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July 2006

July 2006

July 2006
July 2006 Workspace Trainer (WST) Program: Print Version of WST Computer Based Training

Workspace Trainer (WST) Program:

Print Version of WST Computer Based Training

Instructional Delivery Continuum

Workspace Trainer

Table of Contents

Lesson 1: Becoming a Qualified Workspace Trainer

1

Topic 1-1: What Is an IDC Apprentice?

3

Topic 1-2: What Is Team Dimensional Training?

6

Topic 1-3: The Primary Trainer/Apprentice Relationship

10

Topic 1-4: What is Self-assessment?

13

Topic 1-5: What is an Individual Development Plan (IDP)?

15

Topic 1-6: What is Time Management?

18

Topic 1-7: IDC Trainee Responsibilities

21

Lesson Summary

23

Lesson 2: Effective Communication

24

Topic 2-1: What Is Effective Communication?

25

Topic 2-2: Sending the Message

28

Topic 2-3: What Are Barriers to Communication?

32

Topic 2-4: What is Active Listening?

34

Topic 2-5: What is Feedback?

36

Lesson Summary

39

Lesson 3: The Learning Experience

40

Topic 3-1: How Do People Learn

42

Topic 3-2: What Are Barriers to Learning and Recall

44

Topic 3-3: What is Fear of Learning?

47

Topic 3-4: How to Learn More Effectively

50

Topic 3-5: What Motivates Learners?

53

Topic 3-6: Incidental Learning

56

Lesson Summary

58

Lesson 4: Effective Questioning

59

Topic 4-1: Why Use Questions in OJT?

60

Topic 4-2: Types of Oral Questions

62

Topic 4-3: Constructing Oral Questions

64

Topic 4-4: How to Use Oral Questions Effectively

66

Lesson Summary

70

Lesson 5: Conducting OJT

71

Topic 5-1: What is On-the-Job Training (OJT)?

73

Topic 5-2: OJT Trainer Characteristics

75

Topic 5-3: Controlling the OJT Environment

78

Topic 5-4: How to Prepare for a Demonstration

80

Topic 5-5: How to Conduct a Demonstration

82

Lesson Summary

84

Lesson 6: Expectations of a Workspace Trainer

85

Topic 6-1: Roles of the Workspace Trainer

87

Topic 6-2: Workspace Trainer Responsibilities and Guidelines

89

Topic 6-3: Coaching Tips and Strategies

93

Topic 6-4: Continuing Your Professional Development

96

Lesson Summary

98

Instructional Delivery Continuum

Workspace Trainer

Lesson 1: Becoming a Qualified Workspace Trainer

Introduction

The Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC) is the keystone of the Navy's Revolution in Training. Situated on the Professional Development vector of the Navy's Five-Vector Model, the IDC enables Sailors to advance from apprentice to journeyman to master as they learn the concepts, principles, and procedures for delivering and managing effective instruction. The term Sailor includes ANY uniformed member of the United States Navy

As an IDC apprentice trainee, you will learn the knowledge and skills necessary to qualify as a workspace trainer, the leader who provides on-the-job training (OJT) in the operational environment.

Objective

During this lesson, you will do the following:

Establish a relationship with your primary trainer, who will guide your progress throughout apprentice training. The primary trainer is an experienced journeyman or master-level trainer who has been assigned to mentor you during this stage of the IDC. If you do not have a primary trainer, talk to your command’s training office.

Assess your knowledge of OJT concepts and skills.

Begin an Individual Development Plan (IDP) to guide your personal and professional development.

Learn how to manage your time and take responsibility for your own learning.

When you have completed the lesson, you will be able to employ strategies for enhancing
When you have completed the lesson, you will be able to
employ strategies for enhancing your personal and
professional development as a workspace trainer.

Prerequisite

Before proceeding with this lesson, you should have a basic understanding of the following software:

Microsoft (MS) Word

If you have difficulty using MS Word, ask your primary trainer for assistance.

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Scenario

Read the scenario below and consider how you would answer the question that follows it.

Connecting to the Real World An inspection evaluating the command's personnel qualification standards (PQS) has
Connecting to the Real World
An inspection evaluating the command's personnel qualification
standards (PQS) has just ended. During the debrief, the XO comments
to his new training officer (TO), "The low number of PQS-qualified
Sailors in the work centers is negatively impacting operations and
readiness. I want this situation to do a 180 by the next inspection."
What can be done to meet the XO's request?

Record your answer on a piece of paper. After you have finished all the topics in Becoming a Qualified Workspace Trainer, read the lesson summary to see how your answer compares to the TO's decision.

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Topic 1-1: What Is an IDC Apprentice?

Introduction

The Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC) is a revolution in Navy training. You have significant responsibilities as part of that revolution. You will be tasked with becoming a qualified workspace trainer at your command. Understanding your roles as an apprentice trainee and as a workspace trainer is an important step in your Navy IDC journey.

After completing this topic, you will be able to differentiate between your roles and responsibilities as an apprentice and as a workspace trainer in the IDC. This includes common elements of training programs at the command, department, and division levels.

Instructional Delivery Continuum

The path to completion of IDC will be a unique, guided discovery approach. Throughout the continuum you will engage in situations (sometimes simulated and sometimes real) in which you create and implement a solution, experience the consequences of your choices, reflect on the results, and revise your approach to instruction.

This approach will help you become an exceptional trainer. The IDC begins at the apprentice trainee level, which will lead to your qualification as a workspace trainer.

Apprentice Trainee

Participants begin the continuum as an apprentice trainee. At this level you develop basic knowledge and skills related to conducting on-the-job training (OJT). You remain a trainee throughout the Apprentice Trainer course.

Once you successfully complete the three performance examinations included in the course, you will be a qualified workspace trainer.

Workspace Trainer

On-the-job training (OJT) is the backbone of workspace training. A qualified workspace trainer conducts OJT of knowledge and skills at or near the command's work site. While qualifying as a workspace trainer, you will be guided through the OJT process to ensure that the training you deliver is consistent, efficient, and effective.

The result? The Navy receives the top-notch training it has come to rely on and expect. You grow professionally, earn the respect of those you instruct, and gain the respect and confidence of the leaders in your chain of command.

Experience and a recommendation from your command will move you toward the qualification process for journeyman trainer.

Journeyman Trainer

Participants recommended to continue to the journeyman trainer level will enhance their study of adult learning theory and instructor skills.

Journeymen trainers will be the backbone of the Navy's IDC. Depending on their assignments, they will practice their instructional skills in a schoolhouse classroom/lab, team dimensional setting, command training team, mobile training team (MTT), or an Afloat Training Group (ATG) type setting.

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Individuals who wish to assist and instruct in specialized areas can expand their knowledge and skills by completing one or more of the available specialties that apply to the IDC program. Specialties are areas of training that require more in-depth knowledge and skill. Examples include participating as a subject matter expert on a curriculum development team or facilitating online instruction.

Those with the desire and demonstrated skills may attempt the highest qualification of master trainer.

Master Trainer

At the master level, participants gain experience in a variety of training environments and engage in study of curriculum design, such as the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model, including a comprehensive study of cognitive strategies, development, and management issues.

The participant must also have a strong working knowledge of all aspects of Navy training and schoolhouse management. The master trainer must satisfy the requirements for journeyman prior to attempting to qualify. It is this understanding of training management issues that makes a master trainer.

The master trainer will maintain this status in the schoolhouse and at operational commands. The master trainer will be the cornerstone for the development of all future IDC participants and training processes in the Navy.

Example

After you complete the Apprentice Trainer course, your chief tasks you with being the assistant to the personnel qualification standard (PQS) coordinator for your division. From what you learned in the Apprentice Training course, you can see how training needs are assessed for your division. You will most likely be able to assist in determining watch manning deficiencies and identifying some processes that are working well. Having learned how to manage your own training needs, you can transfer that knowledge to assist in the management of the command's junior Sailors.

Your task will be to help identify training needs and to determine a strategy for accomplishing them. You will plan, practice, and conduct the training. This is not a job for just one or two people. Plan to enlist help from other apprentice trainers to prepare and schedule training. Upon completion of training, you will assess its effectiveness by evaluating the skills and knowledge of your trainees. The results will be properly documented for future analysis. In this way, all the efforts of past trainers will benefit those who are or will be responsible for the Navy's training. This training cycle is repeated with each trainee for each and every PQS needed for watch and maintenance qualification.

Analogy

An individual who is knowledgeable and enthusiastic will make a good teacher/instructor/trainer. However, someone who has these same qualities and completes a formal, structured course that provides guidance and specific strategies will be even more effective at these tasks.

Did you take Driver Education in high school? If so, the instructor might have drilled into your head the need to keep looking over your shoulder as you backed up, until the car came to a complete stop. He might have yelled at you if you forgot, until looking over your shoulder became an automatic part of backing up. If you didn't take Driver Education, you learned to drive anyway, but you might not have learned as many "tips and tricks."

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Review

This topic identified the different roles in the Navy's IDC. Specifically, it identified and defined your role as an IDC apprentice trainee. It is up to you to take charge of your training and to learn as much as possible about the most effective methods to conduct OJT within the workspace.

This is one of the first steps, and it is important that you head in the right direction. Assistance will be available all along the way, but it is up to you to succeed. Your success will be rewarded with the challenge and opportunity to directly affect the quality of training in the U.S. Navy. Good luck and get started!

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Topic 1-2: What Is Team Dimensional Training?

Introduction

Training in the Navy is more than the efforts of just one person. The ship doesn't automatically run, airplanes don't fly on their own, hospitals don't magically operate, and bases don't just appear. There is not just one person fixing a piece of machinery, plotting a course, or laying down effective gunfire. Training is not "just showing up for work."

In the Navy, training is the coordinated, collective efforts of many people with different skills working together as a team to produce successful results. There are many teams in the Navy. Each one of them plays an integral part in the mission of the command.

As a workspace trainer, it is likely that you will perform your primary job as a member of a team. Your ability to assess the effectiveness of your performance, and the performance of your team, is the concept behind the Navy's team dimensional training (TDT).

Team members gather after a training exercise or actual team performance event to critique their teamwork processes, and to provide feedback and technical mentoring to one another.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe the TDT cycle.

Definition

Team dimensional training (TDT) is:

Teamwork: A systematic way of identifying and evaluating teamwork behaviors critical to team performance

Structured: A process of preparing a structured debrief to support team learning

Self-correction: A method of guiding teams through a process of self-correction using effective feedback skills

FYI

Events such as the one involving the USS Stark, where the decision not to initiate countermeasures was the incorrect one, and the USS Vincennes, where the opposite decision was incorrect, focused attention on the human factor in making decisions during low- and mid-intensity conflicts.

Team dimensional training (TDT) is one effort aimed at improving the ability to make decisions. Studies conducted on tactical decision making under stress (TADMUS) by Naval Air Training Systems Division indicate that TDT may be a useful approach to teaching effective decision-making skills.

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Instructional Delivery Continuum Workspace Trainer USS Stark On March 17, 1987 the USS Stark, a Perry-class

USS Stark

On March 17, 1987 the USS Stark, a Perry-class frigate on duty in Persian Gulf, was struck by two air-to-surface missiles fired by an Iraqi fighter jet. Thirty-seven U.S. Sailors lost their lives. The incident hinged on the mistake of not properly identifying and preparing for the threat. Radar operators picked up the aircraft at 200 miles. Despite two radio messages requesting identification, there was no reply. The Stark carried many varieties of defenses, including the Phalanx, which could unleash 3,000 rounds a minute at incoming missiles, as well as an electronic defense that produced false radar images to confuse attackers. Despite the possible threat, the assumption was made that the aircraft would veer off. The defenses were not prepared and the result was loss of lives and damage to a U.S. Naval vessel. TDT drills that involve real-world scenarios can assist in preparing leaders and crews for future emergencies

USS Vincennes

On July 3, 1988 the USS Vincennes, an Aegis-class guided missile cruiser, misidentified and shot down an Iranian airliner, killing 290 civilians. This tragedy occurred under the combined stress factors of trying to identify an approaching aircraft in the politically tense Persian Gulf region while the Vincennes was actively engaged in a gun battle with small hostile watercraft. This fact is coupled with the reality that the highly advanced Aegis system provides almost overwhelming amounts of information to the Combat Information Center during emergencies. It is very possible that TDT drills may have conditioned the commander and crew to similar scenarios, leaving them better prepared to have avoided this tragic error.

