# Noise

David Johns and Ken Martin University of Toronto (johns@eecg.toronto.edu) (martin@eecg.toronto.edu)

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© D. Johns, K. Martin, 1997

Interference Noise
• Unwanted interaction between circuit and outside world • May or may not be random • Examples: power supply noise, capacitive coupling Improvement by ... • Reduced by careful wiring or layout

• These notes do not deal with interference noise.

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Inherent Noise
• Random noise — can be reduced but NEVER eliminated • Examples: thermal, shot, and flicker Improvement by ... • Not strongly affected by wiring or layout • Reduced by proper circuit DESIGN.

• These notes discuss noise analysis and inherent noise sources.

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© D. Johns, K. Martin, 1997

Time-Domain Analysis
0.4 0.3

0.2

v n(t)
(volts)

0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

time (seconds)

• Assume all noise signals have zero mean

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RMS Value
1 2 V n ( rms ) ≡ -- ∫ v n(t)dt T
0 T 1⁄2

(1)

• T — suitable averaging time interval • Indicates normalized noise power. • If v n(t) applied to 1Ω resistor, average power dissipated, P diss ,
V n ( rms ) 2 P diss = ----------------- = V n ( rms ) 1Ω
2

(2)

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1997 . Martin.SNR signal power SNR ≡ 10 log -----------------------------noise power 2 (3) • If signal node has normalized signal power of V x ( rms ) . V x ( rms ) V x ( rms ) SNR = 10 log ----------------. SNR = 0dB .= 20 log ----------------2 V n ( rms ) V n ( rms ) 2 2 (4) • When mean-squared values of noise and signal are same. K. Johns. and noise power of V n ( rms ) . University of Toronto 6 of 55 © D.

all power levels referenced 1mW. 1997 . Martin. K. • With dBm. Johns.Units of dBm • Often useful to know signal’s power in dB on absolute scale. • 1mW signal corresponds to 0 dBm • 1 µW signal corresponds to -30dBm What if only voltage measured (not power)? • If voltage measured — reference level to equiv power dissipated if voltage applied to 50 Ω resistor • Also. can reference it to 75 Ω resistor University of Toronto 7 of 55 © D.

Martin.dBm Example • Find rms voltage of 0 dBm signal ( 50Ω reference) • What is level in dBm of a 2 volt rms signal? • 0 dBm signal (50 Ω reference) implies V ( rms ) = ( 50Ω ) × 1mW = 0. Johns.2236 (6) • Would dissipate 2 ⁄ 50 = 80 mW across a 50Ω resistor • 80 mW corresponds to 10 log ( 80 ) = 19 dBm University of Toronto 8 of 55 © D.0 20 × log  --------------. K. 1997 2 . = 19 dBm  0.2236 (5) • Thus. a 2 volt (rms) signal corresponds to 2.

∫ v n1(t)v n2(t)dt T 0 T University of Toronto 9 of 55 © D.∫ [ v n1(t) + v n2(t) ] dt T 2 V no ( rms ) = 2 V n1 ( rms ) + 2 V n2 ( rms ) + 2 -. Johns.Noise Summation v n1(t) v n2(t) + v no(t) - i no(t) i n1(t) i n2(t) Voltage v no(t) = v n1(t) + v n2(t) T 0 Current (7) (8) (9) 2 2 1 V no ( rms ) = -. K. Martin. 1997 .

Correlation • Last term relates correlation between two signals • Define correlation coefficient. K.∫ v n1(t)v n2(t)dt T 0 C ≡ -----------------------------------------V n1 ( rms ) V n2 ( rms ) V no ( rms ) = V n1 ( rms ) + V n2 ( rms ) + 2CV n1 ( rms ) V n2 ( rms ) 2 2 2 T (10) (11) • Correlation always satisfies – 1 ≤ C ≤ 1 • C = +1 — fully-correlated in-phase (0 degrees) • C = -1 — fully-correlated out-of-phase (180 degrees) • C = 0 — uncorrelated (90 degrees) University of Toronto 10 of 55 © D. 1 -. C . Johns. 1997 . Martin.

