TRENCH

l\fAJOR

WARFARE
By

J AS. A. l\10SS

u.

S.

ARMY

Being a practical manual for the training and instruction of officers and men in TRENCH WARFARE, based on the latest information from the battle fronts of Europe, and including the attack and defense of trenches, the construction of trenches and obstacles, mining and countermining, bayonet fighting, the use of grenades and bombs, liquid fire, asphyxiating gases, machine guns, gas masks, steel helmets, periscopes, etc.

Price, $1.25 Postpaid

GEO. BANTA

PUBLISHING
PUBLISHERS

COl\fPANY

:MENASIIA, WISCONSIN

, I

,.

Cop)'riyht 1917 by las. A. Moss

DISTRIBUTERS
UNITEI"' STATES: BOSTOS,l\l.\ss. The Harding Uniform and Regalia Co., 22 School St. CHICAGO,ILL. E. A. Armstrong M'fg. Co., 434-440 Wabash COLUMBUS, HIO. The 1\1 C. Lilley & Co. O FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANS. U. S.. Cavalry Association. Book pepartment, Army Service Schools. FORTMOSROE,VA. Journal U. S. Artillery. KALAMAZOO, MICH. Henderson-Ames Co. l\lESAS'HA, \VIS .. Geo. B~nta Publishing Co.
NEW YORK.

Ave. '

Edwin N. Appleton, I Broadway. Army and Navy Co-operative Co., 16 East 42n St. ' Henry Malkan, 42 Broadway. Ridabock and Co., 149 .\Vest 36th St. \Varnock Uniform Co., 16 \Vest 46th St. PHILADELPHIA,PA.. Jacob Reed's Sons, 1424, Chestnut. SAN fRANCISCO,CALIF. n. Pasquale Co., lIS-tI7 Post St., \Vestern Distribute2. \VASllISGTON, D. C. Army and !';avy Register, SII Eleventh St., N. \"1. Meyer's l\Jilitary Shops, 1331 F St., N. W. U. S. Infantry Association, Uniop Trust Bldg. PHILl PPI~E HA \VAIIAN CANAL ISLANDS: ISLANDS: Philippine Patton Education Co., lVIanila, P. 1. H. ~.

Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Empire, C. Z.

ZO~E:

Post Exchange,

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to make acknowledgment of the assistance received in the preparation of this book from Captain Townsend vVhelen, 29th U. S. Infantry, who has embodied herein, amongst other things, the result of his visit to a certain mobilization camp of one of the Allies, where he made a careful study of the system of training and instruction at that place, and wl~ich is conducted under the supervision of officers and nonconimissioned officers \vho have been returned for the purpose from the Lattle fronts.

.j

1

PREFATORY
the exception of Chapter I, "TACTICAL FORTU"ICAthis boo~ is based on the latest private and official British publications giving the best methods, as taught by experience on the battle ,fronts of Europe, of training an,d instructing officers and men in trench warfare.
nONS,"

\Vith

INDEX
(The numbers refer to paragraphs.) Par. Construction of trenches: At night Details of ••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • General remarks............... Cooking in trenches ••••••••••••• Counter-mining ••••••••••••••••• Cover trenches defined. •• •••••• ••• No. 115 36 25 107 217 18

A
,Abatis ~.a~. Aeroplanes •••••••••••••••••••••. 120 Assignment of sectors............ 12 Assignment of tasks in construction Attack o~/~~~~~h:s:............... 25 Action of the reserves •••••••••• 233 Attackers to keep in open...... 227 Cohesion of the attack......... 228 Consolidating the position ••••••• 234 Equipment; ••••••••••••••.••••• 220 First line •••••••••••••••••••••• 224 First wave 225 Form' of infantry attack .•••••• 223 General principles of attack..... 221 IIolding on ••••••••••••••••••• 230 k~i~a~ft~h~ ~~J~ida~~lll:~rd'i~~: :: ~~~ Second wave ••••••••••••••••• 226 The charge • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 229

~3

.n
Defensive line, locating........... 10 Defilading ••••••••••••••••••••••• 39 Demolished fortifications, intrench. ing in ••• •••••• •••••• ••••• 8 Density of d~fensive line... •••••• • 13 Discontinuity of line .•••••••••••• 14 Drainage of trenches ••••••••• '. •• •• 78 Dressing stations •••••••••••••••• 51 Dug-outs • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 46 Dummy grenades: 14<: Hand Rifle ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 140 Dummy trenches •••••••••••••••• 18
i J

B
Bayonet' fighting: " ' Attack not to be directed at chest 178 Butt •••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 183 Importance ••••••••••••••••.•• 176 Instruction 177; 186; 187 . Jab 00 • 00 00 • .. ... 182 Melee on parapet............. 179 Position of feet ••••••••••••••• 180 Position of rifle in charge •••••• 188 Short point ••••••••••••••••••• 181 Tripping adversary •••••••••••• 184 UltlJllate aim of training....... 189 B' Wi~hdrawing bayonet from body. 185 IlIetlng ••••••••.••.••••••••••. 86-91 Billets, training while in •••••••••• 219 Board revetments ••••••••••••••• 62 Bnomb proofs •••••••••••.•••••••• 46 )ombs, action by sentinel when Bomb s:h:~~e;~'::::::::::::::::: Box loophole •••••••••••••••• Brush work 132 (g) 65; 68; 71

E
Enemy, how to make appear ••••••• Enemy, when outside of his shelter Equipment of troops: For attack ••••••••••••••••••••• In trenches ••••••••••••••••••• 112 109 220 92

F
Fascines •••••••••••••••••••••••• Field fortifications, defined....... Field glasses, observing enemy's trench ....... 00 ... 00 • 00 ... Fire trenches defined •••••••••••••• First line of attackers ••••••••••••• First wave •••••••••••••••••••••• 66 3 1t 1 18 224 225

~n
118

G
Gabions 72-75 Gas helmets 166-169 Gas warfare: Absorbent liquid ••••••••••••••• 174 Alarm, giving ••••••••••••••••• 165 Cylinder method 161 Defense 163 Emanation method •••••••••••• 159 IIelmets 00166-169 ' I mprovised protective measures.. 171 Indications of attack ••••••••••• 164 Knapsack sprayers •••••••••••• 172 Respirators ... 00 .. ' ......... ; 00 170 Shell and grenade method...... 162 Tube method •••••••••••••••.•• 160 Use of gases 157

c
Cantonments, training while in •••• Care of rifles ••••••••••••••••••• Catapults ••••••••••••••••••••••• Char~e, the ••..•••.•••••••••••• Classdlcation of fortifications •••••• Classification of trenches •••••••••• Communicating trenches: , Defined ••••••••••••••••••••••• Use and construction •••••••••••• Concealment of parapet •••••••••• Concealment of trenches •••••••••• 219 214
229

3 18 18 52 9

I,

35

[7]

Par. No. General reserve ••••••••••••••• 18; 21 Getting enemy out of trench ••••••• 112 Going into trenches.............. 92 Grenades: Dummy hand grenades •••••••••• 145 Dummy rifle grenades .••••••••• 140 Extemporized grenades ••• , ••••• 147 Hand grenade. U. S ..... 142-144; 146 Kinds •••••••••••••••••••••••• 124 Precautions 141 Rifle grenade 135; 139 Grenadiers: Bombing trenches in bayonet attack •••••••••••••••••••• 153

r~u~~~':~:e .::::::::::::::::::: U~
Method of advance in trenches •• 152 Method of clearing trench •.•• , •• 156 Precautions 141 He'luisites ••••••••••••••••••••• 148 Storming parties •••••••••••••• 151 Training 149 Trencb raids ••••••••••••••••• 154

'Par. No. Leaving trenches •••••••••••••••• 92 Length of sectors of defensive line 13 'Liquid fire •••••••••••••••••••..• 175 58; 105 Listening posts ••••••••••••••. Local reserves •••••.••••••••••• 18; 20 Locating defensive line ••••••••••••. 10 Locating trenches ••••••••••••••• 11 Location of trace................ 24 Lookout posts. sentinels in ••••••• 105 Lookouts •••••••• '. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 58 Loopholes: Construction 55; 132 Detined 54 Use by snipers 131

.

M
Machine gun company going into trench ••••••• u. . . . . . . . . ... 98 Machine ~uns: AmmUllltion supply ••••••• ; •••• 209 Attack ••••••••••••••••••••• 204.206 Economy of men ••••••••••••••• 191 Enplacements ••••••••••••••• 194-200 190 Importance Instruction ••..••••••••••••••• 210 Location in defense •••••••••••• 193 Necessary information ••••••••• 201 Proper targets •••••••••••••••• 202 Hate of tire 203 Transportation •••••••• '•••••••• 204 Use in villages .•••••.••••.•••• 207 Making enemy expose himself. ••• 112 1Iining ,216; 217 ,Musketry training •••••••••••••• 218

H
Hand grenades: Dummy 14; U. S. design 142-144 Hard ground. intrenching in...... 32 Hasty intrenchments: By whom constructed........... 5 Construction not under fire..... 6 Construction under tire......... 7 Detined •• •• •••• • •• ••• •• . . •• •• 3 Head cover 53; 56; 57 Ileavy guns, penetration of....... 47 Helmets: Gas (or smoke) 166-169 Steel 213 Howitzers. penetration of......... 47 How to make enemy appear •••.••• 112 11urdles •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 69

N
Night construction of trenches •••• Night work in trenches .•••••••••• Nomenclature of the trench...... Notches, construction ••••••••••• 115 103 4 55'

I
108 J nitiative in trench warfare •••••• I nspections in trenches ••••••••.•• 117 I ntervals between supporting points 16 Intrenc_hin~ in demoli:.hed forti8 ficatIOns •••••••••••••••••• Intrenching tools, larg~ . 29

o
Ohstacles ••••••••••••••••••••••• Organization of a position........ 79 22

p
Paradas •••••••••••••••••••••••• Parapet, concealment, etc......... Parapet ot trench................ Pack intrenching tools •••••••••• 1. Patrolling .•..•••.••..•.•••••.•• ,' Penetration of various guns.. • • •.• Periscopes 11 0; }'latoon commander. questions he should ask himself.......... Profile of trench .••..••.••••••••• Protection from shelling .••••••••• Prototype of modern trench. • • • • • • 41 9 38
29

J
Jab, the 182

K
Kinds of trenches............... Knapsack sprayers •••••••••••••• Knife.rest entanglement ••••••••• 18 172 84

116 47 133 122 36 114 .2

L
Large intrenching tools........ Latrines •••••••••••••••••••••••• •• • 29 SO' Questions platoon should ask

Q
c,ommander llllllself ••••••••• 122

[8]

R
aiding parties' 116 RRate of excavating trenches. • •• ••. 28 ecesses in walls of trenches.. .• • • 42 RRegimental commander, duties.... 95 elicfs, placing on construction of trenches •..••••••••••.•••• 31 Relieving troops in trenches...... 92 Reserves ••.••••••••.•..••.•••• 18: 19 J{eserves, action in attack of ' R trenches •••.•••••••.•••••• 233 Respirators 170 evetments 61-77 R iRe grenades: Dummy 140 RService 135: 139 iRes, care of................... 118 Rifle training I 218 ~oofing materials, resistance of... 47 R~~~:~~ t~~nt:htd~\i:;: :::: ::: ::: ::

Par. No. ,Par. No.
Sign boards in trenches.. Snipers •..•..•••••••••••...•• ••• ••. •. . 59 124-133

R . "

~~t~:v~~~~~~s':':::: :':::::::::: 1~~ Sortie steps ••••••••••••.•••....• 43
' •••••••••••• Specialists •.•••••••• Sprayers Steel helmets ...••.••.•••.••••••• Strategical fortifications defined. Supervision of construction of trenches •.•.•••••...•••.•• Supervision trench. . • • . . • . • . . . . Supplies., brin~ing up to trenches Supportmg pomts ••..•.••.••.•.• Supporting points back of fire trenches ..•...•........••. Supports, battalion ••••••.••••• -102 172 213 •• • 3 33 . . • 44 .• 119 15-16 60 18; 19

T
Tactical fortifications •••••••••••• laking over .trenches........... .• I arget practice •••••••.•••.•••.• Tasks, assignment, in construction , of trenches ••••.••••••••••• The charge ..••••.••.••••••••••• The jab •.••••••••••••••• , • • • . ••• Tools, taking of................. Trace, location of................ Training in billets and cantonments Traverses ....•..••.••••••••••••• Trench duties, routine •••••••••••• Trenches: Construction not under fire..... Construction under fire......... Trench mortars •••••.••.••••••.. Trench runners .••. Trench system illustrated.........
t ••••••• " •• • •

1~~

;S"

s
and "T" trenches........... for 11 121 104 105 85 114 113 49 48
(f)

2 92 218 25 229 182 30 24 219 40 101 6 7 215 97 4

45 2~~

S:~~ja~a~~v~~I~~~.t~::::::::::::: Sectors of line, assignment

Selecti~~g~fizd~}~~si;~ Selection of }Josition of trenches. •• Sentinel, actIOn when sees bomb .•• Sentinels inFire -trenches •..••.••••.•••••• Listening and lookout posts..... Service of the trenches........... Shelling: Protection from •••••••••••• ~•• Snbjected to •••••••••••••••••• . Shelter in support trenches....... Shelters ..•....•.•.•..•••••••. 46; Shingle loophole •.••••••••••. 132 Short point ...•••.••••..•..••.•. ~!trapnel bullets, penetration...... Signallers' 96; 211:

'Ii~~:::: ~~ :.:::

w/
"'Vaves" •....•...•••.••.•••. \Vire entanglements ••.•..... \\Tire revetment •......•..•...••• \Vorking parties, construction trenches •..•............•• 225; 226 80-82: 84 76 of 2~
oJ

181 47 212

/

.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE SETTING. A number 6f drawings and pictures giving a sort of bird'seye view of what one sees to-day on the vVestern battle front , of Europe. _ CHAPTER1. Tactical fortifications. The prototype of the modern trench-Classification of trenchesNomenclature-HASTY INTRENCHMENTS:' Con.struction not under fire-Construction under fire -Intrenching in demolished fortifications-FIELD FORTIFICATIONS: Selection of defensive line -Location of trenches-Assignment of sectors-Length of sectors; density' of line-Discontinuity of lirreSupporting points-Intervals between supporting points-Size of supporting-point garrisons-Division of troops and classification of trenches-Supports-Local reserves-General reserve-Organization of the position-Execution of the workLocation of trace-Working partiesReliefs of working parties-Rate of excavation-Large entrenching tools-Taking tools-Placing a relief on the work-Intrenching in hard ground-Supervision-Expediting the work-Concealment-The trench-The parapet-To defilade a field work-Traverses - Parados- Recesses- Sorties stepsSupervision trench-uS" and "T" trenchesShelters, dug-outs and bomb proofs-Effective resistance of roofing materials-General rules for shelters- Latrines- Dressing stations-Communicating trenches-Head cover-Loopholes-Types of notches and loopholes-Advantages of head cover-Disadvantages of head cover-Listening posts and lookouts - Signboards - Supporting points in rear of trenches-Revetments-Brush - Gabions - 1Iiscellawork-Fascines-Hurdles neous revetments-Obstacles-\Vire entanglement. -Abatis-Kni fe-rest entanglement. .....•..•...•...
[II]
Par. No.

.

2-84-

Par. CHAPTER

No.

II. The service of the trenches. Routine of duty-Billeting areas-Billeting parties-Discipline in billets-Sanitation in billets-Precau~' {ions in billets-Equipment of troops in trenchesTime of relief-The regimental commander-SignaIlers-Trench runners-Machine gun companyCompany reliefs-Information which an incoming company officer should obtain from the outgoing officer-Control of command-Specialists' work• Da:, and night work-Sentinels in ,fire trenchesSentinels in listening and lookout posts-Rest in trenches-Smoke and cooking-Initiative-Viewing the enemy's trenches-Observation through field glasses-How to make enemy appear so that damage may be done him-Shelling-How to protect one's self from shells-Trench construction at night-Patrols and raiding parties-Inspections -Care of rifles-Aeroplanes-Bombs-Questions a platoon commander should ask himself when .in command of a section of a treach 85-122 III. Sniping. - Sniping defined-SnipersHow equipped.-\Vhat it is possible to hit-Keeping rifle sighted in-Duties-Co-operation between snipers and rest of company-Firing points-Loopholes-Types of loopholes-Observation

CHAPTER

123-133

CHAPTER

IV. Grenades and grenadiers. Grenades defined and classified-Babbitt rifle grenadeSetting for range-Loading and aiming-Action on firing-Instructions for use of rifle-GrenadeDummy rifle grenade-Precautions with rifle grenades-Action of hand grenades-Dummy hand grenades-Other hand grenades-Extemporized ignition grenades-Requisites for grenadiersTraining-Equipment of grenadiers-Grenadier storming parties-1iethod of advance in trenchesBombing trenches in a bayonet attack-Trench raids-Grenadiers in defense-Method of clearing 134- 156 a trench .•..................................
[12]

. ~

.1

..
, CHAPTER Gas warfare. Use of gases - The ' attack-Emanation method-Tube method-Cylinder method-Shell and grenade method-The defense-Indications of gas attack-Alarm-Gas (or smoke) helmets-Direction for care of helmet- Respirators- Knapsack sprayers-Absorbent liquid-Liquid fire ~ 157-175 CHAPTER VI. Bayonet fighting. Importance of .. bayonet fighting-Bayonet instruction-Attack not to be directed against chest-1felee on parapetPosition of feet-The short point-The Jab-The butt-Tripping adversary-\Vithdrawing bayonet from body-Steps in training-Bayonet combat in groups-Po/sition of rifle in charging-Ultimate aim of training ~ 176-189 CHAPTERVII. Machine guns. Importance-Economy of men-Technical handling of machine gunsLocation in defense-Machine gun emplacements.Choosing the site - Concealment - Alternative positions-Open emplacements-By whom emplacements are made-Design of emplacementsAccessories to emplacements-Proper. targetsRate of fire-How transported-Position and rate in attack-Use in villages-Machine guns in position-Ammunition supply-Instruction 190-210 CHAPTER VIII. Miscellaneous. Signallers-Steel helmets - Bomb throwers - Trench mortars Mining-Counter measures in mining-1fusketry training-Training in billets and cantonments ..... 211 -2 19 CHAPTER IX. The Attack. Equipment for attack, General principles of attack-Preparation by the artillery-The first line-The first wave-The second wave-Attackers to keep in the openCohesion of the attack-The charge-Holding onThe first and second line trenches having been taken-The second line-Action of the reservesConsolidating- the position-The role of the iIldividual soldier 220-235 QUESTIONS. A complete set of questions on every chapter.
[13]

'

V:

Par.

No.

.

THE SETTING
1. In order to be able better to understand the part that units and individuals, as components of the whole, play, in limited sections of front, in modern trench warfare as exemplified on the battle fronts of Europe, one must get a general grasp--a mental picture, a sort of bird's-eye viewof trench situation as a whole, incltiding what there is in, before, behind, and above the trenches. Such a picture, such a grasp of the situation, will create the ' proper "trench atmosphere," or "setting" for the training and instruction of units and individuals. \Vith this object in view, the following illustrations and explanations are, by kind permission of Doubleday'; Page & Co., reproduced from The \Vorld's \Vork for April, 1917: I

2ODDD!eet.

000 feet

THE AIR-ZONES OF From the ground up to 6.000 feet is the zone in ..... ich the heavy aircraft usually operate. h They are used for artillery observation, for photographic work, \ and for bomb dropping. In this area also are the I captive balloons which direct the fire of the heavy artillery. (See map on page 18) Between 6,000 and 1.1,000 feet is the zone of the

A MODERN BATTLE battle-planes that strul\81e for the mastery of their zone, which will give them an opp<Jrtunity to attack or protect the slower machines and balloons below them. The improvement in machines during the last year has made possible a still higher zone in which what might be called destroyer-planes operate 50 as to have an advantage of position from which to attack.

[IS]

A MODERN
A typiul section of trench line of about six miles showing (A) enemy first line. (8) first line, and the lupponinll and communication trenches behind, with the disposition 'and numbers of the troops in the first line. in support. and in reserve. A section of front held by one battalion'(.,ooo men) may be from 2S0 to 1.000 yards 101110 more than half a mile. Half or the battalion is in the first line aold the other half in support in the other trenches. Behind these are an equal number of reserves at brigade headquarters.

BATTLE FRONT
and still further back another force equal to all these to alternate with them. for each man in the first fir" ing line, there are seven others in reserve, not count. in~ artillerymen, medical. men, etc. . . fhe contour lines, shOWing the ground elevatIon In metres (}.28 feet), are important, as they show the reason for the location of batteries, trenches. hospitals etc on this and on maps on succeeding/ages Paraliel li~es Indicate roadways, heavy ctosse line~ are railroads, and shaded sections are woods.

[16]

Copyri,ht

by Amtrican

Press

Asaoci&liOD

A MOOERN
Showin~ an attack. on the opposite page,:lre of Ihe pict ure

BATTLE FRONT

The men in the foreground leaving their trench. corresponding to "B" on the map charging toward [he trench line, corresponding to .. t\," visible in the background

AN

ATTACK-<:ROSSING

"NO

MAN'S

LAND"

What

the french lines look like in a chalk courllry. The troops are Icaving trench" corresponding to" on the map and attacking" A." The supponinJ and communication trenches show plainly

a"

.1

j

I
ARTILLERY POSITIONS AND The light bauerle!. marked A," con,i,ting of 3-lnch field guns (IS-pounder gun' and 7s-millimetre suns) and howilZers up to 4 S inch~. and the medium batteries, marked .. D," of field Iluns up to 4.S inch~ calibre (Ios-millimetre field guns. 6o-pounders. and I H-millimetre howitzen) have their fire directed from ~rvation starions (marked "Obs. sta.") and regula red by airplane observers. The hf'avy batteri~ are usually directed by balloon ob~rvation and reguH

1

OBSERVATION STATIONS Iated by airplane oh~rvation. The batteri~ are u,ually placed hehind the crest of a hill or under cover of woods and huildings and as often as possible where they can enfilade a part of the enemy's trench, as shown by the second" D" battery from the right which has the railroad crossing and enemy's trench wirhin range. fnfilading fire is more accurare rhan fronral fire, for rhe lareral error of arrillery is from one rhird to one seventh as great as the range error

[ 18]

AN OBSERVATION The balloons

BAllOON

LANDING In practice they arc

on the map on the opposite page are about two miles from Ihe firing line. pushed up as far lorward as the control 01 the air will allow

A HEAVY

b-INCH

GUN

The fire of Ihe heavy Runs is chieny directed by balloon observation. The usual posirion of the guns is Irom three to six mil,'s lrom the enemy first line (see "C .. ' on map on facing page). Their dury is to bombard and d,'stroy support in/! points. communications, dugouts and trenches, and headquarters il il can be Jocared. 1 h. drrctivt' r"n/(,' 01" (,.inch ~un is .hnul I s.no" yards

AN

OBSERVATION

STATION

They 3re placed anywhere-in buildings, trees, shen craters, etc.-from which the observer can See the effect of his batterics' fire and from which he can /let wire communication back 10 his guns, and wh,'re he can report the movements of hiS own and the enemy's infantry, (Marked "Ohs. sta," on map on pag" I II)

OF

A

EIlIUM

BATTERY

The gunners know the re\ulls of their fire only hy repur;s from Iheir ohservers. Medium b,.ttcri,'s ("1\" on 0131', page IX) ,,' 1'.... I.d Irom one 10 Ihree mill'S from the en,'my. and Iheir task is to help destroy enemy trenches, try 10 pul en my tutt oIes auJ capllVe b.lloons out of comnllsslOn. and Ihey arc also used in barrage fire to cover attacks

I~()\

Cop)'nbbt by Amem:.1n A COMMUNICATION TRENCH, TELEPHONE WIRES, AND GAS ALARM

Press A!.~ation

A typical trench hraced to prevent caving in. with the usual board walk and the great number of telephone and telegraph lines in a modern communication system. The shell case is struck as a warning for all to put on masks, when a g.~s allack is discovered. (lnstl) A telephone exchange in a dugout which is part of the system of communications between the front lines and the headquarters in the rear

A DIAGRAM

OF

AN

INTRENCHED

HOWITZER

A plan often ustd to conceal and protect both the batteries and the men from ~nemy ohserv~linn and fire. The gun crews live in the dugouts in the rear, In many of the gun p05itions on the map on page 18 this intrenchment would not be necessary, for the batteries and crews are placed in positions sulftcienlly concealed, _ . ... to protect them .

A HEAVY

HOWITZER

BEING

INTRENCHED'

Artffierymen engaged in placing a Run in a .p05ition, like that in the .diagram above. The" position of ~flis • gun. or more particularly of the one above. will uplam why It IS dlfllcult to move heavy artillery rapidly either to follow up an attack or to escape ~n advancmg enemy

(OIl1~r1la~ramoflhc AN INTRENCHED ._ __ • reme nght-hand and on_ mal' on page ~81nd .tn obsenallon s:~ Ion anear by. as shown ~~utt~ef~~tmen and offICers light 0 hattery with du

,,,,,,;'?:~::i'"""h::%~~::'" ,,'h '"

"d;m

uc;'n

OATT'"

the ,':fith Ihe curtain that A L1GIH GUN'S -. tanglem:;~e'd mapon I'agea:~c~al.s it from aerial ob INTRENCII.'>IE T • <sUoy para "",IS. SIlence enemy in ,l~ mtrenched servation ;his:iet~re.' .. hl~:s~nd drawn a~i\fe~. light batteryto cut lNir/~~ C"A") f or arrage fire eithef~i::~~ ~.ed [23 uhout gas shells

a;~:;
J

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM BEHIND THE When possible, broad-gauge railroads are utililed to within about ten miles of the line .. They are often supplemented by motor transport, and this also car. ries to within threeor four miles of the front and sometimes closer. Horse transport is used in the field trains of the troops up to the second line, Where bearus take the material. Th. Dccauville field railways Jupplement t;,is s)"Stem, especially for the trans-

LINES \

porting of ammunition, and sometimes these light lines reach into the trenches. In this map the Decauville railways are shown reaching brigade headquarters, shown on the map on page 10 the different balleries shown on page 18, and a lield hospital shown on paRe ~8 In qUiet times on the lines 18.000 men would take at least a~o tons of food, munitions, and accessories a day.

RAILHEAD:

AMMUNITION

AND

STORES

FOR THE

FRONT

The map on the opposite

page shows the railhead freight moves forward

.lbout ten miles from the lines. by motor and light railroad

From here the railroad

FROM

RAILHEAD

TO

THE

GUNS

A lil\ht railway carrying ammunition. On the map opposite. These light railways serve ,pveral baltnies, brigade headquarters, and the field hospil3l. (Compare with maps on pages 16 .and 2~) They are run, when possible, bthind hills or woods, out of sight of the enemy

IAN,

HORSE,

AND

MOTOR

A hombing u3d with its boxes of bombs shown on map on rJKe 24 and di Igram un pJg motor lJnn"t me l. Carrying shells to the I,ghr and also for us h t"'«'n raIlhead 3nd the motor Haln (J( ,an uf the 5;lme type and make and are

3ppro3ching an entrance 10 the communicarion trenches as ,'13' (C"nrre) lIo"e trJnsport under conditions that the hJlteries. (lIe1ow) !-rom the bases to well beyond railhead limit (see mJp on paKc 24), The mOlor IrJ",pons go in sometimes linkcJ togelhe.

TilE REO CROSS ON TIlE BATTLEFIELD (Urper left) An aid stalion in the trl'nches (see map on page 28). where the wounded receive doctor's ~"re and arc prep;lrl'd to h senl hack to lhe dressing stations. (Right) A wounded soldier in the trenches. t~",n'I~R"d and ready to he lahn to the ;lid 'lation. (Lower left) From the dreSSing station to field hOSp'.I.tI. } h• .If.'r and (flghl) hy horse amhulance. (See melllcal map on page 28 and compare wllh transportation lilaI' on page 24 )

THE MEDICAL MAP OF THE FRONT Men wounded in the front trenches or in .. No Mnn's land" are rescued by slrer-her."e .. rer~ or comr ..des. given imm<diale aid wilh. Ihe. firsl-aid pa.:ke.l. and then carried to the aId sIal IOns In Ihe communIcation tren.:hes, marked .. A" (see also diagram on pitRe 33 l. In many cases "rer-hers cannot be used hecnuse of the sharp turns in Ihe trenches. From the aid sUtions the wounded are removed to dressing slalions out of Ihe !ren.:hes and from Ihere eilher by bearen or horse ambulances to the field hospll.1I. As soon as they are well enouRh they :He shi.pped by automobale ambulance or on the Decauvalle light railway to evacualion hospilal~ at varyin~ dis,lances behlRd Ihe hnes an<.!by tralR to the hospllals In the large cilies. The fundamental idea underlying the system is to accomplish each move away from the fronl :I~ soon as the patient has been Rot into condition in whi.:h he enn sland it. This map shows a typical arran/:ement, but ,under different condilions. of course, it vuies gr .... lly

FROM r1ELD

TO EVAClJATlO:-;

1l0SPITAI.

A comparison o( the transportation (page 24 ) and medical maps (page 28) will show a Decauville line from the village wht're the field hospilal is to the evacuation hospital at railhead. The car has room (or (our 'I relchers hung on spri:Jgs 10 soikn the jars r

A fiELD In a krnporary

1l0SPITAl

huilding behind the hartle (ront (see map page 28 J. where the seriously wounded are cared (or untIl they can be sent back to the base hospitals

CfJ"qRL:CTIO,

OF

PIT

I-UR

TRENCH

MORTAR

OR

1l0MB

THROWER

A

TRENCH

MORTAR

WITIi

SHELL

READY

TO

FIRE

MortJr~ 3rt plJ:t=ll In \'ariou~ parts o( the trench system, .lnywh,',e (rom So 10 I'.' y;I"h hehind Ihe forst lone (!>Cedl ..g, .. rn on pJge lj ) .. their hIgh e,plo'ivc nd ~hclh al< useful in demoloshlllJ.\ "lI,'my I'Clldl~'

A MACHINE-GUN When' the guns and men arc protected

POSITION IN THE OPEN which ()hl~in dur-

only by small dugouts and shell craters-conditions ing an advance

A MACIlINE-GUN

PIT

WITII

OVERIlE/\O

COVER

The position o( these pits is shown in diagram on page 33. They are concealed (rom the enemy and arranged so as not to fire straight in front but diagonally, in urder to have mure o( the enemy in r.lnge

A HInDEN 'Which fires through

AND

DEFE:-;DHI

MACIlI.'E

GUN riveting

the painled nl't curtain. lexcept (or the n(.i,e, \\ hi.-h resrmhles a pneumatic mJehine. it gives nu indication o( its whrre~hu;)IS 10 the enemy

A SECTION

OF FIRST-LINE

AND SUPPORTING

TRENCHES 33 giving

A detail of such a position as the one shown on the map on page 604 and on the diagram on page a conception of the obstacles an enemy must pass In carryang such a position

A MIN"1i EXPLOSION

In one case in Ihe present war six of these were set off along5ide one another an one system of trenches

'13'"
~,~
'.

~"t4n91."'''''

e:p.".",."Ltt'JAqI ",."t(W~V'r.dbJ

•.

Itf#t;h,,,.r,.,,,,,.re/

.
i

I

2nd. it;,: II(}()y'.ttJ Imileinrur. " PLAN OF THE ORGANIZATION OF ABOUT 100 YAROS OF TRENCH This small part of the front has caused the digging of three or four miles of trenches of all kinds, dugouts, mortar and machine-gun pits, and has to be equipped with telephone syste:ns, aid stations, kitchens, and unitary arrangements. This diagram shows something 01 the work entailed in organizing a position in modern trench warfare

[33]

I'

COVER AND COMMUNICATING TRENCHES Cover trenches (above) used by men not firing. Communicating trenches connect the front line with the rear. Both are zigzagged, so no long section can be swept by enemy fire. (See page 33 )

.