Example

You are onboard a ship out of Pearl Harbor. Your ship has just begun the inter-deployment training cycle, and a group of trainers is onboard.

1. Seamanship training team: Your chief has just returned from a meeting with the seamanship training team (STT). He approaches you and tells you to prepare for a drill that will be conducted shortly.

2. The drill: Within moments the drill is called away. You notice a group of trainers observing as you and your team react to the imposed drill. After the drill, the observers disappear. You wonder what is going on. How did we do? Are they going to talk to us?

3. Chief returns: Soon, your chief appears with one of the trainers. They start out by introducing themselves. One of them asks, "How do you think the drill went?" Knowing that you missed a couple of steps in a procedure, you answer, "We made these mistakes, but we survived." The trainer acknowledges your assessment, then adds his observations and gives you advice on how to handle the drill better in the future. He compliments you and leaves with your chief.

4. What happened?: You just experienced the TDT cycle.

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Instructional Delivery Continuum Workspace Trainer Debrief Pre-Brief Diagnose Performanc Observe Performan Pre-Brief:

Debrief

Instructional Delivery Continuum Workspace Trainer Debrief Pre-Brief Diagnose Performanc Observe Performan Pre-Brief:

Pre-Brief

Delivery Continuum Workspace Trainer Debrief Pre-Brief Diagnose Performanc Observe Performan Pre-Brief: Prior

Diagnose

Performanc

Observe Performan
Observe
Performan
Debrief Pre-Brief Diagnose Performanc Observe Performan Pre-Brief: Prior to the drill, your chief was at a

Pre-Brief: Prior to the drill, your chief was at a meeting where the training team conducted the first part of the four-part process.

The purpose of the pre-brief is to focus the observing team on the teamwork process they are about to evaluate. This is where the goals of the drill are discussed. The team also organizes and coordinates any "prompts," which are used to simulate casualties or impose certain conditions on the trainees. Critical procedures and a timeline of events are set and a checklist is created. When the observing team is ready, they impose the drill.

Observe Performance: This step began when the drill was called away, and your chief and the other trainers began the observation of your performance.

The observers allow errors to unfold naturally. They record detailed examples of actions of the team.

Diagnose Performance: After the drill concluded and your team was storing gear, the training team was meeting and conducting the third part of the process.

At this point they discuss the observations taken. The evaluating training team selects, categorizes (safety, procedure, etc.), and prioritizes examples for presentation to the trainees.

The last part of this step is to conduct a self-evaluation of the training team itself. Did they plan the drill correctly? Was the timing realistic? What could have been done to improve the training experience for the trainees?

Debrief: When your chief and the trainer came up and talked to you about the drill, this was the fourth, and probably the most important, step in the process.

In the debrief, the trainers recap key events with the trainees. By using effective questioning and feedback techniques, the trainers guide the team in the self-critique process. They also help the trainees set their own goals for overcoming performance and safety issues.

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Review

The TDT process is an effective way to evaluate fleet training.

It takes a collaborative effort on the part of all the crew to successfully operate a ship or, for that matter, perform any task in the Navy.

An understanding of the TDT process will allow you to gain a clearer understanding of how your actions contribute to overall command effectiveness. Awareness of the TDT concept and understanding its cycle allows you to better understand the command's training strategy.

Observing the TDT process or serving as a team member, and the lessons learned through that experience, will enhance your performance as an IDC workspace trainer.

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Topic 1-3: The Primary Trainer/Apprentice Relationship

Introduction

Remember your first day at your new command? You felt a bit uneasy, didn't you? You might have thought, "What should I do first? Where do I go now?" Someone took the time to guide you through the check-in process and helped you settle in to your new workspace; others ensured that you understood your job and that you received the training necessary to become an asset to the command.

The Navy relies on senior Sailors to take junior Sailors under their wing and "show them the ropes." This trainer/apprentice relationship is an important part of the Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC) and the Apprentice Trainer course. The experienced Sailor guides the inexperienced Sailor. Your growth as an apprentice trainer will come through the trainer/apprentice relationship.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe the primary trainer/apprentice relationship.

Primary Trainer

Primary trainers will be experienced trainers (journeyman or master, usually from outside your normal chain of command) who provide leadership, guidance, support, and feedback.

The support and guidance of primary trainers in the IDC program is critical to your success.

Apprentice Trainer

An apprentice trainer is someone who has achieved qualification as a workspace trainer. As a student in the IDC Apprentice Trainer course, you will need guidance and coaching to help you successfully complete the qualification process.

Apprentice Trainee Responsibility

This course is designed to be learner-centric. This means that you are responsible for your own learning.

Responsibility for completing the IDC apprentice program rests primarily on your shoulders. You will have the support and assistance of shipboard personnel, in particular that of your primary trainer, who will be assigned to help with specific skills or knowledge.

Regardless of the help and support, you are expected to take a proactive stance and set your own course of action. You are encouraged to take the following initiatives:

Become familiar with the IDC instructional elements. The IDC Apprentice Trainer course consists of a knowledge portion paired with activities and graded performance exercises. Take time to review these elements of the program prior to beginning. This review will allow you to conduct a self-assessment of your current knowledge base in training.

Meet with your primary trainer. You will be assigned a primary trainer at your command. After an initial introduction, arrange for a meeting. At this meeting you should discuss your Individual Development Plan (IDP). The IDP is covered in depth in a follow-on lesson. The IDP is your plan for how you are going to accomplish the IDC apprentice program.

Begin Apprentice Trainer course and track your progress. Using the Individual Development Plan (IDP), you will plan your approach to the IDC Apprentice Trainer course.

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Apprentice Trainee Expectations

Once training begins, you are expected to do the following:

Be resourceful. Attempt to resolve issues regarding your training on your own. If you require additional help, you should communicate your training needs to your primary trainer or a designated person at your command.

Seek out technical help when you need it. Initiate conversations with experienced personnel to benefit from them. Most are more than happy to share tips and provide assistance.

Be prepared for all training exercises. Prior to an observation, shadowing, watch standing under instruction, etc., determine the goals of the exercise and how you will benefit from it. For example, when assigned to observe a training evolution, prepare by learning where and whom you should observe and on what to focus. This information is available in the training materials, although you should seek additional input from your assigned trainers.

Adjust training to complement the schedule of your command. Depending on your command's operational schedule, you should plan opportunities for training.

Periodically evaluate your professional development and progress. With use of your IDP, you should evaluate your progress regularly. Adjust your plan accordingly.

IDC Trainer Responsibilities

Your primary trainer will assume a role as a mentor and role model who will provide guidance regarding your development in all areas. A mentor serves as a trusted counselor or teacher, especially in occupational settings. As a mentor, the primary trainer will help guide trainees through the IDC process. As a role model, the primary trainer will demonstrate for the trainees how to be an effective trainer in the various roles required of them as an apprentice trainer. The main purpose of having a trainer/apprentice relationship is to establish a process where the primary trainer will work closely with you throughout the course and will assist you during the IDP process.

Typically, you will have only one primary trainer; however, when learning new job skills you may have several assigned trainers at any one time. The functions of assigned trainers are teaching and coaching. The assigned trainer will vary according to the task or skill on which you are being trained. As a teacher, the trainer will provide technical instructional guidance to the trainees. As a coach, the assigned trainer will ensure that the trainees' skills and knowledge meet the required level of training to support a team, in order to accomplish a common goal or mission.

The Initial Meeting

During the initial meeting with your primary trainer, you will discuss your IDP to ensure that you understand your responsibilities. This review will also help establish a relationship with your trainer. You and your primary trainer should:

Agree on an initial projected course timeline, as recorded in your IDP.

Verbalize any expectations you have about the course or your relationship with each other.

Establish ground rules, including how often to meet.

Schedule future meetings.

The Primary Trainer/Apprentice Relationship

The relationship between the primary trainer and the apprentice trainer is that of a mentor to a trainee. The genuine concern for success motivates the primary trainer to assist and develop the trainee. The apprentice seeks and heeds the offered advice, motivated by the desire to learn, to succeed, and to be a source of pride to the primary trainer and, ultimately, to the Navy.

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The common bond between the primary trainer and the apprentice should be pride in their accomplishments and confidence in their potential to provide better training to the Navy.

In addition, both should take satisfaction in the knowledge that this combination of their efforts will help keep skilled personnel in positions critical to the Nation's security.

Benefits of the Trainer/Apprentice Relationship

In the Navy, you would never consider allowing an unqualified Sailor to stand watch or operate a critical piece of equipment. Yet for years, it has been assumed that if you are senior enough and are a skilled expert technician or watchstander, you are qualified to be a trainer.

Some—based on their natural abilities, experience, and desire—make very effective trainers. Many need help. The benefit of having the IDC Apprentice Trainer course, with its primary trainer component, is to allow those individuals who are not skilled in the art of instruction to have a qualified and competent instructor teach, guide, and coach them.

Review

The relationship between the primary trainer and the apprentice trainer is that of a mentor and trainee. To help get you started in the IDC Apprentice Trainer course, you will need to meet with your primary trainer.

Go to Activity 1-1 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 1-4: What is Self-assessment?

Introduction

The Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC) is an all-encompassing journey about the art of instruction. As part of your role as an apprentice trainer, you must assess your own "current reality." This assessment will help you determine your personal knowledge base about instruction. This base will be used to determine a plan of action, a monitoring system, and a way of evaluating your progress through the IDC.

The skills learned in assessing yourself in relation to the IDC can also be transferred to all other parts of your life, for example, career, family, finance, and education.

After completing this topic, you will be able to perform a self-assessment.

Definition

Self-assessment is the process of gathering information about yourself in order to make an informed decision.

The Navy has chosen the Apprentice Trainer course as a goal for you to complete. Embracing the program is the first step. Conducting a self-assessment to determine your knowledge base in the art of instruction is the second.

Personal mastery of the IDC Apprentice Trainer course involves two steps:

1. Determine goals.

To do this you must estimate your skills and knowledge. Then ask yourself some basic questions:

What do you intend to accomplish?

Is there a specific timeframe?

2. Analyze progress along the way.

As you work through the IDC Apprentice course, you should constantly reevaluate your progress. Ask yourself:

Am I progressing as I had planned?

What steps do I need to take to get back on track?

Should I reevaluate my initial plan?

Self-assessment Process

Personal mastery of the self-assessment process has four steps:

1. Determine current reality: Current reality is what you know, not what you think you know. Determining current reality involves a search for your knowledge level.

2. Plan actions: Planning allows you to develop your IDP to narrow the gap between what you know and what you don't know. This is the area that needs to be filled in (or bridged) to complete your knowledge and skills in order to become an effective trainer.

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3. Monitor progress: Monitoring is as critical as determining your own current reality, if not more so. As you encounter new challenges along your journey, ask yourself the following:

How am I doing? Am I on track?

What prior knowledge in this area can I use to help me learn this new information?

Have I done something wrong? This is a very important point. Only through your recognition of error can you make adjustments to correct them.

Should I change directions?

Should I adjust the pace because of difficulties with scheduling, work demands, etc.?

What do I do if I don't understand something? Know when—and don't be afraid—to ask for help.

4. Evaluate the process: Once you complete a section of the IDC Apprentice Trainer course, you should evaluate how well you assessed your knowledge prior to starting. This evaluation will assist you in planning for and monitoring the next section of the course. Your IDP should be adjusted as necessary before continuing through the process.

When evaluating, consider the following questions:

What could I have done differently/better?

Did my initial assessment of current reality prepare me for determining the gap between what I knew and what I didn’t know?

What do I need to restudy in order for me to be an effective apprentice trainer?

How might I apply the process of thinking about thinking to other problems at work, home, etc.?

No one step is more important than any other. One portion of the cycle leads to the next.

View the cycle as an upward spiral that allows you to use the same basic structure to continually make progress. Although you're performing the same steps more than once along the way, you continually reach a higher level on your journey.

When you go to the library to find information, several methods are available to do your research. The strategies you use are up to you. There is no absolute correct way to find what you seek, and the method that works best for you is the correct one.

Much like your choice of research strategies, as you become proficient in self-assessment, you will be able to take control of your own learning and skill development. By discovering and using the strategies that work best for you, you will achieve your goals.

Review

The process of determining current reality, planning actions, monitoring progress, and evaluating the process is an ongoing cycle. Consider this process a tool that you can use every time you are faced with a problem.