Martin. 1997 . K. mean-squared value of sum given by V no ( rms ) = V n1 ( rms ) + V n2 ( rms ) 2 2 2 (12) • Two rms values add as though they were vectors at right angles When fully correlated V no ( rms ) = ( V n1 ( rms ) ± V n2 ( rms ) ) 2 2 (13) • sign is determined by whether signals are in or out of phase • Here. rms values add linearly (aligned vectors) University of Toronto 11 of 55 © D. Johns.Uncorrelated Signals • In case of two uncorrelated signals.

K. 1997 .2µV . Martin. then V no ( rms ) = ( 10 + 5 ) = 125 2 2 2 (14) which results in V no ( rms ) = 11. reducing by 13%)! Important Moral • To reduce overall noise.Noise Summation Example • V n1 ( rms ) = 10µV . University of Toronto 12 of 55 © D. V n2 ( rms ) = 5µV . concentrate on large noise signals.e.7 µV (i. • Note that eliminating V n2 ( rms ) noise source same as reducing V n1 ( rms ) = 8. Johns.

Frequency-Domain Analysis • With deterministic signals. frequency-domain techniques are useful. Johns. K. 1997 . • Same true for dealing with random signals like noise. University of Toronto 13 of 55 © D. Martin. • This section presents frequency-domain techniques for dealing with noise (or random) signals.

1997 .1 1.10 Hz 1. University of Toronto 14 of 55 © D.6 µV 10 ---------Hz 3. K.Spectral Density V n(f) 1000 2 100 ( µV ) -------------.0 10 100 1000 2 V n(f) log ( f ) ( Hz ) 31.1 1. Johns.16 1. Martin. • Random signals have their power spread out over the frequency spectrum.0 0.0 0.0 10 100 log ( f ) ( Hz ) Spectral Density Root-Spectral Density • Periodic waveforms have their power at distinct frequencies.

e. Johns.Spectral Density V n(f) • Average normalized power over a 1 hertz bandwidth • Units are volts-squared/hertz Root-Spectral Density V n(f) • Square root of vertical axis (freq axis unchanged) • Units are volts/root-hertz (i. all power at positive frequencies) University of Toronto 15 of 55 © D. V ⁄ Hz ).e. Total Power V n ( rms ) = ∫ V n(f)df 0 2 ∞ 2 2 Spectral Density (15) • Above is a one-sided definition (i. K. 1997 . Martin.

1 1. Martin. 1997 . K.Root-Spectral Density Example 31.0 10 100 log ( f ) ( Hz ) • Around 100 Hz.1 = 1 µV University of Toronto 16 of 55 © D. measured rms 10 × 0.16 µV 1. V n(f) = 10 µV ⁄ Hz • If measurement used RBW = 30 Hz .1 Hz. measured rms 10 × 30 = 300 µV (16) (17) • If measurement used RBW = 0.6 10 V n(f) 3.0  ----------  Hz 0. Johns.

2 ---------Hz log f ( Hz ) • Noise signal is “white” if a constant spectral density V n(f) = V nw (18) where V nw is a constant value University of Toronto 17 of 55 © D. Martin. Johns.0 0.White Noise V n(f) µV  ----------  Hz 10 3. 1997 .2 1. K.0 10 100 1000 µV V n(f) = V nw = 3.1 1.

1/f Noise V n(f) µV  ---------- 10  Hz 3.+ ( 1 × 10 ) f –6 2 1/f noise dominates 10 2 white noise dominates 100 1000 2 log f V n(f) = k v ⁄ f (k v is a constant) (19) • In terms of root-spectral density V n(f) = k v ⁄ f (20) Falls off at -10 db/decade due to f • Also called flicker or pink noise. K. University of Toronto 18 of 55 © D. Martin.0 0.2 × 10 ) –6 2 ≈ ------------------------------. Johns.1 1.2 1. 1997 .0 – 10 dB/decade 1 ⁄ f noise corner 2 V n(f) ( 3.