FIRE TRENCHES ~ Unshellered (above), showing the shelf on which the men stand to tire and the thick dirt parapet toward the enemy. and (below) a trench with a shelter against shrapnel, hand grenades. etc. ,

With

the usual

two outlets

A FRONT-LINE DUGOUT to prevent bombardment from burying the occupants dugout. Many are much larger an~ more elaborate

alive.

This

Isa simple

'I

[34J

2-3 CHAPTER TACTICAL

I.

FORTIFICATIONS

2. The prototype of th'e modern trench. \Vhen men fought with swords and spears, they wore suits of mail and armor and carried shields to protect themselves, but with the introduction of fire arms they had to look for another way of shielding and protecting themselves, and they began to ,dig trenches,-the modem soldier's armor and shield. As time has gone on and improvements made in arms and ammunition, corresponding progress has been made in the construction and use of fortifications, until today when, with trench mortars, heavy artillery, high exFIG. I plosives, liquid fire, poisonous gases, and aero- \ THEN planes, we have the elaborated and extensive trench systems that have been developed on the \Vestern front of Europe. 3. Classification. In the United States service, fortifications are classified as - strategical fortifications, and ("'-

tactical

fortifications.'

The
.. ~-:'" -~
,

former are usually constructed during peace, with all

(

the resources .Of the techn!cal. arts, to strengthen pomts FIG. 2 whose strategical importance Now in event of war is clearly ~ foreseen. Such are the fortifications at the entrance ant harbors, arc,tmd fortified cities, ca!1als, etc. fortifications will not be further referred to in this

./ t~ importStrategical work.

I-

'3 (Contd.)

"

Tactical fortifications are those generally constructed by the troops themselves to satisfy present tactical needs. T.he most satisfactory classification for our purpo~e is to divide them into hasty intrenchments, built with the portable tools of troops, not infrequently under fire, and capable of sheltering the troops from rifle, machine gun, and shrapnel fire. only; and field fortifications, which are more elaborate works, sometimes deliberately constructed, and at other tiines merging from the improvement of hasty intrenchments. This latter class is constructed with a view to occupation for a longer period than are hasty intrenchments, and also to afford a . measure of protection from heavy artillery fire .

.. "0

"'........

" ........

FIe..

4

FIGS.

3 AND 4 [36]

4-5-6' 4. Nomenclature. Fig. 3 gives the names of the various parts of a complete fire trench, with parados, glacis, etc. Fig. 4 shows, in plan,' a typical intrenched po~ition, the product of the present European \Var. Hasty In trcnchments -

5. By whom constructed. Hasty intrenchments may be . constructed: (I) By troops assuming a defensive position and expecting to be attacked at any moment, or at least within several hours. By troops which have been compelled to halt during the intrenchments being constructed under a more ,or less severe fire. (3) By troops whose field fortifications have been demolished by the fire or demolitions of the enemy, the hasty intrenchments resulting from the first efforts .to repair these field fortifications. G. Construction not under fire. \Vhen troops have deliberatelyassumed .a p<?sitioil with a view to preparing it for defense, the troops not being under fire, but expecting an attack within a few moments, or at least within several hours, the commander must first decide which of the following measures are of the greatest relative importance, and proceed with them in that order: 'I. Construction of the trenches. 2. Clearing the field of fire. 3. Construction of obstacles. 4.\ Measurement of ranges. 5. Supply, particularly ammunition and water. The trenches should be traced along that ground which best cOmhines a field of fire, chance for concealment, and good soil for construction. Avoid the sky line where possible. - Organ-

an attack,

(2)

[37]

6 (Contd.) izations are deployed as skirmishers (I man per yard) on this line. Packs are laid off immediately in rear of th~ line, but troops should retain their ammunition belts. Rifles are placed on the packs, butts to the front, where they can be instantly seized, and the men take their intrenching tools. As the trenches may have to he used any FIG. 5 moment, it is desirable to get protection from rifle fire as soon as possible. This is quickest obtained by first constructing the lying trench illustrated in Fig. G.

~
FIG.

6

A parapet of earth 30 inches thick on top will stop rifle and machine gun bullets. Each man first cuts off the sod, grass and brush and piles them, as a screen, five feet in front of where the forward line of the trench is to be. He then digs that portion of the trench in his immediate front, digging out first a furrow wide and long enough to receive his body, and
,.--..-~)
'''I . ~ '. "-f-

I

' .__ .../

....

~.J.....J

r--/l..r"?

..t''""".

~

FIG.

7

[38]

7
'throwing up the earth in "front for a parapet (see Fig. 7). The work is then extended so as to join the furrow and para- , pet with those constructed by the men on his right and left so as to form a continuous trench and para'pet. Time permitting, this trench' is then deepened into a kneeling trench, and finally into a standing trench, as shown in Figs. I I and 12. As the work proceeds beyond the lying trench, traverses (see Figs. 3 and 4 and Par. 3) should be marked off and constructed wherever necessary to protect from flank or oblique fire. 7. Construction under fire. \Vhen troops ate stopped in the' open by the fire of the enemy, the only thing to do is to intrench. "To go back under fire is to die." If necessary and possible, the firing line should be shifted so as to give the best protection and field of fire that the ground in the immediate'vicinity will afford, but generally this will not be possible, and troops will have to intrench where they lie. A fair'position .at least will be insured if each firing or halting point during the advance, prior to the troops being stopped, be so selected as to give a fair field of fire, and fair concealment. The men being in line of skirmishers lying down: (I) Each front rank man as he lies, first fills magazine. and places his rifle at '

, arm's length to the right, rJ/~-.JIf/(lik~k/~ /- . ,~",/fu 1111 muzzle to the front, bolt ~; .I \ upward. Each rear rank ~fi!j..)/. (~ 4,1, man continues to fire. \tv' 'J,I/ . )~ (2) The front rank " '----,I ,l'(h~ I,... I... "( ~ man tears up and col- .,r'U ~ r~ Ilf I \;fV' \ le~ts. any vegetation 'Ya::;~~A '" I](,/Ir R~A ) ~~#" Wlthm arm's length. and ~/I ~'J" -'/~, 1\ "r~.,.. heaps it loosely as a \J Screen an arm's length FIG. 8 to"the front. He then takes his intrenching tool, or if desirable. the tool of the man on his right, and lies on the left side of
• I~ ~ ~ ../',

Jrs,
()

f=:t"

[39]

,

"

7 (Contd.)

Vegetation should be laid over to conceal new earth thrown up. .Men must be ready to lay down intrenching tools and., resume firing at any stage of the work. In some cases it may , J be possible to stop all the firing and have all the men intrench. .~ The time required to dig a bullet proof lying trench in this manner depends upon the character of the soil and the training)
[40]

I

~ .

1 ,

8

FIG.

II

of the troops. In sandy loam with light sod, a line should intrench itself in 20 minutes. In some places it is impossible to intrench owing to rock. , 8. Intrenching in demolished fortifications. It is of pri\ mary importance that the parapet of the trench be kept intact and continuous. In some places the trenches may have caved

FIG. 12

in; in others, craters may have been made in the parapet by shells, or a section of the trenches may have been blown up by mining operations. In these last two cases the forward edge

9
of the crater indicates the position for the new parapet. Large shovels and picks will often be available for the work. :Men should be kept at work whenever the intensity of the bombardment will permit, but their rifles should always be at hand, magazines filled, ready to be used at once, as a lull in the artillery firing, which will permit of repair to the fortifications, may be a signal for the launching of an attack by the enemy. In such a case, hold the lips of the shell craters and the intact portions of the trenches. Every effort should be made to maintain a continuous parapet with an interior slope steep enough to give some shelter from shrapnel and shell fragments. Gradually the trenches will take on the character of a hasty standing trench. \Vhen conditions permit, work should at once be started on the traverses, emplacements, head covers, communication trenches, revetment, etc., thus converting the works again into a field fortification. 9. Suggestions. A parapet well concealed with sod and vegetation minimizes losses, and makes it easier to- maintain If small in size, the parapet should be confire superiority. structed in the form of a mound in front of the left eye and shoulder of the firer, so that he can ~hoot around the side of it rather than over the top, as the former method gives better protection. (Fig. 13.)

The construction of the parapet is greatly facilitated by rolling up large stones, logs, fence rails, etc. But stones and particularly sma!l ones in the parapet should always be covered with 5 or 6 inches of earth or sod, as otherwise they cause dangerous ricochets, also the bullets splinter them, and many
[421

10 men are wounded by flying pieces of stone. In the lying position the pack on the back, and the steel helmet afford considerable immunity against serious shrapnel wounds. In the lying trench care must be taken that the furrow or trench be so constructed that the legs do not stick up, thus affording a good target for shrapnel. When troops are forced to halt and intrench during an attack, the intrenching should be done primarily, with a view to regaining the fire superiority which will , permit of a further advance. The soldier should be impressed with the fact that his spade is only a means to enable him to fire more accurately, and to use his bayonet as quickly and effectively as possible.

Field F ortifications1 10. Selection of defensive line. The line to be occupied may be determined to a considerable extent, if not entirely, by previous tactical operations, in which case the commander of the troops will have little or no choice in the selection of the line. However, if the position is deliberately assumed, not under fire, it should, as far as possible, fulfill the following conditions: . (I) A clear field of fire up to effective rifle range (1200 ' yards) if possible, but certainly, up to 2000 yards. (2) Good positions in rear for supporting artillery, together with good artillery observation stations. (3) Flanks naturally ~ecure, or that can be made so by the use of reserves. (4) Extent of ground suitable to the strength of force to occupy it.
,IIn connection with the mt:thod herein outlined of selecting, occupying and ~rganizing a defensive position. it may be remarked that, while differing materially Some resl!ccts from the system followed on the Western front in Europe, il is t~e one officIally advocated in our service, as set forth in "Notes on Field Fortificat •ons", and is what would normally be done to.day in usual military operations. We must bear in mind that the trench warfare at present being waged on the Western front in Europe, is a special. abnormal kind of trench hghting that we should not allow to mislead us regarding the well.known and established tactical f<nd other principles of normal trench warfare, which still have the same force and effect that they had before the present war.
In

[43]

11

(5) Good communications (roads) throughout' the position' and good lines of supply (roads and railroads) in rear . of the position. , (6)' The position must be so located that the enemy cannot avoid it without abandoning his mission. 11. Location of trenches. 'Having select~d the general line to be fortified, the next step is to locate the position of the trenches. In this connection there are two things to be , . considered: (I) 'The tactical situation, and (2) the' nature of the grounJ. The first consideration requires that the trenches be so located as to give the best field of fire. Locating near the base of hills possesses the advantage of horizontal fire, but, as a rule, it is difficult to support trenches so located and to retreat theref rom in case of necessity. \Vhile location near: the crest of hills-on the "l\[ilitary Crest"-does not possess the advantage of horizontal fire, it is easier to support trenches' so located and to retreat therefrom. Depending upon circumstances, there are times when it will be better to intrench near the base of hills and there are other times when it will be better to intrench on the "l\Iilitary Crest," which is always in front of the natural crest. The construction of treriches along the "military crest" does not give any "dead space"that is, any space to the front that can not be reached by the' fire of the men in the trenches. ' \Vhether we should construct our trenches on high or low ground is a matter that should always be carefully considered , under the particular conditions that happen to exist at that particular time, and the matter may be summarized as follows: I . The advantages of the high ground are: (I) \Ve can generally see better what is going on to our front and flanks; and the men have a feeling of security that they do not enjoy on low ground. (2) \Ve can usually reenfdrce the firing line better and the dead wcunded can be removed more easily.
[44]

I

l.

. 11, (Contd.)

.
.

(3) The line of retreat is bett~r. The'disadvantages are: (I) The plunging fire of a high position is not as effective . as a sweeping fire of a low one. (2) It is not as easy to conceal our position. The advantages of low ground are: (I) The low, sweeping fire that we get, especially \vhen the ground in front is fairly flat and the view over the greater part of it is uninterrupted, is the most effective kind of fire. (2) As a rule, it is easier to conceal trenches on low . gt:ound, especially from artillery fire. (3) I f our trenches are on low /ground, our artillery will be able to find good positions on the hill behind us without inte.rfering with the infantry defense. The disadvantages are: (I) As a rule it will be more difficult to reenforce the firing line and to remove the dead and wounded from the trenches.' (2) On a low position there will usually be an increase of dead space in our front. (3) . :The average soldier acting on the defensive dreads that the enemy n~ay turn his flank and this feeling is much more pronounced on low ground than on high ground. Should the enemy succeed in getting a footing on our flank with our trenches on top of the. hill, it would be bad enough, but it would certainly be far worse if he got ~ footing on top of the hill, on the flank and rear, with our company on low ground in front. We'therefore see there are things to be said for and against both high and low ground, and the most that can be said with. out examining a particular piece of ground is: Our natural inclination is to select a high ground, but, as a rule, this choice will reduce our fire effect, and if there is a covered approach to .our fire trenches and very little dead ground in front of it,
I I

[45]

. 12-13 with an extensive field of fire, there is no doubt the lower ground is better. However, if these conditions do not exist to a considerable degree, the moral advantage of the higher ground must be given great weight~, especially in a close country. \Vith regard to the nature of the ground, trenches should, if practicable, be so located as to avoid stony ground, because of the difficult work entailed and of the danger of flying fragments, should the parapet be struck by an artillery projectile. 12. A~signment of Sectors. A reconnaissance having been made of the terrain, and the general location of the line of defense and the position of the trenches having been decided upon, the next thing to do is to divide the whole line into parts or sectors, and assign such parts or sectors to various tactical units, such as divisions, brigades, regiments, 'and battalions. The commander of a regiment, for example, to which has been assigned a certain sector, in turn divides the regimental sector into battalion sectors, the battalion commanders subdividing the battalion sectors info company sectors, the company commanders being charged with the details of the construction of the trenches and other matters pertaining to their respecti ve sectors. 13. Length of sectors; density of line. The length of the sector to be assigned to a unit depends upon the size of the unit, due consideration being given to the number of men per yard of front that will be required to successfully hold the position. It is impossible to give any definite rule as to the number of men that should occupy a given length of line. It depends entirely upon circumstances, such as the nature of the terrain, strength of works, quality of troops, mission, etc. For example, if it were intended only to deceive the enemy as to the strength of the force occupying the position, and to delay him by causing him to deploy, then a long thin line would

OJ,

~ .

'~.

'l

14.15.16~17
be desirable. On the other hand, a long, thin line in a decisive action would be suicidal. . , However, it may be assumed that with good troops, a good field of fire, and good cover, a strength of 10 men per yard of front will hold a position for a reasonable length of time against a greatly superior force, but the defense will be purely passive.

14. Discontinuity of the line. The line of fire trenches is not continuous along the entire front of the position, except in unusual cases, such, for example, as on the \Vestern European front to-day. 15. Supporting points. Various points along the line, usually (although not always) convex hills separated from one another by gullies or ind~ntations, are selected as "supporting points." A supporting point may consist of one or more hills, a village, a wood, etc. 16. Intervals between supporting points. The interval between supporting points depends upon the nature of the ground and the necessity for reciprocal flanking fire. As a Howrule, the interval does not exceed 800 or 1000 yards. ever, sometimes large intervals are intentionally left between supporting points occupied by units the size of a division or more, as a bait to the enemy to attack, and thus expose himself to a, counter-stroke by the defender. However, such tactics must be employed with the greatest care. 17. Size of supporting-point garrisons. The size of the unit occupying a supporting point depends upon circumstances, e.g., the size and importance of the point, nature of the ground, relation to the rest of the line, nearness to a threatened flank, etc. A battalion is generally the smallest unit that \vould occupy a supporting point.
[47]

18-19-20-21 18. Division of troops and classification of trenches~ The'troops occupying trenches are divided into the Firing line-in the trenches nearest the enemy, called' the

fire trenches.
Supports-in the cover trenches or under natural covers, if available. Reserves-(local and general-generally well to the rear or flanks, under natural cover. The trenches that connect the fire and the cover trenches, are called cOl1ll1lunicating trenches. DUl1lmy trenches are sometimes used to deceive the enemy,' causing his artillery to waste time and ammunition. 19. Supports. Each battalion has a support which is generally from 50 to 150 yards in the rear of the firing line. The support~ are located with a view to reinforcing the firing line promptly. 20. Local reserves. As a rule, brigade and regimental sectors have res.erves, called "local reserves" or "sector reserves." The size and location of these reserves depend upon circumstances. 21. General reserve. There is also a general reserve for the entire position. The strength of the general reserve depends upon tactical considerations. For example, if the action contemplated is ~o be decisive, the general reserve should be made as strong as possible, the smallest number of troops practicable being assigned to the supports, the local reserves and the fire trenches. The reserves are posted with a view to delivering counterattacks, or protecting the flanks or openings in the line, and consequently they should not be placed too near the firing line. Artificial cover is seldom provided for the reserves, not only because of lack of time, but also because such cover tends to diminish the initiative and mobility of the reserves.' .
I

)

I

[481

22-23-24 Care must be taken not to place the reserves too near friendly artillery positions, lest. they should get some of the fire directed at the artillery. . As a rule; local reserves should be held in one body, unless there are excellent reasons for dividing them. 22. Organization of the position. The sectors having been assigned, the next thing in order is to "organize" the various supporting points-that is, to construct the trenches and obstacles, clear the foreground, measure ranges, construct latrin'es, provide dressing stations, etc. 23. . Execution of work. In the construction of field fortifications the company forms the normal working unit. The company commander, assisted by the platoon and squad leaders, marks out the line of trenches, determines (in the absence of specific instructions) the type of trench to be constructed, locates the traverses, etc. Specifically, the organization of a company sector involves: I. The location of the trace. 2. The assignment of tasks. 3. The construction of the trenches, including shelters, latrines, listening posts, dressing stations, etc. 4. Clearing the foreground. 5. :Measuring of ranges. 6. Construction of obstacles.

I

24. Location of trace .. To locate the trace, that is, the , line of excavation,-lie on the ground at intervals and select the best field of fire consistent with the requirement" of the situation. Also, if possible, go forward several hundred yards and examine the proposed location of the trace from the direction in which the enemy will approach .. The trace may be conveniently marked by the squad leaders laying their packs on the ground or by sticking their'bayonets
[49]

24 (Contd.)

. into it. The men, provided with intrenching shovels, are then deployed on the line, and, after being properly posted, each ~ man forces his intrenching tool into the ground close to his. feet, thus marking the left (or right) limit of his task. The men then step back several paces, unsling and lay down their packs, pick up their rifles and a couple of cartridge clips and deploy anew on the line marked out. Each man lays his rifle on' the ground behind him and then commences work.' J I f an attack is likely during the progress of the work, the first efforts sho.lld be directed towards securing a parapet of sufficient height to afford cover for the head and a support for the rifle in the lying position, after which the trench is gradually deepened to the final requirements of a standing trench as explained in par. 7. l\fen may be posted 5 feet apart by taking intervals with both arms extended and hands closed and three feet apart by taking intervals with one arm extended, hand closed. Dimensions of rifle trenches may be laid off with the intrenching tools, which are 22 inches long. \Vhen time permits, a convenient method of marking the trace of a parapet of the fire trench is by means of stakes and a string, the string marking the crest of the parapet,' and indicating the height to which the crest. must be raised. The parapet should be low, flat, and broad. A high parapet is easily seen, affords a good target, and is easily battered to pieces by artillery. The' heigllt necessary for the parapet on any particular piece of ground is easily determined by lying on that. ground and 160king over the ground in front; then gradually raising the head and eyes until a view is obtained over this ground, which will afford a good field of fire. The height of the eye above the ground when this view is obtained indicates the height of the string marking the trace, the constructing troops raising the crest of the parapet to the string. The height of the crest of the parapet above the ground is
[50]

,

j

25-26-27 -28 called the command. The immediate foreground must be exceptionally smooth and devoid of vegetation for the rifleman to see any distance over it with a command of less than 1,% feet.
i

Assignment of Tasks. 25. Working Parties. Except when civilian labor is available, troops will as far as possible construct the works they are to hold. Engineers will be employed to the best advantages under orders of the division commander. To perform the work to the' best advantage, and as expeditiously as possible, troops detailed for this work should be organized with a view to the amount and character of the work. 26. Reliefs of working parties. \Vhen making any but , the smallest intrenchments, men are not kept contirtuously at work, but are changed at intervals. The total time is thus divided into periods called reliefs. As regards the length of I reliefs, a great deal depends upon the nature of the work, the total time it will take, the climate and the condition of the l11en; also upon whether the \vork has to be done at great speed, and whether it can be carried on by night as well as by day. For digging, short reliefs are best. The task which each. relief is to accomplish should be made plain before it begins work. 27. Proportion of men to the amount of work. In calCUlating the size of each relief the length of the work to be constructed should be measured and an allowance made of one private for every two yards of trench, together with the necessary number of officers and noncommissioned officers,this if the full sized picks and shovels are to be used. 1Ien using small intrenching tools can work much closer than this. :'-l~ calculations herein are based on the large tools. 28. Rate of excavations. untrained man for continuous The capacity of the average digging, with large tools does
[51 ]

29
. not much exceed 80 cubic feet for easy soil; 60 cubic feet for medium, and 40 cubic feet for hard soil. . He will do three- i eighths of this in the first hour, five-eighths in the first two'j hours, and the other. three-eighths in another two hours. In addition to the fact that he works but a little over half as fast in the second two hours, four hours' work will leave him unfit for fighting or marching, while after two hours work he should be able to do either. The quantity of work that should be assigned to each relief should therefore be that which can be done in two hours, and the number of reliefs and time of construction should be based on this. For the first work the soil is apt to be loose and the lift less, so that a slightly greater task should be given to the first relief than to the others. \Vhen men are plenty, tools scarce, or time important, a task may be completed in about two-thirds of the ordinary time by detailing two men to each set of tools. The two gangs change ~i~l:.t frequent intervals, the men working as rapidly as pos-

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:

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I

29. Large intrenching tools. In addition to the portable intrenching tools carried by the infantrymen additional tools of larger size and special pattern are carried in the combat and field trains for use in the more extensive organization of positions. The following equipment of park tools is prescribed in Infantry Unit Accountability Equipment Manual; 1916, for a .regiment of infantry:
Axes Containers for saws and edge tools... . . . . . . . .. Cro\vbars :........................... Files, sa\v :'. : . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. Nails, 6d-lbs. . Pick n1attocks Sa\vs, hand Sa\vs, t\vo-man ..........................•.•• ' 26 4 7 6 100 150 13 13

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!

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,30.31
1
1

Sa \v set ..•...•...........•.................
Saw tool, two-man Shovels Tool sharpener Wire, Ibs saw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '~............ ~..............•

300
1

25

This regimental equipment is carried in one field wagon furnished for this purpose. \Vhen the regiment is attached to, and serving with a brigade or a division, the intrenching tool wagon and contents will be transferred to the commanding officer of the engineer train of the brigade or division. ,When the regiment is permanently detached from the brigade or division, the intrenching tool wagon will be transferred to the commanding officer of the supply company of the regiment. In cases of transfer, formal invoices and receipts should be required.

I

30. Taking tools. All troops march on this work fully' ,armed and equipped if the enemy is anywhere in the vicinity. The. relief is marched to the tool depot, and in column of files marches between the piles of tools, each man being handed his tools as he passes through, and the commander given a list of the total number of tools issued to the relief. For ordinary 'trench digging the proportiOl.l of the various tools per 100 men should be abo'ut as follows: 100 shovels, 50 picks, 10 crowbars, and, if needed, 4 two-man falling saws. Each squad has, in addition, its regular equipment of intrenching tools on its packs. Rifles are slung. . "
"

Placing a relief on the work. Having taken the tools the relief forms in column of squads and marches to the locality where the work is to be done. ,Here a column of files is again formed, all noncommissoned officers in the file closers, 'and the column is so conducted that it approaches in a direction parallel tq, 'and about 3 yards in rear, of the line marking the
[53]

31.

32-33
front edge of the proposed as indicated in Par. 24. trench. The work then proceeds . "

.~

l

er: ::~:.an~V~:::::5~~:~ is:~::::::dsil~P::ll~::St:: 51:::: ::
: 1

\ Vhen the work, or allotted time of the relief is completed, each man cleans his tools and places them on the left of his task. Officers count the tools and obtaiil receipt from the _ commander of the relief which succeeds them. 32. Intrenching in hard ground. I f the ground be too' hard to admit of the easy insertion of the intrenching shovel, a it will be advantageous to first loosen the earth with the pick. ~ If there t~ but one1)ick per squad it will either have to be used in turn by each of the three shovelers, or else one man may be , detailed. to do all the picking for the three shovelers, working 1 from one end of their combined task to the other, each ~ shoveler in turn stepping from the trench and resting while
"

1

'I,.

necessary in order to keep the lines of cutting straight, to pre- • vent widening the trench more than the design calls for, to keep the banks at the proper slope, and in the final stages of the work to bring the parapet to the proper height, and correctly construct the revetment, head cover, etc. Squad leaders supervise their squads, seeing that the work progresses as quickly as possible, that the desired dimensions are attained, and that the trench is made as inconspicuous as possible. Platoon commanders see that the work of their squads proce~ds uni formly, apportion assistance to any squads experiencing delay; see that squad leaders are familiar with the ranges' determined to recognizable points of the foreground, cause observation of the foreground to be maintained if the enemy is close at hand, and, if necessary, arrange for the occupation of the trenches when finished. . The company commander is responsible for the correct location of the trenches and for their construction and for all
[54]

34-35-36 accessory features, including the construction of obstacles, clearing of the foreground, etc. He may be entrusted with the design of the trenches within his sector .• 34. Expediting the work: The use of a plow to run a few furrows and loosen the earth to a depth of six or eight inches will greatly expedite the first stage of trench construction. Plows may be occasionally found convenient to hand at nearby farms, to which, if other teams are not procurable, the teams of the combat train may be harnessed. ' In more deliberate works extensive employment of farm and road making machinery may be made with advantage. , By suitably modifying the draft rigging, a plow can be used to loosen the earth the full depth and width of rifle trenches. The construction of a large parapet can be hastened by incorporating in it any loose material, such < as fence rails, . 1>malllogs, stones, etc. Such material can be gathered up and placed by the men not actually employed in digging. 35. Concealment. In the interest of concealment it is desirable to save the sod taken from the excavated area for covering the' parapet. . In hasty work this will not always be practicable and material for covering the parapet will then have to be procured by men not employed in digging. A convenient way of saving the sod is to cut the turf into strips about 1 foot wide the full width of the parapet, and then roll it 'up to the front. \Vhen the parapet is completed, the sod is simply rolled back on the parapet. Dctails of Trcnch Construction.

I

38. The profile. Fig. 14 shows the profile of a typical modern fire trench. This profile may have to be considerably modified under certain conditions. It serves here' (Fig. 14) to illustrate the principles.
[55]

37-38

37. The trench. (T) Fig. :q, should have a depth of at 'x least 7 feet below the crest' of the parapet (g), so that bUllets'~ grazing the top will pa:s p over the heads of the tallest men,

I

:1
, FIG. 14

standing in the passage (c). The sides (a) and (e) should be well revetted so as to remain as steep as possible. The width of the trench should be about 5 feet at the top and from 3 to 4 feet at the bottom. The bottom should have a plank walk in rear of the firing step. The firing step Cd) may be constructed either of earth, revetting it on the side towards the passage (c) or it may be made of logs or boards. Its top~ on which the' rifleman stands when firing over the parapet; should be just

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(f) is an elboW,"~j 4~ feet below the crest of the parapet (g). rest for use when firing a rifle over the parapet. , . 38. The parapet. The parapet (P) should be of just sufficient height to give command over the foreground. A high parapet makes a fine target and is easily demolished by artillery fire. Its width should be at least 20 feet so that a single shot from light field artillery cannot penetrate it. The parapet is constructed of earth thrown from the trench, and if this is not sufficient, a ditch (k), sometimes called a "borrow pit," is dug in front. All stones should be buried deeply in the . ,parapet, the upper 6 inches being clear earth, to minimize the danger of ricochets and splinters. The exterior slope (j) should not be greater than I I degrees, as on slopes greater than ,I I this the projectiles from direct artillery fire penetrate and explode in the parapet, instead of 'glancing and explodi~g a'
[56J

,I

I

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'

,39-40 short distance in- the rear~ The top, or superior slope of the Parapet (h) should have only a very slight slope to the front, just enough so that it will not interfere with the aim and fire of the rifles lai~ on top. The whole of the superior and exterior slopes should be covered with sod or vegetation to conceal them from view. It may be remarked here, that there is very little to be gained in trying to conceal fire trenches once the enemy has discovered them, as their exact location is known to everyone, including aeroplanes. . 39. To defilade a field work is to so regulate and distribute the earth cover that the occupants of the work are protected from the direct fire1 of the enemy. If a fire trench be n1ade in one continuous, straight line an enemy gaining a flank 'of that line could sweep the entire trench with fire and render it untenable. For this reason trenches are never made continuously straight, but are broken up into a line of short, straight trenches by building banks of earth in them called "traverses" orelse by making them curved lines, or zig-zagging them. See Figure 4. .

40. A traverse is a mound built in a trench. In practice it is usually a continuation of the parapet to the rear so that the tre'nch, instead of running on continuously straight, bends back and goes around the traverse, only the portions between the traverses, called "bays," being straight. This, is shown in . Figure 14. A bullet or shell fired from the flank, in prolongation of the line of the trench, instead of gradually falling lower and, lower as it passes over the trench until it strikes one of the ) occupants of the trench, is caught by one of the traverses and stopped. Traverses not only intercept side or enfilade fire,
lPire is said to be "direct" when delivered' nnl{les of elevation-i~ the case of artillery when &t"rvice charges, at elevations not exceeding 15 artillery and trench mortars is when the angle of at visible objects, 'at moderate delivered at visible objects, with degrees. "High angle" fire of elevation exceeds 15 degre<:s.'

[571

41-42

but they limit the destructive action of shells and bombs which burst inside a trench, and intercept a portion of the bullets ij from a shrapnel shell bursting overhead or at one side. They also afford a sense of security to the men in the trench, and by limiting their knowledge of casualties to that portion of the trench between two traverses, they reduce demoralization. On the other hand they reduce' the total number of rifles that can be placed along a given frontage, and they increase the . difficulties of personal direction and supervision that can be given to a line by the of£cers. , They add to the labor and time required to intrench a given number of riflemen. From the point of view of protection} however} they are 15 absolutely necessary. The present war has greatly increased the size of tra,;erses owing to the destructive effect of the heavy artillery projectiles. Traverses should be made at least 20 feet wide and 15 feet deep. . However, in hasty trenches these dimensions may be considerably less,-as small as 5 feet. They should be the full height of the parapet. The distances between traverses should be either 16 or 24 yards so as to allow room for either two or three squads of riflemen in each bay. :Machine gun emplace. 'ments, or loop holes for snipers may slightly increase this distance. 11achine gun emplacements are sometimes placed inside, or on top of a traverse. As a usual thing no attempt is, made to man the back side of a traverse with riflemen. 41. A parados is a mound of earth placed in rear of a trench usually in rear of an angle in a trench, to protect it from reverse fire.

.

~ ~ ~

42. Recesses. Recesses are cut in the walts o( trenches for ammunition, water, hand grenades, and telephones. These 'are best made by hollowing out a small recess and inserting a
[58}

43-44-45 ,box, such as an ammunition box, and should be conveniently located. 43. Sortie steps. Steps or recesses (sortie steps) are cut in the front wall of the trench, so as to facilitate the men leaving the trench to ,the front. f\ stake driven in the ~lbow rest assists the men in leaping out. (See Fig. 15). 44. Supervision trench. A trench is often constructed about 20 yards in rear of the firing trench for the purpose of supervIsion. (See Fig. 4). The dug-outs and shelters for the garrison of the fire trench are usually entered from this trench. The supervision tren'ch is simply a slightly curved or zig-zag trench, about 8 feet deep and 2~ feet wide, about 20 yards in rear of the firing trench, and connected. therewith by communication trenches entering the fire trench behind the traverses. As this trench is unencumbered with traverses, officers and, trench runners can quickly pass along it from one portion of the fire trench to another, and troops can be taken along it to reinforce any portion of the line.

