×rw irr) vrvirw 6z utv tvv zo·o ¡¡

PX IBT 1BSJT changod ovoi tho µast docado? To answoi
that, ono would idoally nood to havo iotuinod to tho city
altoi a long alsonco: I havo only loon away loi shoit µoii-
ods ovoi tho last ton yoais, and so I soo its µiogioss as ono
doos tho wiinklos on a lolovod laco that ono olsoivos ovoiy day. Tho
innoi city is now changing only slowly. Tino is noodod loi a ouaitoi ol
Kalyl calés to lo tiansloinod into lashionallo lais, loi tho Chinoso iag
tiado to advanco a stioot oi two, oi loi what is callod ionovation to µioss
tho µooi a notch noio towaids tho Péiiµhéiiouo.
Tho µhysical tiansloinations ol Paiis nay lo ioad as a coasoloss stiug-
glo lotwoon tho sµiiit ol µlaco and tho sµiiit ol tino. Tako, loi oxanµlo,
tho nanoloss sµot loinod ly tho widoning ol Ruo Moullotaid lolow tho
chuich ol Saint-Médaid, in tho Faulouig Saint-Maicoau on tho oastoin
odgo ol tho ¡th aiiondissonont. Tho anciont lood shoµs, tho naikot
stalls, tho innonso tioos that cast thoii shado onto tho µoich ol tho
chuich, tho ionains ol tho littlo conotoiy whoio tho 'convulsionaiios`
dancod on tho tonl ol a µoµulai µiiost in tho ioign ol Louis XV,
two laigo calés lacing oach othoi acioss tho ioadthis wholo µanoµly ol
oias, stylos and ovonts givos this µlaco a sµiiit that cannot lo conµaiod
with any othoi. Oldoi Paiisians aio awaio that undoi thoii loot ßows tho
Rivoi Biòvio in its doscont towaids tho Jaidin dos Plantos, and that this
distiict was ciossod ly tho nain ioad towaids Italy. Tho iiotous tiadition
ol tho Faulouig Saint-Maicoau oxtonds lai into tho µast: in tho sixtoonth
contuiy it was a lastion ol µoµulai Piotostantisn: latoi it was involvod in
all tho gioat iovolutionaiy jcurnccs.
A sµiiit ol µlaco, thoioloio: lut tho sµiiit ol tho tino has also succoodod
in naking itsoll lolt. Tho contio ol this sµaco is now occuµiod ly an
onoinous ßoial µaitoiio, with a lountain in tho niddlo. Tho conlinod
¡z ×iv 6z
action ol tho Voiiio and Esµacos Voits doµaitnonts has attonµtod tho
inµossilloto tiansloin this µlaco into ono ol tho thousands ol iound-
alouts that µunctuato ioads tho longth and lioadth ol Fianco. Rosµoct
loi tho sµiiit ol µlaco has nothing to do with tho sad idoa ol 'hoiitago`,
any noio than distiust ol tho sµiiit ol tino noans ioiocting tho contonµ-
oiaiy. Ovoi tho last twonty oi thiity yoais, sono innovations havo indood
nanagod to cioato a now sµiiit ol µlaco. I. M. Poi`s µyianid, loi oxanµlo,
gavo lilo to Naµoloon III`s Louvio couityaid, loinoily a dusty µaiking
µlaco loi tho nusoun stall, and not lai away is a wholo now ouaitoi,
with its good µoints and lad, oiganizod aiound tho Boaulouig Contio. (I
novoi say 'Contio Ponµidou`, as tho lato µiosidont had doµloiallo aitistic
tastohis olhco docoiatod ly Aganand losidos ho was oµµosod to tho
PianoRogois µioioct, which was only adoµtod thanks to tho stulloin-
noss ol tho iuiy chaii, tho gioat Joan Piouvé.j
Convoisoly, tho chain ol coitain µlacos has ovaµoiatod without tho his-
toiical décoi having changod. On tho Placo Saint-Sulµico, tho Calé do
la Maiiio usod to lo a µloasant sµot to diink colloo in tho hist iays ol
tho noining sun: this was whoio Gooigos Poioc wioto his 'Attonµt to
Exhaust a Paiisian Sµaco`, noting its µolico station, cinona, µullishing
houso, undoitakois, tiavol agonts, nowsµaµoi kiosk, loauty µailoui 'and
nuch olso`.
Tho sotting is tho sano, lut I avoid it now locauso ol its
Thoso oxtiacts aio diawn lion Eiic Hazan`s Tnc !nvcnticn cj Puris. A !istcry in
Fcctstcps, µullishod this sµiing ly Voiso: haidlack, ±oz µµ, o;8 ¡ 8±oo; ±¡¡ ±.
Tho young doacon, Fiançois do Pâiis (¡ooo¡;z;j, was known loi his µoµulai
synµathios and lolt his woildly goods to tho µooi. His giavo was acclainod as a sito
loi niiaclo cuios, attiacting laigo nunlois: sono loll into convulsions. Scandalizod
ly ioµoits ol 'µiotty giils, thoii thioats and chosts laio, thoii skiits thiown lack,
thoii logs in tho aii, shaking in tho ains ol young non, who night thoioly satisly
coitain µassions`, tho authoiitios closod tho conotoiy in ¡;¡z. Poµulai gialhti soon
sµiang uµ: Dc pur |c rci, dcjcnsc à Dicu,Dc juirc niruc|c cn cc |icu'By oidoi ol tho
King, it is loiliddon loi God to µoiloin niiaclos on this sito`.