• Total output mean-squared value is 2 V no ( rms ) ∞ = ∫ A(j2πf) 0 2 2 V ni(f)df (21) University of Toronto 19 of 55 © D. Johns. K. Martin.Filtered Noise V ni(f) 2 A(s) V no(f) = A(j2πf) V ni(f) V no(f) = A(j2πf) V ni(f) 2 2 2 • Output only a function of magnitude of transfer-function and not its phase • Can always apply an allpass filter without affecting noise performance. 1997 .

0 10 100 10 3 – 20 1.159µF A(j2πf) ( dB ) 0 1 A(s) = -------------------s 1 + ---------2πf o f o = 10 3 V no(f) nV  ----------  Hz 20 2 1. Johns. K.0 10 100 10 10 R = 1kΩ V ni(f) log f 1 f o = -------------2πRC V no(f) C = 0.Noise Example V ni(f) nV  ---------- 20  Hz 3 4 1. Martin.0 10 100 10 3 10 4 log f 10 4 log f University of Toronto 20 of 55 © D. 1997 .

Johns. Martin. K. 1997 .3 µV rms ) 2 7 2 2 (22) • Note: for this simple case. 20 × 10 V no(f) = ------------------------f  --.3 µV rms ) 2 (23) • For the filtered signal. V no(f) . 2 V ni ( rms ) = 20 nV ⁄ Hz × 100kHz = ( 6. 2 1+ f  o –9 (24) University of Toronto 21 of 55 © D.Noise Example • From dc to 100 kHz of input signal 2 V ni ( rms ) 10 0 5 = ∫ 20 df = 4 × 10 ( nV ) = ( 6.

79 µV rms ) 5 2 2 (25) • Noise rms value of V no(f) is almost 1 ⁄ 10 that of V ni(f) since high frequency noise above 1kHz was filtered.df = 20 f o atan  --.24 × 10 ( nV ) = ( 0. University of Toronto 22 of 55 © D. Johns. K. Martin. 1997 . f  2 f o  --. • Don’t design for larger bandwidths than required otherwise noise performance suffers. 0 1+ 0 f  o 10 5 2 10 5 = 6.Noise Example • Between dc and 100kHz 2 2 20 f V no ( rms ) = ∫ --------------------.

3 ∑ A i(j2πf) 2 2 V ni(f) (26) University of Toronto 23 of 55 © D. K.Sum of Filtered Noise V n1(f) A 1(s) A 2(s) A 3(s) V no(f) uncorrelated noise sources V n2(f) V n3(f) • If filter inputs are uncorrelated. Martin. filter outputs are also uncorrelated • Can show 2 V no(f) = i = 1. Johns. 2. 1997 .

Johns. 1997 . K.f o - π 2 University of Toronto 24 of 55 © D.f o 2 • Noise bandwidth of a 1’st-order filter is -.Noise Bandwidth • Equal to the frequency span of a brickwall filter having the same output noise rms value when white noise is applied to each Example A(j2πf) 0 ( dB ) – 20 fo -------100 fo ----10 – 20 dB/decade 0 ( dB ) – 20 A brick(j2πf) log f fo 10f o log f fo -------100 fo ----10 fo π f x = -. Martin.

• If spectral density is V nw volts/root-Hz and noise bandwidth is f x .Noise Bandwidth • Advantage — total output noise is easily calculated for white noise input. Martin. 1997 . then V no ( rms ) = V nw f x 2 2 (27) Example • A white noise input of 100 nV/ Hz applied to a 1’st order filter with 3 dB frequency of 1 MHz V no ( rms ) = 100 × 10 V no ( rms ) = 125 µV University of Toronto –9 6 π × -. K. Johns.× 10 2 (28) 25 of 55 © D.