A _ L'Ni'<
(M'I/'lIMUM

TRENCH.

'

LU,o-'TH

• .5 F'T.)

FIG. 16

45. "S" and "T" trenches. (See Fig. 16) These consist of a number of short lengths of fire trenches connected to a lateral supervision trench of "S" design immediately in rear. They take the place of a continuous fire trench with traverses and supervision trench in rear. In siting, subsequent widen[59]

46 .

ing of the fire bays, due to occupation and ,shelling by the enemy, must be allowed for when laying out the distance / between bays and supervision trench, otherwise the amount of earth between them may be so reduced that a sheIl bursting in the bays would also destroy part of the supervision trench immediately in rear. The objection to this form of trench is that. if the supervision trench be blocked all passage along the firing line is stopped, whereas with separate fire and super- " vision trenches there are always two ways and more room • I for the garrIson. 46. Shelters, dug-outs, and bomb proofs. These are constructed in the vicinity of the fire trenches and in the support trenches for shelter from the weather and from fire. They may in general be divided into two classes. First, the shallow tunnels or burrows about 2 feet in diameter and 5 or 6 feet long, in which the rifleman at the fire trench can lie in safety and at full length while not on duty at a firing point. I f such shelter be so placed in the side wall of a trench so that it is not exposed to fire from any direction it affords protection from shrapnel fire, and also to a certain extent from rain and cold. . Second, the more elaborately constructed dug-outs or bomb proofs to shelter the men 'when undergoing a destructive artillery fire to which no response can be made with the rifle. \Vhile the former can be and often are, constructed by individual riflemen of their own initiative, the latter, are deliberately planned and constructed by details like any other portion

1

; \

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of a fortification.
The most satisfactory dug-outs are excavated from the surface down, and are roofed with heavy/timbers, corrugated iron, railroad tracks, or even with 'concrete. On top of this roofing a thickness of earth is placed. A layer of broken brick or large stones should always be placed six inches under the surface of the earth to cause an early burst of artilIery' projectiles

.1

I 1

,

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I

47.48

b~fore they have penetrated deep enough to do dam~geto the roofing supports immediately above the chamber. Timbers for shelters il1ust be strong enough "to bear considerable weight, and the supports for them must be driven hard into the ground, or, rest on sole plates or solid rock to prevent them from sinking when heavily loaded. 47. Effective resistance of roofing material. (a) "Shrapnel bullets. Stout planks or corrugated iron, suitably supported, and covered with 12 inches of earth. . (b) Ordi~lQry 3-inch field guns. Strong timbers supportIng 4 feet of earth, with a top layer of heavy stones or broken brick to cause early shell burst. (c) Field howitzers of less than 6-inch. 12-inch legs supporting 8 feet of earth with a layer of heavy stones or broken brick near the surface. (d) H 07.f.'itzers and heavy guns of 6 to 12 inches. 20 feet of earth or 10 feet of concrete, reinforced with steel or railroad rails, with layer of heavy stone or broken brick near the surrface. ' The passage way entering deep dug-outs should be small, 5X2 feet, and winding. A board walk with cleats will keep the floor in shape in muddy weather. The entrance should not be perfectly straight, but should wind slightly. 48. General rules for shelters. They must be simple, small, and sufficiently numerous to provide cover for each rifleman. They should hold from I to 5 men each. It must be possible to get in and out of tliem quickly. They must. form no obstruction to the firing step and parapet of the fire trench, nor weaken the parapet. ~heir interior must not be exposed to direct fire from any direction. At least 3 feet of solid earth should be left as a wall or partition between adjacent shelters~much more in the case of deep dug-outs. The roof should be water tight if possible, and the inside must be kept free from rain water.
[61]

.

49.50.51
49. Shelter' membered that the fire trench, conform to the a rule, however, in support trenches. It should be reat, some time the support trenches may become and the construction of shelter in them should same general rules as for the fire trench. " As these shelters can be made a little mor~ roomy
.3URrr/4,t'.£ GI\OUND

o~o;ro:".;"~~~~::O~8~4~¥J',pJl'Jb'b"O~:P~~~~.I'.A!'J.~
~"YfR 0" -LARGE ':!TQrtO

A.A-A-

tied".>'

tlmbe

..arlrOOd

...s, ,ron,or

COnc.rete

FIG. 17

and comfortable than those in the fire trench, as the garrison , not being charged with keeping constantly on guard and with repelling attacks, can devote more time to their construction, . improvement and maintenance. Figs. 17 and 18 illustrate different forms of shelters and dug-outs. 50. Latrines. Latrines are constructed in recesses excavated in the sides of supervision and communicating trenches. The recess should be roofed over to give protection against shrapnel fire. In gene~al their construction and the sanitary precautions to be taken are the same as in any permanent camp. They must be fly proof, and so constructed that they cannot drain into any trench, and should have at least one seat for every ten men. 51. Dressing stations. The first shelter of any kind which is provided in rear of the supervision trench must be chosen or made with a view to affording first-aid to the wound[621

\

51 (Cont'd.)

-PARAPET

SHELTER-RECESS:

FRAMEWORK.

-6%'
PARAPET SHELTER-RECESS ROOFED: ELEVATION.

FIG.

I~

[63]

52 _
ed. The method of construction differs in no respect from that of shelters already described. They are usually pldced in the communicating. trenches, immediately in rear of the ~upervision trench. \Vhenever possible provision should be made for the following: .
I. A plank table 6~ feet by 2~ feet, and not more than 3 feet 3 inches high, with at least 2 feet of clear walking space all around the table, and 6 feet headroom. 2. A sl:.~1f4~ feet above the floor on which to place instruments, dressings, etc.

3. A seat along one or two sides of the shelter, I ~. feet high by I ~ feet wide for cases awaiting treatment. 4. A covered receptacle with draw off tap for boiled water., 5. :l\feans of suspending a'light 9-t night, and as much clay- t light as possible by day. 6. Plank lining to walls, ceiling, and floor, or other arrangements to prevent dirt falling. 7. Another shelter close by!. and in covered communication, to serve as a waiting room for wounded. 8. A fireplace outside, however rough, on which a kettle can be boiled and small refuse burnt. .

.

52. Communicating trenches. There should be com-. municating trenches for communication between the various parts of the position. Ordinarily these trenches lead from the firing trench, back through the support trenches, to the second line, and on back to localities where it is safe for troops to pass over the ordinary roads, and across country. (See Fig. 4). , These trenches should be sufficient in number to allow of a prompt reinforcement of the fire trenches, and of the per.,. iodical relief of the garrison of the position. It is through them that everything is brought up to the fire trenches. Their trace should be curved or zig-zagged to give enfilade, and they should be narrow and deep enough to protect men walking in them., In some cases, as when ascending a slope towards the enemy,

53 they should be 'ro~fed 'over. It is necessary that they be well concealed from both ground arid air observation. This can be accomplished by sodding all bare earth, leading the trench
profi 1e of COII\'tnuni~atlo" Trench ol'\d. VlIethod. o~ conce4:it\~ by yunl'\ll'\& through low bu.he5 ..

aHm.g -hedge~. et~

FIG. 19

through screens of growing brush, roofing over, either partially With brushwood, or: with' an earth cover. The trench should , lJe just wide enough to permit of. men passing each other. Pigs. 19 and 20 shOw the profiles of communicating trenches.

II exposed to view of Enem!J~: roof over and conceal II .: possible, • .:.
'f -." '. ".•••

,...-;f.': 7~.::~,~-::!:~":~ ,-~-=:.:\~'.~ .. .. .~ .Mark out 4'wide. II exposed ::~ to fire on one 8ide only, throw : : all earth that Bide.

:to

,',

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,

FIG. 20

Communications:

A Passage Trench

for Foot Traffic

53.' Head cover. Protection, or cover from frontal or ,ol)lique fire, for th~ heads of riflemen in the act of firing over a parapet is called head cover. It follows, therefore, that some form of hole or opening must be left or made through the'
[65]

54-55

,

~

head cover to enable the men to fire. If such. a~ opening extends. to the top of the head cover, leaving it open at the top, it is called a notch, or rifle embrasure. An -example 0.£ this kind of head cover would be a line of sand bags placed: along the crest of the parapet with intervals of a few inches left between bags. The riflemen fire through these intervals, the left side of the head, and left shoulder being protected from hostile fire by the sand bag on the left side of the embrasure. 54. Loopholes. An opening in the head-cover is called a loop-hole when it does not extend to the top of the head cover. 55. Types of notches and loopholes. Figs. 22-23 show various types of notches and loopholes. Notches and loopholes, Figs. 22-24, are alike in all respects, except that the latter have a roof or top and the former have not. The bottom, also called floor or sole, is a part of the original superior slope. The sides, .sometimes called cheeks, are vertical or nearly so. The plan depends upon local conditions. There is always a narrow part called the throat, which is just large enough to take the rifle and permit sighting. From the throat the sides diverge at an angle, called the splay, which depends upon the field of fire necessary. The position of .the throat may vary. If on the outside, it is less conspicuous but more easily obstructed by injury to the parapet and more difficult to use, since in changing aim laterally the man must move around a pivot in the plane of the throat. I f the material of which the loophole is constructed ' presents hard' surfaces, the throat should be outside, notwithstanding the disadvantage of that position, or else the sides must be stopped, as in Fig. 24. In some cases it may be best to adopt a compromise position and put the throat in the middle, Fig. 24. Figs. 25 to 28 shows details and dimensions of a loophole of sand bags.
[66]

i p

55 (Cont'd.)
Throa .

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. I
S1le
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Fig. 22

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) Fig.2f
Fig. 26 Fig. 27

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• '"'~.-'~c'.".".'.:: ...• "io~ .• t." ...

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....

Fig. 29 ~

=- •

FIGS. 22-33

[671

,

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56-57

A serviceable form of loophole consists of a pyramidal box of plank with a steel plate spiked across the small end and pierced for fire. Fig. 29 shows a section of such a construction. It is commonly known as the' hopper loophole. ,The plate should be %-inch thick, if of special steel, or ~-inch if , ordinary metal. Fig. 30 shows the opening used by the J apan- , ese in Manchuria, and Fig. 3 I that used by the Russians. The construction of a notch requires only the introduction of some available rigid material to form the sides; by adding a cover the notch becomes a loophole. Various methods of supporting earth will be described under "Revetments." \Vhere the fire involves a wide lateral and small vertical angle; loopholes may take the form of a long slit. Such a form will result from laying logs or facines lengthwise on the parapet, sup- \ ported at intervals by sods or other mdatFe~ial, ig. 33, or small :~ F poles covered with earth may be use, Ig. 32. '~ 56. Advantages of head cover. The advantage of, head ',j. cover are protection for the hea,~ and shoulders of the rifle- ~ man in the act of firing, increased accuracy of fire restllting4 from a greater sense of security, and concealment of move- ~ ment behind the cover. ,~ 57. Disadvantages of head cover. The disadvantages~i of head cover are, difficulty of effectively concealing the loop- 1 holes or embrasures, owing to the increased height above the .~ ~ ground of the cover, and the conspicuous shadows resulting; reduction in the number of rifles that can. be crowded into the '; line in an emergency; inconvenience for leaving the trench ~ to charge or to meet the enemy with the bayonet; length of, '~ time and materials required to construct; and also the fact that they can be properly constructed only during the daytime. The disadvantages of head cover are such that it is practically never used for collective firing-that is, for the use of the entire trench garrison. The best practice is to confine the use of the rifle embrasures and loopholes to snipers and
[68]

I

.

S8
lookouts, and their construction and use will be discussed u,nder these heads. 58. Listening posts and look-outs. It is very necessary . that the garrison of the fire trench have as prompt warning as Possible of an 'attack by the enemy, or of any attempt on the part of the enemy to resort to mining operations. For this purpose men are posted as listeners and look-outs in advance of the fire trench, and as near to the enemy's trenches as possible. Since these men must remain on duty under artillery , and rifle fire, and in all kinds of weather, some protection from fire and the elements must be provided for them. This is done hy constructing listening posts and look-out stations. Passage to them is usually made by constructing a gallery under the , parapet of the fire trench which leads to the ditch in front of the parapet. From here the lookout or listener creeps forward to his post through the underbrush, or a shallow communicatiod trench is dug for him, or a gallery may be constructed all the way out. I f a trench is used, it should b~ well concealed, and no excavated earth shouH be visible. If the trench can be made to \run along a hedge or some other natural feature,' its presence may remain unnoticed. It is very necessary that the existence of the post be unknown to theeitemy, otherwise it will be made untenable by the enemy's hand grenades, or will l)e attacked at night. The post itself may at first, be only a shallow hole behind a bush or bank, but at the first opportunity better 'shelter should be afforded by the digging of a pit which is entirely roofed over'with brushwood, planks, corrugated iron, etc., and covered' with about 12 inches of earth. A slight parapet is huilt all around, and loopholes in this parapet on the three sides towards the enemies trench. Fig. 34 shows the construction of such a shelter pit. ( , As sentinels in these posts are often posted in 'pairs, the pit should be large e~ough to contain two men. I f possible a buzzer
[69]

I

59
wire should be run from it to fire trench for quick'signalling purposes. The post must, of course, be fully protected from

PIG. 3-1-

reverse rifle fire-that is, from fire from its own fire trench. This may be done by locating it in front of a natural mound of earth, by constructing a parados in rear of it, or, a listening post is often placed in an old shell crater. The listener should not carry any of his equipment other than rifle and belt, as the creaking made by it when he is in a cramped position may be mistaken by his comrades for mining. Listening should be conducted at specified times, or on some pre-arranged signal, and for a definite period. During this period all within the listening area-including the fire trenchmust remain absolutely motionless. As the enemy themselves will be throwing out listening. posts and lookouts, and thus have small detachments out in "No-l\fan's Land" between the trenches, it follows that he may discover the route of 'approach between the fire trench and the look-out or listening post. The communicating gallery under the parapet of the fire trench should therefore be carefully guarded. 59. Signboards. A system of field fortifications, such as has been developed in the present European war, is a maze in which it is very easy to become lost, and also hard to find one's
[7°1

60
way quickly to a given point unless very familiar with those particular trenches. This is particularly so, due to the fact that the character and appearance of the trenches is almost constantly undergoing a change through improvements and repairs. It is specially important that a strange orderly should be able to find his way to the officer in command of any fire trench.. Conlmunieation trenches and the tracks leading thereto should be provided with sign boards giving the name of the fire trench, and under the signboard should be hung another board giving the name of the organization at present occupying that particular fire trench. For exampleTo Fire Trench No. 7 65th Infantry. Other signboards are required pointing toTelephone shelters. Dressing stations. Reserve ammunition. Latrines. Reserve water. Tool depots. It is. even more important that everything be labeled clearly. at night than in daytime. To be of service at night the sign must be written on transparent paper affixed to a lantern. The lantern need only consist of a large tin can with a section cut out of one side over which the transparent paper is pasted, and a candle placed inside. They must be protected f rOI11 heavy rain, and men must be detailed to keep them lit. Shelters must have signs on them giving the maximum number of men to be accommodated, and should be numbered to make it easier to find and awake reliefs. 60. Supporting points.1 These are small but strong redoubts placed several hundred yards in rear of the fire trenches,
'The term "supporting point" same term as used In Par. 15. as here used must not be confused wittl the

[7I]

"

61.62.63
and on ground which gives considerable command and field of fire. If the fire trenches be taken, the enemy must capture the supporting points before he can pass between them. They' are usually entirely roofed over and plentifully supplied with machine guns. Located in these supporting points are the observation stations for commanders of sections of the line,' and the telephone centrals. They are approached by covered galleries from support or second line trenches in rear. They must be very carefully concealed with sod, brush, bushes, etc., .so that the enemy will not be aware of their existence until he comes under their fire, and also in order to avoid damage to them by areoplanes. 61. Revetments. A revetment is a covering or facing placed upon an earth slope to enable it to stand at an inclination greater than its natural inclination. . By natural inclination is meant the slope it will assume eventually, not the slope to which it can be cut with tools. Steep interior slopes are easier to fire over, give better cover, and increase the space available. Some revetments also give increased tenacity of slopes and diminish the injury from fire. The upper part of the revetment which may be struck by shots have penetrated the cover of earth must not be made of material of large units or which splinter when struck. Sand bag revetments are the best for this purpose. The construction of the upper part of the revet-. ment is often r~ferred to as crowning. 62. Board revetments. \Vhere boards, posts and nails can be obtained, this ~akes the best form of revetment, and the quickest constructed. Posts are planted against the slope . to be revetted, and the boards nailed on il!side the posts. Posts must be anchored into the slope. This can be done by wire twisted into cables fastened to the posts, and passing around hold fasts of timbers sunk in the parapet or groul1d. 63. Sand-bag revetments. A sand bag is about 33 inches long and 14 inches wide. In use it is loosely filled with earth
[72]

.,,:~~~.,,:, ~::lI:~~eJe~;,e ~~~: ;~r,-, :::i~~;t~:
_
FIG. 36

or sand, and having been placed in position is roughly flattened with a shovel to rectangular form, in which. it fills a space about 20XI3x5 inches. The bags, when filled, weigh about 65 pounds each. The revetment is constructed by laying the filled bags as stretch- I, .~~.:~ ... ,-~.~~, _ ers and headers, or as headers, " " - -' alone. The top row, or the crown, ~ should . always be headers. The FIG. 35 openings of the bags are tied or folded over. The tied ends of headers and the seams 'of stretchers should always be in the parapet, or against the earth. Sand bags give no splinters, and are conveniently used for the entire revetment when necessary .. As they are more readily transported than corresponding quantities of any other revetting material, they are of great importance in field fortification. Sand bags are so valuable for crowning and repairs that the stock on hand should 110t be exhausted in original construction if anything else is at hand. Fig .. 35 indicates the appearance of a sand-bag revetment as seen from the front and from the end. 64. Sod revetment. A convenient size to cut sods is , II8x9x40 inches. If tough they may be cut larger, but the length should be twice the breadth. I f the grass is" long it should be mowed before cutting the sad. They are laid, grass down, in courses, alternately. all headers and stretchers, the latter double with broken joints .. The top course is laid grass up, and all headers. Sod revetment will " .. "" "" not stand quite as steep as sandI

I ,,~ " ~

64

I _. .-.. :, --::

pared at the proper

steeper if the soil is such that it will stand. A bed should be preinclination to receive the bottom course,
[73]

65-66

and give it the right pitch. I £ the sods show a tendency t~ slip, -they may be pinned together with wooden pickets. Fig. 36 shows an elevation and section of a sod revetment. 65 .. Brush work. Brush is used in many forms of revetting. 'Any kind will do, but the best is willow, birch, ash, \ hickory, or hazel. For weaving it must be live, and it is most pliable when not in leaf. Split bamboo of pliable dimensions, reeds, or similar vegetation may be considered as a form of . brush in all revetment construction. Brush for weaving should not be more than an inch in diameter at the butt; that which is to be used straight may be larger than this. In cutting, crush should be assorted in sizes for the various uses, and made into bundles of 40 to 60 pounds, the butts in one direction. Poles of 20 inches in diameter at the butt, or larger, are not bundled, but are piled together to be used for posts and similar purposes. The amount of .labor required to cut brush will depend on whether it is plentiful or scarce in the locality, hard or soft, crooked or straight, thick or thin. A rough average may be taken at 6 bundles per man per hour. The men work in pairs, one cutting, and the other sorting, piling, and tying. l\fachetes or bolos are better for cutting than axes or hand axes. The tools should be sharp. 66. Fascines. A fascine is a cylindrical bundle of brush, closely bound. The usual length is 18 feet, and the diameter

,

FIG.

37

9 inches when compressed. Lengths of 9 and 6 feet, which are sometimes used, are most conveniently obtained by sawing a standard fascine into 2 or 3 pieces. The weight of a fascine
[74]

66 (eontd.)
140 pounds. Fascines are madein a cradle which consists of 5 trestles, as shown in Fig. 37. A trestle is made of 2 sticks about 60 feet long, and 3 inches in diameter, driven into the ground and lashed at intersection, as shown in Fig. 38 . . In making a cradle, plant the end trestles 16 feet apart and parallel, stretc1i a line f r0111one to the other over the intersection, and place the others 4 feet apart, lashing them so that each intersection comes fairly to the line. To build a fascine, straight pieces of brush, 1 or 2 inches at the butt, are laid on, the butts projecting at the end 1 foot beyond the trestle . . Leaves should be stripped and unruly branches cut off, or partially cut through so they wi11lie close. The larger straighter brush should be laid on the outside, butts alternating in direction, and the. smaller stuff in the center. The general object is to so dispose the brush as to make the fascine of uniform size, strength, and stiffness from end to end. \Vhen the cradle is nearly filled the fascine is compressed or choked by the fascine choker, (Fig. 38), which consists of 2 bars, 4 feet long, joined at 18 inches from the ends by a chain or heavy rope 4 feet long. The chain or rope is marked at 14 inches each way f ~om the middle by .inserting a ring or special link, or string marker. To use, 2 men stand. ing on opposite sides pass the chain under the brush, place the sho;t ends of the handles on top, and pass the bars, short end first, across to each other. They then bear down on the long ends until the marks on the chain or rope come together. Binding is' done with a douhle turn of wire or rope. It should be done in 12 places, 18 inches apart, the end hinders 3 FIG. 38 inches outside the end trestles. To bind a fascine will require about (i) feet of wire. Improvised

will average

[75]

66 (Contd.)
~--If-I I I :
$TART\NG, PO~IT'ON'

138'
I , I 3'6"

DIAGRAM
SE=GTION
I

1.

1
I I

A

~ __ .J_ *- - -

r'
1_'''' --------1.1:: ...

I

~- -17' I 1 _..1 •

r
I

-----eeG',lLLOW5 .

,c.

")1'
I

I

I~
I~
, ... .SEC::T.OI'I

I I ~ _1_
3'__ 1~ 3... _,_ fo~

B

f--,3'

I

f I

i

J

I
I

~;1' I

* -l-4 ---.:_-_-...-'
I
J

I

---_:GAU.Ow'S.

I
I

f27'

I

5~CT'OI'<

C,

i~ {-,---====-:::=.==1
Diagram I.-Type of Simple "Final Assault Pra'ctice" It is attacked both ways, and the positions [761

66 (Contd.)'

D'AGRAM

1.

5fCTIOW"

B

5TAto<,"-

ANc..HOR~O
~ GROUND (CLO'ioE"1'O OU""MY) wiTH 'T V ~ )( 's H E A. 0'.

I'"
• F0 ~

'PRAt.TI(.INC.""THf

,JAB".

or ,the

Course used at the Hd.-Qrs. Gymnasium, Aldershot trench sack dummies are varied. [77]

--.~
'.

1

67-68-69 binders may be m'ade of rods of live brush. After the fascine is choked and bound saw the ends off square 9 inches' outside the end binders. After a cradle is made, and brush at hand, 4 men can mak~ a fascine per hour with wire binding. " 67. A fascine revetment is made by placing the fascines. as shown in Fig. 39. The use of headers and anchors is absolutely necessary in loose soils only, but they greatly strengthen the revetment in any case. A :~ I: l,r'_i;:;:!1~r=¥ fascine revetment must always
be crO'Zt'Jled with sand bags or sod. 68. Terms used in brush weaving. Ralldillg.-Weaving FIG. 39 a single rod in and out between I pic k e t s. Sle'wing.-\Veaving h\!o or more rods together in the same way. Pairillg.-Carrying two rods together, crossing each other in and out at each picket. TVattling.-A general term applied to the woven part of brush construction.

in Fig 40. Brush is then woven in ~--'-Jl:.:;~~ e.O and out and well compacted. The FIG. 40 concave side of the hurdle should be placed next the earth, straightening it out when doing so. It warps less than if made flat. In weaving the hurdle begin randing at the , middle space at the bottom. Reaching the encl, twist the rod, bending it around the 'end picket, and work back. Start a
[78]

llillll ll''___~_:;-~ II :~a:~~ :~ef.i~::s~: :~~e~~~~nf ~~~h~: ;~;;;_
desired height of slope. A hurdle is made by describing on the ground an arc of a circle 'of 8 feet radius, and

69. Hurdles. A hurdle is a basket wo~k made of brushwood. If made in pieces the usual size is 2 feet <) inches by 6 feet, though the width may be varied so that it will cover the

69 (Contd.)

la' I

I

STARTINC

TRENCH

OR UNE.

DIAGRAM
DIAGRAM .2. EXAMPLE

2..
OF SHORT COMMUNICATION TRENCHES.

Which should form where, owing to lack of bayonet in the contined a convenient distance. bayonet work.

part of the usual Final Assault Practice course: ground, a "labyrinth" for daily practice with the space of. a trench cannot be constructed within On arrivai in France drafts are tested in trench [79]

69 (Contd.)