Balzac dosciilod tho ouaitoi in Tnc Ccnnissicn cn Lunucy (¡8¡oj as tho µooiost in
Paiis, 'that in which two-thiids ol tho µoµulation lack hiing in wintoi, which loavos
nost liats at tho gato ol tho Foundling hosµital, which sonds nost loggais to tho
µooihouso, nost iagµickois to tho stioot coinois, nost docioµit old lolks to lask
against tho walls on which tho sun shinos, nost dolinouonts to tho µolico couits`.
This µassago, liko a nunloi ol othois, shows tho dogioo to which Balzac, dosµito
his dolonco ol thiono and altai, dilloiod lion Tocouovillo, Du Canµ oi Flauloit:
you novoi hnd in hin tho loast oxµiossion ol contonµt loi oidinaiy µooµlo.
Tcntutivc d´cpuiscncnt d´un |icu purisicn, Paiis ¡o;¡. In honago to Poioc (¡o¡o8zj,
I wioto tho µagos on tho Placo Saint-Sulµico in Tnc !nvcnticn cj Puris at a tallo in
tho sano calé.
itzt×: 1BSJT ¡¡
cliontolo: snait touiists and ologant ladios taking a iost altoi doing thoii
shoµµing in tho nuutc-ccuturc loutiouos noaily. Easy to avoid, lut thon
whoio to go? Tho answoi is dilhcult, givon how low calé toiiacos on tho
histoiic Lolt Bank aio now woith a visit.
Anong tho activo agonts ol uilan dotoiioiation in thoso last ton yoais,
I would givo toµ naiks to tho Soivico dos Esµacos Voits. What thoy call
vcgctu|isuticn iuns ianµant in ovoiy ouaitoi, alßicting µlacos that ask
only to lo lolt in µoaco. Botwoon Bailòs and Placo Clichy, tho Boulovaid
do Rochochouait and tho Boulovaid do Clichy usod to lo dividod ly a con-
tial iosoivation that was usod µaitly loi µaiking, µaitly ly tho local kids
as a lootlall µitch, µaitly as sonowhoio you could diink a can ol looi on
a lonch, lut alovo all ly Eastoin Euioµoan touiists onoiging lion tho
noighlouiing sox shoµs and kolal ioints. In sun, an undohnod sµaco,
iust what is noodod to givo tho city sono aii. But tho nuiric is not lond ol
such sµacos. Right along tho longth ol thoso old loulovaids, tho Soivico
has ostallishod µlantations honnod in ly notal giillos, with µlants ol
a µaiticulai uglinoss that aio now lound thioughout Paiis, soloctod so
that thoy novoi ßowoi and iaµidly got covoiod with an unµloasant dust.
Sonotinos this vcgctu|isuticn is olloctod ly shiuls in tuls oi onoinous
µots, as loi oxanµlo in tho Ruo dos Rosiois in tho old Jowish ouaitoi ol
tho Maiais: in conlination with tho nowly laid µaving and its contial gut-
toi, thoso sickly stons havo givon tho ccup dc grûcc to this stioot which,
ton yoais ago, still koµt sonothing ol its Ashkonazi-µiolotaiian µast.
Mupping nctuncrpncscs
But I should not oxaggoiato. Thoso last low yoais havo not known any
disastoi conµaiallo to tho dostiuction ol uµµoi Bollovillo in tho ¡ooos,
oi tho iavaging ol tho Bastillo ly tho installation ol Cailos Ott`s oµoia
houso twonty yoais latoi. Thoy havo ovon soon a nunloi ol succossos,
liko tho walkway on tho old viaduct loading to tho Bastillo station, oi
Maic Minian`s lootliidgo, which clovoily links tho Oisay nusoun
with tho Tuiloiios gaidons. In µoint ol lact, tho voiy widosµioad inµios-
sion that Paiis has changod a gioat doal in iocont yoais is ouito coiioct,
lut what has changod is not so nuch tho ninoial and vogotallo sotting
as tho way in which tho city is inhalitod.
On tho Lolt Bank thoio has loon scaicoly any chango sinco tho ¡ooos. Aµait
lion tho gioat Chinatown ol tho ¡¡th aiiondissonont, tho µoµulation
¡± ×iv 6z
has ionainod alnost uniloinly whito and louigoois. Foi contuiios Paiis
had ninglod iich and µooi in closo µioxinity, il also in voitical oidoi.
Tho sano luilding would houso shoµs on tho giound ßooitho shoµ-
kooµoi living on tho nozzaninoaµaitnonts loi tho aiistociacy on tho
socond stoioy (tho 'nollo` ßooi loloio tho invontion ol tho liltj, and woik-
ois in tho attics. This nix had not yot conµlotoly disaµµoaiod ovon in
tho oaily ¡ooos, whon loi oxanµlo on tho Montagno Sainto-Gonoviòvo,
oi on Ruos Laµlaco, Lannoau and Valotto, lodgings undoi tho iools woio
still occuµiod ly woikois. Anoiican-stylo zoning ly incono was novoi
ioally ostallishod until tho oia ol do Gaullo, Maliaux and Ponµidou, at
tho tino whon tho old ouaitois, nassivoly ionovatod, woio iooccuµiod ly
tho louigooisio. In today`s Latin Quaitoi, tho Blacks aio stioot swooµois,
tho Aials aio giocois, tho µolico aio iaioly soon and tho histoiic stioots
aio as cloan as in tho µodostiianizod zonos ol tho µiovincos. Evoiything
is iust a littlo oldoi: tho liiondly loggai whoso µitch has always loon tho
hvo notios lotwoon tho La Huno lookshoµ and tho nowsµaµoi kiosk at
St-Goinain-dos-Piòs now has gioy haii and woais glassos to ioad tho
volunos tho lookshoµs givo hin. Nothing haµµons anynoio on tho Lolt
Bank, whoioas in ny youth wo haidly noodod to cioss tho Soino: tho
Right Bank was liko a laiaway dosoit.