Once you are honest enough with yourself to recognize when you do not understand something, you can begin to assess your abilities and shortcomings accurately.

When you have the ability to accurately assess yourself, you can plan how to bridge the gap. Remember to monitor your progress along the way, and periodically stop to evaluate your thinking process to ensure the most direct path to your goal.

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Topic 1-5: What is an Individual Development Plan (IDP)?

Introduction

The Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC) is based on a learner-centric training philosophy. This means you must take charge of and control your own learning. You will have assistance throughout the program, but ultimately, you are responsible for your own development.

A critical part of your development is applying what you have learned about self-assessment in an Individual Development Plan (IDP). You will use your IDP to determine your course of action to complete the IDC program.

After completing this topic, you will be able to use your IDP to manage your professional development.

Definition

The Individual Development Plan (IDP) is the instrument that will assist you in assessing your professional and technical competencies throughout the IDC program.

Your IDP should build on your self-assessment efforts. The IDP will allow you to plan how to narrow the gap between your current reality and your goals. The IDP should have long-term and short-term goals. You will develop these goals and have your primary trainer review them.

Once you complete your IDP, you will have a roadmap that you can use to approach your training and career goals. You should constantly review your IDP and make adjustments as you progress through the course.

Use of the IDP

The IDP is a roadmap to success. The path must be carefully set and faithfully followed. You should use the IDP to:

Set specific goals.

Assess your strengths and weaknesses.

Track your progress and take action to meet your goals.

Develop self-assessment skills.

Promote growth of your leadership skills.

Identify resources to further your development.

Provide input for meeting with your primary trainer.

IDP Tools

input for meeting with your primary trainer. IDP Tools You should begin your program of study

You should begin your program of study with the IDP and should work with your primary trainer to establish a plan of action using the tools provided in it. These tools allow you to plan and track your progress while coordinating with your ship's training plan. They also provide a vehicle for communicating with your primary trainer.

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The IDP consists of two self-development tools:

Projected course timeline: You create this with the help of your primary trainer to use as a plan of action for maneuvering through training. The timeline helps you estimate and track the time it takes you to progress through the program.

Competency assessment form: The competency assessment form helps you track your progress in the development of your technical and professional competencies. It also helps you prepare for formal evaluation with your primary trainer during the program. The form helps you identify your strengths and weaknesses, set and achieve your goals, and assess your progress.

Projected Course Timeline

The IDP projected course timeline describes the plan for completing the Apprentice Trainer knowledge portion and activities. The process for creating the timeline should be as follows:

1. Review your command training plan.

2. Plan training opportunities to take advantage of your command schedule.

3. Plot expected completion times for each module. Use expected completion as a reference for assessing your progress throughout the course. Set realistic goals and use self-discipline to maintain a schedule to ensure successful and timely completion.

Assessing Development

A major component of the IDP is the process of self-assessment. The competency assessment form

consists of questions to help you set and achieve goals in the following three areas, as indicated on the

actual form:

Progress

Technical competencies

Professional competencies

Tracking Progress

You should track completion of all elements of the IDC program. At a minimum—but do not settle on the minimums; minimum effort yields minimum results—you should do the following:

Track your daily progress for each course element.

At regular intervals, identify activities you still need to complete. Set some milestones as markers and adjust your progress as necessary. This is where you have to take responsibility for your own progress—success is the goal and you are in control.

Imagine your ship getting ready to leave on deployment and not having a plan for meeting the other ships

in the battle group. You would leave port and travel for weeks on end, hoping to meet up with the other

ships.

Like a ship wandering around the ocean, if you don't have a plan for achieving the goals of the program, you, too, will wander and likely won't become an effective workspace trainer.

The IDP will be your guiding chart for achieving success in the program.

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Review

It is now time for you to fill out your IDP.

Remember that the IDP will help you establish a plan of action and a projected course timeline. The competency assessment form can help you set goals, assess your personal strengths and weaknesses, and track your progress. In addition, the IDP is a useful tool to help develop other skills for accomplishing professional and personal goals.

Go to Activity 1-2 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 1-6: What is Time Management?

Introduction

Do you ever wonder how you will get everything done? You have many competing demands on your time: work, job-related personnel qualification standards (PQS), warfare qualifications, friends, home, relationships, entertainment, and on and on.

The way you manage these competing demands will affect the degree to which you succeed in your professional and your personal life.

How much time do you waste every day? A few minutes? A few hours? Are you working as efficiently as you think you can? Could you be more effective in your work? How do you balance the demands of work with your personal time? How stressed do you feel?

Most people waste a lot of time every day; the key is realizing how you use time. Time management is not

a skill you are born with; it is a learned skill that will help you deal with a demanding world. Time management is a skill few people master, but it is one that most people need.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe time management.

Definition

Time management is the ability to manage yourself to get things done effectively in pursuit of a set of goals.

Stephen Covey, author of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, put it this way: " really a misnomer—the challenge is not to manage time, but to manage ourselves."

time management is

"Don't say you don't have enough time. You have exactly the same number of hours per day that were given to Helen Keller, Pasteur, Michelangelo, Mother Teresa, Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Jefferson, and Albert Einstein."

—H. Jackson Brown, Jr., Life's Little Instruction Book, 1991.

Procrastination

"Procrastination is the thief of time."

—Edward Young, Night Thoughts, 1742

Procrastination means to put off doing something, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness.

It is very easy and often tempting to put off those tasks that we view as boring or difficult. When you think

about this statement, it is all the more reason to aggressively complete these types of tasks. After all, who

wants to have a boring or difficult task awaiting them?

If you put everything off to the last minute, will a minute be enough time to do everything? The answer is no, and you will let down your shipmates and yourself.

Avoid procrastination by keeping track of your responsibilities and making a plan to get things done.

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Planning and setting priorities

Without a plan, events and circumstances control you. It has been said that failing to plan is planning to fail. You can change your plan, but you must have a plan in the first place in order to change it.

Usually, tasks are driven by deadlines. Your daily and weekly responsibilities must be set in some order. Prioritize your tasks and aggressively complete them ahead of schedule. This will give you time to ensure that the completion is correct.

Besides, any job worth doing is a job worth doing right.

Time Management Strategies

There are many time management strategies. You are probably familiar with the simple concept of keeping a journal and making "To Do" lists. Here are some additional strategies:

Eliminate wasted opportunities: Opportunities come in many forms. For example, while you

wait for a bus at a ship yard, look at your PQS book or read an article that will help you complete

a knowledge check.

Be better prepared for training: Prior to going into class, review your course outline with your morning coffee.

Monitor project progress: Just as you constantly review your IDP, you should constantly review your use of time. You need to consider such things as courses, PQS requirements, and job task proficiency. When you realize you are wasting time, rethink how you use those precious moments.

Allocate appropriate to each task: Prioritize your tasks. Do the ones that have a short completion time first. Then, for the long-term goals, take a little time each day to work a small portion of it. Breaking up a long task into workable "chunks" will make it seem like a smaller task.

Plan each day efficiently: Have a plan each day. Knowing what you need to do during the day will make it seem easy. Without this plan, you will be busy but will likely accomplish little.

Plan each week efficiently: Just as you have a plan for the day, use the weekly plan to track your progress on your long-term goals. Review your weekly plan each day when you make your daily plan. Chip away at those "chunks."

Benefits

The benefits of managing your time include increased efficiency and productivity. The command will enjoy these benefits, but what about you? Additional benefits include the following:

Decreased frustration: Having a plan and executing it brings order to your life. Order has a calming effect on you because you, not others, make the decisions about your future.

Increased sense of achievement: By effectively using your precious time, you create situations where you are constantly achieving "chunks" of your goals. This equates to winning. We all feel better when we win.

Becoming a better leader: Leadership is about influence. You will set an example that others will follow. Your actions will influence others to be more efficient in their lives.

Increased energy: When you have a goal, you strive to accomplish it. Your daily and weekly plans will give you those goals. With each "win" you become energized to accomplish the next "win."

More quality time: By accomplishing all your goals at work, you don't bring them home with you.

If you are satisfied at work, you will be more relaxed outside of work and will have more time to enjoy your personal activities.

Taking control of your life: Is the tail wagging the dog or is it the other way around? By managing your time, you manage your life.

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Setting goals

The term time management is really a misnomer. You can't slow it down or manufacture it.

Give direction to your life and the way you spend your time by setting goals. Goals help you manage your actions when faced with what seem to be an overwhelming number of tasks.

Set goals that are:

Specific: Don't be vague. Ask yourself, "How much?" and "By when?"

Measurable: Develop a way of measuring progress. Use existing software or develop a paper- based model that is based on your PQS program. The IDP that you have developed should be an excellent tool.

Realistic: Are there enough resources available for you to achieve this goal? If not, your timeline may need an adjustment.

Achievable: Goals should be a thing or state that can be reached. It shouldn't be so easy that there is no challenge.

Timed: Each goal should have a specific time frame. If not, daily pressures will force you to put them off.

Personal: Your goals should be your own. Yes, the Navy has chosen many of your tasks. But, you are the one who sets the goals for accomplishing them. Remember, how you approach each task makes it personal.

Review

Time management is about how you manage yourself. There are only 168 hours in a week. The choices you make determine how those hours are used. With goals set, following the strategies you learned, you can accomplish the tasks required of you and still have time to pursue personal interests. The goal of personal time use is to reap the benefits of the process.

Don't let time run your life, and don't let time run out! This means that you need to identify and take control of the unproductive portions of your day and put that time towards the accomplishment of your goals.

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Topic 1-7: IDC Trainee Responsibilities

Introduction

To fully utilize the Instructional Delivery Continuum (IDC), you need to take charge of your own training.

It is your responsibility to accomplish the goals of the program. This lesson outlines your responsibilities and provides guidance that will enable you to become a qualified workspace trainer.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe your responsibilities as an IDC apprentice trainee.

Individual Development Plan

The Individual Development Plan (IDP) is the tool that will be used to plan and guide you throughout the whole IDC process. The IDC is a comprehensive training course and will involve many levels of instruction, as well as a large number of individual trainers. At any given time, tens of thousands of Sailors will be enrolled in the course. The responsibility for completing the required lesson material, activities, and practical tests cannot fall on the shoulders of primary trainers, training coaches, or the command training structure.

IDC Responsibility Guidelines for the Trainee

The following guidelines for proceeding through the IDC will help ensure a smooth and rewarding learning experience.

Take initiative for your own learning and qualification. You are responsible for the completion of the IDC, achieving each level of qualification along the way; do not rely on your primary trainer (or anyone else) to do your work for you. They have already completed the program and are tasked with guiding you.

Seek out and interact with assigned trainers and peers. Some of the most helpful tools to an apprentice are those that others have developed. You cannot learn what these tools are or how to use them effectively without interacting with others. Take the time to observe more experienced individuals as they practice their skills. Borrow every effective trait possible, then refine it as necessary and make it your own, with your own style.

Utilize available tools and resources. Your command probably has very effective training tools available to you: instructor lesson guides, topic outlines, videos, or knowledge and techniques. Use them. Once you have some experience, improve these tools for the next learner. In an ever-

Likewise, you will benefit

evolving cycle, the tool shapes the user, who in turn re-shapes the tool.

from those who have preceded you as trainers; those who follow you should benefit from your knowledge, skills, and experience. The IDC also has tools for you: the self-assessment form, the IDP you have created, etc. These tools have been developed for your use to help guide you through the process. Feel free to improve the forms for yourself. Everyone learns differently. Take charge and control your learning.

Take advantage of learning opportunities. Having learned about your training organization by doing your activity sheets, you should have discovered how you can use the training organization at your command to help you with your learning experience. Look at the training schedule for your command. Talk to trainers and find out who is the best at each process in the art of training. When you see that they are going to train, show up, take notes, and implement the desirable traits you observe in your own presentations. Talk to your primary trainer and ask for recommendations of specific training or, if none is scheduled, request help in setting up training opportunities.

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Strive to become technically proficient. Having the knowledge and the skills to train is only half of the recipe for being an effective trainer. You must also be technically proficient in the topic that you are training. You must be better at the task you are training than your trainees are. In order to achieve this, you must practice any related procedures until you are extremely proficient. If you are not skillful at the task you are instructing, you will lose credibility with your trainees. You will have been ineffective as a trainer, and trainees will neither learn nor become qualified.