I ~

~~~-

.•.-

Diagram 3.-Type of "Nursery" Labyrinth The positions of the sack dummies are frequently changed. The ground . the men practised in clearing such "cramped" [80]
4

I,

69 (Contd.)
5£0<:;'"

ION

~

{

~/!I!I//!I!/II/!lntl~~~~~\\\\\\\\\\\\\\~ I~~' 6"-~
SECTION

F

I

"--

-

Cf~

I

DIAGRAI'1

3.
at the lId.-Qrs. Gymnasium, Aldershot. J(:tween the trenches is pitted with craters" containing &round as well as in clearing the trenches.
~lled
Il

dummies, and

[81]

/-

69 (Contd.)

DIAGRAM
DIAGRAM

4.

4. "0VERGROUND LABYRINTH" FOR PRACTICE IN WET \VEATHER. It can be constructed with six-foot hurdles, or canvas screens, or any materials which will give the approximate shape and the narrow limits of trenches. The example above requires 102 six-foot hurdles. which may be set up on fresh ground, and also made to represent various schemes of trenches. The sack dummies should be placed in such a position that the attacker does 1I0t see thelll. Six extra communicating trenches may take the place of craters.

[82J

69 (Contd.)
Pad can be made out of a piece of canvas, stuffed wit h shredded sacking and wired into groove cut in stick. Rope thrusting ring, constructed like a deck quoit.

~ 3"

DIAGRAM

5.

FIG. 5. PARRYING-STICK WITH "THRUSTING RING" AND "PAD." For use:(a)' On the "master and pupil" principle, for practising in two ranks the "Long Point," "Short Point," and "] ab," according to the position of the ring, alternating with butt strokes and kicks at the pad, according to its position. (b) In charging practice, when both ranks, extended to 3 vards' interval and 20 yards' distance, use the padded ends. Men of one rank charge at a steady double and "point" at opposite men, who "parry." Charging rank halts 20 yards beyond, turns about and charges again, the other rank facing about to meet it. The slight lateral movement required to "parry" is clearly demonstrated in this practice.

'4I

60'-

-

--'>I
I

DIAGRAM

0.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF BAYONET TRAINING IN A BARRACK-ROOM IN \VET \VEATHER.

SQUADS

Sack dummies can he hung from rafters or frames constructed for' the purpOSl', or be laid two deep on bed cots or upon the floor.

70.71.72'
second rod before the first one is quite out, slewing the two for a short distance. Hammer the wattling, down snug on the pickets with a block a f wood, and v continue until the top is FIG. 41 reached. I f the hurdle is not to be used at once, or if it is to be transported, it must be sewed. The sewing is done with wire, twine, or wither at each end, and in the middle. with stitches aLout 6 inches long. as shown in Fig. 4 I. Three men should make a hurdle in 2 hours, 2 wattling, and the third preparing the rods. 70. Continuous hurdle. If conditions permit the revetment to Le built in place, the hurdle is made continuous for considerable lengths. The pickets may be l~rger; they are driven farther apart, 12 to 18 inches; and the brush may be heavier. The construction is more rapid. The pickets' are driven with a little more slant than is intended for the COI11pleted revetment, and must be anchored to the parapet. A line of poles with wire attached at intervals of 2 or 3 pickets will answer. The wires should be made fast to the pickets after the 'wattling is done, as they will interfere with weaving if fastened sooner. Two men should make 4 yards of continuous hurdle of ordinary.lleight in one hour. ' 71. Brush revetment. Pickets may be set up as aLove described and the brush laid inside of them without weaving, being held in place by bringing the earth up with it. In 'this case the anchors must be fastened before the brush laying begins. The wires are not much in the way in this operation. 72. Gabions. A gabion is a cylindrical basket with open ends, made of brush woven on pickets or stakes as described

, \

,

73-74 for hurdles. The usual size iS2 feet outside diarA~ter,' and 2 feet 9 inches height of wattling. On account of the sharp' curvature somewhat better brush is required for gabiens than will do for hurdles.

I

,73. The gabion form (Fig. 42) is of wood, 2 feet in diameter, with equidistant notches around the circumference, equal in number to the number of pickets to be used. usually 8 to 14; less if the brush is large and stiff, more if it is small and pliable. The notch~s should be made such depth that the pickets will project I inch outside the circle, The pickets should be 154 to I J4 inches in ,diameter, 3 feet 6 inches long, and sharpened, half at the small end and hal f at the large end.
,
'

To make a gabion. The form is placed on the ground, level or nearly so, and the pickets driven vertically in the notches, large and small ends down alternately. The form is then raised a foot, and held by placing a lashing of rope around outsid.e the pickets, tightening with a rack stick (see Fig. 43). The wattling is randed or slewed from the form up. The form is then dropped down, the gabion inverted, 'a'nd the wattling completed. If the brush is small, uniform, and pliable, pairing will make a better wattling than randing, If not' for immediate use the gabion must be sewed as described for hurdles. The gabion, when wattled and sewed is completed by cutting off the tops of the pickets I inch from I ' the web, ~nd driving a carrying picket through the middle of , its length, and a little on one side of the axis. See that the middle of this picket is smooth. Three men should make a gaLion in an hour. Gabions may be made without the forms, but the work is slower and not so good. The circle is struck on the ground an,d the pickets driven at the proper points. The weaving is
[85]

74.

FIG. 42

75
done from the ground up, and the entire time' of one man is required to keep the pickets in the proper position .. 75. Gabion revetment. The use of gabions in revetments IS shown in Fig:' 44.' I f more than two tiers are used, the

FIG. 43

separating fascines should be anchored back. GaLion revetments should be crowned with sand-bags or sods. The advantages of the gaLion revetment are very great. It can be put _

FIG. 4~

in place without extra labor and faster and with less exposure than any other. It is self supporting, and gives cover from view, and partial protection from fire quicker than any other form. [86J

I

, ,.

76-77-78-79

I

.,76. Wire and canvas revetment. A very good revetment. for the sides of communicating trenches, supervision trenches, etc., where there is not much leaning against the wall, consists of canvas or cheap burlap held against the earth by wjre net. ting stretched on stakes. Stakes are first planted clo~e to the Wall, ~bout three feet apart, then the canvas or burlap is run along the earth wall inside of the poles, and on top of the canVas and also inside the poles is stretched the wire netting tacking it to the poles. This revet~ent has very little sustaining power, but in soils containing clay which will stand. well without revetting it preserves the soil from crumbling, and n1akes the trench very much cleaner. 77. Miscellaneous revetments. Any receptacles for earth which will make a stable, compact pile, as boxes, barrels, baskets, oil cans, may be, used for a revetment. Poles too large to use in any other way, or logs, may be cut to length and stood on end. Doors and sides of small houses may be available. I f the soil will make adobe, or sun dried bricks, an excellent revehnent can be made of them, but it will not stand wet weather well. . 78. Drainage. Some. system of drainage is absolutely necessary in trenches, otherwise heavy rains would fill them with water and render them untenable. The mud also would be an almost continual nuisance, and even a menace to health. Drains must therefore be cut, leading from the lowest poipt in. the trenches out to some low land without the trenches. These ., drains may be ditches or tunnels, or regular pipes should be . laid. They must be kept open and clear at all times. In certain localities it may be necessary to install pumps in the trenches, and pump the water off some distance. Small quantities of ) water, and local mud puddles can be gotten rid of by bailing out the water. 79. Obstacles. Obstacles are used in front of fire trenches to attain, if possible, the following objects:
[87]

80
attacking

(a)

Break up the unity troops.

of action thus isolated under

and cohesion

of thl

(b) Deflect the parties fields of fire. ' (c) fender. Arrest the attackers

into the best swep

the close fire of the de-

Obstacles should be under fire throughout every yard of their length, and within close range of the defenders. In practice no lJortion of an obstacle should be farther than about 100 yards from the fire which commands it at night. And yet they should not permit the approach of the attacking line too close to the fire. trench, as the enemy, although stopped, may be able to throw. hand grenades from the farther edge of the obstacle into the works. These requirements place the obstacles from 75 to 150 yards in front of the fire trenches. The obstacles should not betray the firil'ig points, and should be concealed so that the enemy will come on them as a surprise. The obstacles should not be continuous, for if they are, it wiII be as impossible for the defenders to penetrate them for an attack as it is for the enemy. Gaps are therefore left in them, these gaps being mined, or closed with knife-rest entanglements (Fig. 48) and should have machine guns trained on them. 80. Wire entanglement. (Figs. 45 and 46) 'Vire en. tangl~mcnts are being used on all fronts in Europe more than any other kind of obstacle. \Vire may be used in the following ways: ' As a trip wire,-st'retched just above ground, or fastened . in loose coils to short pickets. Flares and ala~m guns may be used in connection with the former. A simple fence,-to at night. cause delay and confusion to the enemy crops or long

I

As a concealed obstacle in fords and standing grass. [881

I

, .

81-82

As an adjunct to tree and brushwood entanglement. , As a wire entanglement solely. Wire entanglement is the best of all obstacles for the following reasons: Easily and quickly made. It is difficult to destroy. It offers no obstruction to fire and view of the defenses. 81., Low wire entanglement. Low wire entanglement. may be constructed as follows: StOttt stakes (2 feet 6 inches long, 10 to 2 inches diameter) are driven into the ground at 6 foot intervals. There should be, at least, three rows, arranged so that the stakes in one row ,are opposite the centers of gaps in the next row. The heads of the stakes are' connected by strong wires crossing diagonally from 12 to 18 inches above the ground. 82.' High wire entanglement. In connection with high wire entanglement, the following must be borne in mind: (a) To be effective the wire obstacle should prevent the enemy from crawling through it, at or near the ground level. I t should be screened from enemy artillery observation. (b) Whenever time is limited, it is best to confine the first stage to just so many strands as will form a nucleus to the whole entanglement, in order that the required area may be covered by obstacle before serious interruption occurs. ( c) The obstacle is best' constructed in two zones. with a small space between. The pickets should be from 5 to 8 feet long, and average 5 inches in diameter. They should be placed at irregular intervals and with varying heights, in order to make more,difficult the passage over them by means of hurdles and planks. The outer pickets should be very firmly driven and stayed to prevent" the enemy dragging the obstacle away. Large nails should be driven into the tops of the posts, with \ half their length projecting.
[89]

I

82 (Contd.)
HIGH \VIRE ENTANGLEMENT.

FIG. 46 (Showing fesloolls of barbed wire, bro~'eH glass bolllC's, fishhool.s, elc.)

[901

83
(d) The posts are first joined diagonally,-head to foot and foot to head,-with wire, which is wound round each post and secured by staples. Each center post should be stayed by' four wires. There should be a trip wire inches from t~e ground, running continuously around the outer po~ts, and another I foot from the top of the middle posts. Darbed wire should be hung in festoons between the posts,on no fixed pattern,-and fastened to the posts. It should also ue fastened to the other wire where it crosses by short lengths -of wire spccially cut beforchand. I f available, add dangling fishhooks.- Slack wircs are more hindrance whcn cut than taut \vires. Tight wires help enemy advance by giving support to hurdles, etc. The ground on the enemy side and \vithin the entanglement should be strewn with broken glass and tangled wire. I (e) The whole system of entanglement should be under fire from special firing points, and should be widest where the fire of the defenders is, least effective at night . . There should be one sentry, at least, to each 50 yards of entanglcment. It should be constantly borne in mind that wires must not be taut.

9

FIG.

(N ate poil/ted

branches

47 al/d festoons

of wire.)

83. Abatis. Abatis is another effective obstacle, commonly used. It is formed of fellcd trees, laid side by side as far as possiblc, with thcir branches towards the encmy.
[91 ]

84 (a) Ahatis should be in a hollow, screened froin view, as this makes the obstacle more formidable. (b) The butts of trees should be firmly secured by burying-them in the earth, or by laying logs of timber across several butts. ( c) \Vire and barbed wire should be interlaced between the boughs, which should be sharpened to points on the enemy side. Some of the lower branches may be pegged to the ground to insure the maximum resistance. 84. Knife-rest entanglement. It often happens that due to the fire of the enemy, and his activity at night, it is impossible for the garrison to get out in front of their trenches, even at night, to construct or repair obstacles. In such cases knife-rest entanglements, as shown in Fig. 48, can be con-

FIG.

48 at Night.)

"Kni fe-rest"

(Made il~ the Trellches

Entanglement. alld Pushed ill to Position

structed in the trenches, and pushed up over the parapet into the ditch. They may either be left there, or advantage may be taken of opportune times to have men crawl out in front, pushing the entanglements in front of them to the desired point . in advance of the trenches. The entanglement can be made as long as can be conveniently handled. \Vhen in position it should be from 3 to 4 feet high. These knife-rest entangle-

£921

84 (Contd.)
l11ents can also be used to fill gaps in the obstacles, can be removed when desired by pulling them out by ,logs which extend to the rear, but which cannot be from the front. Thus the gaps can be opened for the of the defenders when desired. as they the long reached advance ,

[93]

85-86

CHAPTER II. THE SERVICE OF THE TRENCHES.!
I

85. Routine of duty. \Vhen t\~o armies face each other in trenches, and the power of each to maneuver has become greatly restricted, a certain routine of duty is instituted in, and in rf':lr of, the trenches. By no means are all of the troops. on the firing line. There must also be troops in the support trenches, in reserve near the trenches, engaged in the construction of new works, and resting. in billets or cant0nments. There will also be new troops in billets or cantonments receiving their final training before going into the trenches. As service in the trenches is particularly trying on the troops, both physically and mentally, an organization is never kept long therein, particularly in the fire trenches. This results in a system of relief by organizations. Thus a regiment may be detailed in reserve, or in support trenches for four or five days. It may then go back to its billets for several days, and then go into the fire trenches for four or five days. Af"ter this it usually goes into its billets again for ten days or two weeks for recuperation, exercise and training. 86. Billeting. In billeting the troops are quartered 011 the inhabitants, a. certain number of men being assigned to each house, according to its capacity. The soldiers are taken in by the inhabitants of the town, village, or farm and provided with sleeping accommodations. Nothing more is required of the, inhabitants than that they provide sufficient space on the floor for sleeping, that the room be heated in cold weather, and that the men be provided with water for drinking and washing purposes. Infantry, a general rule, is billeted in villages,

as

1 The subject special reference \Vestern front.

of the service of the trenches as presented in this chapter has to the conditions obtaining in Europe today, particularly on the

[941

- 87-88-89
\

and mounted troops in surrounding farms where stabling and suitable provision can be obtained for horses. 87. Billeting areas. Organizations are' assigned to certain localities for billeting, called billeting areas, their limit being in effect the limits of the camp of that organization. Enlisted men are not allowed outside the billeting areas without a pass. The headquarters of the organization is located in Some central position in the area. Enlisted men must know the location' of their regimental and company headquarters. In the e~emy's country inhabitants in billeting areas are not allowed to leave them, so as to prevent information being given to the enemy; and all soldiers should be warned about giving the inhabitants any information, or of talking in their presence.' A place of assembly for each company should be designated in case of alarm-usually the company headquarters. Companies are kept together, and officers must be billeted near their men. It may be necessary to post sentries around the area. 88. Billeting parties. These consist usually of an officer from the regiment, an interpreter if necessary, and a sergeant from each company' They proceed to the village in advat,lce of the troops, where they confer with the mayor or head man. The latter always knows the accommodations of each house, and can quickly indicate the area necessary and give a list of the houses to the representative of each organization. The 'party then meets the troops on arrival, and points out the location and capacity of each billet to the company' commanders. The mayor should be informed of the probable length of stay of the command. The men should be gotten into billets as quickly as possible, as they will be tired. A certain place is designated for the kitchens of organizations. 89. Discipline in billets. The men must be impressed with the fact that the comfort and privacy of the inhabitants 'must be interfered with as little as possible, even in the enemy's
[95]

. ,

, 90.91.92'
country. All violence, disorder,' insults and looting must be sternly suppressed. \Vhen going into billets for the first time the men must be warned about this, and made to realize the comparatively trivial offenses for which the death penalty can be inflicted in time of war. In Europe any offense committed against the inhabitants in a billet, no matter how trivial, is most ' severely dealt with. Smoking is not allowed in barns. 90. - Sanitation in billets. The billets must be kept and left scrupulously clean. Troops must not use the latrines of the inhabitants. Latrines must be dug, and all men must know their location. These latrines must be filled in and marked before leaving. In cities special arrangements are made. Refuse must be burnt, but care taken that smoke does not disclose the position if near the enemy. If water is known to be impure troops should be warned, and the inhabitants may be required to provide boiled water. 91. Precautions in billets. ~rrangements must be made' beforehand as to procedure in case of fire, artillery attacks, hostile aeroplanes, etc. In some places it is possible for the men to obtain liquor from the inhabitants. In Europe many farms and villages make their own beer and wine. Only light beer in restricted quantities should be allowed, and everything else sternly repressed. .

I

TAKING

OVER

THE

TRENCHES.

92. Equipment of troops in trenches. All troops enter the trenches fully equipped. The men's belts are filled with ammunition, and each man carries two extra bandoleers. Officers should check periscopes, range finders, intrenching tools including wire .cutters, field glasses, water carriers,' stretchers, emergency rations, gas helmets, rifle accessorie'i and cleaning material, sand-bags, and ammunition and see that the canteens are filled.
(96]

.93-94-95 93. Before leaving billets. Company commanders should . explain fully to the platoon .leaders and sergants the extent of the trench to be taken over, the portion assigned to each platoon, and the steps to be taken in case they are caught' by shelling or rapid fire while going up to the trenches. Arrangements should be made so that if casualties occur among leaders .the relief will still proceed as arranged. 94. Time of relief. The garrison of the fire trench is usually relieved during the night, but it is necessary for certain parts of the new organization to arrive in the trenches early the day before so as to become familiar with matters during daylight. The regimental commander and staff, the signallers, the trench runners, and the machine gun company will go in first, probably early in the day. The general relief is at nightearly enough to allow the regiment relieved to get away before dawn. Companies go up at intervals by communicating trenches, starting at dusk. The interval between companies should be . at least half an hour, otherwise, with the unavoidable delays, the head of ~ne company closes up on the one ahead of it, and no time is left for the company relieved to get out. As the . trenches are designed to accommodate but one man per yard, this gives great congestion. If there is more than one communicating trench available things are naturally much easier, as one can be used as an exit. 95. The regimental commander. \Vho enters the trenches the morning before his command goes in, must at once set about learning the geography of the trenches. He must know each company sector, and the position of each company / and battalion headquarters. He must obtain all information known about the enemy in his immediate front, their trenches, their recent activities, and their probable intentions. He must know the weak points in his trenches, and the portions on which work should be done. He must inspect the depots of
[97]

96.97.98-99
supplies and the lines of communication. location of the next higher headquarters. He must know the

96. Signallers. They must bring their equipment, hicluding telephones and buzzers, with them, and must learn the location of all phones, the central station, and the location of the wires. There is usually a central at the regimental commander's headquarters, and a phone for each battalion and company headquarters. The new instruments must be installed and tested. If wires are run double each line must be tested. \Vhen companies come in in the evening signallers must report to regimental headquarters immediately a company relief is completed. (See, par. 2 I I.)

97. Trench runners. These are small, active men detailed as orderlies.' They are trained to run fast through the trenches, are used as messengers, and are specially useful in case the telephone system breaks down. They must thoroughly learn the geography of the trenches so that they can find their way anywhere on the run, by night as well as by day. They must know the location of every organization and officer, all signboards, and the shortest and quickest route to every place.
98. Machine-gun company. The machine gun company must know its location and distribution. Centralization of control ,,,,ill probably be impossible, and each. gun crew will have to look out for itself. The commander must learn the location of all emplacements, the extent of fire from each emplacement, and the pQints in front, such as openings through obstacles, which must be specially guarded with'machine guns; where flank fire may be necessary, dangerous points on which guns must be trained, particularly at night; and the location of ammunition depots. places where magazines or belts can be filled, etc.
,

During the relicf of fire trcnches men should make no noise, and thc rifles tltltst be carried so
99. Company reliefs.

[98J

100 that they do not show o'ver the parapet. This is necessary even if the enemy's trenches are at a distance, as there is always the
possibility of a' listening or lookout post. being quite near. Platoons are conducted to the particular bays of the fire trench they are to garrison. The officers consult the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge of the outgoing party, and obtain the fullest possible information with regard to the position. Each man should pair off with one of the party occupying the trench, and find out from him any points which may be useful. The reliefs for the listening and lookout posts are first sent out in order that the new men may have as much time as possible to get pointers from the old men before the outgoing party is withdrawn. The old sentinels at listenil;g and lookout posts are withdrawn last, just before the outgoing party marches off. In the meantime the incoming party should fix bayonets, and all go temporarily on sentry duty in the bays taken over. Occasional shots must be fired so that the enemy's suspicions may not be aroused. The outgoing company then starts back, and when clear the incoming company arranges its details and posts its regular sentries. By day the number of sentries varies, but there should not be less than one to each bay, and one or two to each listening and lookout post. At night all sentries are posted double. Everyone is on the alert and ready for the hour just before dusk, and the hour before dawn. The platoon guide (sergeant) has charge of the posting of sentinels, who should be on duty for not more than one hour at a time.

100. ,Information which an incoming should obtain from the outgoing officer.

company

officer

(a) Behavior of the enemy during the period preceding , relief, and any point in their line requiring special information, e. g., the enemy may have cut wire entanglements as though preparing to attack.

101
(b) Machine-gun emplacements may be suspected at some particular point. These points should be known so that a smothering fire may be concentrated on them if they open up. (c) Anything ascertained by patrols about the' ground \', between the firing lines, thus avoiding unnecessary reconnaissance. ( d) Any standing arrangement for patrols at night, including point at which wire entanglements can best be passed) ground to be patrolled, or places where they can lie und~r cover. (e) Any parts of the trench from which it is not safe to fire. Such positions are apt to occur in winding trenches, and are not always recognizable in the dark. ( f) Special features of trench, recent improvements, work not completed, dangerous points (on which machine guns are' trained at night), ami useful loop-holes for observation. (g) Places from which wood and water can be safely obtained. .
I

(h) Amount of ammunition, number of picks, shovels, and empty sand-bags in that section of the line. Information on these points cannot always be given properly by word of mouth. The outgoing officer should make it a point of duty to hand over to the incoming officer complete written notes and plans covering these, and all other points of importance. There will not be much time to talk things ovt.'T as the outgoing company must hurry to get Ollt of the trenches so as not to block the, communicating trenches for the incoming troops and cause' conD'estion at the firing points.

ROUTINE

TRENCH

DUTIES.

101. Control. Centralization of control is impossible in the trenches. The most important individual is the platoon commander. Everything depends upon him. The company
[100]

102-103.10

4

commander is connected with regimental headquarters, perhaps 200 yards in rear, by telei)hone, but front line trenches are so narrow, winding, and crowded that it may take him 15 minutes or more to visit all parts of his company line. An officer can see no farther than the particular bay which he is , in, and he can control no more than two, or at the very best, three bays. The company commander therefore has to depend, both in emergency and for routine' work, on his platoon commanders. Regimental, battalion and company commanders will be obliged to limit their activities to inspections of the line, and suggestions and directions to the platoon commanders. 102. Specialists' work. \Vhat may be termed the work of specialists, such as snipers, grenadiers, signallers, machine~ guns and demolitions will be dealt with at length in subsequent chapters. It is intended here to give a general idea of the daily routine of the trenches so far as pertains to straight infantry work. 103. Day and night work. Daylight is the time for rest in the trenches. Almost all the work and activities occur at night, everyone being on the alert and hard at. ',,"ork. There are two reasons for this: First, serious attacks and raids are practically impossible during the daytime, unless preceded by extensive artillery preparation. It is too costly in men. Second, very little work can be done on the trenches during daylight. At this time a single shovel of earth thrown from the trench on to the parapet is sufficient to draw fire. The snipers and trench mortars alone are' active during the daytime, and the snipers are almost the only soldiers' who get any sleep at night. 104. Sentinels in fire trenches. There are two classes of sentinels, those in the fire trenches, and those posted in advance of the trenches in the listening and lookout posts. The posts of sentinels and special orders relating thereto will probably be controlled by regimental orders, but this does not relieve the
[ror]

104 (Contd.)
platoon commander from responsibility for the safety of his sector of the trenches. Sentinels are posted in each bay of the fire trench. A single sentinel is usually posted in daytime, and a double one at night. They stand usually on the firing bench where they can look out over the ground in front, either through a periscope or a specially prepared loop-hole, the latter usually having a steel shield. Periscopes and loop-holes must , be well hidden so that they cannot be discovered by the enemy's snipers. At night the sentinels look out over the top of the parapet, but must be careful in doing so that they withdraw their heads, and do not expose themselves when the enemy sends up flares and rockets. The sentinel may observe when the rocket is going up, but not when it is coming down, as it is then that it lights up his own trench like day. The duties'l of sentinels in fire trenches are generally as follows: (a) To warn the garrison of any indications of attack, or, of the presence of hostile aeroplanes.' (b) To inform the platoon commander at once of any unusual activity in the enemy's trench. (c ) To. warn , tbhe'gbarrison of an impending gas attack, and." o f t he commg 0 f om s. (d) To assist snipers by observing for them, and indicating, to them the results of their shots. I f a sentinel sees an attack starting he will call, "To arms I" in as loud a voice as possible. I f hostile aeroplanes appear he will blow his whistle once. \Vhen the aeroplane disappears he blows three blasts. It a gas attack is imminent, he strikes the gong provided for this purpose, this gong being usually made of an empty artillery shell. In case he sees a bomb thrown from the opposing trench he yells, "Bomb coming I" At night there is also a sentinel posted who patrols the entire section of trench, keeps order, sees that there is no congestion or blocking of any of the trenches, and keeps the lantern signs lighted and in order.
[102]

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105 '

'105. Sentinels at listening and lookout posts. Such posts are in advance of the fire trenches, and are reached by galleries, communicating trenches, or ways through brush covered or defiladed ground. They may be regularly prepared positions with head cover, or simply a hole, crater, or place behind a bush in which to lie. The sentinels are usually posted double, both day and night, and should if possible be connected with the sentinel in the nearest bay by a buzzer wire or telephone, so that they can quickly signal back any information relative to impending attacks. These sentinels should not carry any accoutrements out with them other than rifle, ammunition, , and canteen, as the creaking made by equipments is liable to be mistaken for mining. . At specified times during the day and night, or on some prearranged signal, for a definite period, all within the listening area-including the fire trenches-must remain absolutely motionless. Everyone listens intently. TVhat to listen and look for. e a) Noise of digging, drilling, or voices underground indicates that the enemy is attempting to mine the trenches. Infantry in the fire trenches can assist in listening for mining by . digging a small pit 6 feet deep below the trench, and running out a tunnel or bore-hole from the pit, 20 feet to the front. (b) Indications of gas attack are: The attack takes place only in calm weather with a slight wind blowing from the enemy's trenches towards our own. Sometimes there can be heard in'the enemy's trenches a sound of sheet iron being moved about. Preparations can be observed the whole length of the enemy's trench. Little balloons, or little puffs or smoke which are sent up in rear of the enemy's trenches to indicate the direction of the wind are sure indications of a gas attack. vVhen the attack starts a prolonged hissing can be heard; this is one of the indications by night. ( c)' The moment of relief can be recognized by the slack'ening of rifle fire, the sound of voices, the silhouettes which
[103]

106.107.108

defile at night at certain points'where the interior 6f the trenches are visible, or communicating trenches are impassable. It can always be seen when there has been a relief by the change in attitude and habits of the enemy. 'By repeating the obser~ vation\one can recognize the days of relief. To give rough ,~ treatment to the enemy arriving for the relief is the best way to intimidu.te hitp during the whole of his stay in the trenches. j Only specially selected men are detailed as, sentinels atl listening and lookout posts. It is extremely hazardous work, t requiring. cour~ge, coolness, good judgment, and highly developed powers of observation. 106. Rest in trenches. All men not posted as sentinels should rest as much ~.s possible during the daytime. At this' time men are allowed to sleep in the shelters and dug-outs, the noncommissioned officer on duty knowing where every nlan is. Even if the men cannot sleep on account of the constant firing, they should be required to lie down, and keep quiet, as they will be required to work all night. . . 107. Smoke and cooking. No s'moke can be allowed at all by day, and as the men are usually working at night, they get no chance for a hot meal, or even a hot drink, unless they are taught that a fire can be made which gives out absolutely no smoke, by cutting up dry 'wood into the smallest possible shaving and splinters. \Vater can be boiled and bacon cooked over a candle if it be sheltered from the wind. The reserve ration and individual cooking will be the rule in the trenches. A pocket alcohol stove is very useful for officers. 108. Initiative. A platoon commander must make every effort to establish ascendency over the enemy in the opposite trenches. A' trench garrison should never keep quiet in the hope that by so doing they will be left alone. The war will never be won or shortened by such tactics. By day the snipers and trench mortars must be continually active. At night patrols and raiding parties must make constant attempts against
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109.110 the enemy's trenches. Noise indicating patrolling by the enemy must be met with heavy fire. Grenadiers should crawl out and bomb the enemy's trend1es and saps. Every effort should - be made to keep him from working on his trenches and entanglements at night. I £ any target suitable for artillery is discovered, the fact should at once be telephoned to the batteries. 1.09. Moments when the enemy is outside his shelters or trenches. In the morning and on cold days everyone is out. side. At meal time, if it is fine weather, this moment is often indicated by slackening of rifle fire. \Vhen our trenches are being bombarded there is a crowd of 'men at the loop-holes opposite, enjoying themselves. These are the times for our snipers and trench mortars to get active. At night the enemy' leaves his trenches to construct works, arid to repair damage .done to his trenches or his wire entanglements by our artillery. Then is the time for trench raids, and firing at any silhoue~tes that may be seen. , 1.10. Viewing the enemy's trenches. Through a periscope or loop-hole only a smal!' section of the opposite trenches
I

FIG.

I

can be seen. To obtain a view over the whole of the enemy's trenches, use a mirror fixed at the end of a stick planted on the rear wall of the trench, as shown in Fig. I.
[105]

111.112.113

111. Observation through field glasses. The enemy's trenches usually appear completely deserted; but, on observing them through field glasses, one is <l:stonished at the details' revealed. One perceives quite near, from time to time, the eye of the enemy observer who shows himself at his loop-hole, or the almost. imperceptible smoke. of a cigarette. Snipers, grenadiers, and trench mortars should take advantage of these indications. Such observation also shows what to avoid in our own observing. To watch through an observation loophole, one should look through only one barrel of the field glasses. 112. How to make the enemy appear so that damage may be done him. In order to be able to fire at the enemy, he must be forced to show himself while snipers, riflemen, and grenadiers stand ready to fire at him. Several'ways of accomplishing this may be contrived. Stimulate an attack by opening ,a sudden burst of fire, throwing grenades, and shouting; the enemy leaps to the loop-holes. Show from time to time a cap at a loop-hole, or on a level with the parapet; the enemy observer fires, but he immediately receives several shots in his loop-hole. ' Throw up earth on the parapet or traverses. At night rifles are first laid and pointed at the loop':'holes opposite. Straw is then lighted amidst much shouting and' shaking of dummy figures; the enemy does not fail to rush to the loop-holes to enjoy the sight, and make fun of the adversary. \Vhen it may-be supposed that the loop-holes are occupied, they are fired into, and trench mortars let loose. 113. Shelling. Young soldiers are always very much impressed by the shells and bombs from trench mortars, especially the big ones. Experienced soldiers scarcely like them any better, because the din and the blast of violent explosions upset and disorder the brain, but the experienced soldier knows that the shell often makes more noise than it does harm, and
[ 106]

','
114-115 that after destroyed. a terrific bombardment everybody is by no means

114. How to protect one's self from shells. The small shelters and dug-outs near the fire trenches will only give protection from the small shells, field guns and howitzers of less than 6 inch. It is positively dangerous to be in them when the enemy is shelling with big guns as the shelters may cave in and bury their occupants. The safest place is right out in the trenches, with heads low down. The big shell, which is so appalling, is only really dangerous if it falls on the place where a man is standing, because all the splinters rise into the air; The soldier should therefore lie down flat when the shell bursts. Even if he is quite close to it he scarcely runs any risk. II e should not get up immediately after the explosion, especially if he is 200 to 300 yards from the place where it , burst, because the splinters do not fall until a long time after the explosion. In case of shrapnel, the steel helmet and the pack on th~. back are pretty effective protection against the splinters and balls. . 115. Trench construction at night. Trenches are never finished. A good company may be distinguished by the way in which it works at improving its trenches. Remember that' you should work, not only for yourselves, but for the troops that come after you. There is no limit to what may be done. in draining, building dug-outs and shelters, sniping and observation loop-holes, and improving weak spots. I f the trench received much shelling the revetment and parapet may require considerable repair work. Always see that a plentiful supply of sand-bags' is on hand, as they are invaluable for quick repair work. Every effort should be made to add to, and improve the wire entanglement in front, taking advantage of , dark nights' when the enemy is not active for this work in advance of the trenches. The 'loidening of trenches should