1/f Noise Tangent Principle • Method to determine the frequency region(s) that contributes the dominant noise • Lower a 1/f noise line until it touches the spectral density curve • The total noise can be approximated by the noise in the vicinity of the 1/f line • Works because a curve proportional to 1 ⁄ x results in equal power over each decade of frequency University of Toronto 26 of 55 © D. 1997 . Martin. Johns. K.

Martin. 1997 . Johns. K.1/f Tangent Example V no(f) 200 1/f curve 20 2 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 Frequency (Hz) N1 N2 N3 N4 • Consider root-spectral noise density shown above University of Toronto 27 of 55 © D.

84 × 10 ( nV ) f 1 2 N2 10 4 100 (29) 10 3 = ∫ 20 df = 20 f 100 = 3. 2  ------. 1997 . 2 1 f 3 = ∫ --------------. 10 – ( 200 ) ( 10 ) = 5.33 × 10 ( nV )  3 3 3 2 3 10 3 ( 10 ) 10 10 2 200 200 = ∫ ------------------------.df = .df – ∫ 200 df f f  ------.1/f Tangent Example 2 N1 2 100 2 5 2 200 = ∫ ----------df = 200 ln ( f ) 1 = 1. Martin.df = ∫ ------------------------.88 × 10 ( nV )  2 University of Toronto ∞ 2 ∞ 2 10 4 (31) 2 N4 (32) 28 of 55 © D.6 × 10 ( nV ) 100 2 2 10 4 2 2 10 3 5 2 (30) 2 N3 8 2 20 f 20  ------. 2 41 + 01+ 0 10  5  5 10 10 2 π 5 2 4 9 2 = 200  -. K. Johns.-= 1.

University of Toronto 29 of 55 © D. Johns.5µV rms (33) (34) • But . N 4 = 76. K..1/f Tangent Example • The total output noise is estimated to be V no ( rms ) = 2 ( N1 2 N2 2 N3 2 1⁄2 N4 ) + + + = 77.7µV rms • Need only have found the noise in the vincinity where the 1/f tangent touches noise curve. then also sum that region. 1997 .. • Note: if noise curve is parallel to 1/f tangent for a wide range of frequencies. Martin.

Flicker Noise • Due to traps in semiconductors • Has a 1/f spectral density • Significant in MOS transistors at low frequencies. Johns. 1997 . Martin. University of Toronto 30 of 55 © D. K. • Appears as white spectral density Shot Noise • Due to dc bias current being pulses of carriers • Dependent of dc bias current and is white.Noise Models for Circuit Elements • Three main sources of noise: Thermal Noise • Due to thermal excitation of charge carriers.

× 4. K.Resistor Noise • Thermal noise — white spectral density R R (noiseless) 2 V R(f) = 4kTR R (noiseless) 2 4kT I R(f) = -------R element models – 23 –1 • k is Boltzmann’s constant = 1. 1997 University of Toronto .38 × 10 JK • T is the temperature in degrees Kelvin • Can also write V R(f) = R ----. Martin. Johns.06 nV ⁄ Hz 1k for 27°C (35) 31 of 55 © D.

1997 . Johns. Martin.6 × 10 C • I D is the dc bias current through the diode University of Toronto 32 of 55 © D.Diodes • Shot noise — white spectral density kT r d = -------qI D 2 (noiseless) V d(f) = 2kTr d (forward-biased) kT r d = -------qI D (noiseless) I d(f) = 2qI D 2 element models – 19 • q is one electronic charge = 1. K.

Martin. base flicker noise plus collector shot noise referred back University of Toronto 33 of 55 © D. 1997 . 2 f  β(f)  • V i(f) has base resistance thermal noise plus collector shot noise referred back • I i(f) has base shot noise. Johns. K.+ ------------.Bipolar Transistors • Shot noise of collector and base currents • Flicker noise due to base current • Thermal noise due to base resistance 2 V i (f) (noiseless) 2 1 V i (f) = 4kT  r b + ---------  2g  m (active-region) I i (f) 2 2 I i (f) element model IC  KI B  = 2q  I B + -------.