Example

You are a Chief Petty Officer who has just checked into a training command. You have been out of your rate for some time. During your indoctrination into a specific job task, you realize that some of the petty officers are much more proficient than you. As a Navy chief, you are expected to be the technical expert.

You must take the initiative to regain the expertise that earned you the rank of CPO. It is not about overcoming the fear that your petty officers will outshine you; it is your responsibility to maintain your technical proficiency. Once you regain it, you will be an effective trainer. Your trainees will recognize you as the expert and will strive to emulate your success.

Review

You are not alone in your quest to become a qualified IDC apprentice trainer. Numerous tools and personnel are available to assist you, but they will be useful only if you take the initiative to seek them out.

It is your responsibility to push yourself through the course; it is not the command's job to pull you through. Becoming a qualified IDC apprentice trainer takes initiative, perseverance, and commitment. Through your accomplishments so far, you have proven to the Navy that you are capable. It is now up to you to learn, train, and pass on to your subordinates the proven training techniques.

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Lesson Summary

You are well on the road to becoming a qualified workspace trainer. In this lesson you did the following:

Established a relationship with your primary trainer, who will guide your progress throughout apprentice training

Assessed your knowledge of OJT concepts and skills

Began an Individual Development Plan (IDP) to guide your personal and professional development

Learned how to manage your time and take responsibility for your own learning

In the lesson introduction, you read a scenario about a new training officer who was tasked by the XO to turn around the command's poor performance on a PQS inspection.

An inspection evaluating the command's personnel qualification standards (PQS) has just ended. During the debrief, the XO comments to his new training officer (TO), "The low number of PQS-qualified Sailors

in the work centers is negatively impacting operations and readiness. I want this situation to do a 180 by

the next inspection."

What can be done to meet the CO’s request?

You were asked to record how the TO could meet the XO's request.

Now that you have completed the lesson, review your answer. Based on what you learned, would you change it? Compare your answer to the model response: The TO determined that the command needed more qualified workspace trainers, so he tasked all division officers, LCPOs, and LPOs with assigning personnel to complete the IDC Apprentice Trainer course. With more qualified trainers, the command was able to achieve the highest PQS completion rates on base.

Next Step

The fleet expects you not only to learn your specific job skill, but to be able to train others as well. Someday, the training that you provide to new Sailors will be passed on to their replacements.

To develop a plan to become a skilled workspace trainer, you must be able to assess your own strengths and weaknesses. It is recommended that you research the items listed below to gain a better understanding:

Self-assessment

Metacognitive (thinking about thinking) skills and strategies

Trainer/Trainee relationships

Additional Resources

The following resources are on Navy e-Learning (http://www.navylearning.navy.mil/tsonline/catalog):

Basic PowerPoint

Basic Word

Basic Internet Explorer

This site was current as of December 2003.

In addition, you will find the following resources on the Apprentice Trainer Resources page:

Apprentice Trainer Course Outline

Skill Test Evaluation/Lesson Cross Reference

How To Manage Your Time Effectively

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Lesson 2: Effective Communication

Introduction

To train people, you must be able to communicate. Easy, right? You talk; they listen. The question is: Are they getting the message you want them to get? We've all experienced misunderstandings in communication. Misunderstandings during training can be dangerous. How do you prevent them?

In this lesson, you will learn how to:

1. Send the message clearly.

2. Minimize barriers to communication.

3. Actively listen and watch for nonverbal feedback to determine if your message was received correctly.

Objective

Effective communication is essential to every job in the Navy. It is especially critical in training. A trainee's failure to hear or understand crucial information could result in:

1. Equipment damage

2. Personnel injury

3. Mission failure

When you have completed the lesson, you will be able analyze a real-life or written
When you have completed the lesson, you will be able
analyze a real-life or written scenario for use of
effective communication during OJT.

There are no prerequisites for this lesson.

Scenario

Read the scenario and consider how you would answer the question that follows it.

C onnecting to the Real As you are instructing a young Sailor on maintenance of
C onnecting to the Real
As you are instructing a young Sailor on maintenance of the
ship's binoculars, a boatswain's mate starts chipping paint
nearby. You continue, raising your voice to be heard over the
noise. Noticing a puzzled look on the trainee's face, you ask if
he has a question. He shouts back, "What did you say?"
What can you do to improve communication in order to
complete your training mission?

Record your answer on a piece of paper. After you have finished all the topics in Effective Communication, read the lesson summary to see how your answer compares to the one provided.

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Topic 2-1: What Is Effective Communication?

Introduction

Communication among and between individuals, both verbal and nonverbal, occurs constantly. However, it isn't always easy. Sometimes people misunderstand what you are trying to say. Sometimes you might have to repeat yourself or restate what you are trying to communicate in a different way. Sometimes you don't know that they got the wrong message until much later.

In on-the-job training (OJT), misunderstandings can result in equipment damage or personnel injury. How can you become more effective at communicating with other people?

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe effective communication.

Definition of Communication

Communication is the exchange of thoughts, opinions, and information through signs, writing, speech, nonverbal cues, and images.

Communication involves three elements:

Sender

Delivery vehicle

Receiver

Elements of Communication

Communication involves three elements: • Sender • Delivery vehicle • Receiver Elements of Communication 25

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Example of Communication

Continuum Workspace Trainer Example of Communication Nonverbal Communication Although words are a powerful

Nonverbal Communication

Although words are a powerful communication tool, we still rely on body language, or nonverbal signals, to express and communicate feelings, moods, and emotions. Body language includes facial expressions, nods of the head, shrugs, and other physical cues that send a message to the person who sees them. In addition, we use and understand an ever-increasing set of standardized signals in our daily lives. Standardized signals are gestures with culture-specific meanings. American examples include the “OK” symbol, the “thumbs-up” signal to signify “good” or “agree,” clutching the throat to indicate “choking,” and hands over ears to signal “too loud.” Be careful when using standardized signals around people from other cultures, as the meanings may vary considerably. For example, if you give the thumbs –up signal in a bar in Germany, you indicate your desire for a beer.

Definition of Effective Communication

Effective communication occurs when the receiver successfully interprets and understands the intended message. The receiver must provide feedback so the sender knows the correct message has been received.

Feedback tells the sender whether the intended message was received. It can be self-initiated or elicited by the sender through questioning. Although feedback can be nonverbal—made through eye contact, gestures, and attitude—verbal or written feedback is more effective.

Example of Effective Communication

The sender initiates intended message: Using a delivery device, the officer of the deck wants to communicate with the combat information center (CIC). “Combat, Bridge…what is the CPA of the contact bearing zero nine zero relative?”

The receiver interprets the message: The watchstander in the CIC hears, “Combat, Bridge…what is the CPA of the contact bearing zero nine zero relative?”

The receiver verifies message: The watchstander replies through the delivery device, “Combat, Aye, What is the CPA for contact bearing zero nine zero relative?”

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The sender confirms the intended message: Confirming that the intended message was received, the OOD hears, “Combat, Aye, What is the CPA for contact bearing zero nine zero relative?” It is the feedback that confirms that effective communication has occurred.

Review

Now that you have completed this topic, do you know the difference between ordinary communication and effective communication? In the training environment, effective communication is critical to ensure trainees accurately understand the trainer's message.

As a workspace trainer, you must be able to effectively communicate your knowledge, skills, and experiences in order to facilitate learning. This requires not only sending the message clearly but also getting feedback from the trainee to ensure that your message was correctly understood.

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Topic 2-2: Sending the Message

Introduction

"If the bugler blows an uncertain note, who will follow?"

No one appreciates a poor presentation of material. If it is perceived that the trainer is nervous, distracted, boring, or overbearing, then communication—the basis of training and instruction—will fail.

Lesson material is often challenging, and it is extremely important for the trainer to be able to successfully communicate the material to all trainees.

Unlike a large group situation where the speaker cannot necessarily reach every member of the audience, in small group and one-on-one training, it is critically important that every trainee gets the message.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe effective techniques for sending the intended instructional message to the trainee.

Definition

The "message" in communication is:

Any notice, word, or communication—written, verbal, or nonverbal—sent from one person to another

The substance of the communication; the point or points conveyed

Guidelines for Sending the Message

Effectively communicating a message requires knowledge of topic, confidence, and a positive attitude. Utilize the following guidelines when sending an instructional message:

1. Know the topic.

2. Control nervousness.

3. Use appropriate language and bearing.

4. Practice effective verbal skills.

5. Use nonverbal communication.

6. Keep a positive attitude.

Know the topic

Knowledge of topic is a critical and obvious requirement for anyone in the position of a trainer. This knowledge is acquired though formal classes, OJT, job-related experiences, and self-study. In order to be able to instruct others, the topic must be very familiar to the trainers.

To prepare for sharing your knowledge, consider outlining the topic.

A valuable resource for additional information and insight on a specific topic is an individual’s mentor or

perhaps a person the mentor recommends.

Control Nervousness

It is perfectly normal to feel nervous—just don’t show it! Control the nervousness and transform it into positive energy; convert it to an asset that can be applied toward enthusiastic presentation.

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Prepare thoroughly. Preparation and practice will create confidence and reduce nervousness.

Write and outline.

Talk in front of a mirror.

Teach someone else you feel comfortable with.

Walk around the room or space you are going to be teaching in to make it feel more comfortable.

Concentrate on the message. Focus your attention and energy toward the message you are trying to get across.

Review the content and write down the main message to make it clear in your own mind.

Expand the main message in an outline.

Before training starts, engage trainees in conversation. This helps you see them as people and keeps your mind off of what is coming up.

Realize that pauses in the instruction are okay. There is no need to fill the air with empty words or sounds, such as “um,” “so,” “OK,” and “you know.” It is acceptable to be silent for several seconds to allow the information to sink in, assemble your next thought, allow trainees to ask a question…or take a breath!

Use appropriate language and bearing

Remain professional at all times in order to effectively deliver the instructional message.

Explain unfamiliar terms and acronyms. Every job has its special language, and people who are new to the job won’t understand your instruction if you use unfamiliar terms and acronyms.

Avoid profanity. There is no place for profanity in the instructional environment. Not only is it unprofessional, but it may also bother some people to the points that it distracts from what you are saying.

Avoid sarcasm. Sarcastic comments not only indicate a poor attitude on the part of the trainer, but also transfer that poor attitude to the trainees. In addition, sarcastic comments discourage participation.

Maintain a professional bearing. In OJT, your trainee may be your best friend. No matter what your relationship is outside of the workspace, you need to maintain a level of professionalism when you train. An overly casual approach may give the impression that the training is not important or that you lack content knowledge.

Practice effective verbal skills

In order for learning to take place, the instructional message must reach the trainees. The message must be audible, understandable, and interesting.

Use voice variety/inflection. Keep it interesting. Avoid monochrome speech: raise the pitch at important points throughout the lesson to prevent lulling the training group into boredom or drowsiness.

Speak clearly and concisely. Articulate each word. Don’t ramble. Organize your thoughts so that your message is easy to understand.

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Use a moderate rate of speech. If you talk too quickly, trainees will miss some instruction. If you talk too slowly, they will lose interest and be bored. If you have a tendency toward either extreme, practice with a friend and get feedback.

Use proper level of projection. Speak loudly enough to be heard; however, do not shout. Adjust voice volume to the training area and conditions. Erect posture leads to easier breathing and better voice projection.

Use nonverbal communication

Use nonverbal communication to reinforce verbal communication. In a training environment, there is as much information passed between individuals though physical actions and postures as there is through words.

Regardless of what words are used, if body language is sending a different message, the vocal message may be partially or totally disregarded.

There are two basic types of nonverbal communication: eye contact and gestures.

Eye contact: This is the most influential component of nonverbal communication. It is important to establish and maintain eye contact with the trainees in order to keep all involved in the training session. This is something that you can work on in your day-to-day interaction. Generally people “listen” with their eyes, but have a hard time talking, even one-on-one, while maintaining eye contact.

Benefits of eye contact

Establishes credibility: Looking someone in the eyes has always been a mark of a truthful and sincere individual. In the case of a trainer, avoiding eye contact portrays a lack of confidence on the part of the trainer.

Engages trainee: Eye contact with each trainee throughout the training session will pull the person into the lesson. Additionally, it will usually reinforce their understanding of their responsibility to learn the material.

Allows observation of student reactions: A slow “eyeball to eyeball” survey of the trainees will allow for a quick assessment of the group’s understanding of certain critical material.