[107]

116
be strictly forbidden. Cleaning a trench includes the removal of old tin cans, paper, scraps of .food, etc., which should always be burned. On no account should throwing them over the parapet be permitted. The trench must be kept scrupulously clean to avoid flies and vermin. Drains should be watched, and ~very effort made to keep the trenches dry. In muddy weather the men should wear gunny sacks tied over their feet. These are removed when entering the shelters, thus keeping the latter clean. 116. Patrols and raiding parties. Patrolling at night 'is of the greatest importance. Each company in the front line sends out small patrols that are frequently able to obtain valuable information, and at the same time counter the enemy's efforts in this direction. Large patrols or raiding parties may also be sent out to enter a certain portion, of the enemy's . trench,' bomb the trench, cause as much damage as possible, . and capture prisoners, returning, or slipping back into cover before they can be seriously opposed. Such operations have a serious effect on the morale of the enemy. Patrols generally consist of a selected. officer and 4 to 6 men. Raiding parties are larger, and may consist of an entire platoon, or even a larger force. Grenades are frequently carried for both offensive or defensive action, .as they are very effective at close quarters. Raiding parties should be, especially strong in grenadiers. . Every man in the .section of the fire trench concerned must be warned that a patrol is going out, and may return by his post. \Vord should be quietly taken down the line by a non- . commissioned ofiicer in person, and never passed f rOlil man to man. At the same time instructions should be given about' . firing. To cease firing altogether while a patrol is out is very undesirable, as it arouses the enemy's suspicions, but selected men should fire were it is sure they will not endanger the patrol. In case of doubt as to the location of the patrol, fire
fJo8]

,

\

I

high enough into' the .air to avoid their heads. rockets, or flares are to be sent up while the patrol is out. The patrol proceeds on this duty without their packs, taking only rifles, bayonets, belts, with ammunition, wire cutters, cend grenades. The rifles must be loaded and magazines filled. Bayonets are fixed, but are painted to prevent their glistening. Absolute quiet is necessary. In rocky country, sand-bags may be wrapped around the men's feet.

117-118 No' lights,1

117. Inspections. Certain inspe'ctions should be made daily by pl~toon or company commanders. Rifles, respirators and gas helmets should be inspected twice daily. Loop-holes should be inspected at dusk, and at dawn. \Vire entanglements should be inspected daily by means of field glasses from loop-holes, and should be 'examined every night, and repaired • under cover of darkness. Sentinels are inspected every hour. There should be a daily inspection of all supplies on hand and all instruments.

118. Care of rifles. Rifles need constant care in the trenches. They must be kept clean, well oiled and lubricated, and free from dust and grit. If they be kept well oiled they are apt to collect much dust, and hence a cover of some kind is an absolute necessity. In emergency men may make c~vers from the cloth of bandeleers. Do not insist upon the pieces being kept bright and free from oil as in garrison; look rather ' to see that the bolts are in working order and well lubricated with clean sperm oil, and 'that the bores are well oiled. The use of ammonia for cleaning the bore will probably be out of the question in the fire ,trenches, but if the bores be kept well swabbed with cosmic not much deterioration will occur in. tl~e few days the troops are in the trer.ches, and all rifles can be given the ammonia treatment immediately on getting back to billets. See that the magazines are filled at these inspec~ , tions. Magazines must be kept filled with a full clip at all
[109]

.

119-120 times when in the trenches. during the inspection. The magazine should be "Cut off"

119. Bringing up supplies. It must be remembered that the regiment in the fire trenches is absolutely dependent upon the regiment in reserve for all its supplies, water, rations, ammunition, grenades, sand-bags, fuel, rockets, candles, etc. A list of things needed, with the points where they are to be delivered, should be made out and sent back to the reserve regiment every morning. Men are never detailed from the regiment in the fire trench to bring these up, but a noncommissioned officer should be told off to receive them, and to see that they are stored in' the proper piaces. f 120. Aeroplanes. As the enemy always knows the exact location of the fire trenches, there is/little use trying to conceal them, and they are always a possible target for hostile aeroplanes. On the other hand, the communicating reserve, and second line trenches, and particularly supporting points, should be carefully screened from aerial observation. But it is of little use to screen them, if the garrison give away their location by exposing themselves when in these hidden trenches. Everyone should look out for this. There is very little use attempting infantry fire at aircraft unless they are flying very low. If the pilot in the aeroplane does not see any indication of the garrison in the trench he will probably not attempt to drop a bomb. When a sentinel sees a hostile aeroplane approaching he gives warning by a single long blast on his whistle. All men within reach of shelters or dug-outs should dive into them at once. All others should stand absolutely still, and do not look up. This applies to officers and sentinels as well as men. As long as the men stand absolutely still it' is very difficult for observers in aero- '. planes to see them. But let several men look up at the aeroplane, and the flash of their faces is instantly seen. It is most difficult to prevent men watching aeroplanes, especially
[lIO]

121-122 when they are being fired at by artillery. Teach the men that aeroplanes mean shells or bombs, and that even if theY'are not shelled themselves, they may, by their carelessness, be the cause of the next regiment in the tr~nches being shelled. \Vhen the danger from the aeroplane is passed the sentinel blows three blasts on his whistle. 121. Bombs .. If a sentinel sees a bomb thrown from the ~nemy's trench he yells "Bomb coming.!" All in reach of shelters dive into them. All others look up into the air toward the enemy's trench. Bombs thrown from trench mortars can usually be plainly seen sailing through the air, and if they appear to be coming into the particular bay in which' the man is standing, there may be time, if he is quick, for him to dodge around the corner of the nearest traverse. A narrow trench. is a poor target, and the chances are the bomb will land outside the. trench. 122. Questions a platoon commander should ask himself when in command of a section of a trench. (I) I am here for two purposes-to do as much damage as possible to the enemy, and to hold my part of the line at all costs. 'Am I doing everything possible to insure my being able to do this? (2) Do I worry the enemy as much as I might do, and are the snipers, grenadiers, catapults, and patrols at my disposal organized in the best way to effect this purpose? (3) Am I doing all I can to make my part of the line as strong as possible? (4) Should the enemy succeed in getting into any part of my line, can I at once bring a squad of grenadiers for immediate counter-attack? (5) Do I connect up properly with the platoons on my right and left? Do I know the position of the nearest support, and the position of all machine guns in my vicinity, and also their lines of fire?
[1111

122 (Contd.) , 6) Does every man know his firing 'po~ition, and can he ( fire from it over the parapet at the foot of the wire entanglement? . (7) Do I do my best to prevent men exposing themselves needlessly? Have I ascertained and warned all my men of the places in my part of the line, including communication trenches, which are exposed to the action of hostile snipers? (8) Are my s~ntries in the right places? Are they prop\ erly posted at the correct time by a noncommissioned officer? Are the sentries in listening and lookout posts visited at frequent intervals? (9) Have I always got a trench runner ready to take messages to company, battalion, and regimental headquarters? Do I realize that I should at once report any information I may obtain about the enemy, and that such information may be of the greatest importance to the divisional and higher commanders? (10) Do all my men know their duties in case of attack, grenadiers especially? I f the enemy succeeds in breaking into \ my line at any point, how can I best arrange for counterattacking him? (I I) Are there any suitable places' in my part of the trenches which snipers can use? Have I pointed out to sqtiad leaders the portion of the enemy's trench which each one is responsible for keeping under fire,. and where the enemy's loop-holes are? (12) Do I thoroughly understand the best method of re~ lief, and do my men come up into the trenches in absolute silence? (13) Do my men know their way about the trenches, and, the various routes to company, battalion, and regimental head- , quarters? (14) Am I acquainted with the arran"gements for giving information to the artillery, and for asking, if necessary, for
[1I2}

,. 122 (eontd.)
\ their 'immediate support? Do I know where the nearest telephone is situated? (IS) Am I doing my utmost to collect information about the enemy, his defenses, his activities, and his movements, and especially about his patrols at night?' \Vhat points in my front require particular patrolling? ' ( 16) Where are my listening and lookout posts, and are they properly detailed?, Are selected men placed on these posts? . (17) Which is the best way to get through or over my parapet in order to go towards the enemy? (18) Are the arrangements in case of gas attack complete and known to every ,man? Is the gong in position, and does' the sentry know the orders as to sounding it? ( 19) Do the sentries know how to warn in case of attack, bombs, aeroplanes? Are the. aeroplane' whistles in position, and do the sentries know how to give the signals? (20) Have my men always got their gas helmets at hand, ' and are they in good order? Do they know how to put them on and how to use, and care for them? (21) Are my parapets and traverses bullet-proof every~ where? , (22) , Are my wire entanglements strong enough, and am I doing all I can to repair damage to it, and to prevent my shelters and dug-outs fronl falling in? (23) Am I doing all I can to drain my trenches and keep ,them dry and sanitary? (24) Am I ready to do all repairs to my parapets, dugouts, and wire entanglements without calling on the engineers for assistance? Have I plenty of sand-bags and wire on hand? . (25)' Have my men got weather-proof places to sleep in? (26) Are the trenches as clean arid sanitary as they might , he? Are loaded cartridges and empty shells promptly collected? Have I made all possible arrangements for the col[U3]

,

"

122 (Coutd.) lection of all refuse, and do all my men thoroughly understand that it is not to be thrown out in front of the parapet, but into proper receptacles where it can be burned at night? (27) Where is my small arms ammunition, h"and grenades, rifle grenades? Are they under cover from the weather? (28) Are all my rifles clean and in good order, and are the baIts and bores oiled? Have all my men got rifle covers? Are the magazines kept charged? (29) Am I doing all I can to prevent my men getting "trench feet"? Do they take off their shoes and rub their feet for at least 15 minutes every day? IIave they greased their feet, and have they got a spare pair of dry socks to put on? Do the men wear rubber boots when it is not necessary? Have I made all possible arrangements for drying socks? , (3°) Are my men drinking water from any but authorized sources? (3 I) Do I insure my men getting sufficient sleep? (32) Am I personally keeping myself physically and men. tally fit?

[II4]

123-124 CHAPTER III SNIPING
123. Sniping defined. Sniping is the continual shooting at the enemy, picking him off, wherever he shows himself in his trenches, at a loop-hole, or over the parapet. It annoys the enemy, helps to shake his morale, and causes his losses. Formerly it was the general custom in nearly all armies for opposing sentries, videttes, and outguards in sight of each other to refrain from firing as long as there was no attempt to advance. This sort of tacit agreement would be continued as long as the two armies faced each other in one locality, only to be declared off when the day of the big offensive came. In the Civil War the Union and Confederate sentries often used to converse with each other, trade matches, tobacco,' etc. The Germans changed all this on the battle lines in France in 1914. They instit~ted the policy of trying to do the utmost damage to the enemy every instant throughout the day, and every day in the year; to annoy him; to prevent him from resting and sleeping; to kill or wound as many of his men as possible; and to endeavor in every way possible to destroy his morale, and obtain the ascendancy over his troops. - Those objects are accomplished by means of sniping, bombing, trench mortars, trench raids, mining, etc. . 124. Snipers. Effective sniping requires extremely good' marksmanship. \Vhile the range is often short, the target is extremely small and hard to see. It usually consists- of an eye at a small loop-hole, an arm or hand injudiciously raised, or the top of a head just showing over the parapet. There are also inanimate objects that are worth while trying a shot at, such as periscopes, mirrors, field glasses, and rifles set in rests. Owing to the high order of marksmanship necessary to accomplish any results under these conditions, it has become
[lIS]

\

125.126

the' custom in all armies to detail, men on special duty as snipers. They are excused from all routine duties in their companies in 'order that they may devote themselves to their speciality. They are selected from the two or three best shots in the company, and the specially trained for the work, which requires not only fine marksmanship, but a cool, reliable, COtlr'ageous r~an. The best men are those who, while possessing , these qualities, are phlegmatic in their disposition. In new'ly raised forces they should be 'selected after the company has had 'several months of training, and thereafter 75% of their instruction should be in the School for Snipers.

125. How equipped. The equipment of'the sniper differs considerably from that of the ordinary infantryman. His rifle must be a speciaIIy selected one, and it should be equipped with a perfectly adjusted telescopic sight. The unaided eye cannot detect errors smaIIer than those which subtend one minute of angle,-that is, the error of the unaided eye is just about one ~ Add this error to the error of the rifle inch per 100 yards. and ammunition, and it becomes practically impossible for the "1 ,\ rifleman to hit with any degree of certainty the small targets , which present themselves in trench warfare. If the telescopic _, sight be used, this error of aim is divided by the power of the telescope. 'Vith a 6-power telescope the error of aim at 300 yards will not 'be 3 inches,' but only hal f an inch. A telescopic sight has other advantages for the sniper.' By mag- , nifying the vision it enables him to clearly see targets that he would otherwise fail to discover, much less l{c able to aim at. By cutting off the extraneous rays of light it enables him to see into dark places such as the edge of a woods, or the interior of a loop-holc. ' 126. What it is possible to hit. A first class mark'sman, properly equipped with a special rifle ,and telescopic sight with which he is thoroughly familiar, and firing at known ranges,
[II6]

.

I

. 127-128 .

, either from rest, or with gunsling properly adjusted, can hit four times out of five; objects of the following diamete~s: At 100 yards 2 inches . At 200 yards 40 inches 'At '300 yards 70 inches At 400 yards II inches At 500 yards IS inches 127. Keeping the rifle sighted in. To do such work as this the sniper must always know the exact sighting of his rifle, and the relation' between the sighting ~nd the point of impact. The shooting of his rifle will vary according to 'the position he takes in firing, the way he rests his rifle, and the character of the object he rests it on-also, different lots of ammunition will require different sight adjustments. Small errors from these causes make'little difference on the target range where there are sighting shots in slow fire, and w'here , the hull's eye in rapid fire is large, and hence they are never 'appreciated by the ordinary marksman, and seldom by the: company commander; but they are enough to make all the difference between a hit and a miss to the sniper. The sniper absolutely must have frequent resource to a rifle range in rear of the trenches for the purpose of sighting his rifle in and keeping track' of the point of impact. Here, from time, to time he determines the correct right adjustment for his telescope at ranges and under all conditions of rest and' positions, so that when he places the cross-hairs of his telescop~ on an object and presses the trigger he knows exactly where his bullet is going to strike. Only thus can he be sure of doing effective work on the small targets that will present themselves. Nail driving marksmanship is what is needed, , -the other kind can be done as well, and cheaper, by the ordinary infantryman. . -.

all

I

128. Duties. There are from two to four snipers in every cqmpany. . They' are under the direct orders of the
[II7]

129 company commander except' when detailed for instruction under the officer in charge of the school for snipers. They always accompany their company into the trenches where they are assigned to a certain section of the trenches, usually to a platoon sector. They obtain from the outgoing snipers all information as to where the enemy is most liable to Si10W himself, all "weak points in the opposing trenches, all points in his own trench from which it is not safe to fire ( all specially constructed firing points which the sniper ahead of him may have used, and the range to all prominent points in view. They observe constantly all places in the trenches opposite where the enemy are liable to reveal themselves, and take, every chance 'that presents itself of firing on individuals of the enemy. They keep their loop-holes, and firing points in! repair, and construct new ones. From the nature of their duties they are of very little use at night. They are therefore allowed to sleep at night.
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129. Co-operation and assistance. The whole company should co-operate to make the snipers' work effective. Thus the sentinels should watch for any exposure of occupants of the enemy's trench, and inform the snipers at once. The time and exact location of each exposure should be noted, as it may be connected with the routine work in that trench, and may occur at stated intervals, or at the same time every day. This will give the sniper a good chance. The company may co-operate in an effort to make the enemy show himself as described in paragraph 112. The sniper will usually want someone to watch with field glasses so as to see where he hits, and the effect of his shot. By having each shot observed he will soon be able to tell if his shots are going high or low, to one side or th~ other, or if he is hitting well. Snipers often work in pairs so as to have the advantage of skilled obser-' vation.
[II8]

~ ~

'130-131

,130. Firing points. A good sniper's firing point may be ,made hy digging' under the pa;rapet, and coming out i!l the ditch on the other side. A small breast work may be made here at night and covered with brush or grass. A sniper may be hidden (and looked for) in the forks of trees, in ruined buildings, in the rear of trenches, and occasionally in the open between trenches (where he must stay from dusk to dusk). He may use specially constructed loop-holes on the parapet of the fire trench. This latter is the most usual, as he can then avail himself of the co-operation of his comrades. A sniper should have a number of firing points, and he should change his position frequently. It was said of a well known sniper in France, that if two bullets came near the spot he had chosen he would move at once and never fire a shot from there again, and the prInciple is a sound one. It must be remembered that if a sniper is detected he is as good as dead if he remains, for although he may be well protected from rifle fire, the enemy will always think it worth while to telephone back to a battery, and have a few shells sent over at him. 1.31. Loopholes. The first consideration of the sniper, after he has relieved the outgoing snipers and gotten all the , "dope" from th~m, is to examine and perfect his loopholes and firing points. A sniper's loophole should not be' directed straight towards the enemy, but slanting to the right (see Fig. I); consequently he does' not fire straight out from his trench towards the enemy, but in an oblique drection to the right. In this way he has a heap of earth for protection in front of him and there is no danger of his receiving a bullet in the face when he is aiming or observing. There should be elbows rests back of the loophole so as to assure a steady . firing position, and the loophole itself must always be deep enough so that the muzzle of the rifle will never protrude from it to reveal his position. The outer opening of the loophole should be well concealed. This is perhaps best done by
I

I

,

[ug]

131 (Contd.)
planting a sod of long grass just in front, thinned out a little in prolongation of the .axis The few blades of grasswiU' nbt impede the telescope or field glass, but they will prevent

"

jthe grass being of the loop-hole. / view through a . the enemy fro111

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LOOP.HOLf

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w .. u.
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eUT~AY TO

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SNIPER'seoo"

'PLAN.

seeing the shadow formed in the parapet by the irregularity of. the loophole opening. Some loopholes are provided with steel shields. These offer almost perfect protection, as the . hostil'e shot must come directly through the opening to be effective. The opening is kept covered with a mask when.
[120}

'132
not in use'. I f it is possible for the enemy to see light through a loo'phole it should always have a mask or curtain to be kept in place when not actually in use. The proper construction of loopholes requires considerable skill and training. Snipers are specially instructed in their design and construction, and may be placed in charge of the construction and repair of all loopholes in the company sector. Through one loophole only a very small section of the enemy's trench can be seen, and fired at. It is therefore necessary to have a number of loopholes covering all of the enemy's trench in front of the sector. The sniper must know the portion of the enemy's trench which each loophole covers, so that if the enemy is discovered exposing himself the right loophole for firing from can be selected without delay. I 132 .. Types of loopholes. The following excellent treatment of different types of loopholes is taken from "Field Entrenchments," based on official manuals, and edited by Capt.. E. J. Solano, of the Dritish Army: (a) Dhnensions. The size and shape of each loophole is governed by the following considerations: (a)' The extent of ground to be covered by fire. (b) The bullet-resisting power of the materials used. (c) The necessity for concealment after construction. (d) The width of foundation available beneath the headcover. ( e) That the rifleman should be able to get his head well forward for view a'nd overhead protection. In each case the loophole should be of the smallest dimensions that will fulfill these requirements, It is obvious, therefore, that a different size and shape' of loophole would be required for such cases as (a) a field of fire limited to 200 yards along a level road in a narrow cutting, and (b) a field' of fire of 2,000 yards of open country, the first 400 yards down a steep hill, the remainder uphill.
I I

[121]

132 (eontd.)
(b) Loopholes in plan. There are three typical arrangementsof single loopholes in plan (Fig. 2), and the points 'which influence .the selection of a particular typel are as follows:

Type A gives the best view with the least movement of the eyes. It is the most difficult to conceal on account of the wide oppning in front. It is quite unsuitable for hard mate- . rials, such as brick or stone, which might deflect bullets or splinters into the observer's face by ricochet. Its use is principally confined to lookout or observation loopholes in earth. These can be made of a height very shallow compared to a rifle loophole, and this type is then not so difficult to conceal.

z

r 'I" " A Wf.
Tne A.

'z

Typ~ B.

z

TypeC •
.(ShowiflQ a eteelloophole.p(ate /11 poeitiOIl)

FTC:.

2

Alternative

arrangements

of loopholes in plan

Type B shows the smallest opening in front, and is easier to conceal. It requires' the greatest amount of movement of the head and body to see or fire over the ,foreground. It is the inost suitable form where the head-cover is of good bulletstopping material,' and so relatively thin from front to rear in plan, as in a masonry FIG. 3 wall, etc. It is sometimes used for earth Steel loophole plate loopholes where it is of great urgency to keep the front opening as small as possible, and where the arc of fire required to right and left is also small.
[I22J

132 (Contd.)

T'yPe C is a compromise between A and B as regards facilities for view and concealment, but can be adapted to give a larger arc of fire combined with a smaller interruption in the bUllet-proof thickness of' the cover as measured between the Points Z-Z in each type. It is the type usually suitabie for earth loopholes when revetted with sand-bags, turf, or boards. It is also einployed in masonry walls which are too thick for Type B, but in this case the outer half of the. loophole should be formed in steps, and not with a straight splay, for reasons already given. This type lends itself best to the support of a steel loophole plate, when available (Fig. 3 and Fig. 2, Type C).
(c) Bullet-proof 11taterials. \Vhen only a very limited number of good bullet-proof articles, such as large stones or . bags of gravel, etc., are available for strengthening earth loopholes, they should, as a rule, be used at the points cross-shaded in the above types of loopholes (Fig. 2). (d) Angle of splay. The angle of splay given to the types of loopholes apart from the requirements of p~culiar sites, is usually limited to 60 degrees as regards Types A and B; but in Type C, if steel loophole plates, bags of shingle, or other thickness-reducing materials are available, it is quite easy to arrange for 90 degrees splay, and so obtain the full advantages to be derived from the great ranging power of modern rifles. A convenient width at the narrowest part in plan of the above loopholes is 4 inches, but the actual width necessary should always be obtained by placing the rifle in the two extreme positions required. In the case of a steel plate the width of the cut' in the plate may be reduced to 3 or even 20 inches, for the rifle is less than 2 inches wide. Below 20 inches it is not possible to

obtain the stereoscopic "use of both eyes which is necessary for judging distances. Loophole openings in steel plate are often
[123]

~32 (Contd.) provided with a narrow slit about 6 inches long by % inch deep, level with the top of the opening, which is otherwise of minimum size,-say, 20 by 3)-4 inches high,-for the purpose of increasing the facilities for viewing a large arc of ground without undue exposure to fire. A rifleman does not shoot naturally or conveniently directly to his front," i. e'., along a line at right angles to the straight line between his shoulders, but along a line making an angle of about 20 to 30 degrees to the left of the direct line' to his front, in the usual case of a man firing from the right shoulder

I

FIG. 4

Natural

Line of Fire not to "The Front."

(Fig .• 4). This is the natural consequence.of the fact that his shoulder is farther than his eye from the vertical axis of his body when standing upright, so that when shoulder, eye, \ and the sights of the rifle, are all in the same alignment, his \ body is necessarily slewed round to a certain extent, usually called half-right in musketry instruction, but in reality less than 45 degrees.
[124]

132 (Contd.)
. (e) Effect of excitement upon fire. The above has' an Important bearing upon the general trace of fire-trenches, the alignment of the front edge of firing recesses, and the design , of loopholes through head-cover; for men in the excitement of action and uncertain of their target have a natural tendency to adopt the most convenient pose, ~nd will fire, not' "straight

!andbags of earth Headcover [earth}

Cartridges

FIG. 5 of a sand-bag and earth loopholed headcover at a recessed firing-point Fig. 5..!.-Exa1'l1ple to be avoided. Sand-bag and earth loophole added to a recess only 2 feet wide, so that the rifleman cannot fire at all to Ids right front-a common mistake. A recess 2 feet wide is only suitable for firing 07.)1.71' an opm parapet or through a loophole with not 11101'1.7 than 30 degrees splay, entirely to the left front. . Faulty example

front,

at their front," but about 20 to 30 degrees to the left of their and this should have been corrected automatically ill. the original trace of firing-points intended to bring fire to bear naturally and easily upon certain alignments, especially
[125]

132 (Contd.)

FIG. 7 . Plan of sand-bag and earth loopholes properly set out Single firing recesses, as in Fig. 6, Lut cut forward on the left-hand side to provide better body-cover and a more natural attitude for the riReman when firing. Twenty-five to thirty sand-Lags per ritie are reo quired for this. [1261

132 (Contd.)
in the dark, if the rifleman is to derive the full benefits of his entrenchment. In practice this point is seldom attended to until the construction of loopholes is undertaken, when the difficulty and inconvenience of slewing the body round sufficiently to fire much to the right front is immediately apparent if the loophole

< Plan at Firing Lev:e1
8ho",I"(I"" ojll(lht to bli"d loophol.

"io1l ICrft"

FIG. 8 Shingle loophole (Type A);

Section at AA

has been made with the same amount of splay on each side of the center line. This difficulty is often accentuated also by the fact'that the bulk of the body is on the left side of the rifle, and a loophole carelessly placed in the center of a small recess or too close to a traverse or cross-wall of any nature, makes it a physical impossibility for the rifleman to fire to his right front. These points are illustrated in Figs. 5, 6 and 7.
[1271

I

132 (Contd.)'

\,'

(f) , UShingle" loophole. . The following ",elf-explanatory illustrations (Fig. 8) show what is known as the "shingle"., loophole: .J
I .

(g) Box loophole. When a few boards, a hammer, nails, ~ and saw, are available, the difficulties of getting satisfactory '1
.

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A

FIG.

9 tray

Box loophole, for use with service loophole plate, revetment and screen

loopholes with sand-bags, turf, etc., made' by me'n ignorant, of the use and powers of the rifle, can be overcome by making funnel':shaped loophole boxes of dimensions safe for all ordinary situations. These boxes can then be set on the parapet by one skilled rifleman, and built in or covered over by unskilled \ labor. An example of a box loophole of this nature is shown' . in Fig. 9.
[1281

133

133. Observation. As so little of the hostile trench can be seen from one ioophole, they are seldom used fer observation. Instead snipers and sentinels observe through periscopes which can be swung around to take in a view of the entire opposing trench. A periscope is an instrument by which the soldier can observe over th~ top of the parapet while he
50X -~ FROM

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CROSS

SECTION BOX

OF'

IMPROVISED 'PERISCOPE,

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holds his eye well down below the crest. In effect it is a combination of mirrors or prisms which reflect the view seen Over the parapet down into the trench and then into the eye of the observer. They vary from elaborate instruments with prisms and lenses, which magnify the view like field glasses, to a couple of cheap mirrors set' in a box frame. Fig. 10 shows a simple' extemporized periscope constructed of two mirrors and wood box. The field of view of the periscope is
[129]

133 (Contd.)
limited, but it can be rotated so as to traverse the entire trench. , This rotation must be done very slowly, or else the enemy will discover the movement and fire at it. That portion of the periscope which projects over the parapet should be disguised by fringing with grass or sod. Each company should have at least 20 of these extemporized periscopes besides the elaborate ones issueu to it.

(130]

134-135
CHAPTER GRENADES AND IV GRENADIERS

(From Ordnance Department pamphlet No. 1741, "Description and Instructions for the Use of Rifle and Hand Grenades)

,134. Grenades are small bombs intended to be thrown by hftnd or fired from a rifle. They consist of a metal case containing a quantity of high explosive, .and a device for igniting the explosive at the proper time. On exploding the case is blown into a large number of small fragments which fly off in all directions, acting as projectiles. Grenades are divided into rifle grenades and hand grenades. The rifle grenade is fired from the rifle with high angled fire up to 300 yards' range. It is intended to be used for bombing the enemy's trenches and p~sitions within 300 yards' range, hut beyond the throwing range of hand grenades. , .Hand grenades are divided into two general kinds, percussion gre!lades which explode upon impact, and ignition grenades in which a fuse is first lit, and the grenade then thrown, the fuse exploding the grenade in about 5 seconds. . 135. Babbitt rifle grenade. This is the rifle grenade adopted by the Ordnance Department, and is illustrated In Fig. The grenade is intended to be fired from a U. S. Magazine Rifle, nlOdel 1903, by use of a specially loaded blank cartridge. The construction of the grenade is shown in Fig. 1. The nomenclature of its component parts, referring to the figure, are as follows:

I:

a. b. c.

d.

Paper disk. Sabot. Stem. Stem ring.
[131]

e. £.
g. h.

Closing screw. Safety wire. Safety. pellet screw. Paper disk.

135 (Contd.)
BtlBBITT RIFLE 6RENIlO£ .

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[132]

136.137.138 j. . Sa f ety pellet.
k. Safety pin. Body. Trinitrotoluol. Detonating cup fi1ling disk. Plug. Plunger locking pin. Plunger. Plttnger restraining spring.

1.
1ll.

t. Casing. u. Primer holder. v. Percussion composition.
w. Primer covering. x. Primer housing. y. Primer charge. z.. Primer closipg disk. aa. Detonator. cup. bl>. Detonating compound.

n. p. q. r. s.

The grenade is designed to be fired at a constant angle of elevation, namely 45 degrees, except as noted for ranges under 50 yards. The range attained is dependent upon the length of the stem inserted in the bore of the rifle. Tests have shown that \"ithin considerable limits the range is but little affected by smaIl changes in the angle of elevation, near degrees, while a change in the length of inserted stem gives an appreciable change in the range. .

45

136. Setting for range. The rifle grenade should be set for range as foJ1ows: The grenade having been removed from its tin packing container, grasp the stem with the thumb down and the thumb nail in the groove marking the range desired. Insert the stem in the muzzle of the service rifle and shove down until the stem ring comes against the end of \ the thumb nail. 137. Loading and aiming. The special grenade cartridge is inserted in the chamber and the rifle fired either from the shoulder, or petter by resting the butt on the ground, the firer kneeling to the left, fixing the direction and estimating the desired 45 degrees elevation. The rifle should be held as, ,firmly as possible. Hemove the safety wire Hf." 138. Action on firing. \Vhen the special blank cartridge nbpve referred to is fired in the rifle, tl~e flaming gases from
[1331

"

139 its charge serve the double purpose of ejecting the gre~ade from the rifle, and of arming the fuse of the grenade. the latter actio'n is accomplished as follows: The flame passes up through the bore of the stem c, through the passages in the closing screw e, and holes in the safety pellet screw g, and ignites the safety pellets j. The compressed rifle powder pellets serve, before being burned out, to hold the safety pins k in such a position that their conical points engage in the circumferential groove in the plunger r, and prevent this plunger from moving forward. It will thus be seen that the fuse cannot be armed until after the exit of the grenade from' the rifle. After the compressed rifle powder j has been con- " sumed, and the safety pins k released, the plunger r is still restrained from moving forward and striking the primercovering w, by means of the plunger restraining spring s. Upon impact with the ground, after having been fired from the rifle in the manner stated, the plunger r moves quickly forward, striking the primer covering 'W, igniting the percussion composition v, which in turn ignites the primer charge J', and this in turn ignites the detonating compound bb. The detonation of this compound causes the detonation of the trinitrotoluol filling
ffl.

1

I

The detonation of the grenade upon impact is violent, and and the grenade, body: and components are broken up into ~. number of effective fragments which have a considerable range, making it unsafe for the firers or observers to be in the open when the grenade detonates. At the proving ground the stems have been found over 300 yards in rear of the point of burst. Rifle grenades may also beefired point blank if desired. 139. Instructions for the use of the rifle grenade. Rifle grenades are shipped in boxes containing 32 each. In each box are 8 bandoleers of olive-drab cloth, each of which contains four rifle grenades. The grenades are packed in the bandoleer
[1341