Martin. 1997 . K.MOSFETS • Flicker noise at gate • Thermal noise in channel V g(f) 2 2 I d(f) (active-region) 2 K V g(f) = ------------------WLC ox f 2 I d(f)  2 g = 4kT -.m  3 element model University of Toronto 34 of 55 © D. Johns.

varies widely. • 1/f noise is extremely important in MOSFET circuits as it can dominate at low-frequencies • Typically p-channel transistors have less noise since holes are less likely to be trapped.MOSFET Flicker (1/f) Noise 2 K V g(f) = ------------------WLC ox f (36) • K dependent on device characteristics. University of Toronto 35 of 55 © D. Johns. K. WL . 1997 . Martin. • W & L — Transistor’s width and length • C ox — gate-capacitance/unit area • Flicker noise is inversely proportional to the transistor area.

K. 1997 .MOSFET Thermal Noise • Due to resistive nature of channel • In triode region. channel is not homogeneous and total noise is found by integration 2 2 I d(f) = 4kT  -- g m  3 2 (37) for the case V DS = V GS – V T University of Toronto 36 of 55 © D. Martin. noise would be I d(f) = ( 4kT ) ⁄ r ds where r ds is the channel resistance • In active region. Johns.

+ ------------------. Martin. gate current can be appreciable due to capacitive coupling. 1997 . University of Toronto 37 of 55 © D. Johns. 3 g m WLC ox f model • Can lump thermal noise plus flicker noise as an input voltage noise source at low to moderate frequencies.Low-Moderate Frequency MOSFET Model V i (f) (noiseless) 2 (active-region) element 2 2 1 K V i (f) = 4kT  -- ----. K. • At high frequencies.

Martin. I n-(f). 1997 . I n+(f) — values depend on opamp — typically. Johns. element model • Modelled as 3 uncorrelated input-referred noise sources. K. • Current sources often ignored in MOSFET opamps University of Toronto 38 of 55 © D.Opamps I n-(f) 2 (noiseless) 2 V n(f) 2 I n+(f) V n(f). all uncorrelated.

Johns. 1997 .Why 3 Noise Sources? 2 V no(f) 2 V n(f) ignored ⇒ V no Actual V 2 = V 2 no n = 0 R V no(f) 2 I n-(f) ignored 2 2 ⇒ V no 2 = 2 Vn 2 Actual V no = V n + ( I n. K.R ) I n+(f) ignored Actual V no = 2 R V no(f) 2 2 2 ⇒ V no = V n 2 2 V n + ( I n+ R ) University of Toronto 39 of 55 © D. Martin.

. K. Martin. • Capacitor noise mean-squared value equals kT ⁄ C when connected to an arbitrary resistor value. 1997 . R R C 1 f 0 = -------------2πRC V R(f) = 4kTR V no(f) C • Noise bandwidth equals ( π ⁄ 2 )f o 2 2 π π 1 V no ( rms ) = V R(f)  -. f o = ( 4kTR )  -..Capacitors • Capacitors and inductors do not generate any noise but . they accumulate noise.  --------------  2  2  2πRC 2 kT V no ( rms ) = ----C University of Toronto (38) 40 of 55 © D. Johns.

University of Toronto 41 of 55 © D. what capacitor size is needed to have 96dB dynamic range with 1 V rms signal levels. Johns. K. Martin.8 µV rms 96 ⁄ 20 10 (39) • Therefore kT C = ---------------.= 15.Capacitor Noise Example • At 300 °K . 1997 . • Noise allowed: 1V V n ( rms ) = -----------------.= 16.6pF 2 V n(rms) (40) • This min capacitor size determines max resistance size to achieve a given time-constant.