Communicates feelings: Certain brief, emphasized looks can express either approval or disapproval in response to the actions or answers of individuals (or the group as whole) without having to interrupt the flow of the lesson material.

Take care to avoid intimidation: Do not stare or glare at the trainees; an environment of fear is not a positive learning environment.

Gestures: Gestures are body movements that also convey messages to others. It is how this body language is perceived that is of concern to the trainer. Awareness and calculated use of movements and gestures will enhance the instructional message. Use the following strategies to increase the effectiveness of your training session.

Stay animated. Staying animated lets the trainees know that the instructor is enthusiastic about the topic sand keeps the group motivation high.

Act natural. Although you should use formal language to avoid misunderstanding, do not be stiff and robotic. Also, do not adopt a false enthusiasm. Any attempt at a false personally will erode trainees’ confidence and trust. Where appreciate, true emotions and humor are outstanding methods to raise the level of trainee involvement.

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Use movement for emphasis. Examples include:

Pointing to materials

Using hands to emphasize numbers or to reinforce relative size

Moving closer to the trainee to stress importance

Avoid inappropriate gestures. Don’t put hands in pockets and jangle change and keys. Avoid folding your arms across your chest when a trainee is voicing an opinion or making a request. This may be interpreted as unwillingness to accept a different opinion. Avoid distracting mannerisms, such as scratching arms, pulling on ears, touching hair, rubbing hands together, etc.

Keep a positive attitude

Keeping a positive attitude is perhaps the most important guideline for sending an instructional message. As a trainer, you must be aware that you are being observed every moment during the instructional period. Trainees quickly pick up on a positive or negative attitude.

Display an attitude that conveys enthusiasm, fairness, confidence, and approachability. For example, avoid making statements like, “Bear with me, but we have to get through this.”

Example of Sending the Message Effectively

Assigned the task of training a new replacement in the duties of the phone watch, PO2 Dillon prepares by reviewing the watchstander orders.

During the training session, she frequently makes eye contact with the trainee. She uses simple terms to cover the responsibilities of the post and is careful to explain acronyms and base-specific jargon that a new watchstander may encounter in a phone call. For instance, PMO (Provost Marshal's Office, which is the military police) and "E Club" or "Rats Nest" (jargon for the Enlisted Club). She remains formal in her explanation and uses the full titles of the chain of command and all functional areas. Her attitude is one of encouragement as she impresses upon the trainee the importance of the post.

Review

This topic focused on guidelines and strategies for effectively sending the instructional message. As a trainer, it is up to you to use these guidelines to sharpen your presentation skills during training.

Go to Activity 2-1 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 2-3: What Are Barriers to Communication?

Introduction

Have you ever realized that the talking has stopped and you have no idea what was said? Were you preoccupied by feelings of physical discomfort? Were you distracted by something happening nearby? Were you thinking of a "comeback" to something that was said earlier? Were you confused by an unfamiliar term that was used?

If so, a barrier to communication was present.

After completing this topic, you will be able to identify communication barriers.

Effective Communication

Effective communication occurs when the receiver has clearly understood the intended message from the sender. However, no matter how good the trainer, sometimes there are misunderstandings and the message doesn’t get through. What causes this to happen?

Communication Barriers

A number of things can act as barriers to effective communication. As a trainer, learning to recognize and

overcome these barriers is crucial to ensuring that trainees hear and understand the message.

After completing this topic, you will be able to identify communication barriers.

Language/Speech Difference: During OJT, language differences may present a barrier to

communication when the trainee is unable to comprehend the message being sent. A trainer must take steps to ensure understanding by explaining acronyms, words with double meanings,

or jargon that may be unfamiliar to a new Sailor.

A strong regional accent or a speech problem, such as stuttering, can also be a barrier to

understanding.

Physical Discomfort: Physical discomfort occurs when a trainee is exposed to conditions that interfere with concentration and learning.

The training environment must provide an atmosphere that promotes the communication necessary for learning.

Excessive heat or cold can be a barrier to communication if the trainee is too uncomfortable to concentrate.

If you must train where it is very hot or cold—firefighting, for example—make sure there are no other barriers to communication.

Distractions: Distractions are events occurring in the training environment that may interrupt communication and cause the trainee to turn away from the original focus of attention or interest. For example, equipment/aircraft noises, close-by activity, and wandering thoughts are all distractions.

Distractions are like static from a telephone line. They may prevent someone from hearing or understanding the message that you are trying to deliver.

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Review

This topic focused on physical discomfort, distractions, and language differences as barriers to communication. When conducting training in the workspace environment, it is critical to eliminate any barriers to communication that may interfere with comprehension of the new material.

Go to Activity 2-2 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 2-4: What is Active Listening?

Introduction

One of the most important attributes of an effective workspace trainer is the ability to listen. If you cannot listen well, effective two-way communication is impossible.

Listening is difficult. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The typical listener can receive 400 to 600 words per minute. As a result, about 75 percent of listening time is free time. This free time allows the listener time to become aware of distractions, which then become barriers to effective communication. As a workspace trainer, you not only send messages but also receive them. To enhance effective communication during training, you must become an active listener.

After completing this topic, you will be able to apply active listening techniques.

Definition of Active Listening

Active listening is different from hearing. Hearing is the passive act of perceiving audible sounds with the ear. Active listening, on the other hand, involves a conscious effort to remain focused in order to understand what is being communicated.

Active listening is a process that demands concentration and attention. As a workspace trainer, it also includes observing your trainees' nonverbal communication.

Active listening sends the message to your trainees that they are important enough to have your undivided attention.

Active Listening Guidelines

Active listening is necessary for effective communication and successful training to occur.

Be sure to utilize the active listening guidelines when conducting or receiving OJT.

Concentrate on the speaker: Ignore disturbances that could present barriers to communication. Focus on what the speaker is saying. Pay attention to nonverbal cues such as posture, energy, expressions, and tone to help you completely understand the message. Don’t pre-formulate or reply. Wait until the speaker has finished before you think about your response. You may become so concerned about formulating a reply that you don’t hear everything the speaker has to say!

Encourage the speaker: Ask questions and nod aggrement when appropriate. Demonstrate interest and alertness. Listen with patience. Do not act rushed or pressed for time. Maintain a positive attitude; do not make negative comments.

Avoid interrupting: Allow the speaker to finish talking. Restrain any urge to interrupt or respond. Control any emotional responses; avoid judging the speaker.

Provide clear feedback: Acknowledge valid points. Rephrase what the speaker has said to ensure that you have understood it correctly. Ask questions if the message is unclear. Keep feedback professional and focused on the topic. As a trainer, confirm questions and answer; this helps to preserve trust.

Face the speaker and maintain eye contact: Be prepared to listen to the speaker. Look the speaker straight in the eye. Don’t turn your back to the speaker or look away.

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Active Listening Example

A trainee approaches you nervously about a qualification he has been struggling with. While he's talking, you become distracted by some background noise and glance away. The Sailor hesitates in his explanation, and you look back.

Remembering the active listening guidelines, you refocus, initiating eye contact and concentrating on every word he says. Your attention encourages him to continue.

You find yourself thinking about feedback you want to give, so you concentrate even harder. The trainee responds to your attention: his nervousness gone. When the trainee finishes, you pause and formulate your response, concentrating on making your feedback very clear and precise.

Your concentration and effort produced an active listening event that promoted effective communication.

Review

Becoming an active listener is crucial to your development as an effective workspace trainer. Practicing and mastering the active listening guidelines will make a significant difference in how you approach each and every communication event.

Go to Activity 2-3 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 2-5: What is Feedback?

Introduction

As you will recall, feedback is essential for effective communication. Feedback creates the two-way flow that lets the sender of a message know if it has been correctly received and understood. The feedback you receive from your trainees lets you know if they understand the message you are trying to communicate.

In OJT, trainees' feedback often takes the form of an answer to a question or the performance of a skill. As the receiver of this message, you in turn provide feedback to trainees on the accuracy of their response. This ongoing cycle of communication is essential to OJT and is therefore critical to the success of the training mission.

After completing this topic, you will be able to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate feedback.

Definition of Feedback

Simply stated, feedback is a response to a message.

When provided by the trainee, it indicates to the trainer whether the instructional message was received as intended.

When provided by the trainer, feedback provides evaluative information regarding the trainee's understanding of the instruction or performance of a skill.

Feedback

There are two types of feedback, depending on the training situation.

Direct: Feedback may be verbal or nonverbal. Examples of verbal feedback are "Aye, aye" or an answer to a question. Examples of nonverbal feedback can include a "thumbs-up" sign or other standardized gesture. A more subtle form of nonverbal feedback is the trainee's performance. How the job task is performed will indicate if the instructional message was understood.

Indirect: Indirect feedback is an unsolicited verbal or nonverbal response to communication. A stony stare, a puzzled look, a nod, failure to ask questions after complicated instructions have been given, or a "Huh?" are examples of indirect feedback. Indirect feedback is usually more difficult to interpret than direct feedback.

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Appropriate

Trainer

Trainee

Feedback

Well-timed

Provide feedback promptly. Don’t save it until the end of the training.

Ask for clarification when the message is unclear. Don’t wait until the end of training.

Specific

Don’t generalize when giving feedback. Specify what is right or wrong so that the trainee knows exactly what to change.

Don’t just say, “I don’t get it.” Try to tell the trainer what part of the instruction you don’t understand.

Relevant

Provide feedback that is practical and relates to the training. Relevant feedback is always directed toward helping the trainee’s performance

Provide the trainer feedback that directly improves the instruction—for instance, pointing out something that needs to be clarified.

Non-judgmental

Focus your feedback on the topic, not the person

Put aside any negative personal feelings toward the trainer or the training topic. These feelings will show in your attitude during training and will become a barrier to communication.

Professional

Just as when sending the message, you must remain professional at all times. Always show due respect. Avoid use of sarcasm. Do not embarrass trainees. Keep your feedback positive.

When asking questions or requesting clarification, be respectful and maintain a professional attitude. Don’t take correction personally. Accept them as a challenge to improve yourself.

Example

During a small-group demonstration, a trainer questions one of the trainees about the reason for performing a particular safety procedure. When the trainee replies with a partially correct answer, the trainer responds, "You are partially correct; however, there’s another important point to consider.” Remember, relevant feedback is directed toward helping the trainee’s performance. By giving partial credit for the answer, the trainee(s) will feel safe enough to attempt an answer again. “Think about the personal protective equipment necessary for this task.” Seaman Jones, taking the hint, raises his hand and, when called on, provides the rest of the answer. This specific feedback provides a hint as to why the answer or procedure is incorrect. “Right! Good teamwork!” Part of being professional is providing positive reinforcement. This lets trainee know that you appreciate their efforts.

This example demonstrates appropriate trainer-to-trainee feedback. By affirming trainees' answers and providing trainees the opportunity to understand what, if anything, is incorrect with their response, the trainer has promoted a positive training atmosphere.

Inappropriate Feedback

Inappropriate feedback will affect the training negatively and will create a barrier to communication.

“That is wrong. You have been getting this point wrong all week.” This is belittling and ill- timed. Recognize that when communication fails, it is generally the fault of both people. The trainee might not have asked enough questions, and the trainer should have corrected the mistakes as they occurred.

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“That reminds me about a funny thing that happened to me at my last duty station.” This statement is irrelevant to the trainer and presents an interruption that will add to the instruction time.

“Wrong! Aren’t you paying attention?” Being judgmental can lead a trainer to make incorrect assumptions. Perhaps the person was paying attention but just didn’t understand the instruction. Losing your temper over an incorrect answer is communication. It not only discourages trainee participation but may also prevent them from even hearing what you have to say.

“This isn’t part of my job. I don’t see why I have to learn this anyway.” Trainees should reserve judgment about the need of the training. Training takes time away from operations and will not be given unless it is necessary to meet mission objectives or the need of the Navy.

“Correct, and didn’t I tell you to get a haircut?” Do not mix irrelevant issues into the training feedback. If a reprimand is in order, do so prior to or after the training session.

Review

Because of the cyclical nature of communication, both the trainer and the trainee are constantly sending messages and receiving them. Providing feedback sends a message that starts the cycle again. Whether you are a trainer or a trainee, applying the guidelines for appropriate feedback will enhance communication and promote a positive training environment.

As a workspace trainer, it is up to you to use these guidelines to sharpen your presentation skills during training.

Go to Activity 2-4 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Lesson Summary

For effective communication to occur during OJT, the trainee must be able to receive and understand the message you are sending. In this lesson you learned how to:

Send the message clearly.