139 (Cont'd.) in' hertnetically sealed tin containers, each carrying one rifle grenade complete and one special blank cartridge for use in .,propelling the grenade. The bandole~r is opened by unfastening or tearing off the stripping tape. The tin containers are provided with a tearing off strip which may be removed with the fingers. This should. however,. not be done until the grenade is to be actually' used. The bandoleer is carried over the ,shoulder, the end tapes being passed around the waist and ti~d in front, or as may be most convenient. The weight of a complete bandoleer with four grenades, containers, and blank, cartridges is 6 pounds 13.76 ounces; the weight of the packing can including the weight of the grenade and blank cartridge is I pound 10.10 ounc~s; the weight of the grenade proper, is I \ pound 6.84 ounces, and the weight of the blank cartridge is 210 grains. It will be noted that the stem c of the grenade is graduated with circular grooves corresponding to different lengths of in'sertion into the bore of the rifle, which in turn corresponds. to the various ranges. There is one set of graduations in yards of range based or1 an angle of elevation of 45 degrees. These graduations vary from 300 yards to 80 yards as a minimum. In order to cover the space between the minimum range as marked on the stem and the firing point, an angle of elevation of 80 degrees may be used. \Vith this angle of elevation, the ranges obtained will be approximately one-fifth of the ranges marked on the stem. The angle of elevation of 80 degrees may be appr~ximated by resting the butt of the rifle upon a level piece of ground or upon a board, the surface of which is horizontal. In other words the angle between the horizontal surface and the bore of. the rifle, with the rifle in position of Harder arms" is 'approximately 80 d~grees. A range table giving more exact ranges for both the live and the dummy rifle grenades is ~iven on next page.
[135]

I

-

139 (Contd.)
ELEV~ION 45 DEGREES ELEVATION 80 DEGREES

Range, Yards
80 100
120 140

Insert Stem to Graduation .Marked Yards
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
220 240 260

Range, Yards
15 20 26 32

Insert Stem to Graduation Marked Yards
80 100
120

160 180 200
220 240 260 280

140
160

38
44 50

180
200 220 240 260 280

56 63

70
77 85

280

:~oo

.~oo

.~oo

The maximum pressure obtained from the special blank cartridge issued with the grenades is approximately 48,000 pounds per square inch, when. the stem insertion is complete, i. e., when the stem ring steps against the closing screw of the grenade. This pressure corresponds, as may be seen from the range table, to a range of 300 yards. In firing the rifle grenade it has been found that the best results can be .obtained by resting the butt of the rifle on the ground and estimating the angle which the barrel makes with the horizontal, which angle, as stated above, should be either 45 or 80 degrees, these angles being those used for the determination of th~ graduations upon the stem. It has been found that the rifle g;-enade is not detonated by impact of the small-arms bullet unless it so happens that the bullet actually -'trikes the fulminate composition n. It will also be observed that 110 blank cartric/ge other than those issued by the Or?l-

llu11CeDepartment should be 'Used 'lVitlt the rifle grenade. Fail;,re to obser'l'e this caution may result in injury both tlte melt and the material.' Should a rifle grenade fail to detonate

to

on impact after having been fired from the rifle,' it should he handled with extreme caution, in view of the fact that the
[r361

140 safety feature as described above has now been removed. To handle such a grenade~ it sl;ould be carried with the stem down, 'and if practicable thrown into deep water, from which its recovery is improbable. I f this is not practicable the grenade should be buried in the ground where it will not likely be recovered. I f it should be necessary 'to disassemble a grenade, either fired or unfired, the work should be done only in the presence of a responsible person. To do this place the grenade, stem down, in a vise or clamp. \Vith a wrench unscrew the body and remove the plunger if free. If the plunger of a fired grenade cannot be removed, the safety pellets have failed to burn out, and while the reassembled grenade would be safe, it would probably fail again. A grenade having once failed should not again be fired in the rifle.

140. Dummy rifle grenades. The dummy rifle grenade ,is illustrated in Fig. 2. It is issued for instruction purposes, and is similar to the rifle grenade just described except that the body is not provided with grooves. It may, by this feature he distinguished readily from the live grenade. As a fu~ther precaution this grenade is marked UDummy." The stem of this grenade' is graduated in a manner entirely similar to the method used for the :stem of the live grenade, and the weight of the dummy grenade is equal to the weight of the live grenade. The dummy grenade is for use in target practice. The graduations for the stem of the dummy are given for the same ranges as in the case of the live grenade, but owing to the fact that the stem of the dummy grenade is solid and has no bore along its longitudinal axis, the ranges obtained with :t are slightly greater than those obtained with the live grenades with t~qual lengths of stem insertion. The manipulation of the dummy grenade is entirely similar to that of the live grenade, so far as the stem insertion and the firing from the rifle are concerned. The dummy grenade may be fired repeatedly.
[137]

140 (Contd.)
lJUMMY RIFLE GREN/lC£.

o

oS' I' fr£rr-frrrr f

E---:-3

2 IIfCIIE!1 .•

FIG. 2

[r38]

141-142 After the stem has become deformed the dummy can again be made serviceable by the addition of a new stem. Each dummy rifle grenade is accompanied by 5 extra stems and 50, blank' ,cartridges. These grenades are not issued packed in tin or with bandoleers. They come in boxes of 32 grenades. 141. Precautions with rifle grenades. To prevent the possibility of accidents when using rifle grenades the following should be strictly observed: . I. Do not fire a live grenade unless cover is at hand behind which the firer and observers ~ay take shelter before the grenade strikes the ground. The stem of the grenade is sometimes thrown several hundred yards to the rear, and would make a dangerons if not fatal wound even at that distance. 2. If a rifle grenade fails, it should not' be left where itmight he 'pickeei up hy an inexperienced person. It should he picked up with the stem pointing downward, and should be kept in this position until it can be placed in a deep stream or other body of water, or buried in the ground. 3. If it is put aside until the end the exercise, it is well to stick the stem inthe ground so as to leave it standing upright. This position should be an indication as to its condition, as the stem of a grenade to be fired should not be put in the earth in such a way that the central channel might be closed. 4. A grenade wbich has failed should not again be fired. 142. United States hand grenade. The construction of this grenade is shown in Fig. 3. The nomenclature of its component parts are as follows letters referring to Fig. 3.

of

I

Nomenclature a. Streamer. h. Streamer holder. c. Body d. Trinitrotoluol. e.. Cup ~etonator.
[139]

f.
g. h.

j.
k.

Filling washer. Primer closing disk. Primer covering. Primer charge. Primer housing.

142 (Contd.)

H4N/J 6REMPt:

o I

..s
I

T-rrE

I

FIG. 3

143

1.
m. . n. ' p. q."

Percussion composition. r. Hood. s. "Firing pin. _ t. Fulminate composition. tt. Cup-detonator sleeve.

Primer Closing Safety Firing

holder. screw. cup. pin" hold~r.

I

143. Action of hand grenade. The hood m is removed f rom the hand grenade by twisting the hood in such a manner as to release the bayonet joint. The safety cup t is then removed and the hood replaced by repeating the motion of disassembling in reverse order, care being exercised not to attempt' to force the hood past the stop pins, as the safety feature has now been removed. When the hood is in the proper position to cause the fuse to be armed, the stud in the. hody which engages in the bayonet joint groove in the hood should be opposite the longitudinal continuation of the bayonet-joint slot. The fuse is now armed, and when the grenade is thrown so as to fall upon the firing pin end the weight .of the grenade causes the thin sections of the hood m to be sheared off by the small pins resting against" the shearing sections, thus allowing the grenade to move downward into the hood, telescoping therewith, and strike the firing pin 1t against the percussion composition 1. The impact of the firing pin ignites" the percussion composition, which in turn ignites the powder j, causing the detonation of the fulminate composition p and of the trinitrotoluol d. These detonations result in the fragmentation of the grenade. The streamer or tail of the hand grenade is for the purpose of swinging the grenade in throwing. Preparatory to throwing the grenade the unraveled portion of the streamer should be wadded up in the palm of' . the hand and grasped together with the knot. In flight, the rope, acting as a tail, steadies the flight of the grenade and causes it to strike head on in an advantageous manner for the successful action of the fuse.

144
144 .. Instructions for the use of the hand grenade. Thp. grenade 'is issued in cylindrical tin cans, hermetically sealed, and provided with a tin tearing strip which should not be removed until just before the hand grenade is required for use. Four hand grpnades are packed in these tin cans and carried in an olive drab bandoleer somewhat similar to that used for the transportation of small-arms ammunition. These bandoleers are provided with ,a strap so that the bandoleer can be suspended from the shoulders. This strap is folded across the back of the bandoleer and stitched in place with .a weak stitching. Hooks are also provided so that the bandoleer may be suspended from the belt if this manner of carrying is pre• ferre~l. The bandoleer pouch is divided into four compartments, each containing a hand grenade, and all are covered with a flap secured by a buckle ~o that the compartments may be readily opened for the extraction of the grenade. Having taken the grenade from the bandoleer, the tin box is opened by tearing off the soldering strip, which' releases the cover of the can. The hand grenade having been removed from the container, the grenade must be armed before it is thrown, and this is done by removing the safety cup t, as described above. Having armed the fuse of the grenade and replaced the hood in the proper armed position, the grenade is ready to be thrown. In this condition the grenade should be carefully handled and not permitted to strike either on the ground adjacent to the thrower, or in the vicinity of friendly troops. The thrower and all friendly troops should have cover before the grenade strikes, as the fragments resulting from the detonation have a longer range than the distance to which the grenade as a whole may be thrown. The rope of the grenade is made in a convenient length for the soldier of average stature, but this length may be decreased by adding' another knot. The manner of throwing the grenade is dependent upon the free space available for swinging it. \Vhen
[142]

'145
the thrower has ample space behind the parapet, it is best to swing it around the head as with a sling, both for accuracy and safety. Untrained men will naturally swing the grenade in a vertical plane. This method is accompanied by considerable danger, as the thrower may strike the ground with the grenade in the act of whirling it, or may release it so that its flight will be nearly vertical, causing the grenade to fall back near the thrower. The ranges that can be attained with this form 'of grenade are not great, and vary with the strength . and skill of the thrower. Prior to using service grenades, troops should be instructed in the use of dummy grenades. In assembling the hood tn, after removing the safety cup t, care should be taken Hot to attem}t to force the hood too far upon the butt of the grenade body, or explosion may occur. The rope of the grenade should also be examined to make sure that it is in good condition, and not liable to break while the grenade is being whirled. ' In case a grenade w~hich has been thrown and failed to detonate is recovered, it should be handled with the greatest care. Such grenades may be rendered safe for transportation by cautio1,1sly withdrawing the hood m from the grenade body, replacing a safety cup t in the hood, and then reassembling the hood to the grenade body. Or in case it be desired to throw the grenade a second time, this may be accomplished by drawing back the hood 111, until it will have its normal stroke upon impact, and then throwing in the usual manner. However, if practicable, a grenade which has failed should be thrown into deep water from which its recovery is improbable, or should be buried in the ground. The weight of the bandoleer packed with four containers and hand grenades is 6 pounds and the weight of 'one hand grenade complete is I pound, 5 ounces. . 145. Dummy hand grenades .. These are issued for instruction purposes ~nd for practice in throwing grenades.
[1431

'

I

145 (Contd.)
tJt/H/'fY H/l1V1J C"IIEN/lIJE.

STR["IlMCR IIOt.t?ER.

I.

/

r..... rrr!!;!

•...1 I!

I

k

4INCH£S

I

F,G. 4 [144]

'I

146-147
These dummies are similar in weight and form to the live grenade, except that the body of the grenade is made of bronze instead of cast iron or steel and is not grooved but smooth upon its exterior surface so as to distinguish it from the live: grenade. It is also marked with the word "Dummy." The cords attached to the dummy grenade will, with continual use, become worn and for this reason the cord should be examined before whirling the grenade in order to avoid accidents. To obtain accuracy and range in throwing the hand grenade requires preliminary drill and practice with the dummy grenade. For maximum effect the live grenade should be detonated within a few feet of the object at which it is thrown, this requires accuracy usually acquired only by considerable practice with dummy grenades. The dummy grenade is shown in Fig. 4. With each dummy grenade is issued five extra streamers ..

146. Other, hand grenades. Foreign nations manufacture a large number of various kinds of hand grenades. At times these may be used to augment those of United States patterns, or they may be captured from the enemy and used. \Vhile the majority of them are simple and safe, special instructions are necessary before attempting to use them. However, there so many of them, and of such varying form that it is' not possible to describe them here. 147. Extemporized ignition grenades. It is possible to construct ignition grenades out of old tin cans filled with scrap iron, and about 2 ounces of explosive. A detonator, to which a 5-second fuse is attached, is placed in contact with the ex'plosive. The fuse is lit and the grenade at once thrown. The' manufacture of these grenades should always be entrusted to the engineers, or to men specially instructed in their manufacture. .
[145]

148-149

GRENADIERS 148. Requisites for grenadiers. Every infantry soldier 'must receive instruction in grenade throwing. Some men do not possess thp temperament or the qualifications necessary to make efficient grenadiers, and for this reason in every platoon there should be one squad detailed as grenadiers. This squad should have a higher degree of training and efficiency as grenade throwers than the remainder. These men 'are available, either to work with the platoon, or to provide a reserve of grenadiers for any special object. The men must be specially selected fOf physique, courage, and steadiness in emergencies. :Men fond of hase-ball, and already skilled in throwing are the easiest to train. The responsibility for the special 'training rests with the regimental commander. 149. Training. The first step is to overcome the men's natural fear of the grenade by explaining how it is ~sed, the method of arming or lighting, and if an ignition grenade, the time it takes for the fuse to burii: The second step is to develop accuracy of throwing. Several months can be profitably devoted to this alone, and the grenadiers should have daily practice in it. Normally the grenade should be swung around the head and thrown as one would throw a sling, or it may be bowled overhand as one does a cricket ball. If throwing frbm a trench, use a sideward underhand bowl, first going slowly and carefully through the motion to be sure that when thrown the grenade is not going to strike against the front or rear trench wall. Men should be taught to throw standing, kneeling, and prone. It should be impressed upon them from the beginning that if a grenade with a time fuse is dropped in the act of throwing, there is ample time to pick it up and throw it out of the trench before it explodes, and this must ahvays be done immediately.
[146]

150-151.152.153
150. Equipment of grenadiers. Grenadiers are equipped with the pistol instead of the rifle. Each normally carries two bandoleers of hand grenades, each bandoleer containing four grenades. On special occasions where their need is foreseen, the grenadiers may be required to carry a greater number of bandoleers.' Each bandoleer of 4 grenades weighs 6 pounds 151. Grenadier storming parties. In taking a line of trenches it is essential to remember that the effort to advance over the most favorable ground, and the probable playing to go through openings in wire entanglements, will result in the attack taking place on a number of relatively small fronts by a large number of men, and therefore when the trenches are reached there will be great overcrowding in them in spots. To extend along the trench as quickly as possible is of paramount importance, otherwise the casualties in these crowded trenches will be exceedingly heavy. It is the duty of the grenadier party to proceed along these trenches and clear them out of any of the enemy that may remain. They are also employed to cover bayonet assaults with a shower of hand grenades, hombing the trenches before the bayonet men enter them. In going forward to the assault their position is usually immediately in rear of the skirmishers of the first wave of the first line. 152. Method' of advance in trenches. Rapidity of movement is essential. Crawling and stalking give the waiting enemy an advantage. The grenadiers are always preceded by a couple of bayonet men who move along the trench from corner to corner in a succession of rushes, followed by several grenadiers, and men carrying extra grenades. The duty of the h,'ading bayonet men is to protect the grenadiers at all costs. When the enemy is encountered the grenadiers throw their grenades into that portion of the trench which he occupies. 153. Bombing trenches in a bayonet attack. \Vhen the hostile'trench is reached, if the enemy is not encountered on
[147]

I

154-155 or in advance of the parapet, all the line drop into the ditch in froilt of the parapet, or take other low cover. The grenadiers then quickly throw their grenades over the heads of the lying bayonet men, the latter lying ready to fire instantly if the enemy attemps to fire or advance over the parapet., The grenadiers first throw a grenade into the e~ld of each bay of the fire trench, whe;e it turns to go around a traverse, and then one grenade into fhe portion of the trench in rear of the traverse. Openings into communication trenches and dugouts should also be bombed, if seen. The bayonet men then jump in and clear out the trench, the grenadiers proceeding, if necessary to such other points as may still be held by the enemy, and bombing him out. 154. Trench raids. A raiding party is composed largely of grenadiers. \Vorking like a patrol it creeps out at night into "no man's land" between the trenches, and choosing a way that offers some chance for cover, it creeps as near to the enemy's trench as' possible. Here it, waits and listens until there seems to be a chance of catching a group of men in one spot outside the shelters, or else several officers. A number of grenades are at once showered into the trench" some being thrown into bays on either side of the nearest traverses. The party at once makes for the nearest cover which has been selected in 'advance. T~is cover should be such as will gi ve cover from both fire and view, for they can expect a lively fusilade by the enemy will follow their attacl<, and rockets will at once be sent up to illuminate the foreground in an etIort to discover their ,whereabouts. It may be several hours before it is possible for them to move out of their temporary shelter. 155. Grenadiers in defense. Although the main infantry defense of a line of trenches is by rifle and machine-gun fire, parties of grenadiers should be distributed throughout the front system of trenches. The best position for them is in the supervision trenches, close up in the main communication
[148J

156 trenches, and in the support trenche~. From here they can make an immediate bombing attack should the enemy succeed in getting into the fire trenches. A supervision trench is very useful for this purpose, as grenades can be thrown from it into the fire trench. 'Vhen an attack is expected, grenades stored in the 'trenches should be kept ready for use. They should be kept in a number of dry, bomb-proof boxes or depots distributed at frequent intervals at these stations selected for the grenadiers in case of attack. Grenades should be kept in tin boxes to prevent deterioration. 156.' Method of clearing a trench. The following method of clearing a trench is given in "Knowledge for 'Var," by Lake, British AmlY: Capt. n.

c.

1"1lONT.

'~EY{

(n-t, ......

Li~hr(. ..

d;"" 01" ih.. loX,. •.. ~ O [if "t.,CL\s')~J-.
aw~",,,

_I -2,

Cal" .. it.l" • ,," ...

-3
FIG.

6,,~ol1(.r

""11 ,'" PO!>lt:Otl.. -I
A.~ ....
~I

t~:2.

.1

5

A grenadier or thrower ( I) First puts a bomb at X in A Fire Trench; (2) Then a second bomb at Y in n Fire Trench; (3) Then a third bomb at Z in A Fire Trench. As soon as the third bomb has exploded, the leading b,ayonet 111an rushes into A Fire Trench, and takes up his second .." position in traverse c-d. The second bayonet man also takes
[1491

156 (Contd.)
up a new position in traverse a-b. If trench is cleared, leading bayonet man passes back word "All clear," which is passed on to grenadier party by second bayonet man. The second bayonet man then joins up with the first, and grenadier party move round quickly into cleared Fire Trench A. As soon as first bomb is thrown from this fire tren'ch, bayonet men take up positions simi.lar to those previously held in traverse a-b. This procedure is continued from traverse to traverse until the trench is cleared. 'Vhen a communication trench is reached, the second party works along it, the original party proceeding along the main If a second party is not trench until the objective is reached. available, the leader must send 'the second hayonet man,second grenadier and second carrier to work down the trench, followed by sandbag men, to erect a barricade, and riflemen from the platoon, if necessary. If head of party is checked, what has been gained must be held by throwing up a barricade. In all attacks grenadier parties must be supported by a party of sandbag men under an experienced N.C.O., so that while grenadiers keep enemy at hay, a strong barricade may be put up as quickly as possible. Every man must be capable of performing the duties of any other individual in the party. •

[IsOJ

I

157.158.159 CHAPTER V 5AS WARFARE
157. Use of gases. The use of poisonous and asphyxiating gases has now become an accepted fact in trench warfare. Every officer should therefore be well acquainted with the various ways in which gas is used in the attack, as well as with thc mcasures to be taken to counteract its effect in the defense. 158. The attack. Two methods are employed in the at-

tack:
Emanation. Shclls and grenades. 159. Emanation. This method of disseminating gas can only be used in a favorable wind. Its -object is to create a poisonous or irritant atmosphere, and this is done either by mcans of gas forced through tubes in the direction of the enemy, or by means of liquified gas stored in cylinders under high pressure. The cylinders are protected by sand-bags ag-ainst the enemy's fire. To be successful the following conditions are required: . (I) \Vind about 5 miles per hour. (2) No rain. e 3) Surprise. (4) A gas must bc used which is heavier than air, and will 110t be held back by the enemy's protective measures. . I f the wind is too strong, it is obvious that. any gas employed will be carricd too quickly over the ene'my's trenches. so that it cannot settle in thcm to any effective degree. If the wind i~ too light, gas will be carried up in the air by local eddies, or may be blown back. It is ,impossible to fix a definite hour for gas attacks, as everything depends upon the wind. If an hour has been fixed and the wind veers around, the attack must be postponed.

( I) (2)

, 160-161-162

160. Tube method. Arsenic and phosphorus compounds are used in the tube method, and their presence can be detected at once by the smell of garlic. Should such gases, by accident, or change of wind, get into our' own trenches, chloride of lime. scattered abo'lt freely will disperse them. 161. Cylinder method. The gases used in liquified form from cylinde~s, are chlorine, mixtures of chlorine and bromine, phosgene gas, sulphuretted hydrugen, and others. If successful in surprising the enemy, their trenches should be quickly attacked. Hthe element of surprise is not there, and time is \ given for defensive measures to be taken, the effect is lost. In the assault following the gas attack men should always wear gas or smoke helmets for at least 30 minutes after gas dissemination has ceased. It must always be borne in mind that. the enemy's machine-gunners may be better protected . against gas than men in firing bays. The assaulting party must have the strictest orders not to remove gas helmets until the officer in charge has given the command.
16.2. Shell and grenade method. In this method shells and bombs are used containing liquid gas, or a substance which gives off irritant fumes. In trench warfare a wide range of substitutes is possible in place of the ordinary gases used .. .Lacrimatory shells, causing water to run from the eyes, may. be used. Such shells contain bromacetenc or Ichloracetene. The grenades used weigh about I pound, and are similar in appearance to grenades extemporized from tin cans. They are prepared for firing by lighting a fuse which burns about 5 seconds before exploding the grenade and liberating the gas. Their effect in a trench will last from 20 to 30 minutes. A. 'number of them should be concentrated on one area so as to produce as large a volume of gas as possible. These grenades can be thrown either by hand, or by a trench engine, catapult,' etc.

/

163-164-165- i66
163. The defense. As in other branches of the military art, the best means of learning the defense, is to have a thorough knowledge of the attack. Thus the direction of the wind must always be noted, and, if favorable for the enemy to attack with gas, special observers must be placed to give warning. Surprise should be guarded against in every possible,

way: 164. Indications of gas attack. The enemy's gas attack always takes place in calm weather when there is a slight wind (about 5 miles per hour) blowing from his trenches towards ours. Gas attacks cannot be made in the rain. There can he heard s~metimes in the enemy's trenches the sound of sheet iron (the cylinders) being moved about. The enemy is liable to light several small smoke fires in rear of his lines to give him true indication as to 'the wind. \Vhen the cylinder method of emanation is used a prolonged hissing can be heard coming from the eneniy's trench. This is one of the indications by night. 165. Alarm. The sentinel, or anyone discovering the start of a gas attack,. will give the a1a~m by striking repeatedly one of the trench gongs. There should be one of these gongs in every bay, and close to the post of every sentry. On hearing . this signal everyone must at. once put on his gas helmet. and stand up in the trench, keeping his head just below the top of the parapet. Under no consideration must anyone remain in shelters, dug-outs, or covered emplacements. ~I achine guns in covered emplacements, on the alarm being given, are rushed out by their crew and placed in alternate open emplacements on top of the parapet.
166. Gas (or smoke) helmets. Each man required to serve in the trenches is issued two gas (or smoke) helmets. made of a double thickness of wool saturated with chemicals which ab~orb the gases. They are also fitted with a tube valve
[153]

167.168
through which to breathe out, and with goggles or windows to see through. These helmets must not be removed f rom the waterproof cases in which they are supplied, except for actual use in a gas attack. When a helmet has been once used. in an attack it should be withdrawn to be used for drill only, and' replaced with a new one. The new helmet provides complete protection against any gas likely to be used in a mist attack, and against suffocating and paralyzing gases. The tube valve makes the helmets cooler, and saves the chemicals in the wool mask from being affected by the breath. The wearer cannot breathe in through the tube valve; this being intended for breathing out only. 167. Directions for use of helmet. Remove from the case. Remove the paper. wrapping around the mouth-piece of the tube valve. Take off your service hat or helmet. Pull the 'smoke helmet over the head, and adjust so that th~ goggles 'are opposite the eyes. Tuck in the skirt of the helmet under the coat or shirt collar, and button up the collar tight so as to close in the skirt of the helmet. Hold the tube lightly in the lips or the teeth like the stem of a pipe, so as to be able to breathe in past it, and out through it. Breathe in through the mouth and nose using the air inside the helmet. Breathe out \through the tube only. 168. Directions for care of helmet. Do not remove the helmet from its waterI)roof case except to" use for protection , against gas. N ever use this helmet for practice or drill. Special ones, or old ones that have been used should he provided for this purpose .. Should the goggles become misty during use they can be cleared enough to see through by rubbing them against the forehead. \Vhen lacrimatory gases are used goggles affording mechanical protection may be used, as these gases are not likely to irritate the lungs, though they sometimes produce sickness.

~

"
, I

169-170-171-172

169. Important. M en must be practiced in putting OJt . gas helmets quickly, and effecth'ely,. but in this practice only dummy or old discarded helJnets should be used. 170. Respirators. Although the smoke helmet has su,perseded the respirator, yet it is always advisable to have respirators handy should any of the helmets be torn or injured. They take up little room, and may save valuable lives. The best respirator is made of cotton waste and black veiling. Cotton-wool respirators are dangerous and must not be used. 171. Improvised methods. I f a soldier does not possess one of the gas helmets, or official pattern respirators, the following protective measures will be found useful: (I ) Wet and wring out any woolen article, such as a sock, muffler, or cap comforter, so as to form a thick pad large enough to cover the nose and mouth, a1?-dpress firmly over both. (2) Place in a sock or handkerchief, a pad of about 3 .handfuls of earth, preferably damp and tie firmly over the modth and nose. (3) Tea, or a soda solution is better than water for soaking the covering. I f none of these are at hand, urine will " do. 172. Knapsack sprayers. Knapsack sprayers are issued for use in clearing gases out of the trenches after the cloud , has blown over. A man with the sprayer on his back (and wearing his smoke helmet) slowly traverses the trench working' the spray. If this is not done the heavy, poisonous gas may linger in the trench for days, and be a great source of danger. If supports or reinforcements enter a trench charged with gas, they should be preceded by a man using the sprayer. Sprayers are charged with sodium thiosulphate-more commonly known as "Hypo," 6 pounds being dissoTved in a bucket of water, and a handful of ordinary washing soda added. Garden syringes and buckets may be used if sprayers
I

[1551

173.174.175
are not available, but these are not so effective. Sprayers should be charged before they are taken up to the trenches" and should' be kept ready for immediate use. 173. Information regarding new methods. Every officer defending a trench against an enemy's gas attack should endeavor to. collect information whenever possible, to be sent to General Headquarters through military channels. Particularly valuable is the capture of apparatus used by the enemy, either for disseminating gases, or for protection against it. If a sheIl attack is made, unexploded shells, or portions of them should be sent through to headquarters at once. The time of day, duration of attack, color, taste, or smellof the gas . used, effect on the eyes, breathing, and all other symptoms should be noted. New gases may be used at any time, and speedy information greatly forwards the adoption of preventative measures. • 174. Absorbent liquid. \Vhatever the mask or respirator used, the absorbent must be hyposulphite of sodium, in 'the ratio of 200 grammes to the liter of water, and as this salt is affected by light, the solution must be kept in yellow bottles. This method of supply may offer difficulties at the front, so that it is perhaps simpler to issue the hyposulphite in solid foqu preserved in paraffin -case's. 175. Liquid fire. At l\Ialancourt, February 17, 1915, and , at Vauquois, l\Iarch 23; 1915. 'the Germans made use of burning liquids in attackiiJ,g the advanced French trenches. The liquid was petroleum kept under pressure in cylinders resembling portable fire extinguishers; its employment was not due to chance, 'JUt was sanctioned hy authority, a~ appears from Order No. 32, Oct. 16, 1914, Saint Qu~'ntin, giving special rules for the employment hy engineer troops, of liquids producing smoke and flame. The apparatus used throws a sheet of burning liquid 20 meters long, and from 20 to 30 meters broad, and contains enough fuel to last a minute and a
'[156J

I,

175 (Contd.)
" hal f to two minutes. It constructed so that the flow can be stopped at will, thus enabling the operator, with single filling, to direct his fire upon several targets. Begides flame, it produces a dense cloud of black smoke. By use of hand or motor driven pumps and a light gradc of petroleum, columns of liquid fire may be squirted into the If the oil should fail to remain lighted, it opposing trenches. may be fired by bursting hand grenades or throwing fire balls ,into the trenches. This meal1S of attack is employed when opposing trenches are close together. As a defense measure, ditches may be dug in front of the trenches and tilled with a porous material which is then soaked with oil. Heavy oils, being hard to ignite, are not dangerous to the defensc, and will remain with little loss for a long time. To makc sure of prompt ignition, gas lines are laid in the ditches.. The g-as readily' ignites and the resulting fire pro.duces great heat. \\Tire or barbed wire looped in the ditches \ and staked down makes this a formidahle obstacle.

is

- I

[157 ]

-, 176-177.178 CHAPTER VI BAYONET FIGHTING
176. Importance of bayonet fighting. Bayonet fighting is as important as anything that the infantry soldier has to learn. The enemy's positions are attacked from close range. He is met in trenches from which he has no opportunity to retreat; hence, every attack which results in the penetration of the enemy's position results in bayonet encounters. The success of these attacks in great measure depends upon the skill of the attackers with the bayonet. Infantry officers must know the full details of every movement and exercise, so that they may be competent instructors of their men. In Europe both riAe and bayonet are now issued to officers and they must kno\v how to use them personally. 177. Bayonet instruction. This instruction goes hand in hand with the other training of the infantry soldier, and should be made interesting and instructive. Half ~n hour a day is sufficient, but that half hour must be well used. The use of the bayonet in the present European \Nar has' given that weapon an importance and preeminence heretofore unheard of, and the experience gained therein has suggested certain modifications from our system as prescribed by the \ Val' Department in the :Manual of the Bayonet. These suggestions are indicated helow. 178. Attack not to be directed against the chest. The attack should be directed against the, adversary's neck or stomach, and not against the chest; for, if the bayonet is dri\-en into the chest, there will probably be difficulty in withdrawing it, and while the bayonet is being so held, imbedded in the adversary's chest, the soldier is at the mercy of any other enemy free to strike him. [rs81

179.180
179. Melee on parapet. \Vhen the first wave of an attacking line reaches the enemy's trench, it is usually met outside the trench, the melee taking place on the parapet, and fortunate is the man who is skilled in handling his bayonet. Such a soldier has a much greater chance to live through the melee than one who is not skilled in using his bayonet. In the excitement and confusion of this melee the soldier must take the greatest possible care not to stab any of his comrades in the back. 180. Position of the feet. The British have been teaching their men to keep both feet pointed towards the enemy,

FIG. 1

FIG. 2

instead of having the right foot turned to the right, as in our system. Note the position of the feet in Figs. I, 2, 3, and 4. There are two attacks used by European troops which can be learned with profit. These are the "Short point" (or "Short thrust") and the "] ~b."
[159]

181-182 181. The short point (or short thrust). The short point. (or short thrust) is taken from the position of guard (Fig. I), by slipping the left hand up to the grip of the bayonet, grasping it and the barrel as shown in Fig. 2. The ritle is then dra WIl back to the fullest extent of the right arm, and a vigorous thrust is made at the objective, immediately after which the bayonet is withdrawn vigorously, the left hand relaxing to the position of guard (Fig. I). by pushing the rifle smartly forward until the left hand is in its proper place. It should be practiced on sand-bags or other targets in position at the height of the rifle, and above and below it. 182. The jab. The jab is taken from the first position of the "Short point" (Fig. 2), by slipping the right hand up

FIG.

3

FIG. 4

to the left as the rifle is drawn back to make the short thrust (Fig. 3). Then ~l1ake a vigorous thrust up'ward (Fig. 4),

[160J

183-184-185-186 which should be aimed at the adversary's throat. This may be practiced combined with the short thrust, or the ordinary thrust. It may also be practiced with a run toward the target. It is a useful_attack at close quarters. 183. The butt. The rifle butt is used with great effect at close quarters,' the b.1ows being directed against an adversary's jaw, or the region of the heart. 184. Tripping adversary. The men are taught how to trip up an enemy, and how to use their knees in throwing their' opponents off their balance. 185. \ Withdrawing the bayonet. After driving the ba, yonet into an opponent, then the first consideration is to get it , out of his body. This may be done by slipping the left h~nd up to the bayonet grip and exerting a vigorous pull,' which is immediately followed by a ,return to the position of guard. 186. Steps in training. In the first stages of t~aining. : special. attention is paid to a firm grip and proper handling of the rifle; then the soldier is taught to give direction when thrusting, lunging, and' parrying .. Until these essentials have , been thoroughly mastered quickness should not be insisted upon. Confidence will come after continued prac!ice, and when that has been attained, the men should be speeded up to the limit. Cadence in drill is never insisted upon. Some men will naturally react to the word of command much more quickly than others, and the speed of' execution will differ with . individuals. A fter the men are taught to make all the attacks as individuals tlley should l)e given practice in them in groups. Sand- \ bags filled with compact bundles of small brushwood. and with discs marked on them to provide targets are used for the purpose' of practice and instruction. These bags are sus- ' pended from trestles, are put in trenches, and also laid on the