• Sample. say 1000 times.Sampled Signal Noise • Consider basic sample-and-hold circuit φ clk v in C v out • • When φ clk goes low. • Does not depend on sampling rate and is independent from sample to sample. University of Toronto 42 of 55 © D. K. Johns. and average results. • Can use “oversampling” to reduce effective noise. noise as well as signal is held on C . — an rms noise voltage of kT ⁄ C . Martin. 1997 .

Johns. K.causing V no1(f) 2 V no1(f) 2 = 2 ( I n1(f) + 2 I nf(f) + 2 I n-(f) ) 2 Rf -----------------------------1 + j2πfR f C f (41) University of Toronto 43 of 55 © D.Opamp Example R1 Cf Rf Cf I n1 I nf I nRf Vi Vo R2 R1 V n2 R2 V no(f) Vn I n+ circuit equivalent noise circuit • Use superposition — noise sources uncorrelated • Consider I n1. Martin. 1997 . I nf and I n.

K. Johns. Martin. gain falls to unity until opamp f t .Opamp Example • Consider I n+. 1997 . • If R f » R 1 . Total noise: V no(rms) = V no1(rms) + V no2(rms) 2 2 2 (43) University of Toronto 44 of 55 © D. low freq gain ≅ R f ⁄ R 1 and f 3dB = 1 ⁄ ( 2πR f C f ) similar to noise at negative input — however. V n2 and V n causing V no2(f) 2 V no2(f) 2 2 Rf ⁄ R1 1 + -----------------------------1 + j2πfC f R f = 2 2 ( I n+(f)R 2 + 2 V n2(f) + 2 V n(f) ) (42) • If R f « R 1 then gain ≅ 1 for all freq and ideal opamp would result in infinite noise — practical opamp will lowpass filter noise at opamp f t .

K. Johns. R 1 = 10k .406 pA ⁄ Hz I n1 = 1.Numerical Example • Estimate total output noise rms value for a 10kHz lowpass filter when C f = 160pF . R f = 100k . I nf = 0. and R 2 = 9. • Assuming room temperature.1k . Martin. I n(f) = 0.6 pA ⁄ Hz opamp’s f t = 5 MHz . 1997 .2 nV ⁄ Hz (44) (45) (46) University of Toronto 45 of 55 © D. • Assume V n(f) = 20 nV ⁄ Hz .28 pA ⁄ Hz V n2 = 12.

4 µV ) 2 (48) University of Toronto 46 of 55 © D. 2 V no1(rms) π⁄2 = ( 147 nV ⁄ Hz ) × ------------------------------------------------2π ( 100kΩ ) ( 160pF ) 2 = ( 18.Numerical Example • The low freq value of V no1(f) is found by f = 0 . Johns. Martin. in (41). K.406 + 1. 1997 .28 + 0. V no1(0) = ( I n1(0) + I nf(0) + I n-(0) )R f 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 = ( 0.6 ) ( 1 × 10 ) ( 100k ) = ( 147 nV ⁄ Hz ) 2 (47) • Since (41) indicates noise is first-order lowpass filtered.

Numerical Example • For 2 V no2(0) 2 2 2 2 2 2 V no2(0) = ( I n+(f)R 2 + V n2(f) + V n(f) ) ( 1 + R f ⁄ R 1 ) = ( 24.6 µV ) University of Toronto 2 (50) 47 of 55 © D. 1997 .( f t – f 1 )  2πR C   2 f f –9 2  = ( 74. Martin.1 × 10 ) -.+ ( 24. we have 2 V no2(rms) – 9 2  π π⁄2  = ( 265 × 10 ) ----------------.1 nV ⁄ Hz ) × 11 = ( 265 nV ⁄ Hz ) 2 2 2 (49) • Noise is lowpass filtered at f o until f 1 = ( R f ⁄ R 1 )f o where the noise gain reaches unity until f t = 5MHz • Breaking noise into two portions. K. Johns.