Minimize barriers to communication.

Actively listen and watch for nonverbal feedback to determine if your message was received correctly.

In the lesson introduction, you read a scenario in which a boatswain's mate started chipping paint nearby while you were providing OJT.

As you are instructing a young Sailor on maintenance of the ship's binoculars, a boatswain's mate starts chipping paint nearby. You continue, raising your voice to be heard over the noise. Noticing a puzzled look on the trainee's face, you ask if he has a question. He shouts back, "What did you say?" What can you do to improve communication in order to complete your training mission?

You were asked to record how you would handle the situation.

Now that you have completed the lesson, review your answer. Based on what you learned, would you change it? Compare your answer to the model response: The noise is a barrier to communication. To overcome this barrier and ensure effective communication, you could continue the training later or ask the nearby worker to stop for the short period necessary to complete the training.

Next Steps

To develop your communication skills, practice them every day.

If you have to repeat something you said, ask yourself why.

Look for feedback to find out if your message has been correctly received and interpreted.

Remember—effective communication is the first step toward effective on-the-job training.

Go to Activity 2-5 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

Additional Resources

The following resources are on Navy e-Learning (http://www.navylearning.navy.mil/tsonline/catalog):

The Mechanics of Effective Communication

Effective Listening Skills

Communication Curriculum

This site was current as of December 2003.

In addition, you will find the following resources on the Apprentice Trainer Resources page:

How To Communicate Effectively

How To Provide Effective Feedback

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Lesson 3: The Learning Experience

Introduction

You've been learning all your life—and not just in school! Your everyday experiences have taught you much about life and people.

ex periences have taught you much about life and people. This lesson will introduce you to

This lesson will introduce you to the information-processing model, which will help you gain an understanding of the basic learning process.

Objective

This lesson will enable you to do the following:

Understand how people learn.

Recognize and reduce barriers to learning and recall.

Examine and improve your own learning process.

Motivate others to learn.

Recognize the benefits and dangers of incidental learning.

Recognize the benefits and danger s of incidental learning. Prerequisite Before proceeding with this lesson, you

Prerequisite

Before proceeding with this lesson, you should have a basic understanding of the following subject:

Effective Communication

Effective communication and learning are closely interrelated. Knowledge of the principles of effective communication will help you recognize factors that affect learning.

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Scenario

Read the scenario and consider how you would answer the question that follows it.

consider how you would answer the question that follows it. Record your answer on a piece

Record your answer on a piece of paper. After you have finished all the topics in The Learning Experience, read the lesson summary to see how your answer compares to the one provided.

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Topic 3-1: How Do People Learn?

Introduction

To understand how people learn, you must first understand what learning is. Learning and memory are closely related. We know we have learned something if we can remember it.

We are bombarded by information every day, from television and radio, from the people around us, from books, magazines, and newspapers. Some of it we retain; most of it we don't. What causes us to remember some things and not others? To understand this, you first need to know how we process information.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe how people learn.

Definition

Simply stated, learning is gaining knowledge, understanding, or a skill through study, instruction, or experience.

When we gain knowledge, understanding, or the ability to perform a skill, the information is stored in our brains. When we access this stored information, we say we are remembering it.

We can compare learning to using a file cabinet. We select information that is important enough to be saved, then we file the new information with related information so that we can find it when we need it again.

Information Processing

Learning involves processing information, then storing it in an easily accessible location. This model illustrates how we process information in the brain.

Once something has gained our attention—or someone has brought our attention to it—we begin processing the information.

our attention to it—we begin processing the information. Attention: The first step in information processing is

Attention: The first step in information processing is attention. Something must first capture our attention in order for us to learn it. Example: PO2 Kestler shows Seaman Turner some corrosion on a hatch. “See this corrosion, Turner? Today you're going to learn how to get rid of it.” Although Turner had not noticed the corrosion before, this statement grabs Turner's attention.

Perception: Once we have focused our attention on something, perception comes into play. Perception is the stage at which we determine whether the information is of value to us. If we perceive that it has no value, we ignore the information.

How we perceive information is colored by a number of factors, including our expectations, previous knowledge, life experiences, and personality attributes. Example: Turner perceives that this is something he needs to learn because he will get in trouble if he doesn't.

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Short-term Memory: Think of short-term memory as temporary storage, or "working" memory. Theorists believe the duration of information in short-term memory is somewhere between 5 and 20 seconds.

If we want to retain the information, we begin to encode it for storage in long-term memory. Encoding often involves trying to make sense of the new information by relating it to what we already know.

If we do not continue processing the information, it will fade away and be replaced with new information. Example: They don protective gear, and Kestler picks up an odd-looking tube, saying, "This is a needle gun." Because Turner has perceived that this is important information, this term goes into Turner's short- term memory.

Long-term Memory: Long-term memory provides permanent storage of learned information. We seem to have an unlimited capacity to store information. However, retrieving it from long-term memory so that we can use it is sometimes a problem.

The ease with which we access information in long-term memory depends very much on how it was stored. Consider the filing cabinet. If you file by just throwing all your papers randomly in a drawer, you will have a hard time finding them later. If you file papers with related ones, you can find them more easily. Example: Kestler asks, "Have you ever seen someone using a jackhammer?" Turner nods affirmatively. "Well, the needle gun works in much the same way." Kestler then demonstrates.

Kestler's comparison enables Turner to make a mental connection between the needle gun, which is unfamiliar, and jackhammers, which are familiar. This association will help him store the information in long-term memory in such a way that he can easily remember it.

Review

In this topic you discovered that learning involves the active processing of information. First, something must focus your attention on the incoming information. Your perception of the value of that information will determine whether you decide to ignore it or process it further in short-term memory. In short-term memory, you encode the information for storage in long-term memory.

Go to Activity 3-1 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your primary trainer for signoff.

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Topic 3-2: What Are Barriers to Learning and Recall

Introduction

Have you ever had trouble learning something? Why is it easy to learn some things and difficult to learn

others?

Have you ever thought you knew something but couldn’t recall it when you needed to?

Problems with learning and recall often result from a barrier that causes a breakdown in information processing.

After completing this topic, you will be able to correct barriers to learning and recall.

Definitions

A barrier is something that blocks passage: an obstruction.

A barrier to learning is something that blocks information processing so it cannot continue.

A barrier to recall is something that blocks the retrieval of information from long-term memory.

Barriers to Learning and Recall

A barrier to learning and recall can occur anywhere within information processing.

Attention/Perception: It goes without saying that if you are unaware of information to be learned, you will not learn it. However, attention does not guarantee learning will occur. If you perceive that the new information has no value, your perception will act as a barrier that will stop any further information processing.

Short-Term Memory: If something or someone else grabs your attention during information processing, the information in short-term memory will become unavailable in a matter of seconds.

Long-Term Memory: Barriers to recall will prevent you from recalling information stored in long-term memory.

Barriers to Attention

Sometimes new information will catch your attention without any outside assistance. For instance, a sudden motion or sound may cause you to focus on something yrou never noticed before.

However, if there is nothing to capture your attention, information processing will be blocked before it even gets started! In this case, something or someone must draw your attention to the new information.

Barriers During Perception

If you perceive that the new information you are receiving is not important, you will discard it. A number of factors can act as barriers during this phase of information processing:

Perceived Irrelevance: If you perceive that the new information has no application to your job or your interests, you will likely ignore it.

Repeated or Contradictory Information: If new information appears to repeat or contradict what you believe to be true, you may reject the new information without further consideration.

Overriding Physical Discomfort: Have you ever been so tired that all you could think about was getting some time in the rack? Being too hot or too cold, having a severe headache, or feeling sick may cause you to ignore new information because you are more concerned with your immediate feelings of discomfort.

Emotional Reaction: A strong emotional reaction to the source of the information may cause you to ignore the information you receive from that source.

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Example of Perceived Irrelevance

AE2 Mixon was working on a receiver/transmitter when the LCPO walked into the workspace and called over a junior petty officer who had recently transferred from another ship. Mixon stopped momentarily to listen but soon realized that they were discussing some kind of testing equipment that the other petty officer had used at his previous station, so she turned her attention back to her work, ignoring the conversation.

A few minutes later, the LCPO came over and said, "Did you get any of that, Mixon? We got one of those

testers in, and I want us to start using it."

Barriers In Short-term Memory

Actively processing information in short-term memory prepares it for storage in long-term memory. Without this process of encoding and storing information, short-term memory can be lost very quickly.

Have you ever lost a thought when something distracted you? Interruptions are the primary barrier at this stage of information processing. The longer the interruption, the greater the chance that the information will be lost from memory.

Interruptions can take several forms—someone coming in the room, an unexpected noise, a sudden, unrelated thought. Getting too much information too quickly is another type of interruption. Anything that stops us from processing information has the potential to disrupt learning.

Another type of barrier is prior knowledge that contradicts what you are trying to learn. Prior knowledge is usually helpful during information processing because you can use it to make sense out of new information. However, it can be a barrier to learning if it differs greatly from what you are trying to learn.

For instance, imagine that you are a pilot and a new system has been installed in the cockpit of your aircraft. The sequence of steps for using this system is quite different from what you are used to.

In this case, your knowledge of how to operate the old system will interfere with your learning how to

operate the new one. This barrier will cause you to have difficulty remembering the correct procedure.

Barriers to Recall from Long-term Memory

What makes us forget information? Do we lose memory over time?

Science still does not know the answer to this question; although it is suspected that instead of losing the information, we lose our ability to access it.

Our ability to access information depends a great deal on how it was processed in short-term memory for storage.

Have you ever tried to remember something by repeating it over and over to yourself? Repetition is one process we use to store information in long-term memory.

However, a more effective way to process information is to draw connections between it to previously learned information. Normally, we do this unconsciously as we try to make sense of new information by considering it in light of what we already know. Many experiments have shown that related ideas can be recalled more quickly than unrelated concepts.

ideas can be recalled more quickly than unrelated concepts. The two key barriers to recall information

The two key barriers to recall information are disuse and improperly stored information.

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Information that has been memorized through repetition with no attempt to make associations with other information will "decay" very quickly when not used. Think of this in terms of finding a missing person. It would be very difficult to find someone if all that is known is the person's name. We locate people through their associations with friends and family, with organizations, and with certain known activities or habits. The more associations, the easier the person is to find.

Overcoming Barriers to Learning and Recall During Training

Knowing the barriers to learning and recall will help you understand why learning can sometimes be difficult. As a workspace trainer, you can use various strategies to help your trainees overcome barriers in each of the following:

Attention: When you are training, you have to gain and retain your trainees' attention. Emphasize the important points that you want them to learn. Use eye contact and observe body language to ensure that you are retaining their attention throughout the training session. Ask questions if you feel that their attention is wavering.

Perception: Overcoming your trainees' barriers to perception is more difficult because of the personal factors involved. However, you can do what is possible to ensure your trainee's comfort. Avoid inflammatory remarks or language. Most importantly, ensure that trainees know the relevance of the training to their jobs.

Short-term memory: During training, minimize distractions that can interrupt information processing.

Long-term memory: Help trainees link new material to what they already know. The more links, the more associations that they will be able to use later to recall the information.

Review

Several things can disrupt the learning and recall process. Although you may not be able to control the occurrence of these barriers, you can do much to help overcome them.

Understanding the barriers to learning and recall and knowing how to overcome them will help you to become not only a better learner yourself but also a better workspace trainer.

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Topic 3-3: What is Fear of Learning?

Introduction

Everyone experiences some degree of fear of learning. Why? Because learning involves two things that most people try to avoid: change and risk. Whenever you enter a learning situation, you are opening yourself up to the possibility that you might have to change how you think about something or how you do something. You are also risking failure. What if you can't learn what you are supposed to learn? What if you fail the test?

Most people accept that a certain amount of discomfort is inevitable when learning. However, learning does not have to be painful.

After completing this topic, you will be able to recognize attitudes that can cause a fear of learning.

Fear of Learning

All people have preconceived attitudes toward learning that may cause them to fear learning. People who fear learning can neither concentrate fully nor do their best in a learning situation. Fear of learning can result in lost opportunities, poor job performance, and a lack of promotion. In order to overcome any fear, it is necessary to recognize that it exists, uncover the reason for it, and then dispel it.

Definition

A fear is a strong, negative emotional response to a situation. It is a natural part of our instinct for self- defense.