Tho Right Bank today is no noio honogonoous than it was lack in
tho insuiioctional days ol Juno ¡8±8 oi duiing tho Connuno. In what
aio iathoi iionically callod tho bcuu× uuurticrslot`s say, wost ol a lino
that iuns lion Los Hallos to tho ßoa naikot, via Ruo Poissoniòio, Ruo
du Faulouig Poissoniòio and Boulovaid Bailòsalnost nothing has
changod in ton yoais. Tho Batignollos, Plaino Moncoau, tho Faulouig
Saint-Honoié, Autouil and Passy slunloi µoacolully. Tho Avonuo dos
Chanµs-Élyséos has gono downhill. Foi sono tino now it has ovokod
tho duty-lioo nall ol an intoinational aiiµoit, docoiatod in a stylo sono-
whoio lotwoon µsoudo-Haussnann and µsoudo-Bauhaus. Today tho
aiiµoit is docidodly down-at-hool, and you can scaicoly hnd a tallo to
havo a diink oxcoµt in tho chains ol laux µizzoiias, gonuino last-lood
outlots oi µsoudo-¡ooo calés.
Woiking-class Paiis still occuµios tho oast ol tho citytho noithoast
to lo µiociso. Pooµlo olton say that this is also gotting gontiihod, that
tho naiginal, tho µooi, tho innigiants aio stoadily loing diivon out
ly tho iiiosistillo advanco ol tho bcbcs'louigoois lohonians`: intol-
loctuals, aitists, dosignois, iouinalistswho cultivato thoii suµoihcial
itzt×: 1BSJT ¡¡
non-conloinisn and lonign anti-iacisn in thoso ouaitois, whilo diiv-
ing uµ tho ionts with tho holµ ol µioµoity sµoculatois. This oµinion
noods sono shading. It is tiuo that coitain µlacos, loinoily littlo visitod
at night, havo locono nooting µoints loi a noio-oi-loss gildod youth:
tho lanks ol tho Canal Saint-Maitin, tho stioots aiound Placo Ganlotta,
Ruo Oloikanµl at its intoisoction with Ruo Saint-Maui. Sono hltoon
yoais ago, I witnossod tho stait ol this µhonononon on that coinoi: an
old-ostallishod bcugnuttho nano onco givon to alcohol outlots koµt ly
Auvoignats, who also suµµliod wood and coal to tho stoioys alovohad
loon tiansloinod into a snait calé, tho Calé Chailon: in tho wako ol its
succoss, lais nushioonod to tho µoint ol invading tho Ruo Oloikanµl
and tho Ruo Saint-Maui a hundiod notios in oach diioction. It is also
tiuo that stioots that woio voiy µooi and dilaµidatod sono ton yoais ago,
liko Ruo Myiha oi Ruo Doudoauvillo to tho noith ol La Goutto d`Oi, havo
loon giadually ionovatod, which is loading to tho oxµulsion ol thoii liag-
ilo Aliican µoµulation, olton without idontity µaµois oi woik.
But woiking-class Paiis is iosisting iathoi lottoi than µooµlo say. Tho
Chinoso at Bollovillo, tho Aials at La Goutto d`Oi, lackod ly woll-
ostallishod Algoiian tiadois who own thoii liooholds, tho Tuiks at tho
naikot ol tho Poito Saint-Donis, tho Aliicans ol tho Doioan naikot
(iocontly thioatonod, it`s tiuoj, tho Sii Lankans and Pakistanis on tho
Faulouig Saint-Donis noai La Chaµolloall thoso wolconing onclavos
aio holding thoii own, and ovon gaining sono giound hoio and thoio.
Bosidos, tho µiosonco in tho sano stioots ol Blacks, Aials and a µiocaii-
ous and µiolotaiianizod whito youth tonds to cioato tios, µaiticulaily in
lacing uµ to a µolico µiossuio that is lai toughoi than ton yoais ago. Tho
oviction ly tho µolico ol tho suns pupicrs Aliican hungoi stiikois who
woio occuµying tho Chuich ol Saint Boinaid at La Goutto d`Oi aiousod
gioat indignation in ¡ooo. Today it would lo lost in tho ßood ol aiiosts,
iaids and oxµulsions that aio tho connon lot ol tho woiking-class ouai-
tois ol Paiis. But il thoio is no olloivosconco in thoso distiicts conµaiallo
to that ol tho iovolutionaiy yoais, novoitholoss solidaiity and connon
action havo giadually cioatod a now situation: alovo all sinco tho iovolts
ol tho suluilan youth in OctoloiNovonloi zoo¡, in laco ol which tho
govoinnont µioclainod a stato ol onoigoncy loi tho hist tino sinco tho
Algoiian Wai in tho oaily ¡ooos.
Tho µolitical division ol Paiis goos lack a long way. In tho ninotoonth con-
tuiy, lotwoon tho anonynous night-tino laiiicados ol Novonloi ¡8z;
¡o ×iv 6z
and tho sovonty sunny days ol tho Connuno, tho list ol dononstiations,
iiots, couµs, uµiisings and insuiioctions is so long that no othoi caµi-
tal can clain anything sinilai. Thoii googiaµhy, and thoii distiilution
lotwoon tho ouaitois ol Paiis, ioßocts tho industiial iovolution, tho now
iolationshiµ lotwoon lossos and woikois, tho contiilugal nigiation ol tho
lalouiing and dangoious µoµulation, tho dovoloµnont ol naioi woiks,
and tho 'stiatogic onlollishnont` ol tho city. Tho sano stioot nanos, and
tho sano ouaitois, iotuin constantly thioughout tho contuiy, lut wo do
soo tho contio ol giavity ol Rod Paiis shilt slowly to tho noith and oast,
with intoiiuµtions and accoloiations that stanµ on tho naµ ol tho city tho
naik ol an old notion now lallon into disioµuto, that ol class stiugglo.