[161]

186 (Contd.)

ground. After the men have had considerable practice in lunging and thrusting at these, both from a stand, and on the run, they are practiced charging in company front over a regular bayonet charge course constructed on the drill ground. The company starting in line, they first encounter a line of ' bags suspended from trestles, they then ascend the slope of a parapet on which is suspended a second line of bags hung on

FIG.

5

trestles. In the trench immediately behind the parapet is a third line of bags in the bottom of the trench, the bayoneting of which involves a jump down of 7 feet. This is followed by a fourth line of bags suspended from trestles, and fipally another jump into a trench at a fifth line of bags. Figure 5 shows a section of such a course. Companies are charged at a full run over this course several times daily, until the lunging, thrusting and jabbing at full speed, together with the jumps
[162]

187.188.189
_ into trenches, becomes perfectly familiar to all, and easy of execution. The jumping from heights must be approached by 'degrees. A bank should be constructed near the company quarters over which the company is led many times each day. They may be required to jump down it when going to and from ~ach drill and meal. . Starting at 3 feet, the height is gradually made greater until a full seven feet is attained. This bayonet charge course may be run through several times each day as a matter of exercise, and to keep the men limbered up. 187. Bayonet combat is most valuable in groups. A company should be divided into two groups and provided with ,bayonet fencing outfits. One group is designated as the de, fense, and is placed in trenches. The other group are the attackers. The attackers may be sent forward in waves or . ,in on~ line. To make their advance more realistic they may have to get over or around obstacles. To take in all the places the attackers are made stronger than the defense, and the def(~nse retires-whereupon the attackers endeavor to disable them by thrusting at the kidneys. Likewise the defense is made 'strong enough to drive off the attack. 188. Position of the rifle in the charge. In the charge the men should be taught to run with their rifles held at the ~'High Port" (that is, as in "Port arms," but is carried well above the head)'. In this way there is not so much danger of a man hurting his comrades if either he or they stumble or fall in the charge. ,The bayonet is well up in the air out of the way of the ranks .. The rifle is brought down to guard just before the enemy is met, the point of the bayonet heing dropped to the height of the waist. 189. Ultimate aim of training. In his training there should be gradually instilled in the soldier the conviction that. with the bayonet, he is a match f,or any opponent; that in
. [163]

,

189 (Contd.) hayonct fighting, no other infantry is thc equal of his OW11. The soldier should nol h. taught to shrink f mIll the hayoncl attack but te' scek it. j Ie should, in the latter stages of his instruction, he taught to make a wild, fanatical, irresistible bayonct a sault: an a. sault ",ill carry cycrything before can possibly sun'i"e. \\'hen this way he necd ne\'lT ('nter which hc feels morally certain it: an assault which no enemy an ofjicel- has his men thinking" an attack with any misgiving as

to the outcomc. The ultimate end tl) which the hayonet training was directed, has /)eel1 reached. Thc following illustrations, copyrighted hy the /)aily 1\/irror, London, and puhlish'd in the Satnrday Fvening ]lost of October q It) I (I... how recruits "sol11ewlH'n' in I'~liglancl" being traincd and instructed ill bayonet lighting:

ll641

189 (Contd.)

189 (Contcl.) hayonct fighting', no other infantry is thc equal of his own. The soldier should not be taught to shrink f rOln the ba.voncl attack but tv sed: it. Ill' should, in the lalter stagcs oj his instruction, he taught to make a wild, fanatical, irrcsistihle hayonet assault: an a. sault which he fc ,Is l110rally ccrtain will carry c\'crything heforc it: an assault which no encmy can possibly sm-Yi\'c. \\ hen an ofJiccr has his men thinking this way he nced neH'r emer an attack with any mist':iving as

to the outcomc. The ultimate end to whieh the bayonet training was dircctcd, has heen rearh('(1. Thc following illustratiuns, eopyri.~'hted hy Ih' I )aily 1\1ir1'01', London, and publi -hed in the Saturday Evening Ilost of Octoher q, Il)l(l, sh()\\, recruits "some\\"lH'n' in I'~ngland" heing t rained and inst rueled in hayond light ing:

189 (COIlt (1. )

189 \ ('ol1td.)

[160]

189-a BAYONET TRAINING IN THE BRITISH ARMY

The following is a reprint of "Bayonet Training," an official British \Var Office document that is now used in the British 'Army: 189-a. Special ,Features of the Bayonet.

1. Essential points of the bayonet. To attack with the bayonet effectively requires GOOD DIRECTION, STRENGTH AND QUICKNESS, during a state of wild excitement and probably physical exhaustion. The limit of the range of a bayonet is , about 5 feet (measured from the opponent's eyes), hut more often the killing is at close quarters, at a range of 2 feet or less, when troops are struggling corps corps in trenches or darkness. TI1c bayonet is essentially an offensive weapon,-go straight at an opponent with the point threatening his throat and deliver the point wherever an opening presents itself. If no opening is obvious, one must he created by beating off the opponent's weapon or making a "feint point" in order to make him' uncover himself.

a

2. Hand-to-hand fighting. Hand-to-hand fighting with . the bay'onet is individual, which means that a man must think and act for himself and rely on his own resource and skill; hut, as in games, he must play for his side and not only for himself. In a bayonet assault all ranks go forward to kill or be killed, and only those who have developed skill an'd strength by constant training will be able to kill. 3. The spirit of the bayonet. ,The spirit of the bayonet must be inculcated into all ranl~s so that they go forward with that aggressive determination and confidence of superiority born of continual practice, without which a bayonet assault will not he effective.
[167J

189-b . 4. Continuity of training. The technical point of bayonet fighting are extremely few and simple. The essence of hayonet training is continuity of practice. 189-b. Method of Carrying out Bayonet Training and Hints to Instructors. 5. Development of the individual. An important point to be kept in mind in bayonet training is the development of the individual by teaching him to think and act for himself. The simplest means of attaining this end is to make men use their brains and eyes to the fullest extent by carrying out the practices, so far as possible without words of commands, i. e., to point at a shifting target as soon as It it stationary, to parry sticks, etc. The class should, whenever possible, work in pairs and act on the principle of ".Master and Pupi1." This procedure, in itself, develops individuality and confidence. Sharp jerky words of command, which tend to make men act mechanically, should be omitted.. Rapidity of movement and alertness are taught by competition in fixing and unfixing the bayonet and by other such "quickening movements." .• 6. Duration of lessons and practice. As the technique of bayonet fighting is so simple, long detail is quite unnecessary and makes the work monotonous. .All instruction should he carried out on comrnon sense lines. It should seldom be neces\sary to give the detail of a "point" or " parry" more than two or three times, after which the classes should acquire the correct positions by practice. For this reason a lesso;l 'or daily practice should rarely last more than half an hour. Remember that nothing kills interest so easily as monotony. 7. Spirit of the bayonet. The spirit of the bayonet is to he inculcated by 'describing the special features of bayonet and hand-to-hand fighting. The men must learn to practice bayonet fighting in the spirit and with the enthusiasm which animate them when trainipg for their games, and to look upon their instructor as a trainer and helper.
[168}

189-b (Contd.). 8. Work made interesting. Interest in the work is to be created by ex'plaining the reasons for the various positions, the method of handling the rifle and bayonet, and the uses of the "points." Questions should be put to the men to find out Whether they understand these reasons. \Vhen men realize the object of their work they naturally take a greater interest in it. 9. Progression. Progression in bayonet training is regulated by obtaining first correct positions and good direction, then quickne:,s. Strength is the outcome of continual practice. 10.. Cultivate dash and vigour. In order to encourage dash and gradually strengthen the leg muscles from the commencement of the training, classes should be frequently practiced in charging short distances. 11. Officers' and N. C. O.'s classes. All company officers and N. C. as. ~hould be taught how to instruct in bayonet training in order that they may be able to teach their platoons and sections this very important part of a soldiers training, which must be regularly practised during the whole of his service at home, and during his periods of rest behind the firing line. 12. Sacks. Sacks for dummies should be filled with vertical layers of straw and thin sods (grass or heather), leaves, shavings, etc., in such a way as to give the greatest resistance without injury to the bayonet. A realistic effect, necessitating a strong withdrawal as if gripped by a bone, is obt~ined by' inserting a vertical layer of pieccs of hard wood, ;4-inch thick (old cheese cases, oak paling, etc.), between the stuffing and the sack on the side facing the attacker; only one layer of wood is to be used, and the grain must be vertical. These sack dummies can be made to stand on end by fixing a wooden cross or star (two or three pieces of wood about 2 inches broad and r.4 -inch thick nailed across onc another)

[1691

189~c.
in the base of the sack before filling it. They can also be placed with good effect on rough tripods, or tied to improvised stools. Dtlmmy sacks ~hould behung from gallows by a double suspension from the cross-bar to the top corners and weighted or tethered to the ground from the bottom corners. 13. Care of weapons. The greatest ca~e should be taken that the object representing the opponent and its support should be incapable of injuring the bayonet or butt. Only light sticks are to be used for parrying practice. The chief causes of injury to the bayonet are insufficient instruction in the bayonet training lessons, failure to withdraw the bayonet clear of the dummy before advancing and placing the dummies on hard unprepared' ground. 14. Care of apparatus. The upkeep and proper filli~g of dummies, and the repair of assault practice courses, form part of the duties of Army Gymnastic Staff and Assistant In-' structor~ 15. Discs. For practising direction there must always be an aiming mark on the dummy. Cardboard discs for this purpose are supplied by the Stationery Office. By continually changing the position of the mark the "life" of the dummies is considerably prolonged.' Should the supply of discs fail, they can be improvised out of cardboard or thick paper, or five or six numbers can be painted on the dummies as marks.
!

j

~

J

~

.J

1

j

I

189-c.

Preliminary

bayonet

lessons.

~

.

16. Class arrangements. Open ranks for bayonet praetice as follows: "Rear rank-About turn:" "Odd numbers of the front rank and even numbers of the rear rank-Six (or more) paces forward-~Iarch," "About' turn:" "The whole.' one pace right close-~Iarch." Or, "For bayonet practice open
--out."

1

~

1

, ~

!

Small classes should be opened out from single rank. Classes should always wqrk with bay?oets fixed.
[170]

1
'J

1

189-c (Contd.)
\Vhen teaching a new position, face the class to a flank and let them' "rest." First show them t11e position, explaining essential points and giving the reasons for them. Then show the position a second time, making the class observe each movem~nt, so that, from the very commencement of the bayonet. training, a man is taught to use his eyes and brain. Face the ranks and order them to assume the position explained and shown. Pick out the man who shows the best position and let the class look at and copy him. Remember that his position may not be ideal, but it is more correct than those assumed ' by the remainder, who, being beginners, cannot distinguish the difference between a good position and an ideal one. Many '~nstructors err by trying to get a dass of beginners to ideallSe at once. 17. Recruit's course. The Recruit's 'course consists of five lesson and the Final Assault Practice. The hours in the syllabus for bayonet training are so divided as to give daily practice. The training should be carried out chiefly in a "free and easy" kit, but men should be accustomed to use their bayonets when wearing belt and pouches,. and packs may be Worn when an efficiency test is in progress. For the "pointing" and "parrying" practises a light stick, 5 feet to' 5 feet 9 inches long and I ~ inches to 3 inches in circumference, with thrust ring and pad, must be provided for every two men. 18. Daily Practice. Half-an-hour a day, on at least five days a week, should be devoted to the daily practice in ba.yonet fighting by trait;ed soldiers. By this daily practice accuracy of , direction, quickness, and strength are developed, and a soldier is accustomed to' using the bayonet under' conditions which approximate to actual fighting. This half-hour should be apportioned to ( I) Pointing at the body; (2) Pointing at thrusting rings, etc., on light sticks at varying distance and directions; (3) Parrying light sticks; (4) Dummy work, and , (5), when sufficiently proficient, the Final Assault Practice.
[171]

189-c (Contd.). LESSON 1.
19. "On guard." Point of the bayonet directed at the base of the OpP( nent's throat, the rifle held easily and naturally with both hands, the barrel inclined slightly (about 30°) to the left, the right hand, over the navel, grasping the small of the butt, the left hand holding the rifle at the most convenient

PLATE

"On Guard"-Lesson

I I; Sllmm~ry (3)

position in front of the Lacksight so that the left arm is only slightly bent, i. e., the upper arm and fore-arm making an angle of about 150°. The legs well separated in a natural position, such as a man walking might adopt on meeting with resistance, i. e., left knee slightly Lent, right foot flat on the ground with toe inclined to the right front.
[172]

189-c (Contd.)
The position should not be constrained in any way but be / one of aggression, alertness and readiness to go forward for immediate attack ('Vide Plate I). The "On Guard" position will also be taught with the right foot in front. Common Faults. Leaning body back. Left arm too much bent. (3.) Right hand held too lo\v and too far back. (4.) Rifle grasped too rigidly, restraining all freedom of movement. "Rest." Assume a position of "rest" in the easiest way without moving the feet. . "High Port." The hands holding the rifle as when on guard; the left wrist level with, and directly in front of, the' left shoulder; right hand level with and to the right of the buckle of waist-belt. When jumping ditches, surmounting obstacles, etc., the position' of the riRe should be approximately maintained with the left hand alone, leaving the right hand free. (1.) (2.) 20. "Long Point." Grasping the rifle firmly, vigorously deliver 'the point from the "on guard". position to the full extent of the left arm, butt running alongside and kept close to the right forearm. Body inclined forward; left knee well hent; right leg braced, and weight of the body pressed well forward with the fore part of the right foot, heel raised. The chief power in a "point" is derived' from the right arm with the weight of the body behi~d it, the left arm being used more to direct the point of the bayonet. The eyes must be fixed on the object at which the point is directed. In making "points" other than straight to the front, the left foot should lllove laterally in the same direction as that in which the "point" is made.
[ 173]

189-c (eontd.)
During the later stages of this lesson the men should be practised in stepping forward with the rear foot when delivering the "point."

, I

-=2_~_
-~----~
PLATE

II I; Summary (14)

"Long Point"-Lesson

Common (I)
(2)

Faults the "point." the right .

Rifle drawn back before delivering

Butt of the rifle held as high as or against The eyes not directed on the object. Left knee not sufficiently bent. Body not thrust sufficiently forward.
[174] \

sh~ulder. (3) (4)

(5)

189-c

(Contd.)

Re1narks
The "withdrawal." The "long point" .is made against an ,opponent at a range of about four to five feet from the attackers eye.

rLATE
t.

"\Vithdrawal"-Lesson

HI I; Summary (7),

(b)

21. To withdraw the bayonet after a "long point" has been delivered, draw the rifle straight back until the right hand is well behind the hip, and immediately resume the "on guard" position. If the leverage or proximity to the object transfixed renders it necessary, the left hand must first be slipped up close to the piling-swivel, and, when a pupil reaches the stage _ of delivering a "point" while' advancing on a dummy, he will adopt this method.
{J7S]

. 189-c (Contd.)

.

.1

After every "point," a r~pid "withdra~al," essential to quick, "vork with the bayonet, should be practiced b'efore re-I ~ turning to the "on guard" position. Progression 1st Practice

~
,~

1

.~

22. Pointing at parts of the body. ~ren should always be '~ made to point at a target, e. g., at a named part of the body of . the opposite man: "At the right eye" (long pause to corpmence with), "point" (a pause), "withdraw." Oblique "points" should be practiced by pointing at the men to the right and left fronts. As progress is made, the pause between the "point" and the . '(withdrawal" should be shortened until the men reach a stage when they "withdraw" and come "on guard" directly after making a "point," judging their own time. They should be' taught to point at two or more parts of the body, e. g., "First, at the nose, then at the right thigh-point." / To' practise action against a retreating foe, turn the inside ranks about and let them "rest." Show the position of the' kidneys (smaIl of the back, either'side of the spine) and make the outside ranks point at' those of the inside ranks, and 'Vice ,

versa.
23. Vulnerable parts of the body. If possible, the point of the bayonet should be directed against an opponent's throat, especially in corps a' corps fighting, as the point will enter easily and make a fatal wound on penetrating a few inches and, being near the eyes, makes an opponent "funk." Other vulnerable and usually exposed parts are the face, chest, lower abdomen and thighs, and the region of the kidneys when the back is turned. Four to six inches' penetration is sufficient to incapacitate and aIlow for a quick withdrawal, whereas if a bayonet is driven home tOQ far it is often impossible to with[176]

'.

189-c

(eontd.)

, draw it. In such cases a round 'should be fired t.o break ,up the obstruction. 2nd Practice 24. Pointing at changing targets. The c~ass, working in pairs, with the instructor supervising, should be practiced in pointing in various directions, e. g., (I) at the opposite man's hand, which he places in various positions on and off his Lady; (2) at thrusting rings, etc., tied on the ends of sticks. This practice should be done without word of command, so that the eye and brain may be trained. 3rd Practice , 25. Pointing at discs on dummies. The men will be taught to transfix a disc or number painted on a dummy, first at a distance of about five feet from the dummy (i. e., the e~treme range of the bayonet), and then after advancing , three or more paces. The advance must be made in a practical , and natural way, and should be practiced with either foot to the front when the "point" is delivered. The rifle must never be drawn back when making a "long point" in a forward movement. The impetus of the body and the forward stretching of the arms supply sufficient force. The bayonet must be withdrawn immediately after the "point" has been delivered, and a forward threatening attitude be assumed to the side of or beyond the dummy. Unless the rifle is firmly gripped, it is liable to injure the
r

hand.
To guard against accidents the men must be at least five feet apart when the practice is carried out collectively. The principles of this practice will be observed when pointing at dummies in trenches, standing upright on the ground. or suspended on gallows. They should be applied at first slowly and deliberately, fOf NO ATTEMPT MUST BE MADE TO CARRY
nUT TIlE FINAL ASSAULT PRACTICE BEFORE THE MEN IIA\"E

I

[177]

189-d
BEEN" CAREFULLY THE INSTRUCTED IN, AND HAVE THOROUGHLY, MASTERED PRELIMINARY LESSONS.

LESSON 2 189-d. The' right and left parry. 26. "Right (left) parry." From' the pOSition of "on guard," vigorously straighten the left arm without bending the wrist or twisting the rifle in the hand, and force the rifle forward far enough to the right (left) to fend off the adversary's weapon. The eyes must be kept on the weapon which is being parried.

Co1llmon Faults ,l (1.) \Vide sweeping parry with no forward movement in it. 'I (2.) Eyes taken off the weapon to be parried. ) 1Ien should be taught to regard the parry as part of an, · offensive movement, namely, of the "point" which would im- ' mediately follow it in actual combat. For this' rea'son" as . soon as the movements of the parries have been'learnt they ! should always be accompanied with a slight forward move~'l1ent of the body. Parries will be practised. with .the right as well as with the left foot forward, preparatory to the practice of parrying when advancing.
FIRST PRACTICE.

,

27. Parries by word of command. l\Ien when learning the parries should be made to' observe the movements of the rifle carefully, and should not be kept longer at this practice than is necessary for them to understand what is required, that is vigorous, yet controlled, action.
SECOXD PRACTICE,

Parrying light sticks. The class works in pairs with sc~bbards on bayonets, one man pointing with the stick and the other parrying; the "on gua.rd" pos.ition is resumed after each
[178]

189-e "
parry. At first this practice must be slow and deliberate, without being allowed to become mechanical, and will be progressively increased in rapidity and vigour.
THIRD PI~ACTICE.

Parry stick and point at dummy. Later a "point" at that part of the body indicated by the opposite man's hand should immediately follow the parry and, finally, sticks long enough to 'represent the opponent's weapon in the "on guard" position should be attached to the dummies and parried before delivering the "point." The men must also be taught to parry points made at them(I) by an "enemy" in a trench when they are themselves on the parapet; (2) by an "enemy" en the parapet when they are in the tre~ch, and (3)' when both are fighting on the same level , at close quarters in a deep trench.

LESSON 3
189-e. The short point. 28. "Short point." Shi ft the left hand quickly towards the muzzle and draw the rifle back to the full extent of the right arm, the butt either upwards or downwards according as a low or a high point is to be made; then deliver the "point" vigorously to "the full extent of the left arm. ' N. n.-The "short point" is used at a range of about three f('ct, and in, close fighting it is the natural "point" to make when the bayonet has just been withdrawn after a "long point." It a strong "withdrawal" is necessary the right hand should he slipped above. the backsight after the "short point" has
I

heen made. 29. Practice. The principles of the three practices of observed so far as they apply. ny placing Lesson I should two discs on a dummy,the "short point" should be taught in conjunction with the "long point," the first disc' being transfixed with the latter, the second with the, fonner point. On

be

[179]

189.£
delivery of the "long point". if the left foot is forward, the "short point" wo~ld take the place with the right foot forward, and 'vice versa.

\
PLATE

"Short Point"-Lesson

IV III; Summary (30)

Parries point."

will be practised

from the position

of the "short

LESSON 4 189-f. Jab or upward point. 30. The "jab" or "upward point." From the position of the "short point" shift the right hand up the rifle and grasp it above the backsight, at the same time bringing the rifle to an al[180]

189-£ (Contd.) most vertical position close to the body, and from this position, bend the knees and jab the point of the bayonet upwards into the throat or under the chin of the opponent.

PLATE

V (45) and (56)

"J a1J"-Lesson

IV; Summary
COlllmon

Faul/s.

( 1.) Rifle drawn backward and not held upright enough. (2.) Rifle grasped too low with the right hand. From the "jab" position men will be practised in fending off an attack made on any part of them by an opponent. When making a "jab" from the "on guard" position, the ri~ht, being the thrusting hand, will be brought up first.
[181 ]

189-g
I

The jab can be employed successfully in close quarter fighting in narrow trenches and when "embraced" by an opponent.'. LESSON 5

Methods of injuring an opponent. 31. I t should he impressed upon the class that, although a man's "point" has missed or has been parried, or his bayonet has been broken, he can, as "attacker," stiIl maintain his ad-

189-g.

"Jab" at Thrusting

PLATE VI Ring-Lesson

IV; Summary

(Sf)

vantage by injuring in par. 32-35.

his opponent in one of the \-vays described

32. Butt strokes. BUTT STROKE \ I. S\-ving the butt up at the opponent's fork, ribs, forearm, etc., using a half arm lilow and advancing the rear foot. . BUTT STROKE II. I f the Opponent jumps back so that the first butt stroke misses, the rifle will come into horizontal posi- . tion over the left shoulder, butt leading, the attacker will then
[r82]

189-g (Contd.) step in with the rear foot and dash the butt into his opponent"s face. .
BUTT STROKE III. If the opponent retires still further out of distance, the attacker again closes up and slashes his bayonet \ down on his opponent's head or neck.

BUTT STIWKE IV. If the point is beaten or brought down, the Inltt can be used efIectively by crashing it down on the opponent's head with an over-arm blow, advancing the rear foot. \Vhen the opponent is out of distance, BUTT STROKE III can again be used.

In individual fighting the butt can also be used horizontally against the opponent's ribs, forearm, etc. This m'rthod is impossible in trench fighting or in an attack, owing to the horizontal sweep of the bayonet to the attacker's left. It should be clearly understood that the butt must not he employed whfn it is possible 'to use the point of the bayonet effectively.

189-g (Cont d.)
33. Butt Stroke I is essentially a half-arm blow from the shoulder, keeping the elbow rigid, and it can, therefore, be successfully emr-~oyed only when the right hand is grasping the rifle at the small of the butt. 34. Butt strokes can only be used in certain circumstances and -positions, but if men acquire absolute control of their

PLAT~

VII I
V; Summary (f)6)

Butt Stroke

I-Lesson

.weapons under these conditions they will be able to adapt them~ selves to all other phases of infighting. F.or instance, when a man is gripped by an opponent so that neither the point or the butt can be used, the knee brought up against the fork or the heel stamped on the instep may momentarily disable him and make him release his hold. . 35. Tripping. \Vhen wrestling, the opponent can be tripped by forcing his weight on to one leg and kicking that leg away from in under him, or any other wrestler's trip, e. g., "backheel" may be used.

189-h N. n.-The above methods will only temporarily enemy, who must be killed with the bayonet. "
I

disable an

PRACTICE

. 36. When the classes have been shown the methods of Using the butt and the knee they should be practiced on the padded stick, e. g., fix several discs on a dummy and make a point at one, use the knee on another fixed low down, jab a third, and so on. I.... dummies should be used for practice with the butt, in ight order to a void damage to 'it. l8D-h. Tac~ical Application of the Bayonet .. 37. Practical use of the bayonet. A bayonet assault should preferably be made under cover of fire, surprise, or dar.kness. In these circunlstances the prospect of success is greatest, for a bayonet is useless at any range except hand-tohand. 38. N~ght work. At night all these forms of cover can be utilised. On the other hand, confusion is inherent in fighting by night; consequently, the execution of' a successful night attack with the bayonet requires considerable and lengthy training. Units should he frequently practised in night work with the bayonet. , 39.. Bayonet an o.ffensive weapon. The bayonet is essentially a weapon of offence which must be used with skill and vigour; otherwise it has but little effect. To await pasSively an opportunity of using the bayonet entails defeat, since an approaching enemy will merely stand out of bayonet range and shoot down the defenders. 40. No firing' during an assault. In an assault the enemy should he killed with the bayonet." Firing should be avoi~led, for in the mix-up a bullet, after passing through an opponent's body, may kill a friend who happens to be in the line of fire.
[185]

189-i
189-i~
41.
MEN THIS HAVE

Final
BEEN

Assault

Practice.
TRAINED INJURY IN ALL THE AND PREBA-

PRA<..nCE

IS ONLY TO BE CARRIED OUT AFTER THE COMPLETE TO RIFLES APPLICATION CONTROL OF THE

TIIOROUGHLY OTHERWISE FRO~I

LIMINARY OF THEIR YONETS

LESSONS, WEAPONS, WILL

AND HAVE ACQUIRED IMPROPER

RESULT

METHODS L.'\lD DOWN IN THE FOREGOING INSTRUCTION.

The Final Assault Practice must approximate as nearly as possible to the conditions of actual fighting. Nervous tension due to the anticipation of an attack, reacting on the body, as well as the advance across the open and the final dash at the enemy, combine to- tire an assaulting party. His only by their physical fitness and superior'skill in the "use of the bayonet that they can overcome a comparatively fresh foe. Therefore quick aim and good direction of the bayonet, when moving rapidly or even when surmounting obstacles, accurate delivery of a point of sufficient strength and vigour to pene-a trate clothing and equipment, clean withdrawal of the bayonet, -which requires no small effort, especially should it be fixed "by a bone,- are of the greatest importance, and need the same careful attention and constant practice as are devoted to obtaining efficiency with the rifle. In the Final Assault Practice the charge brings the men to the first trench in a comparatively exhausted condition, and the..accuracy of the aim is tested by the disc, which can only be "carried" by a true and vigorous thnlst and a clean withdrawal. ' For this practice the men should be made to begin the assault froma trench six or seven feet deep, as well as from the open, and they should not cheer until close up to the Uenemy." 42. Final Assault Practice Course. A reproduction of a , labryinth of trenches, with dummies in the "dug-outs" and
[186]

j

'1 ~ .

l

)

.

" .

/

189-j shelters between the trenches, forms an excellent Final Assault Practice Course. Assaults should be made from all four sides in order to give variety. The edges of the trenches should be protected by spars or baulks anchored back; otherwise constant use will soon wear them out. Cinders scattered over the course prevent the men from slipping. If gallows cannot be erected, sack dummies should be placed on tripods or on end, as well as lying in trenches or on the parapets, ,..,ith soft earth free f rom stones under them. Commanding Officers will be responsible "for the construction of the Final Assault Practice Courses, and will dedde on 'the number, 1ength, and nature of the trenches in accordance with the ground available. Officers in" charge of Physical and Bavonet Training, or where there are no such 'officers, Army Gymnastic Staff and Assistant Instructors, will be responsible to Commanding Officers for the upkeep of th~ ~ourses. . 43. Tactical schemes. Extremely interesting and practical schemes in trench warfare can be arranged by combining' Final Assault Practice with other branches of training, e. g.} bombing, laying sandbags, entrenching. 44. Competitions. Competitions can be arranged by alloting' or deducting marks for (I) number of discs transfixed and carried on a bayonet, (2) time taken .from giving the, signal to charge until the last man of the team passes the finishing post, and (3) style. Competition"s should never be carried out until the men have completed their lessons in bayonet training and thoroughly mastered the handling of the bayonet in the F~nal Assault Practice. 18D-j. Tactical principles to be observed d~ring bay-

onet training.
[ 187]

189-k
l\IETIIODS OF CARRYIKGRIFLE WITH BAYONET FIXED. 45. Quick sho!'t advance. (In the open). The rifle will be held at the "high port." This position is suitable for close formation, m1l11mlSeS risk of accidents when surmounting obstacles, and can be maintained with the left hand alone, allowing free use of the right \.,,-hen necessary. 46. Long advance. (Close formation). The rifle will be slung over the left shoulder, sling to the front and perpendicular to the ground. This is a safe method of carrying the rifle and allowing the free use of both hands. ' 47. Long advance. (Open order). The rifle will be carried at "the trail." 189-k. The assault.

48. The importance of discipline and organised control throughout the conduct of a bayonet assault cannot be overemphasised. It must be remembered that in this, as in all other military operations, success can only be achieved through the closest co-operation of all, concerned, and that, while individual initiative is not to be discouraged, it must be strictly subordinated to the intention of the leader of the assaulting party. l\Ien should be shown by demonstration that it is in their own interests to pay attention to this point, and that the failure of an enterprise can usually be traced to the lack of this close co-operation. I 49. During training the following general principles will be observed-

i. All members of the attacking party must leave the trench or rise from cover simultaneously. In addition to the advantage of surprise needless casualties are thereby avoided.
[188J

189-1 ii. The first stage~ especially of a long advance, will be slow and steady-not faster than the pace of the slowest man. Such an advance has a decided moral effect on the enemy, makes certain of the maxinlum shock at the moment of impact, and at the same time allows the attacking force to reach its objective without undue exhaustion. On the other hand, if the assault is allowed to develop without control and in a haphazard fashion, the moral effect of a steady resistless wall of men is lost, and the defenders may be given time to dispose of their opponents in detail. 50. .The actual charge will not be made over a greater distance than twenty paces. \Vithin the last ten yards and before closing with the enemy the rifle will be brought to the threatening, yet defensive, "on guard." Line will, as far as Poss.ible, be maintained until actual contact with the enemy is gained. 51. As soon as the position has been taken, and prior to any attack on a further position or any other operation whatsoever, the infantry mtfst be reformed as explained in Infantry Training, Section 124, 4, ammunition being redistributed and every precaution being taken against a counterattack. In trench warfare indiscriminate pursuit with the bayonet must never be allowed unless orders to that effect have been given by the leader of the assaulting party. The .attacking' troops are not so fresh as the enemy, and experience has shown that unorganized pursuit lends itself to ambush and casualties from machine gun fire. In most cases the work of immediate pursuit is better done by the supporting artillerythe infantry assisting by rapid fire on the retreating enemy.

189-1.

Assault Practice.

52. A useful form of Final. Assault Practice which can he adapted to a variety of "special ideas" is described in pars.

5,3-55.

It8g1

189-1 (Contd.) The following materials are assumed~ A. CommunicC'~i11g trenches leading to a fire trench with an open space in front. B. An occupied enemy trench. C. Gallows with dummies, representing the enemy, (i) retiring from "B," or (ii) coming up in support of "B," or (iii) making a counter-attack on the captured trench "R." 53. (i) The attacking party makes a controlled assault on "A," which is cleared of the enemy. (ii) It is then reformed and an assault is launched on "n," after taking which (iii) "C" is regarded in one or other of the above ways, and action taken accordingly. 54. Throughout tised inthe training men must be constantly prac-

(i) The recognized onet fixed.

method of carrying

the rifle with bay-

(ii) Rapid advance out of peep trenches. (iii) Control and maintenance of line and opening" of. fire during an advance. (iv) Using the bayonet with effect in the cramped space of communicating and fire trenches. (v) Reforming and opening of fire after the assault. (vi) Acting as leaders of attacking party. ,55. Instructors should endeavour by every means in their power to arouse the interest and imagination of their mell during the assault practice. The "speciai idea" 'to be adopted should invariably be explained beforehand. Each dummy must be regarded as an actual armed opponent, and each line of dummi~s as an enemy line attacking, defending or retiring, and be disposed of accordingly.
[190J

189-m Any tendency towards carelessness and slackness must, be' instantly checked, and it should be impressed on all ranks that a practice assault which is 110t carried out with the necessary quickness, vigour and determination is worse than useless. Lack of imagination, which allows men and their leaders to violate the most elementary principles of tactics in practice assaults aga"inst dummies, can oAly lead to disaster in a real assault against the enemy. , l8D-m.' General instructions for bayonet training practice. (a) "On guard," "withdraw," all points and parries, and the "jab," will be taught first with the left, then with the right foot forward. ' , (b) The "starting p~sition" for a "short point" is shown in plate IV. All "short points" will be practised from this position, which must be marked, except after a "point". into' a dummy, by momentary pause so as to break men of the habit of drawing ba(.':k the rifle from "on guard" before making "point." (c) From the outset squads will be frequently practised iri charging for short distances in the open-as a strengthening exercise for the legs and a quickening exercise. ( d) A target to point at will always be named when working by word of command; it will, be indicated by the position of the hand when working in class, and it will be clearly marked on all dummies. ( e) \Vhen working in ranks the distance apart must be sufficient to avoid all danger of accident when the "points" are being made. \Vhen "points" have been' made advancing, the ranks will change position by coming to the "high port," doubling past each other right shoulder to right shoulder, and turning about. ,\Vhen working against dummies, men will always continue the movement past the dummy, which they will leave 011 their right.

a

189-n

,