When something happens to us that causes physical or emotional pain, we automatically attach a strong negative emotion to it. When we sense a similar situation occurring, that emotion serves as a warning device to keep us safe from repeating the pain we suffered before.

Many of our fears are healthy reactions to life-threatening circumstances, but sometimes we develop fears that do more to hurt us than help us.

Overcoming Fears About Learning

There are several common misconceptions that can trigger fear of learning.

Tests are a good measure of what people know. In formal education, tests are commonly used to determine if learning has taken place. Sometimes tests are viewed as scorecards that show if you are a winner or a loser. The fear of "losing" or failing on a test can discourage people from entering formal learning settings.

Tests have a valid purpose. They are composed of questions that have right and wrong answers, but we do not live in such a black-and-white world. In the workspace, knowledge and experience combine to provide better information about your abilities than any test.

People should learn continuously. In today's world with volumes of information readily available at the click of a button, it is widely believed that people should be constantly seeking to learn new things. Some people even suggest that anyone who isn't learning continuously is falling behind.

It can be upsetting to think about getting behind on important information. However, something will grab your interest, and you will seek to understand it. You will learn what you need to know when you need to know it. You will draw out information from your long-term memory to make connections between what you already know and this new information.

In that awesome moment, learning occurs!

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It is important to be able to answer questions correctly. Sometimes people are afraid to answer questions because they don't always know the right answers; and yes, it is important to be able to answer test and job-related questions correctly.

However, learning occurs when you get answers to your questions; so, don't be afraid to ask questions, to get answers, and to learn.

People learn best in a carefully planned instructional event. Many people think that learning occurs only when instructional material is well planned out. Actually, it is important in training settings, such as OJT, that you achieve your instructional goals.

However, sometimes people become dependent on others to teach them what they need to know. This "tour group" approach to learning is very comfortable because someone else decides what you need to know and then gives you the information.

The most effective learning experiences, however, occur when you begin to take charge of your own learning by allowing your curiosity to discover new opportunities.

The more facts I know, the smarter I will be. Have you ever watched JEOPARDY! or played Trivial Pursuit? The winner of the game is the person who answers the most questions correctly. Their ability to recall so many facts is considered a sign of intelligence. Because of this, some people who have trouble remembering facts may fear that they are not smart enough to learn.

Keep in mind, however, that the definition of "trivia" is "something of little importance." Facts by themselves are trivial or not important. It is only when you combine facts with related experience that the facts become meaningful.

More education guarantees greater success in life. Education is not always a predictor of success. Everyone has heard stories of people who had very little education but enjoyed tremendous success in life. There are also highly educated people who have ended up in homeless shelters.

It is important to realize that learning is not confined to a classroom, and knowledge is not confined to what we learned in school.

Failure is bad. Our culture conditions us to believe that failure is bad. In school, it's bad if you fail a test. In sports, it's bad if you miss a pass or fail to score. In your career, it's bad if you fail to be promoted. It's bad if you try to do anything—and fail. Fear of failure is the single greatest fear that keeps people from success.

Many people who fear learning are afraid that they will fail. However, every invention, every discovery, every truth discovered by mankind came at the cost of countless failures.

Understand and use failure for what it is, a stepping stone on the way to success. Pause, get your balance, then leap forward to the next step!

Example

PO2 Harrison is the resident expert in the shop. If something goes wrong, he knows how to fix it. If you have difficulty troubleshooting a piece of equipment, Harrison can point you in the right direction. Harrison's expertise is legendary. Even people from other shops come to him when they run into a technical problem they can't resolve.

The department head feels that Harrison would make a great shop supervisor. However, Harrison refuses to study for the advancement exam. When asked, he always smiles and says, "Sorry, Sir, but that's just not my thing. All I want to do is work on this equipment. That's what I do best."

You probably have met people like Harrison. There may be any number of factors involved in his refusal to study for the advancement exam. However, one possibility is that because he is so successful at his current level, he is afraid of the change that learning may bring.

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Review

Because learning involves change and risk, everyone fears learning to some degree. Recognizing when fear is preventing you from living up to your full potential is one of the most important lessons you will ever learn.

Remember this old Yiddish proverb: He who lies on the ground cannot fall.

Go to Activity 3-2. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your trainer for signoff.

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Topic 3-4: How to Learn More Effectively

Introduction

You learn new things constantly—new names, new procedures, new concepts. Do you consider yourself a fast learner? If so, what do you do that helps you to learn new information? If not, is there anything you can do to help the learning process so that you can learn faster and more efficiently?

In this lesson, you will explore different ways to help yourself—and your trainees—learn new information more efficiently.

After completing this topic, you will be able to apply effective learning strategies.

Principle Statement

Learning involves processing new information so that it can be stored in long-term memory.

In order to learn more efficiently, it is necessary to process and store new information in such a way that it can be retrieved from long-term memory when needed.

Learning Strategies: Repetition

You have probably used a variety of learning strategies in the past without even realizing what you were doing. For instance, you may have repeated something over and over in your mind until it "stuck." Repetition is one way to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory.

Repetition can be enhanced by saying the information aloud or writing it. The more senses used in imprinting the information in long-term memory, the more likely you will be able to recall it later.

Review is another form of repetition. Without review, most information would be lost from memory very quickly.

Learning Strategies: Memory Aids

Another common learning strategy is the use of memory aids. Devise "tricks" to help you remember a particular piece of information. For instance, when trying to remember whether to turn a valve handle clockwise or counter-clockwise to shut off the valve, many people will use a memory aid they learned in childhood: righty-tighty, lefty-loosey.

Example

Acronyms can be used as memory aids. Acronyms are words consisting of the first letter of a group of words. For example, SCUBA is the acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. In the Navy, acronyms are almost a second language.

However, you can make your own acronyms to help you memorize a list of terms. Consider the four stages of information processing: attention, perception, short-term memory, and long-term memory. You can use the first letter of each stage to form an acronym: APSL.

Perhaps you will find it easier to remember the acronym if you rearrange the letters to form a word that has meaning for you, for instance, ALPS.

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Memorizing vs. Understanding

Although memory aids can be helpful when trying to memorize a list of terms or steps, they do have some disadvantages. For instance, some lists do not easily lend themselves to making acronyms or sentences. Also, if you can't remember the acronym or sentence, you won't be able to remember the list.

The biggest problem with memory aids is that they aid memorization but do not promote understanding. Seeking understanding is the most effective way to learn new information.

Effective Learning Strategies

Effective learning strategies always promote understanding of the information to be learned.

Practice active learning: Learning should be an active process. Pay attention to what you are trying to learn. Do not let your thoughts drift to other things.

Paying attention, however, is only the first step. You must also think about what you are learning.

Try to make sense out of the information. Look for relationships, such as categories, similarities and differences, or cause and effect.

Study in chunks: We tend to remember first things and last things best and forget the information in the middle.

To take advantage of this tendency, study in 20- to 50-minute chunks of time centered around a single idea or group of related ideas. Analyzing the information you have to learn for the purpose of chunking it also helps you to understand it better.

Take at least a 10-minute break before studying the next chunk of information. This strategy allows you to have more beginning and ending points in your learning, taking advantage of your natural learning tendencies.

Relate new information to prior knowledge: Don't just try to memorize new information. Make sense out of it by considering it in light of what you already know.

When you relate information, you are creating a web of memories that lead to each other. The more ways there are to access information in long-term memory, the more likely we will be able to recall it when necessary.

Use the “puzzle” approach: Have you ever put together a jigsaw puzzle? Generally, people will start the puzzle by finding and fitting together the outside pieces so that they have a frame of reference for the rest of the puzzle.

When learning something new, first learn the general concept before trying to learn the details. This strategy will help you to understand the details later as you consider how they fit within your framework of understanding.

Test your understanding: A good practice when learning new information is to put the information in your own words. If you can't, then you don't understand it. If possible, ask someone more knowledgeable to listen to your interpretation of the information and assess your level of understanding.

Another method is to create a mental picture of the information. Often, a picture is easier to recall than words.

Apply the information: The old maxim "use it or lose it" applies just as much to information stored in long-term memory as it does to physical fitness. How easily we recall information depends a great deal on how frequently we use the information.

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That is why application and practice are so important. When you learn new information, find opportunities to use it. Not only does frequent use help with retention, but also every time you use the information, you are forming more associations to it within your memory that will help you remember the information later.

These associations, in turn, increase your understanding of the information as you see its applicability to a variety of situations.

Review

There are several effective learning strategies. Not every strategy is applicable to every learning situation. Through practice, you will find the ones that work best for you in any given situation.

Whenever you are in a new learning situation, become conscious of what you are doing to process the information for storage and retrieval. Become an active learner. Remain focused and work to find meaning and understanding in what you are studying.

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Topic 3-5: What Motivates Learners?

Introduction

You’ve just been told that you are expected to muster at 1430 for OJT on safety. You roll your eyes. Not again. You’ve been through this drill so many times you that can even predict at which part PO Hansen will scratch his nose. It certainly won’t help that backlog of work you’re trying to get through either.

It’s 1440. Everyone is standing around waiting for Hansen to show. Suddenly he breezes in, saying, “Cobb isn’t going to make it for the training today. There was a little mishap, and Cobb’s on her way to the hospital with a concussion because she slid in some hydraulic fluid that someone forgot to clean up. So

let’s get started

the

topic for today is ‘keeping your workspace clean.’ “

You’re stunned. Cobb is your best friend. All at once, safety OJT has taken on a new significance. You lacked motivation before; now you listen intently. Why?

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe the factors that motivate learners.

Definition

You know what motivation is. It’s whatever makes you want to do something.

Motivation is often a highly personal thing. What motivates one person may not motivate another. Our degree of motivation is frequently influenced by the culture in which we live or work, our beliefs and values, our life experiences, our current emotional or physical s tate, and even those around us.

emoti onal or physical s tate, and even those around us. M otivation and Learning M

M otivation and Learning

M otivation is critical to learning. If two trainees—one motivated and one unmotivated—are given identical training under identical conditions, the one who is motivated to learn will far surpass the unmotivated one in performance.

C onsider how motivation can affect information processing:

Attention/Perception: Motivation will cause trainees to pay attention. Motivation will positively affect perception.

Short-term Mem

ory: Motivation will also cause people

to s pend more time working with information in short- term memory. The more the person works with the information, the more meaningful connections are made and the greater the level of understanding achieved.

Long-term Memory: The greater the level of understanding, the greater the likelihood that the information will be stored in long-term memory in such a way that it can be easily recalled at a later time.

C an a Workspace Trainer Motivate People To Learn?

B ecause motivation is so important to learning, a great deal of study has gone into finding what motivates learners. In spite of varying levels of personal motivation, most people will respond to certain conditions with increased motivation to learn.

W hat are these conditions? What can you, as a workspace trainer, do to create them when you are conducting training?

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It’s All About Me

The most important thing to remember is that people are motivated by what affects them personally. If you want to motivate people to learn, you need to connect who they are with what you want them to learn.

If trainees feel that you have the desire and the ability to help them achieve their personal and professional goals, they will be motivated to learn.

Motivating People to Learn

Motivating people to learn does not require a magnetic personality. It does require knowing how to satisfy

a trainee’s desire to know “what’s in it for me.”

1. This trainer can teach me something.

2. This trainer understands my concerns.

3. This training is interesting.

4. This training is valuable.

5. This training makes sense.

6. This trainer respects me.

This trainer can teach me something.

If trainees see you as someone who knows more than they do about something that will benefit them in

their job or in their position within the unit, they will be more motivated to pay attention to your training.

What you can do:

Know your subject well.

When you introduce yourself, tell trainees about your experience.

Demonstrate good military bearing at all times during training.

Show your self-confidence. If a trainee asks you something you can't answer, don't apologize. Just tell the trainee that you will get back to him or her with the answer and then do it!

This trainer understands my concerns.

Understand trainees' needs and expectations for training. If they come in expecting one thing and get another, motivation decreases.

What you can do:

Before you begin training, ask questions to determine your trainees' level of experience and expectations. Then adapt your training accordingly.

During training, actively listen to trainees' comments and questions to ensure that you understand their concerns.

After training, ensure that you have answered all questions and concerns.

People are naturally concerned about their personal safety. As much as possible, create a safe learning environment.

This training is interesting.

It has been said that learning is the process of remembering what you are interested in. Remember the

first step of information processing? Gaining attention. People naturally pay attention to what interests

them.