Undcr tnc swustiku
In tho zoth contuiy, thoso divisions naµµod onto tho googiaµhy ol
occuµation. Thanks to µlaouos showing whoio thoso who woio shot oi
doµoitod livod and not, it is µossillo to skotch tho tiacos ol a Rosistanco
Paiis, noithoast ol a lino iunning lion tho Poito do Clignancouit to tho
Poito do Vinconnos, µassing thiough tho Gaio Saint-Lazaio, Réµulliouo
and tho Bastillo, and sµilling lioadly out into tho bun|icuc, lion Saint-
Ouon and Gonnovilliois to Montiouil and Iviy. A snall luilding on tho
coinoi lotwoon Ruos Saint-Blaiso and Rillotto in Chaionno, loi oxanµlo,
has an ontianco liko thousands ol othois, oxcoµt loi two naillo µlaouos
that laco oach othoi in tho dooiway. Tho ono on tho lolt ioads: 'Hoio
livod Cadix Sosnowski, GUQG |Fianc-Tiioui ot Paitisan Fiançais|. Shot ly
tho Goinans at tho ago ol ¡;. Diod loi Fianco zo May ¡o±¡.` On tho
iight sido, lianing tho soiious laco ol a loy ol alout hltoon, tho insciiµ-
tion iocalls: 'Tho hono ol Biolion Honii, GUQG. Soldioi with tho Falion
liigado. Fallon on tho hold ol honoui ¡8 Januaiy ¡o±¡ at Halshoin,
Alsaco.` It was µoihaµs Cadix who liought his liiond Honii into tho
Rosistancohis µaionts had µiolally aiiivod lion Poland in tho ¡ozos,
liko so nany othois living in Bollovillo-Ménilnontant: it was haidly sui-
µiising that tho childion ol thoso innigiants should ioin tho Rosistanco.
Ono, Lauiont Goldloig, iocallod:
I sµont ny childhood thoio, Ruo dos Condiiois, until tho ago ol oightoon, whon
I was wantod ly tho Vichy µolico and lolt loi tho unoccuµiod zono in oidoi to
hido, as I was wantod loi Rosistanco activitios. In othoi woids: distiilution
ol loaßots, scattoiing loaßots in cinonas in tho Ruo do Ménilnontanttho
Phénix, tho Ménil-Palaco . . . My giouµ was docinatod and cano to an ond.
Thoio woio thioo oi loui suivivois out ol a giouµ that had soctions in oach
itzt×: 1BSJT ¡;
ol tho loui ouaitois ol tho ¡±th aiiondissonont: Bollovillo, Pòio-Lachaiso,
Polloµoit and Chaionno . . . It`s a niiaclo, to havo suivivod all that wo wont
thiough in thoso days.
Tho othoi Paiis, that ol tho Goinans and thoii collaloiatois, closoly
coiiosµonds to tho bcuu× uuurticrs. Histoiically, tho Chanµs-Élyséos
has always loon tho naioi axis ol Paiis collaloiation. Back in ¡8;o,
Louiso Michol notod how calé chaiis and countois woio liokon thoio,
as tho only calés in Paiis to oµon to tho Piussians.
Altoi tho Poµulai
Fiont, 'tho ologant ciowd acclainod Hitloi in tho Chanµs-Élyséos cin-
onas at zo liancs a soat.`
Evoiy day, loi loui yoais, tho changing ol
tho Wohinacht guaid took µlaco on tho Chanµs-Élyséos: at nidday,
staiting lion tho Rond-Point, tho now guaid µaiadod to nusic uµ to
tho Étoilo, whoio it µassod in ioviow, loloio disµoising to tho µalacos
ol tho gonoial stall. Tho Konnandantui Gioss-Paiis was on tho Placo
do l`Oµéia, at tho coinoi ol tho Ruo du Quatio-Soµtonlio. Tho Gostaµo
had its hoadouaitois in a µiivato hotol on tho Avonuo Foch, closo to tho
Poito Dauµhino. Tho Pioµaganda-Stallol, whoio Einst Jungoi woikod,
was in tho Hôtol Maiostic, on tho Ruo Dunont d`Uivillo noai tho Étoilo.
Tho Pass Olhco was a couµlo ol stoµs away, on tho Ruo Galiléo. Tho
Goinan Militaiy Tiilunal was on tho Ruo Boissy-d`Anglas, and tho
Rociuitnont Olhco loi tho Wallon TT on tho Avonuo Victoi-Hugo. Tho
(Fionchj Connissaiiat loi Jowish allaiis was on tho Ruo dos Potits
Pòios, lohind tho Placo dos Victoiios.