University of Toronto 48 of 55 © D.Numerical Example • Total output noise is estimated to be V no(rms) = 2 V no1(rms) + 2 V no2(rms) = 77 µV rms (51) • Note: major noise source is opamp’s voltage noise. • Note: R 2 contributes to output noise with its thermal noise AND amplifying opamp’s positive noise current. Martin. • If dc offset can be tolerated. 1997 . Johns. it should be eliminated in a low-noise circuit. K. • To reduce total output noise — use a lower speed opamp — choose an opamp with a lower voltage noise.

1997 .CMOS Example • Look at noise in input stage of 2-stage CMOS opamp V n5 V dd Q5 V n2 V bias V n1 V in+ Q3 Q1 V n3 Q2 V n4 Q4 V inV no (output) V ss • Equivalent voltage noise sources used since example addresses low-moderate frequency. K. Johns. Martin. University of Toronto 49 of 55 © D.

= g m1 R o V n1 V n2 (52) where R o is the output impedance seen at V no . University of Toronto 50 of 55 © D. V no V no -------. 1997 . Martin. Johns.= -------.= -----------2g m3 V n5 (53) (54) • Found by noting that V n5 modulates bias current and drain of Q 2 tracks that of Q 1 due to symmetry — this gain is small (compared to others) and is ignored.= -------.= g m3 R o V n3 V n4 g m5 V no -------.CMOS Example V no V no -------. K.

 +  16 kT  -------.CMOS Example V no(f) = 2 ( g m1 R o ) V n1(f) + 2 ( g m3 R o ) V n3(f) 2 2 2 2 2 (55) • Find equiv input noise by dividing by g m1 R o  g m3 2 2 2 V neq(f) = 2V n1(f) + 2V n3(f)  -------. subsitute 2 2 1 V ni(f) = 4kT  --  ------. 1997 .  g m1 2 (56) Thermal Noise Portion • For white noise portion. Martin. Johns. K. - ----V neq(f) = ---- 3  g   3  g  g   m1 m1 m1 University of Toronto (58) 51 of 55 © D.  3  g  mi (57) g m3 1 1  16 kT  -------.  -------.

g mi = 2 V ni(f) W 2µ i C ox  ---- I Di  Li +  ( W ⁄ L ) 3 µ n 2 2V n3(f)  ------------------------. ( W ⁄ L ) 1 µ p  (59) (60) = 2 2V n1(f) University of Toronto 52 of 55 © D. K. 1/f Noise Portion • We make the following substitution into (56). g m1 should be made as large as possible to minimize thermal noise contribution. 1997 .CMOS Example • Assuming g m3 ⁄ g m1 is near unity. Johns. near equal contribution of noise from the two pairs of transistors which is inversely proportional to g m1 . Martin. • In other words.

while second term is due to the n-channel loads University of Toronto 53 of 55 © D. letting each of the noise sources have a spectral density 2 V ni(f) Ki = ---------------------W i L i C ox f (61) we have 2 V ni(f)  µ n  K 3 L 1   2  K1 = ---------.+  -----  -------------  2 C ox f  W 1 L 1  µ p  W L   1 3 (62) • Recall first term is due to p-channel input transistors. K. Martin. Johns. 1997 . ------------.CMOS Example • Now.

K. University of Toronto 54 of 55 © D.e. the noise of the n-channel loads dominate since µ n > µ p and typically n-channel transistors have larger 1/f noise than p-channels (i. Johns. K 3 > K 1 ). 1997 .CMOS Example Some points for low 1/f noise • For L 1 = L 3 . Martin. • Taking L 3 longer greatly helps due to the inverse squared relationship — this will limit the signal swings somewhat • The input noise is independent of W 3 and therefore one can make it large to maximize signal swing at the output.

University of Toronto 55 of 55 © D. K. • Taking L 1 longer increases the noise due to the second term being dominant. Martin.CMOS Example Some points for low 1/f noise • Taking W 1 wider also helps to minimize 1/f noise (recall it helps white noise as well). 1997 . Johns.