What you can do:

Before and during training, use questions to arouse curiosity, not just to check comprehension and recall. For instance, when teaching a safety procedure, you might ask the trainee what might happen if you did not follow the procedure.

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This training is valuable.

If trainees perceive that what you are teaching is worth knowing, they will be motivated to learn.

What you can do:

Show your enthusiasm for the subject. Enthusiasm is "catching." It shows that you value what you teach. If trainees perceive that you value something, then they may think it is worth knowing.

Ensure that trainees understand why the training is important. Point out its relevance to their job or to advancement.

When teaching a procedure, point out the consequences of error so that trainees recognize the importance of learning how to perform it correctly.

This training makes sense.

Learning involves processing information to create meaning. If trainees find the training confusing or hard to follow, they will quickly lose any motivation to learn.

What you can do:

Describe beforehand what you will be doing. This provides a frame of reference to help trainees understand each step as it relates to the overall procedure.

Present information in a logical sequence. Your method of organization will provide trainees a means of recognizing relationships between pieces of information that will enhance understanding.

Relate new information to previous knowledge. This will provide a context for understanding that trainees can use to learn new concepts and procedures.

Review

In this lesson, you learned that motivation always comes from within the learner. Because it is internal, motivation is affected by a number of factors that are beyond a trainer’s control. However, a good workplace trainer can do a number of things to stimulate a trainee’s motivation to learn.

Always keep in mind that the people you are training are constantly evaluating you and what you are saying in light of themselves and their needs. If they perceive that you don’t know what you’re talking about, that you have no respect or concern for them, or that the training you are presenting has no personal relevance, they will not be motivated to learn.

On the other hand, if they feel that you have the ability and the desire to help them achieve personal or professional goals through training, they will be motivated to learn.

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Topic 3-6: Incidental Learning

Introduction

Take a moment and consider all that you learned before you ever stepped into a school. You learned how to speak. You learned that fire is hot and ice is cold. You learned that candy tastes good and mud doesn’t.

Much of what we learn throughout our lives is unintended, or incidental, learning. We learn, not because someone is teaching us, but because we are constantly trying to make sense of the world around us.

After completing this topic, you will be able to recognize incidental learning in the workspace.

be able to re cognize incidental learni ng in the workspace. Incidental Learning vs. OJT Incidental

Incidental Learning vs. OJT

Incidental learning is unplanned learning. Although it constantly occurs on the job, it differs from OJT.

Whereas OJT is a planned training event with specific objectives and a structured approach to ensure achievement of the training objectives, incidental learning can happen anytime, anywhere.

OJT is actually a very small part of the learning that occurs on the job. Most learning is incidental.

Examples of Incidental Learning

Most learning is incidental. Examples of Incidental Learning Incidental learning is a natural offshoot of your

Incidental learning is a natural offshoot of your work.

You observe someone performing a task, and you learn how to do it.

You make a mistake, and you learn from it.

You listen to others talking about what they are doing or how they resolved a work-related problem, and you learn from them.

When you do something that doesn’t work, you try something else until you find a solution—and you learn from it.

Incidental learning is the most natural way of learning. It results when you actively work to understand and remember, in a meaningful way, what you experience.

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Value of Incidental Learning

When you learn something that increases your competence, it doesn’t matter where or how you learned it. It would be impossible to develop training to teach you all you need to know about your job. Incidental learning fills in the gaps and often provides the background understanding and knowledge that you need before receiving OJT.

Dangers of Incidental Learning

Because incidental learning is unplanned, there are two inherent dangers in it:

“Hit or miss” learning: Unlike planned training, in which everyone receives the same information, incidental learning is very individual. It depends on what you personally experience as well as your desire and ability to make sense of the experience.

Learning the wrong thing: During planned instruction, the trainer ensures that the training is correct and complete. However, there are no safeguards for incidental learning. This can be especially dangerous if the incidental learning involves a safety violation.

Example

In a work center one day, PO3 Mixon signals to PO1 Hargrave to come over. Mixon is excited about having finally isolated the problem on a piece of equipment.

PO3 Koss and SA Nast are working nearby. PO3 Koss, who tried unsuccessfully to help Mixon earlier in the day, immediately stops work and goes over to find out what’s going on. This person is likely to benefit the most from this incidental learning experience. Because he had background experience with the problem, he is interested in the solution and likely realizes that this new information will help him in the future. He is most likely to learn from this impromptu discussion. SA Nast glances up; but since she is trying to make sense out of the description of a maintenance procedure in a pub, she ignores the conversation. This person, while exposed to the same opportunity for learning, ignores it because it is not relevant to what she is doing. This is an example of the “hit or miss” nature of incidental learning. PO2 Perry, who is on the phone, sees Mixon explaining something to Hargrave and Koss. He tries to listen in, but it is hard to hear what Mixon is saying and carry on a phone conversation at the same time. This person’s attention is divided between the phone conversation and the troubleshooting discussion. There is a chance that he will misunderstand or miss an important part of what’s being said and learn something incorrect.

Review

Incidental learning is a large part of the learning that takes place in the workspace. It results from people trying to make sense of what they see, hear, and experience in light of the work they are doing.

However, incidental learning does have problems. Not everyone has the same learning experiences. Without planned, structured OJT, they may not learn critical job information. Moreover, people may learn the wrong thing. This can be especially dangerous if they learn unsafe working procedures.

Go to Activity 3-3 in your handbook. Remember that you must submit the completed activity to your trainer for signoff.

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Lesson Summary

Learning involves processing information and storing it so that it can be easily accessed when needed. In this lesson you learned how to:

Recognize and reduce barriers to learning and recall.

Examine and improve your own learning process.

Motivate others to learn.

Recognize the benefits and dangers of incidental learning.

In the lesson introduction, you read a scenario in which PO1 Halverson expressed concern about people’s receptiveness to more training on sexual harassment prevention.

Following an incident of sexual harassment aboard ship, the skipper directed every department to conduct training on sexual harassment prevention. When assigned to deliver the training, PO1 Halverson replied, “What am I going to say? They’ve all heard this stuff—over and over!” What advice would you give PO1 Halverson?

You were asked to record how you would advise him.

Now that you have completed the lesson, review your answer. Based on what you learned, would you change it? Compare your answer to the model response: PO1 Halverson correctly identified repetitious information as a barrier to learning. However, he could overcome this barrier by using the following strategies:

Gain trainees’ attention by relating the incident.

Motivate them by making the lesson relevant—for example, describing the impact of a sexual harassment charge on a person’s career.

Next Steps

Now that you know how people learn, will you approach a learning situation any differently?

When learning:

Practice the strategies for effective learning.

Identify any learning barriers and try to overcome them.

When training someone else:

Remember the four stages of information processing.

Plan ways to address each stage in order to facilitate learning and recall.

Practicing and encouraging active learning will help you become a far more effective workspace trainer.

Additional Resources

The following resources are available on the Apprentice Trainer Resources page:

How We Learn and Why We Sometimes Don’t

How To Learn More Effectively

How To Motivate Trainees To Learn

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Lesson 4: Effective Questioning

Introduction

Effective questioning is a critical skill for any trainer. It is one way to find out if your message was correctly understood. Even more important, it is a way to encourage trainees to think about the concept or procedure you are teaching.

In this lesson you will learn:

Why you use questions during OJT

The different types of oral questions

How to construct oral questions

How to use oral questions effectively

Objective

• How to use oral questions effectively Objective Before proceeding with this lesson, you should have

Before proceeding with this lesson, you should have a basic understanding of the following subjects:

Effective Communication

The Learning Experience

Scenario

Read the scenario and consider how you would answer the question that follows it.

consider how you would answer the question that follows it. Record your answer on a piece

Record your answer on a piece of paper. After you have finished all the topics in Effective Questioning, read the lesson summary to see how your answer compares to the one provided.

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Topic 4-1: Why Use Questions in OJT?

Introduction

You've been a student for a good part of your life—first in school and now in the military. You know that if you find yourself in a training situation, you can expect to have to answer questions. Have you ever considered why? What do questions do? How do they help in a training situation?

Take a moment and consider why you would use questions when conducting OJT.

After completing this topic, you will be able to describe the purpose of using questions during OJT.

Importance of Questions

As a workspace trainer, you have three major responsibilities when conducting OJT:

Find out how much trainees already know about the subject so that you can provide the proper explanation.

Ensure that trainees understand what you are teaching.

Ensure that trainees have learned what you taught them.

In this lesson, you'll learn that questions are a valuable tool in meeting these responsibilities

What Is a Question?

At the most basic level, a question is a means of requesting information.

Have you ever considered all the ways we ask questions? Workspace trainers will try to word a request in such a way that the trainee will clearly understand what is being asked. For instance, a workspace trainer may ask, "What is the recommended maintenance cycle for the radar motor assembly?"

However, a question can be as simple as an incomplete statement (Example: The four basic lifesaving

steps are….), which the trainee is expected to finish, or even a gesture. (Example: After failing to get an answer from one trainee, a trainer turns her palm up and looks to the other trainees, signaling that the question is now open to anyone who can provide the answer.) The main point is to be perfectly clear that

a question is being put forth and that an answer is expected.

Purposes for Using Questions During OJT

Keep trainee focused: Questions help keep the trainee focused and attentive during training. If trainees know that they will be asked questions, then they will be more likely to concentrate on the training being provided.

If you see that a trainee's attention has wandered, asking for an opinion or other input will help to draw the trainee back into the training.

Assess trainees’ readiness: Ask questions to find out the level of background knowledge and adjust instruction accordingly.

Link to previous knowledge: Linking what you are teaching to what trainees already know provides a contextual background that helps them process new information.

Ask a few questions at the beginning of the training session to stimulate trainee recall of background knowledge or related experiences.

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Organize instruction: Use questions to break up instruction into meaningful chunks of information. This helps the trainee see how the information is organized, which in turn promotes understanding.

Using questions in this way also provides trainees another opportunity to consciously process the information so that it can "sink in," or transfer to long-term memory.

Increase motivation: Sometimes a question can spark interest and act as a motivator to training.

Using questions to encourage trainees to participate will give them a sense of ownership in the lesson.

If you sense that trainees want to comment on a procedure or ask a question, asking for their input or question will diffuse any frustration.

Provide reinforcement: Questions concerning key points not only provide a way of restating them but also add emphasis, alerting the trainees to critical information that must be learned.

Check understanding/retention: When trainees are asked to recall specific information, their responses will act as feedback that indicates their understanding and retention of the training objectives.

Periodic questions during OJT help to identify misunderstandings. The workspace trainer can then adjust the instruction to the level of the trainees' understanding or provide related instruction to clarify the point.

Primary Purpose of Questions

The primary purpose of using questions during training is to stimulate the trainees to think about the information being presented.

Consider the stages of information processing that occur during learning. Questions help to gain and hold trainees' attention. By increasing motivation, they influence trainees to perceive the training in a more positive light. By helping students organize the information and link it to previously learned information, questions aid in the processing of the information in short-term memory so that it can be efficiently stored in long-term memory.

By encouraging trainees to actively process what you are teaching them, questions can significantly enhance the learning process.

Example

can significantly enhance the learning process. Example After introducing himself and the topic, Petty Offi cer

After introducing himself and the topic, Petty Officer Bishop asks, "Does anyone have any previous hydraulics training?"

Two of the five trainees raise their hands. When asked, one Sailor answers that he graduated from a civilian technical school for hydraulics and completed a year of work in the field before enlisting in the "

Navy. Nodding in approval, Bishop then asks the other trainee, "Your experience in this field is

trainee replies that she worked summer jobs with her uncle, who repairs hydraulic lifts. Upon hearing this

answer, another trainee raises his hand. Bishop acknowledges the trainee, who states that he, too, had worked as a helper to a hydraulic repairman.

The

These effective questions accomplished a great deal. The questions provided a means to assess the trainees' level of background knowledge. Petty Officer Bishop now knows that three of the five have had some direct experience. He also knows that two may need a little more explanation but that the individual who had formal training would be a very likely assistant.

Review

This topic focused on the use of questions during OJT. During training, questions may serve many purposes. However, the primary purpose of questioning is to stimulate trainees to think about the information being presented. By encouraging trainees to think about the training at hand, the use of questions will promote the learning process.

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Topic 4-2: Types of Oral Questions

Introduction

In an OJT environment, oral questions will be the most common type. Using the