Whon I think that I µassod on ny way tho chuich ol Saint-Roch, on tho stoµs
ol which Césai Biiiottoau was woundod, and that at tho coinoi ol tho Ruo
dos Piouvaiios tho µiotty salosgiil Baiot took Casanova`s noasuiononts in
tho lack ol hoi shoµ, and that thoso aio iust two tiny lacts in an ocoan ol
ioal oi lantastic ovontsI an ovoiwholnod ly a kind ol ioyous nolancholy,
a µainlul µloasuio,
Jungoi wioto in his diaiy on ¡o May ¡o±¡. Fow Paiisians would havo
loon caµallo ol such a diaiy ontiy, so disonchantod and so accuiato. But
Jungoi also linitod his custonaiy itinoiaiios to tho ologant ouaitois ol tho
Right Bank and tho Faulouig Saint-Goinain. Ho stayod at tho Raµhaöl
on Avonuo Kléloi, and lioouontod such luxuiy ostallishnonts as tho
In Fiançois Moiioi, od., Bc||cvi||c, bc||c vi||c, visugc d´unc p|unctc, Paiis ¡oo±.
Louiso Michol, Lu Ccnnunc, nistcirc ct scuvcnirs, Paiis ¡o;o.
Vladinii Jankélévitch, 'Dans l`honnoui ot la dignité`, Lcs Tcnps ncdcrncs, Juno
¡8 ×iv 6z
Pâtissoiio Laduiéo on Ruo Royalo, tho Ritz, 'along with Cail Schnitt who
gavo a loctuio yostoiday on tho signihcanco, lion tho µoint ol viow ol
µullic law, ol tho distinction lotwoon land and soa`. Ho walkod to tho
Bagatollo, whoio a Fionch wonan liiond told hin how 'studonts aio now
loing aiiostod loi woaiing yollow stais, with insciiµtions such as ºidoal-
ist". Thoso individuals do not yot know that tho tino loi discussion has
µassod. Thoy also inagino that tho advoisaiy has a sonso ol hunoui.`
tho wostoin µait ol tho city, thon, cultivatod Goinan olhcoisliancoµhilo
and ovon anti-Nazisignod oidois loi tho oxocution ol young µooµlo
who, in tho oastoin µait, woio naking µostois and thiowing loaßots in
tho Ménilnontant cinonas.
Lcuping tnc wu||s
Tho iovolts ol zoo¡ had tho olloct, anong othoi things, ol iaising onco
again tho old ouostion ol how to µut an ond to tho divido lotwoon Paiis
and its suluils. This ouostion will coitainly soon voiy odd to English
oi Anoiican ioadois, long laniliai with suluilan sµiawl and a Gioatoi
London that stiotchos alnost to tho soa. Citios without wallsaµait lion
thoso stiictly oiganizod on a ioctangulai giid, liko Tuiin, Manhattan, oi
Lislon as laid out ly tho Maiouis ol Ponlalgiow uµ any which way,
liko tho tontaclos ol an octoµus, oi a lactoiial µlaouo nultiµlying in its
niliou. In London, Boilin oi Los Angolos, tho city linits and tho shaµos
ol distiicts aio vaguo and vaiiallo:
Tho ianµant µioliloiation ol tho innonso nogaloµolis that is Tokyo givos
tho inµiossion ol a silkwoin oating a nulloiiy loal. Tho loin ol such a
city is unstallo, its loidoi an anliguous zono in constant novonont. It
is an incohoiont sµaco sµioading without oidoi oi naikois, its linits only
µooily dohnod.
But Paiis, so olton thioatonod, losiogod oi invadod, has always loon
constiainod ly its city walls. Thoso havo givon it a noio oi loss ciiculai
loin: it has dovoloµod in concontiic iings, liko an onion, to tho ihythn
ol its succossivo doloncos. Fion tho ¡¡th-contuiy ianµaits ol Philiµµo
Entiy loi ¡± Juno ¡o±z: Einst Jungoi, ]curnu| dc gucrrc, Paiis ¡o;o.
Jungoi, on tho Pioµaganda-Stallol, did not havo to sign such oidois, lut Hoiniich
von Stulµnagol, tho gonoial in connand, with his 'nico way ol sniling` (]curnu| dc
gucrrc, ¡o Maich ¡o±zj and his gioat knowlodgo ol Byzantino histoiy, did indood
though ho connittod suicido altoi tho lonl attonµt on Hitloi in July ¡o±±.
Yoshinolu Ashihaia, L´Ordrc cucnc. Tckyc, |u vi||c du XX!c sicc|c, Paiis ¡oo±.
itzt×: 1BSJT ¡o
Augusto to tho ¡o;os Boulovaid Péiiµhéiiouo, six dilloiont walls havo
succoodod ono anothoi in tho couiso ol oight contuiios: Chailos V`s in
tho ¡±th contuiy: Louis XIII`s in tho ¡;th contuiy: tho cctrci wall ol tho
Foino-Généialo, hatod tax agoncy ol tho uncicn rcginc, in tho ¡;8os: and a
luithoi iing ol loitihcations in tho ¡8±os, whoso couiso tho Péiiµhéiiouo
lollows alnost oxactly (soo naµ alovoj. Tho sconaiio has always loon
tho sano. A now linit is constiuctod, with anµlo sµaco allowod insido
loi luithoi luilding: lut this is iaµidly hllod in, whilo outsido tho walls
housos with µloasant gaidons aio constiuctod in tho juubcurgs.
tho intru-nurcs concontiation loconos intoloiallo, thoso juubcurgs aio
alsoilod into tho city and tho cyclo logins again. Liko tho iings ol a
'Tho woid juubcurg noans tho soction ol a town that is outsido its gatos and its
µiocinct. But this dohnition has loi a long tino coasod to lo aµµioµiiato loi tho
juubcurgs ol Paiis, which, loing loicod to oxµand, has ondod uµ onclosing thon all
within its walls. This nano, howovoi, givon tho woight ol long usago, has loon µio-
soivod loi thon, and holµs a toµogiaµhical undoistanding ol tho caµital.` Antoino
Béiaud and Pioiio Dulay, Dicticnnuirc nistcriuuc dc Puris, Paiis ¡8¡z.
