excess precipitation will decay.16 HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF ROCK FORMATIONS POROSITY . baseflow and direct precipitation. the water table falls. leaving less and less water to feed the stream. following an exponential curve.1 Qo is 3500 ft3/s. The discharge is composed entirely of ground-water contributions. While the total runoff shown on the hydrograph gives no indication of its origin. then Q = Qoe-at e -at = Q/Qo -at = In Q/Qo a = -(1/t In Q/Qo) From figure 1.

page 37).11. increase overall rock porosity (secondary porosity). . dolomite or silica will reduce porosity. The specific retention (Sr) of a rock or soil is the ratio of the volume of water a rock can retain against gravity drainage to the total volume of the rock. The primary porosity of a siliciclastic sedimentary rock will be influenced by the grain size. Secondary porosity: This is due to processes such as solution or fracturing. The sample is dried in an oven to a temperature of 105%. Freeze and Cherry. but the average grain-size of one is much smaller than the other. Therefore n = Sy + Sr . Porosity (n) is defined as: n = Vv/V*100 where n = porosity (%) Vv = volume of void space in a unit volume of earth material (m3). .Compaction reduces the porosity by rearranging grains and reshaping them. the surface area of the finer sample will be larger. Primary porosity: This is due to soil or rock matrix (Fig 2. This expels water in the pore/void spaces. Porosity of igneous and metamorphic rocks These have a low porosity because they consist of interlocking crystals. sorting and grain-shape.The porosity of earth materials is the percentage of the rock or soil that is void of material. The dried sample is then submerged in a known volume of water and allowed to remain in a sealed chamber until saturated. which involves compaction and cementation.Two geologic processes. weathering and fracturing.9 page 79 Fetter). As a result. If two samples are equivalent with regards to porosity. more water can be held as pendular moisture by the finer grains Fig 3. Porosity is determined by taking a sample of known volume (V). V = total volume of earth material ( m3). SPECIFIC YIELD Specific yield (Sy) is the ratio of the volume of water that drains from a saturated rock due to the attraction of gravity to the total volume of the rock.The deposition of cementing materials such as calcite. Porosity of Sedimentary rocks -The primary porosity of sedimentary rocks is acquired during diagenesis. The volume of the voids (Vv)is equal to the original water volume less the volume in the chamber after the saturated sample is removed.

Henry Darcy made the first systematic study of movement of water through a porous medium in 1856. The proportionality constant K is referred to as the hydraulic conductivity or the coefficient of permeability and has units of m/sec or cm/sec or m/day ( ie units of length/time). . the expression known as Darcy's law is obtained. water contained in the pores is capable of moving from one pore to another.He studied the movement of water through beds of sand.Darcy's Law If pores are interconnected. . thus circulating through the soil or rock. Darcy found out that the rate of water flow through a bed of a 'given nature' is (i) proportional to the difference in height of the water between the two ends of the filter and (ii) inversely proportional to the length of the flow-path (iii) flow is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the pipe (i) (ii) (iii) Q ∞ hA .hB)/L Darcy's Law can also be expressed as Q = K* A (dh/dl) where dh/dl is the hydraulic gradient ( change of hydraulic gradient with distance along the flow path) HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY We can rewrite Darcy's law as: K = -Q/ A (dh/dl). Q = -K*A (hA . Q ∞ A* (hA-hB)/L When a proportionality constant K is added.hB Q ∞ 1/ L Q∞A where Q = discharge (m3/sec ) L = flow length (m) h = hydraulic head (m) A = cross-sectional area (m2) Therefore.

In the petroleum industry. Ki = intrinsic permeability The intrinsic permeability is a function of the porous media. Therefore.120 80 . well sorted. which is thinner. Ki is related to the size of the openings through which the fluid moves. . The hydraulic conductivity (K ) can be expressed as: K = Ki (γ /μ) where γ = the specific weight also = ρġ μ = dynamic viscosity. the unit for Ki is the darcy.The hydraulic conductivity K is a function of both properties of: (i) porous medium (ie rock or soil) (ii) fluid passing through it. The larger the square of the mean pore diameter. The overall effect of the shape of pores is represented by a constant C. which is a measure of the resistance of the fluid to shearing that is necessary for fluid flow. poorly sorted Coarse sand. which is a dimensionless quantity.The Hazen’s formula is: K = C(d10)2 Where K = hydraulic conductivity d10 = 10% of the grains have a diameter finer than this diameter. cm2 or ft2. the intrinsic permeability can be expressed as: Ki = Cd2 Units of Ki can be m2.87 *10-9 cm2. d. METHODS OF MEASURING HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY Hazen’s method . clean 40 . the lower the flow resistance. A viscous fluid such as crude oil. The cross-sectional area of a pore is also a function of the shape of the opening. 1 darcy = 9.Used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated sandy sediments. C = coefficient based on the following table Very fine sand Medium sand.120 120 -150 .80 80 . well sorted Coarse sand. will move at a slower rate than water.

. therefore. A confining layer is a geological unit having little or no intrinsic permeability (less than 10-2 darcy). If the hydraulic conductivity varies with the direction of measurement.e Kx = Ky =Kz. . i. the formation is anisotropic.Water moves through the sample at a steady rate If the fluid draining from the permeameter over some time( t) the volume(V). Confining layers can be subdivided into aquitards. If K is independent of the direction of measurement i. the hydraulic properties are not uniform throughout the formation. is the product of the discharge (Q) and time: Qt = -KAt(hA – hB)/L If we substitute V for Qt the equation for calculating K with the constant head permeameter becomes: K= VL At(hA-hB) Falling-head permeameter . Constant-head permeameter . In a heterogenous media. AQUIFERS An aquifer is a geological unit that can store and transmit water at rates fast enough to supply reasonable amounts to wells. The intrinsic permeability of aquifers range from 10-2 darcy upward. porosity. aquicludes and aquifuges.Used for non-cohesive sediments such as sand. is absolutely impermeable and.This method is used for cohesive sediments with low permeability.e Kx ≠ Ky. Sy etc) at all locations. An aquifuge does not store any water. an aquifuge may store some water.Permeameters Permeameters are used mainly to measure the hydraulic. will not transmit any water. However. K = dt2L * In (ho/h) d2ct HOMOGENEITY AND ISOTROPY A homogenous unit is one that has the same properties (K. An aquitard is a layer of low permeability that can store groundwater and also transmit it slowly from one aquifer to another. The porosity allows an aquifer to store water and the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) allows water to flow (transmission function). The term leaky confining layer is also applied to such a unit. then the formation is isotropic. An aquiclude is a unit that can store but does not transmit water.

Water can seep downwards through the unsaturated zone. A perched aquifer can exist above the water table due to the presence of a lens of impermeable material which forms the base of a locally developed groundwater body.An unconfined aquifer (water-table aquifer) is not overlain by a confining layer. An aquifer which is overlain or underlain by an aquitard is called a leaky aquifer. A confined aquifer is overlain by a confining layer. . and is thus isolated from the atmosphere.

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