±o ×iv 6z
tioo, ouaitois lotwoon any two walls aio contonµoiaiy, ovon il tho wost
sido and tho Lolt Bank havo usually laggod lohind. This oxµlains why
Bollovillo and Passy havo so nuch in connon, loth hnding thonsolvos
in tho sano stiatun, only lolatodly annoxod to Paiis and naintaining
coitain loatuios ol Ilo-do-Fianco villagostho high stioot, chuich and
conotoiy, tho thoatio (now 'nuniciµal`j, tho livoly contial souaio whoio
cakos aio lought loi Sunday.
Ol Paiis`s nodioval loitihcations, that luilt undoi Philiµµo Augusto has
lolt its cloaiost tiacos on tho Lolt Bank, whoio tho nanos ol stioots and
souaios still µoiµotuato its nonoiy: Fossés-Saint-Jacouos, Estiaµado,
Contioscaiµo. It thon doscondod towaids tho Soino in a stiaight lino, lol-
lowing Ruo dos Fossés-Saint-Victoi (now Caidinal-Lonoinoj and Ruo dos
Fossés-Saint-Boinaid, ioaching tho iivoi at tho towoi ol La Touinollo.
Dosµito lioachos and dostiuction, oight contuiios latoi tho ghost ol this
wall still dohnos tho Latin Quaitoi. It is in this soni-olliµsotho noighloui-
hood ol tho Coidoliois ioloctoiy, tho ossuaiy ol Saint-Sévoiin, tho iolinia
tioo ol Saint-Julion-lo-Pauvio, aiound tho Ruo do la Haiµo, Placo Mauloit,
and lohind tho Collògo do Fiancothat a nodioval layout still suivivos
on tho Lolt Bank: ono ol naiiow µlots in a donso and unliokon tissuo, a
whiil ol stioots going in all diioctions. To oxµoiionco this, you nood only
loavo tho Soilonno, clinl Ruo Saint-Jacouos as lai as Ruo dos Uisulinos,
Ruo dos Fouillantinos lolovod ly Victoi Hugo, Ruo Lhonond and Ruo do
l`Allé-do-l`ɵéo. Hoio, tho high walls, tioos and gaidons glinµsod lohind
loncos, tho caln and iogulai µattoin ol tho µlan, show that you aio c×tru
nurcs, in a iolaxod sµaco, on tho lands ol loinoi convonts, along tho
ioads loading to Oiléans and Italy. Ol tho wall ol Chailos Vits cuitain,
its ianµait walk, its loitioss gatos, its lastions usod loi ovoning stiolls, its
noats whoio µooµlo hshod with iodsnothing µhysical ionains. But its
iouto along tho anciont couiso ol tho Soino is still ono ol tho lundanontal
linos ol tho city stiuctuio, conµloting in a wido ciiculai aic tho ioctilin-
oai µlan inhoiitod lion tho Ronans. Botwoon tho Bastillo and tho Poito
Saint-Donis, tho nollo cuivo ol tho loulovaids that today loai tho nanos
ol Boaunaichais, Fillos-du-Calvaiio, Tonµlo and Saint-Maitin µiocisoly
natchos tho lino ol tho old wall.
Tho cctrci wall ol tho Foino-Généialo was µuioly an instiunont ol taxa-
tion, without any nilitaiy µuiµoso, loing only thioo notios high and
loss than ono notio dooµ. Tho Foino-Généialo had long ostallishod
olhcos aiound Paiis, to colloct tolls on coitain connoditios, including
itzt×: 1BSJT ±¡
loodstulls, wino and hiowood: lut tho vaguonoss ol tho loundaiios
coitain stioots woio sulioct to cctrci on ono sido onlyµoinittod all
kinds ol liaud. In tho ¡;8os, as tho µullic hnancos wont incioasingly into
dohcit, Louis XVI`s Ministois Biotouil and Calonno docidod to inµiovo
iocoiµts. Old Paiis is low-lying and ßat: tho couiso ol tho now wall lol-
lowod a hillsido iouto, taking its loaiings lion tho hoights alovo tho
valloy hollowod out ly tho Soino. In today`s Paiis, it coiiosµonds to tho
two linos ol tho ovoihoad Métio: NationÉtoilo via Bailòs, and Nation
Étoilo via Donloit-Rochoioau. Tho hlty-hvo laiiiois woio concoivod ly
Lodoux, aichitoct loi tho µiivatoly iun Foino-Généialo. Thoy soon to
havo loon lasod on nodols lion antiouity oi tho Ronaissancotho
Ronan Panthoon, Biananto`s Tonµiotto, Palladio`s Villa Rotonda
conlinod with a vivid inagination. In his Essui sur |´urcnitccturc ol ¡;¡¡,
Allé Laugioi had iogiottod that tho ontiy into Paiis anountod to 'a low
wiotchod µalisados oioctod on woodon loundations, iolling on two old
ianls, and ßankod ly two oi thioo dunghills`, to tho µoint that loioign-
ois lound it haid to loliovo thoy woio not still in sono adiacont countiy
town. Lodoux had µionisod sonothing ouito dilloiont: 'I shall dc-vi||ugc
a µoµulation ol oight hundiod thousand and givo thon tho indoµond-
onco that a city diaws lion its insulation: I shall µlaco tioµhios ol victoiy
at tho closod oxits ol its tondontial linos.`
This inconcoivallo wall, hltoon loot high and noaily sovon loaguos iound,
which will soon suiiound tho wholo ol Paiis, is suµµosod to cost ¡z nillion:
lut as it should liing in z nillion oach yoai, it is cloaily good lusinoss.
Mako tho µooµlo µay loi sonothing that will only nako thon µay noio,
what could lo lottoi? . . . Tho Fainois-Gonoial would havo likod to oncloso
tho wholo Ilo do Fianco. But what is iovolting lion ovoiy asµoct is to soo tho
laiis ol tho tax olhco tiansloinod into colonnadod µalacos that aio gonuino
loitiossos. Thoso nonunonts aio suµµoitod ly colossal statuos. Thoio is
ono on tho Passy sido that holds chains in its hands, µiosonting thon to
thoso who aiiivo: it is tho sµiiit ol taxation in µoison undoi thoso gonuino
attiilutos. Oh, Monsioui Lodoux, you aio a dioadlul aichitoct!
Louis-Sélastion Moicioi was not alono in this oµinion: tho condonna-
tion ol tho wall was so gonoial that its contiactois woio loicod to login
thoii woik at tho nost dosoitod µoint, alongsido tho Salµôtiiòio hos-
µital. Thiough an iiony ol lato Lavoisioi, ono ol tho nost consµicuous
ol tho loity 'µaitnois`all nulti-nillionaiiosol tho Foino-Généialo,
Claudo Nicolas Lodoux, L´Arcnitccturc ccnsidcrcc scus |c ruppcrt dc |´urt, dcs nccurs
ct dc |u |cgis|uticn, Paiis ¡8o±.
Louis-Sélastion Moicioi, Tub|cuu dc Puris, London and Hanluig ¡;8¡.
±z ×iv 6z
was hold iosµonsillo loi a µioioct that Paiisians chaigod would µio-
vont µuio aii lion ontoiing tho city, and his discovoiioson tho voiy
sulioct ol tho conµosition ol aiidid not savo his hoad lion tho
Rovolutionaiy tiilunal.
Tho innodiato µiotoxt loi tho wall ol tho ¡8±os lay in tonsions lotwoon
tho inµoiial µowoisFianco voisus Biitain, Russia, Austiia and
Piussiaovoi tho giowing stiongth ol Muhannad Ali`s Egyµt. Thiois,
as µiino ninistoi, was inclinod to a show ol stiongth, and tho loitihca-
tion µlans loi tho caµital that had loon undoi discussion sinco ¡8¡o ioso
to tho toµ ol tho agonda. A continuous ianµait would lo constiuctod,
ioinloicod ly sovontoon loitiossos. Tho sµokosnon ol tho liloial oµµosi-
tion, Fiançois Aiago and Lanaitino, donouncod this oµoiation as ono
that could lo tuinod against tho µooµlo ol Paiis. Evon Chatoauliiand
onoigod lion his silonco to wiito a ´Lottio sui los loitihcations`:
'Intoinally, tho µoaco ol tho laiiacks: outsido thoso iavolins tho silonco
ol tho dosoitwhat a iosult ol oui Rovolution!` Tho nonstious gnono,
as Maix would call hin, ioµliod lion tho tiiluno ol tho Chanloi ol
Doµutios: 'What! To lancy that any woiks ol loitihcation could ovoi
ondangoi liloity!`
Tho ainy, tho doµaitnont ol liidgos and ioads, and
µiivato contiactois nolilizod z¡,ooo woikois on this constiuction noio
than ¡o kilonotios long.
Tho now wall was conµlotod in ¡8±¡. Its iouto was dictatod ly tho
contouis ol tho land, and coiiosµondod to what aio now known as tho
'loulovaids ol tho naishals`thoii nanos in lact takon lion tho nili-
taiy ioad that ian insido tho wall. To tho noith ol tho city, acioss tho
Saint-Donis µlain, tho wall ian in a stiaight lino lion tho Poito do la
Villotto to tho Poito do Clichy, thon tuinod to tako in Moncoau, Passy
and Autouil: ciossing tho iivoi it ciiclod Vaugiiaid and Gionollo, thon
cut acioss Issy, Montiougo, Gontilly and Iviy in a wido cuivo: it ian duo
noith lion tho Poito do Chaionton to tho Poito dos Lilas, hnally swing-
ing lotwoon tho hoights ol Bollovillo and tho Pié-Saint-Goivais. This
was its nost hilly soction, and today tho nost µictuiosouo µait ol tho
'It is Lavoisioi, ol tho Acadony ol Scioncos, to whon wo owo thoso hoavy and
usoloss laiiiois, a now oµµiossion oxoicisod ly tho contiactois ovoi thoii lollow citi-
zons. But alas, this gioat µhysicist Lavoisioi was a Fainoi-Gonoial` (Louis-Sélastion
Moicioi, Lc Ncuvcuu Puris, ¡o Fiinaiio, yoai VII{¡;o8j.
Louis-Adolµho Thiois, citod ly Kail Maix in 'Tho Civil Wai in Fianco`, Tnc First
!ntcrnuticnu| und Ajtcr, Hainondswoith ¡o;±, µµ. ¡o¡z.
itzt×: 1BSJT ±¡
'loulovaids ol tho naishals`, its haiiµin londs ovoilooking tho lioad
µlain ol tho noithoin suluils.
Anong tho villagos suiiounding Paiis, sono woio thus ontiioly includod
within tho wall and othois cut in two, with ono soction ionaining out-
sido tho loitihcations. Tho cctrci was now loviod at tho now gatos, tho
wall ol tho Fainois-Gonoial was donolishod, tho nunloi ol aiiondis-
sononts incioasod lion twolvo to twonty, with loundaiios that ionain
today. Tho 'villagos` that Paiis swallowod uµ at this tino woio no longoi
hanlots ioachod ly long ioads acioss holds, as whon Roussoau wont to
lotanizo at Gontilly on tho lanks ol tho Biòvio oi ly Ménilnontant.

At tho tino ol thoii annoxation, tho bun|icucthis was whon tho woid
ontoiod gonoial usagowas alioady µoµulatod, uilanizod, and µaitly
ovon industiializod, to tho µoint that Haussnann and Louis-Naµoloon
woio concoinod at tho concontiation ol lactoiios and woikois to tho
noith and oast ol tho city.
!ntc tnc bun|icuc
How will Paiis nanago its noxt oxµansion, oµoning towaids tho bun|icuc
acioss tho Boulovaid Péiiµhéiiouo? To tho wost ol tho city, this has loon
lioadly achiovod in tho last low yoais along a wido aic that iuns lion
Lovalloisloinoily tho donain ol socondhand cai doalois, and iich
today in tho hoadouaitois ol showliz and ains nultinationalsthiough
to Vanvos and Malakoll. In this soctoi, loth googiaµhical and social con-
ditions woio lavouiallo. Tho tiansition zono lotwoon tho 'loulovaid ol
tho naishals` and tho Péiiµhéiiouo is not dislocatod: you can cioss it
on loot without iisking youi lilo. And tho µoµulation on oithoi sido is
honogonoous, whito and laiily woll-oll.
It would nood a Hugo, howovoi, to nako tho conµaiison lotwoon tho
wost`s Poito do la Muottoa sunµtuous onlaikation loi Cythoia,
conµloto with µink chostnut tioosand tho oast`s Poito do Pantin: an
unliidgoallo laiiago ol concioto and noiso, whoio tho Péiiµhéiiouo
'Foi sono days tho vintago had loon haivostod: tho walkois lion tho city had
alioady gono hono, tho µoasants also woio ouitting tho holds loi tho laloui ol tho
wintoi. Tho countiy, still gioon and sniling, lut unloalod in µait, and alioady alnost
dosoit, olloiod ovoiywhoio tho inago ol solitudo and ol tho aµµioach ol wintoi`
(Joan-Jacouos Roussoau, Tnc Rcvcrics cj u Sc|itury Wu|kcr, tians. J. G. Flotchoi,
London ¡oz;j.
±± ×iv 6z
µassos at oyo lovol, tho Boulovaid Séiuiioi iunning lonoath it in a hido-
ous cutting, tho sciawny giass ol tho contial iosoivation littoiod with
gioasy wiaµµois and looi cans, and whoio tho only hunan loings on
loot aio nativos ol L`viv oi Tiiasµol tiying to suivivo ly logging at tho
tialhc lights. Tho gull lotwoon Paiis and tho bun|icuc ionains a yawning
ono in this soctoi, loi ioasons that aio µolitical in tho stiong sonso. Tho
µiosont µoµulation ol tho loinoi Paiis 'iod lolt`lion Iviy and Vitiy
in tho south, to Saint-Donis and Auloivilliois in tho noithis now loi
tho gioatoi µait 'ol innigiant oiigin`, i.o., nado uµ ol Blacks and Aials:
tho voiy µooµlo, oi thoii iolativos, who had loon diivon out ol tho city ly
ionovation and iising ionts.
This µiocoss, noioovoi, is voiy nuch in lino with tho histoiy ol Paiis, in
which tho conlinod action ol town µlannois, µioµoity sµoculatois and
µolico has novoi stoµµod µiossing tho µooi, tho 'dangoious classos`, lui-
thoi lion tho contio ol tho city. At tho ioouost ol tho Piosidont ol tho
Roµullic, tho hnc [cur ol olhcial aichitoctuio iocontly µiosontod thoii
µioiocts loi a Gioatoi Paiis, iathoi along tho linos ol gyioscoµos oi contii-
lugos: tho idoa was to nako tho µooi iovolvo aiound tho city at a distanco,
µiovonting thon lion iotuining loi any longoi than thoii woik as cash-
iois oi night watchnon ioouiiod. Foi why iisk iotiioving on tho µoiiµhoiy
thoso whon it took so nuch tioullo to ovacuato lion tho contio?
Foitunatoly, thanks to tho ocononic ciisis, thoso latost µlans nay not
lo ioalizod. Foi tho tino loing, Gioatoi Paiis will lo linitod to a iooi-
ganization ol µolico loicos: it has alioady loon announcod that tho city`s
Pioloct ol Polico will havo his authoiity oxtondod to all tho suiiounding
doµaitnonts. But adninistiativo docisions aio ono thing in tho histoiy
ol Paiis, and what actually haµµons is sonothing olso, µossilly voiy dil-
loiont. Alioady sono yoais ago a now osnosis logan to oµoiato lotwoon
tho woiking-class ouaitois ol tho citylion Montnaitio to Chaionno,
via Bollovillo and Ménilnontantand tho old µiolotaiian lastions ol tho
adiacont bun|icucGonnovilliois, Saint-Donis, Auloivilliois, Los Lilas,
Montiouil. On loth sidos ol tho lino, loi nany young µooµlo, tho way ol
lilo, tho nusic and tho stiugglos aio tho sano. It is tiuo that you havo to
tako tho Métio to got lion ono sido to tho othoi. But as Hugo wioto in
Nctrc-Dunc dc Puris, 'a city such as Paiis is µoiµotually giowing`, and tho
luioauciats can do littlo to stoµ it.
Truns|utcd by Duvid Fcrnbucn

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