(f) . The "withdrawal," once taught, will be made after each "point." After a "point," advancing rear foot or on the advance, the hand will always be moved up the rifle, but in the 1st and 2nd practices, since the arm and body are already stretched to their full extent, and the left hand cannot move further forward, the hand will be shifted after the "withdrawal" from the "long poidt." (g) All sticks must be padded at one end. (h) In the third practises the "points" will also be practised deliberately and progressively on dummies 1)laced, as a preparation for the Final Assault Course, in positions of increasing difficulty, e. g., on parapets and steps of shallow trenches, and in fire and communicating trenches. (i). Scabbards will not be removed from the bayonet except for pointing at dummies. 189-n. Summary of Progressive Steps. ( 1) Class arrangements. (2) Explain hand-to-hand fighting and inculcate the spirit of the bayonet.
LESSON 1

(3) On Guard. (Plate I). (4) Rest. (5) II igh 'port. 1st Practice. (In class, hy word a f command.) (6) "Long point". (7) "\Vithdrawal"; (a) after stationary "point"; (1)) after "point" advancing rear foot (Plate 1II). (First demonstrated by instructor on a dummy.) (8) Oblique "long point." (9) "Long point," followed hy "long point" advancing rear foot. (10) Vulnerable spots explained; region of the kidneys shown; Class practised in making "points" at these.
[192]

189-n (Contd.) . 2nd Practice. (Class working by eye.) (I I ) "Long point." (12) "Long point," follQwed by "long point" advancing rear foot. (13) Varied direct and oblique "long points" at thrusting ring. 3rd Practice. (Pointing at dummy.) ( 14) "Long point" (Plate I I ). (15) "Long point" advancing rear foot. (16) Advance, "long point." ( 17) Advance, "long points" (at two or more dummies).
LESSON 2

(18) Explain, valt~e of parries: how, in charging, the parry must be strong enough to beat aside the opponent's weapon. 1st Practice. (I n class, by word 0 f command.) (19) Explain, and make the class perform, the movements required for the various parries. 2nd Practice. (Class working by eye.) (20) rarry stick pointed at breast. (21) Parry stick pointed at the breast and point. (22) Parry stick pointed at head, body or legs. (23) Parry stick pointed in varying order at head, body or legs, and point. (24) . When standing in a trench, parry "point" made with stick from above. (25) When standing on parapet, parry "point" made with stick by man in trench. (20) With stick parry "point" made with stick by advancing' opponent. (27) \Vith stick parry "point" made with stick by advancing' opponent, and point. (28) With stick, l)arry "point" made with stick lightly held JJl one hand by charging opponent. (Dy holding his
[193]

'"

189-n (Contd.) stick in right or left hand the attacker will clearly. show on' which side he is pointing, and he will pass on that flank.) 3rd Practice. (Pointing at dummy with stick represent.ing opponent's weapon). (29) Advance, parry stick, and point.
LESSON

3

(30) Demonstrate "short point," and explain when it IS used. (Plate. IV). 1st Practice. (In class, by word of command.) (31) "Short point." \. (32) "\Vithdrawal"; (a) stationary; (b) advancing rear foot. (Demonstrated by Instructor on dummy.) '(33) Oblique "short. point." (34) "Short point" advancing rear foot. (35) "Long point" advancing rear foot, folIo~ed by "short point" advancing rear foot. 2nd Practice. (Class working by eye.) (36) 'Short point." (37) "Short point" advancing rear foot. (38) "Long point" advancing rear foot, followed by "'Short ,point" advancing rear foot. (39) Varied direct and oblique ."Iong and short points" at thrusting rings. (40) Practice various parries, parries and "points," from "short point" position. 3rd Practice. (Pointing at dummy.) (41) "Short point." (42) "Short point" advancing rear foot. (43) "Long point" advancing- rear foot; advancing rear. foot. (44) Advance, "long point," "short point" mies in suitable positions).
[1941

"short (at two

point"
(hUll~

189-n (Contd.)
LESSON 4 '(45) Demonstrate "jab" at dummy; then, by pladng men of the squad in suitable positions, explain when and how it is used in conjunction with "points" (Plate V). 1st Practice. (In class, by word of command.) (46) "Jab," from "jab" position. (47) "Short point" advancing rear foot, "jab" advancing rear foot. (48) "Long point" advancing rear foot, "jab" advancing rear foot.

(49) "Long point" advancing rear foot, "short point" advancing rear foot, "jab" advancing rear foot. (50) "Short point" advancing rear foot, "jab" advancing rear foot, "long point" Cl.dvancing rear foot. 2nd Practice. (Class working by eye.) (51) "Jab" at thrusting ring (Plate VI). (52) Direct and .oblique "long and short points," and "jabs," in varying order at thrusting ring. (53) vVhen in "jab" position, fend odd high and low "points" made with stick. 3rd Practice. (Pointing at dummy.) (54) "Jab" from "jab" position. (55) "Short point" advancing rear foot, and "jab" advancing rear foot. (56) "Long point" advancing rear foot, "short point" advanCing- rear foot, and" jab" advancing rear foot (at dummies) . (57) Advance "long point" and "jab." , (58) Advance, "long point," "short point," and two or more "jalJs" (at dummies).
LESSON

5.

1st Practice. (\Vord of command.) (59) Class to practice butt stroke 1.
(195]

'189-0 (60) Class to practice butt stroke II. (61) Class, to practice butt stroke III. (62) Class to practice butt stroke IV. 2nd Practice. (\Vorking by eye.) (63) Butt stroke I at padded stick (Plate VII). (64) Butt stroke II at padded stick. (65) Butt stroke III at padded stick. (06) Butt stroke IV at padded stick (Plate VIII). (07) Repeat in varying order. (68) "Long points," "short points," and "jabs," at thrusting ring, with butt strokes at padfled stick, varied. «(l9) Trips practiced by men working in pairs. 3rd Practice. (On dummy.) (70) "Point,"" jab," etc., at dummies, followed by butt strokes I to IV at light dl~mmies, and introducing kicks and any other form of in-fighting. 189-0. A Guide for the Trained Soldier's Daily Practice (HALF HOUI<) (I) minutes.) (a) "Long points" at hand; Summary (II), (12). (N at more than 8 "points" each man.) (b) "Short points" at ha~1fl; Summary (36), (37), (38). (Not more than 10 "points" each man.) , (2) (5 minutes.) Steady advance over obstacles and charge 20 yards~about 100 yards in all. (3) (4 minutes.) Parrying stick and pointing; Summary

(5

(23).
(4 minutes.) Butt' strokes, each stroke twice: Summary (59), (6o), (61), (62); or practice trips, etc.; Summary (6l)). (5) (6 minutes.) "Long points," "short points," and "jabs" at thrusting ring, with butt strokes at pad~ varied; Summary (08). (6) (6 minutes.) Final Assault Practice. (4)

[19'31

I

190-191.192 CHAPTER MACHINE VII GUNS

190. Importance of machine guns. Since their' invention the importance of machine guns has steadily increased. The present European war has shown their immense value in both attack and defense. Whereas, before the war we found, at the best, but a small detachment of from four to six guns With a regiment of infantry, we now see employed machine gUn companies of 16 guns with each battalion, and in addition tUany separate machine gun companies available in the division for special assignment. ' 191. Economy of men. Owing to its rapid and effective fire, and the comparative ease with which it can be concealed, the machine gun permits a great economi of men on a front, and the concentrating of forces thus freed for use in other parts of the fielel. This was done on a large scale on the Russian front by the Germans in 1915. They constructed mile~ of wire entanglement in front of positions occupied with an enormous number of machine guns' and comparatively few tUen. Their main forces were thus free to be transported Wherever danger threatened, or where it was desired to initiate a strong offensive. In this manner the Germans replaced men by machinc guns and wire, and were able to cope successfully with the immensc Russian armies. 192. Technical handling of machine guns. It is not intended in this discussion to enter into the technical handling of machinc guns. It is difficult to obtain even the most elel11entary knowledge of machine guns from books. Officers should losc no opportunity of getting in touch with a machine gUn officer, and learn by actual experience how to load and fire the gun and rectify simple stoppages and jams.
[197]

193-194a195 193. Location in defense. Generally on the defense machine guns should be mounted in salients and at points where cross fire can be obtained. In such cases the guns are usually mounted in the fire trenches at points specially prepared for them. Or they may even be mounted in caponiers in sap heads run out in front of the fire trench, from which position they are especially available for flank fire. The ground in front of the salients should, wherever possible, be most heavily guarded with barbed wire entanglements and other obstacles which will discourage an advance by the enemy on this portion of the line, and these salients can then be held entirely with machine guns supplemented by a few snipers, thus permitting an economy of men, and the massing of infantry against points more liable to attack. Supporting points in rear of the fire trenches should be heavily held with machine guns. In fact, the garrisons of supporting points are often composed entirely of machine guns, the emplacements being all furnished with head cover, and well concealed, and the supporting point being entirely surrounded with barbed wire. 1Iachine guns are often used within the works themselves to defend straight lengths of trenches, being used with deadly effect upon any enemy who succeeds in penetrating the trench during an attack.
1fACIIINE GUN E'l\IPLACEl\IENTS.

194. Choosing the site. In siting machine gun emplacements the following should be considered(I) To bring to bear. powerful enfilade or oblique fire 011 the attacking enemy at effective rifle range. (2) To give flanking fire to supporting works. (3) To swcep gaps left in a line of obstacles. The two great aims should be (a) to surprise the attacking encmy, and (b) to conceal the emplacement and give effective shelter to the machine gun detachment. 195. Concealment. l\fachine guns are weapons of emergency. They are to be used at critical, though infrequcnt per[198]

196-197
. Their fire has the greatest yalue when of a surprise, and this can come only When their location' or presence is not suspected. Once their / position is discovered they are regarded as so dangerous by the enemy that he will endeavor in every way to put them out of action, even to the extent of concentrating artillery fire upon .. them. Owing to these facts every possible precaution must be used to conceal the guns, not only from view from the front, but from aerial observation as well. II edges, walls, pits, bushes, .piles of brushwood, trees, grass, etc., are used in an effort to conceal their emplacements and loop-holes. At night every effort is made to conceal the flame of discharge. 196. Alte'rnative positions. Despite e.~ery effort to con, ceal the emplacements they may ,be discovered, and in such a case the guns should be withdrawn at once. Also, machine guns almost invariably betray their positions as soon as they enter fnto action, and the ,period during which they can fire unmolested is generally very' brief. For these reasons every gun should have 'one or more alternative positions or emplacements into which it can be moved, if the one held becomes untenable. 197. Open emplacements. On portions of a defensive line where there is any chance of a gas attack being instituted by the enemy, an open emplacement should be constructed for every gun. The ordinary emplacement dug deep down in the earth, and supplied with head cover beco'mes untenable during a gas attack. The gas, being heavier than air, settles down in the emplacement and stays there until eliminated by a sprayer. There must therefore be an open emplacement close by, preferrably on the parapet where a good all-around field of fire is attainable, to which the detachment can quickly rush the gun in case of gas attack. At such times the gun becomes particularly useful in repelling the infantry assault which always fol lows a successful ga~ attack.
,It comes in the nature
J

~ods of an engagement.

[I99L

198-199

198. By whom the emplacements made. Machine gUll companies ~re instructed in the design and construction of emplacements for their guns, and undertake the construction of the same. They may be assisted by infantry where the work entailed is large, and where their tactical employment has to go on at the same time. A shelter is required for each detach-. ment, and it should be very near the gun, so that no time may be lost in getting these men who may happen to be in the shelter out of it, and opening fire. A protected lookout is also required for each detachment or group. 199. Design of emplacements. Emplacements should be designed so as to give effIcient cover to the detachment from rifle, machine gun and shrapnel fire. It should be constructed according to the nature of the fire required (i. e. if to guard a straight portion of a trench, only a very narrow loop hole with no splay is required). It should permit of efFective manipulation of the gun; allow the speedy withdrawal of the gun, permit of ammunition supply, under cover if possible. and it should be so constructed that the flame of discharge can he masked at night. It must also be concealed so that there is no exterior indication of it. Fig. I shows a type of emplacement with head cover and covered approach. It may be constructed in a supporting point. in' a parapet, or in a traverse. The vertical distance from the operating platform to the loop hole depends upon the type of gun. For guns with tripod mounts this will be about 2 feet. while for light gUlls like the Lewis and the Benet-Mercie it will be about I foot. The operating platform is made deep enough so that at night the muzzle of the gun can be withdrawn to the interior end of the loop hole, thus confining all the flash to the loop hole itsel f. The movable screen in front of the loop hole effectively COI1ceals it when not open for firing. Fig. 2 shows a type of open emplacement for use during gas attacks. It can advantageously be placed on the top of the parapet just to one side of
[2ooJ

199 (Contd.)
the .covered emplacement, access to it being provided by 'steps. It is never garrisoned except in case of attack. By rounding orf all corners and crests. and covering with sod. or loose grass.

'MJ,APfT

0'-

"lItA"rA:.r~

"

:b~:
f,,,.
Oil COMJoItUW,,,,,t,t.

T.'NC."

A~A./4.

•. ~. JI •

_ P ... " .. K FLOOA,," • OV'''MIAD .suPPORT .O .... D Luu"g. vr"'TIL"T'OQ.

-LOns.

c- -..
A.

r
,.

looP-HOL.
LOGD .... OLl .'lItTN,NT f1,.u.o ....

M.Sl(-O"....
FoR C"tfW

"""SW"C,"OSIO.

.

G.
ft.

.I. 5FCTIOH.

....

''f'Oa

.""".01'''' n"
sT .• OI ....

GUN. D' .. OO .. O" ....

.,a~4A

..Ohl-"'"

GALltR"

...

.
;.:

FIG. 1

or light brushwood it can be effectively concealed until the time come for its use. This is also a good type for use in the attack, during' a lull in the operations, or when a further adVance oecomes impossible.
[201]

199 (Contd.)

11 1.

PLAN.

at'''' le.ur.

............ "

i
..;. .... ~:
;~ ,_, It :

: ,,~):
I"",
I

....... 2"

+1. '1:: -;........i".;, _ '.s."",-_ D

.

EltVATION

... ..,,,,, " .
. ,./flu".".' :

.

.....\

,.

A

,4"' ....... .:1&#11lVeI"
hi H~' ...

"".u ...a"..,
(;oIJN

N ]j

OPEN

MAC't4lNE

E"U'LACEMENT. FIG. 2

[202]

. 200.201.202
200. Accessodes to empla.cements. Near every emplacement there should be a protected depot for ammunition, a shelter for the men, and a place where the belts or magazines ' Can be filled. If a portion of the line be held by machine guns only, a number of snipers should be detailed to the portion, for, if there be not a constant fire going on from the portionof the trench, the enemy will be liable to suspect something. 'Therefore loop holes for snipers, and for members of the ll1achine gun detachment on sentry or observation duty will . have to be constructed along the parapet between the em-' placements. 201 .. Information necessary. Machine gunners in defense must know the range to all portions of the enemy's trenches within range, to the weak points in the opposing .trenches, to any openings that may exist through the wire entanglements, and to places where enfilade or oblique fire can be used to' advantage .. They should, if possible, have a plan of the enemy's works (obtained by aerial observation) and should know the location for the communicating trenches and ways of approach. They should make arrangements for effectively directing their fire on these places at night.. . 202. Proper targets. Machine guns should only be required to fire at targets where the fire effect will be commensurate with the giving away of their position, for example, the injudicious exposure of a man or two in the enemy's trench or a patrol of several men in the open. It must be remembered that the firing of a machine gun usually means shells in return, and the partial demolishment of that portion of the works . adjacent to the emphl~emerits from which the guns were fired. In their training, machine gunners should be practiced in the Machine gun emplacements are conselection 0 £ targets. structed in conjunction with a complete system of trenches at , the training' camp, and about 200 yards in front of these trenches another trench or butt containing disappearing targets
I

[2°3]

203-204
and silhouettes is built. The trenches and emplacements are manned with troops supplied with ball ammunition. From' time to time targets are sent up from the trench in front.'~ Observers are on the lookout, and when these targets are observed they must be fired at. Machine gunners select targets which are of sufficient extent,. or numerous enough so that the fire will have effect commensurate with the giving away of the position of the guns. Practice is had in firing at night also, the 'opposing trench or butts being lit up with rockets, flares, or search lights'j 203. Rate of fire. :Machine guns are designed to fire the ordinary rifle cartridge, and are capable of delivering, a stream of small bullets at a rate of as high as 600 to 700 per minute. Experience in the European war has determined that the rate of about 400 per minute is the desirable maximum. The range of the gun is the same as for the rifle, but owing to the fact that they are mechanically supported, and mechanically laid, their effective range is about 200 yards greater than for the rifle. The fire of the machine gun has been estimated as being equal to that of 30 infantrymen firing rapidly.
THE

I

I~

.

:1

~ ,I ~ :1 j

I,

1

ATTACK.

204. Transportation. 1facfline guns are usually designed to be packed on the backs of mules or horses, or carri('d on motor transportation. Some guns of foreign make are provided with small wheeled carriages which are pulled by the detachment. 1Iachine guns may be divided into the heavy and light types. The heavy type, of which the Vicker-l\Iaxim is an example, are usually provided with a heavy tripod mount, and weigh from 50 to 60 pounds. They can be carried by their detachment but a short distance. They are usually used for fire of position only. The light type, of which Lewis, Benetl\fercie and Colt are examples, have small portable mounts w!;ieh support them about a foot from the ground. They'
[2041

205.206.207
Weigh only about 20 pounds and can be carried by their detachment almost anywhere, keeping well up with the infantry .advance in attack. 205. Position and role in attack. In. attack' machine guns usually accompany the second \vave of the first line, and also the second line and the reserve. They follow immediately in rear of the linc of infantry." They are usually not directly under fire, as the fire of the enemy will naturally be directed almost entirely at the first wave of the first line. Therefore ,the machine-gunners can' profit by their observation of the fight of the first wave and so bc in a position to act effectively . Where their fire may be needed .• ' The guns are usually pushed right up with the front of the line of which they form a part When they open fire. If they remain behind the line, their fire is usual blocked or masked by the slightest movement of the .line. If advantage can be taken of some covered way to get the gun~ forward, a detachment should avail itself of it instantly. Often some narrow way offers which the lines of infantry avail themselves of. If, in this way guns can be gotten in advance of the linc they will enable the infantry to advance for some distance under cover' of their fire. Shelter in attack. The machine gun in attack will 206. have to operate in the opcn. If it receives heavy fire, it must change its position, or if this is not possible, it should , lay low, the gunn~rs finding such shelter as they can near their guns, and await opportunity to change position. Gen. erally some slight shelter can be found on the battlefield, such as a shell crater, or the forward slope of one of the enemy's parapets. Sand-bags should be carricd, and small intrenching tools, so that in pauses in the attack the gunners can dig themselves in. Often filled sand-bags can be pulled up from nearby 'works. 207. Use in villages. "In villages machine guns can he used with deadly effect, firing from cellars and windows.

a

[205]

208-209

Usually the amount of fire that can be concentrated upon. them is small as the field of view is so limited. The artillery cannot locate them, and the mechanical regularity of their. fire is often not noticed in the din which arises from the ~ fierce close range fighting. The only successful method of : destroying them is with hand grenades, and even this is very :t costly.

208. Machine guns in position. \Vhile numbers of '.~ . light machine guns accompany the infantry in the advance, . others of the lighter type in positions in rear endeavor with their fire to help out and support the infantry. When they can no longer fire over the heads of the infantry, or their . ~ fire is masked by the troops in front, they shonld move up towards the front, preferably to some knoll or height from I which they can continue their fire of support. Finally, they join the first line and assist in maintaining the captured ~ position. 209. Ammunition supply. Ammunition supply for guns entering the attack must be carefully thought out and arranged for in advance. The only practical way will be to have it carried up by hand. Ammunition carriers must know the probable lin.e of advance of the detachment, and a man must be detailed to follow the gun some distance in rear and act as a connecting link between the gun and the ammunition carriers. The demand for ammunition in the attack will probably not be as great as might be supposed .. The gun will fire only on rare occasions and then only for a moment at a time. l\fachine guns cannot fire for long intervals. For one thing, a target will never stay exposed to machine gun fire long. It cannot do so. Then, almost as soon as a gun begins to fire it will find itself smothered with hostile fire. The fire will consist mostly of a sudden burst of fire, say 30 seconds. The target disappears. The crew seize the gun and change position before the hostile gunners can get on to it .. [2061

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210

210. Instruction. In the training camps the machine . gun detachments and companies should often be required to participate in attack exercises with the infantry. They must be taught to grasp the situations which develop rapidly and. to reinforce or replace the fire of the attacking infantry, either by working their way through avenues of approach squarely out in front of the halted lines of infantry, or by taking up a position on an elevation in rear; or by mane~vering to a position 011 the flank of the line. Tl1ey should be trained to pick up good positions, and to take advantage of cover, no matter how insignificant. A slight cover from view only a short distance from some particularly good cover is often better than the good cover. The enemy will believe the gun to be in the good cover and will fire at it, and the detachment may escape the fire concentration. They must be taught to rush rapidly with all their material, and to cross obstacles with it. . Crossing walls may be very necessary in fights in villages .. They must keep still, try not to annoy or block the infantry, and endeavor to be forgotten by the infantry. Above all they must not delay" or endanger the advance of their own infantry by their fire. They are there to heIp the infantry to get forward in every way, and to hold the positions gained by the infantry. ' .

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211-212 CHAPTER VIII MISCELLANEOUS
211. Signallers. In a system of trenches the communication is almost entirely by telephone. Companies are con':' nected by phone with battalion headquarters, and both with regimental headquarters. Regimental headquarters are connected with the brigade and division headquarters, and with the local headquarters of both the light and heavy artillery. A central i.s established in each regimental sector which per~ mits the calling of any station from any phone. Dressing stations where litter bearers are located also have their telephones, as well as all supply points. This means an intricate network of from 100 to 200 miles of telephone wire for the sector of a division. The operation of this system falls to the division signal officer assisted by the signallers of each. regiment. A detachment of about 75 signallers is needed in each regiment, and is in charge of an officer of the regiment who will be required to give all his attention to this work. 212. Instruction of signallers. Signallers are instructed in the maintenance and operation of telephones and bUlzers, in the duties of linemen, and in the construction, operation. , and maintenance of telephone centrals. They must know how to detect faults in instruments and line as quickly as possible, and should be able to send and receive with the buzzer at the rate of twelve words per minute with absolute accuracy. They should be thoroughly familiar with the message blank, . and should be given practice in writing" down messages from It is a waste of time to teach them visual sig-nalling, dictation. as this method is never used in trench warfare. Decidedly the best ins"trument for use in the trenches is the combination of telephone and huzzer. The men must be thoroughly familiar with its use, adjus,tment, and correction of , 12~1

213-214 faults. \Vires are usually laid in pairs,-that is, two complete Sets of wires, the extra set being for emergency. Both sets should not be strung in the same place. It is best to rtm one along about one foot above the hottom of a trellch~ and the other at the top of the opposite side. They must be secured to stakes or 1>oards every three feet so that they will lie flat and not catch in equipment. The lines will of necessity be rUn in very unsuitahle places, and will be continual1y cut by shell fire and broken by carelessness .

.'

213. Steel helmets. The French army, during the autumn of 1915, was partial1y equipped with steel helmets, which were tried out in the fighting in Champagne. and in Artois with highly satisfactory results. It was found that these helmets greatly reduced the losses fro111 head wounds in trench warfare, in that when hit by rifle and shrapnel bullets only severe. concussions were produced, where before serious if not fatal wounds would have occurred: So successful was this helmet that it has now been issued to all the French army, and the English army also has adopted it. The English report that in a recent engagement some thirty lives were saved in a single battalion by its use. The French report that they will Continue the use of this new style of headgear after the war.

214. Bomb throwers'. These are machines actuated by springs, etc., like the ancient ballistas and catapults. They are used for throwing grenades and small bombs from the fire trench into the enemy's trenches when the distance is greater than the grenadiers can throw by hand (about 50 Yards). An arm, pivoted at the bottom, carries a cup-shaped hand at its upper extremity. It is pul1ed down from a vertical Position against heavy springs and locked. The bomb is p1aced in the hand an (1 the trigger pulled, unlocking the arm which flies up to its vertical, or nearly vertical position. The homb is thrown out with great fOl:ce, departing at an angle of about

215-216

45 degrees. The range is controlled by regulating the pres~ sure on the spring. 215. Trench mortars. Trench mortars are small steel cannon or howitzers actuated by gunpowder. Theprojectile is a large oblong bomb or grenade with a rod in the rear end, very much like, a large rifle grenade. The rod only is inserted, in the mortar, so that the caliber of the mortar is much smaller than the diameter of the projectile. The operation and action is very much like that of the rifle grenade. The trench mortar is usually operated by a crew of its own, who are skilled in its operation: Range depends upon the angle of elevation. The extreme range is about 500 yards. A celebrated trench mortar " is the German" 1Iinenwerfer." This is a comparatively light' mortar firing a very large projectile of 16,5 cm., 25 'em., and' 30 cm, or over. The usual weight of the trench mortar bomb , is from 30 to 40 pounds, while the mortar weighs less than ' 200 pounds and can be carried and placed in position by several men. ~ 216. Mining. l\Iining consists in digging a shaft in the' fire trench or in a sap, and from this shaft running a gallery' out towards the enemy's trench until under it, placing a large ,' quantity of explosive in the end of t~e gallery and then blowing ~ up a portion of the enemy's trench. About 200 yards is the . extreme limit to which it is profitable to run a gallery, and ' the average distance is considerably under 100 yards. Usually ~ a number of galleries are run at the same time, the object; being to set off all the mines at once, and follow their explosion ~ with an attack. l\Iining operations are conducted by mining . companies of the engineers, assisted by the infantry in the ~ trenches. \Vhen mining operations have once started the work must be kept up at as fast a rate as possible in order that the '1 mines may be sprung before the conditions in that particular portion of the trenches have changed. l\Iining is always under- • taken in localities where it is feasible, and where the work
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[210]

217 will pay for itself,-that is, result in the capture or 'destruction of some very important or dangerous sector of the enemy's trenches. The usual gallery now used is about 4 feet high, 2 ft, 6 in. wide at the top, and 3 feet at the bottom, measured inside the timber roofing and walls that keep it up. 'This l11eans a section of some 12 square feet. Galleries have been run out some 400 feet; which gives about 5000 cubic feet of earth to dispose of. It is usually disposed of by filling sand hags at the head of the gallery, and hauling these out. This will mean some 4000 sand bags for a gallery of 400 feet. \Vork on the face of a gallery is carried out by three men,One working, one filling bags, and one resting, the number of the remainder depending upon the length of the gallery. The average rate of progress is about 12 feet per day, but galleries in favorable soil have been run at the rate of 32 feet in 24 hours. The most satisfactory method of disposing of the excavated earth is to put it in sand bags 'and drag it to the head of the shaft by hand or by a winch. Here the infantry should take the bags over for use in their fire trenches. In event of their having a surplus, an excellent plan is to build a dummy parapet on any available ground high enough to cast a good shadow for aeroplane observation purposes. The enemy have been known to spend half a day shelling such a dummy trench, which can only be distinguished with difficulty from a real one. l\1ines to produce craters have been charged with up to 13,000 pounds of high explosive, producing craters Go yards long by 40 yards across. Drainage and ventilation in the galleries are carried out by pumps, and continuous experiments are being carried out by engineers to find the n105t silent, and at the same time the most effective ones. 217. Silence and counter measures in. mining. The great secret of success fut mining is silence. The enemy will be constantly' listening for indications of mining. They will have listening posts out in front of their trenches for this
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[2II]

'218

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particular purpose. I f they should discover a gaIIery being dug, they will, in turn, institute count~r mining operations,-I the digging of a gallery out to meet it before it reaches a , dangerous position under their trenches. \Vhen the enemy ~ believe they have approached near to the head of our gallery. with their mining they place a charge and fire it, thus blowing in and causing the destruction of our gaIIery. As a rule "! , mining operations are not very successful. The problem dcpends upon the development of a noiseless boring tool. 1 .' 218. Musketry training. Skill in rifle firing at long ranges, is not essential in trench warfare. In training troops for the ,~ European war the English limit the range to 300 yards, and shooting at as short a distance as 35 yards with the service ~ charge is taught. Great stress is laid on rapidity of fire, the, ~ end aimed at being to develop the soldier's marksmanship to, ~ the point where he can fire 15 well aimed and pulled shots a i minute, and from which he will get 75 per cent of hits on the ' 'silhouette of a man kneeling at 200 yards. The infantryman should first be taught to shoot with the .22 caliber rifle. The' English use a special .22 caliber rifle for this purpose, the. cartridge being loaded directly into the chamber instead of into a holder. The .22 Long Rifle cartridge is used, loaded with Lesmok powder. The accuracy attained with this con~bination results in all shots being contained in a 2-inch circle at 100 yards. As a result the interest in this gallery practice can be continued much longer than with a less accurate weapon. },fen are given this practice until they have indelibly hammered into them the principles of good marksmanship,always to set the sights, always to aim accurately, always to squeeze the trigger off. Special attention is paid to the manipulation of the rifle and bolt in rapid fire. }'Ten are practiced at this, both with empty rifle and with dummy cartridges, literaIIy for hours every day, until the operation of the bolt becomes like a sleight of hand performance, and until the
4.~. ;1.

219 clips can he inserted into the magazine like lightning without any danger of buckling. l\fen who develop special skill are detailed as snipers, and receive much more extended instruction. 219. Training in billets and cantonments. In the trenches, when not fighting, discipline unavoidably relaxes. 1'hrough inaction the men lose their ahility to march and maneuver. The only exercise they get is probably a little work in the repair of trenche~. Therefore when they return to billets or cantoriments for their short respite from trench duties, they should first be required to bathe and their uniforms and clothing should be sterilized and renewed if possible. They are then allowed 24 hours respite in which to sleep themselves . out. A return is then had to the routine of the training camp. there should be a route march of 12 miles every day, or a comPany, battalion or regimental combat exercise. The men should he drilled with the bayonet, and in throwing grenades. They should be taught the rapid reversing of a parapet of a trench. Should have lots of rifle shooting. Their equipment should he entirely gone over and renewed or repaired. The special detachments like snipers, grenadiers, signallers, and machine gunners receive instruction and exercise in their specialties. There should he more drilling and work here than in the trencl~es. The l11'en will understand the reason for it, and recognize its necessity.

220-221

CHAPTER IX THE ATTACK
2.20. Equipment' for attack. \Vhether the infantry will wear the pack into action or not depends upon orders from higher authority. The pack affords considerable protection' f rom shrapnel fire, and fragments from shells and grenades. Also, troops entering on an attack may not see food or shelter for several days. On the other hand there is no doubt that the pack is a great encumbrance in active work, reducing the mobility of the smaller men in the company particularly. If the pack be not taken, the haversack must still be carried, and on it the entrenching tool, the meat can, and at least one emerge'ncy ration. If these be judiciously disposed in the haversack the latter will still offer some slight measure of protection to the upper portion of the back from shrapnel fire. 220 rounds of ammunition in belt and 2 bandeleers are carried. Canteens are filled. Bayonets are fixed. Each grenadier carries 2 bandoleers of hand grenades (8 grenades in all) in addition to his pistol and. ammunition. Riflemen ac-companying grenadier parties told off to search out the communication trenches should carry an additional supply of hand grenades. I f much grenade fighting is foreseen a much larger supply will have to be taken. Have a meal for the men, or at least a cooked lunch, about an hour before going into the attack. :l\Ien should not enter an attac~ hungry, nor right on top of a heavy meal. ,The physical exertion that a man undergoes in an' attack is far - greater than in the keenest athletic competition . .2.21~ General principles of attack: (I) That particular portion of the enemy's line must be attacked which is of the greatest .strategical and tactical im[214]

222-223
Portance, and on which the best artillery co-operation can be given. (2) Fullest possible information must be obtained with regard to that part of the enemy's position which is to be attacked. This information must be given to the artillery and to the infantry units. (3) Arrangements must be made for the suitable distribution of artillery" fire over the various enemy defenses, batteries, etc. (4) Infantry must be protected from counter attack by artillery until 'the ground gained can be consolidated,-that is, until the infantry can prepare a defensive position, and our artillery can be brought up to supporting positions in rear. e 5) There must be the fullest co-operation between the infantry and artillery. Constant rehearsals of projected attacks are essential. (6) FInal orders for the infantry advance are not given until the artillery reports everything in readiness. 222. Preparation by the artillery. In order to attack with l1~inimt1111osses, the infantry requires that the artillery l in its preparation carry through the following program: e I ) Destroy the wire entanglements. (2 ) Neutralize and destroy the enemy's trenches and their defenders. (3) Prevent the hostile artillery from coming into action When the infantry advance starts forward. (4) . Prevent the bringing up of reserves. (5) Destroy machine guns as soon as they reveal their Positions. 223. Form of infantry attack. As the artillery preparation reaches its completion the infantry that is to make the attack is brought up into the fire and supervision trenches. Generally this will abol1t double the garrison of the fire trench for the time being, and w,ill greatly crowd the trenches. As a
[215]

224 ... 225

rule, the garrison of the fire trench does not participate in the, attack, only fresh troops being used. All information as to the enemy's trenches in front must be given to these troops by those occupying the trenches. The object of the attack is to capture' the first and second hostile lines, and if possible to create a' complete gap in the enemy's line. To overcome the successive' defenses of the enemy the attacker must hJ.ve a first and second line, followed 'by reserves. 224. The first line. The first line is composed of several waves of assault. The first wave is composed of companies of infantry in line of skirmishers, with grenadiers following immediately behind them. At given signal the artillery fire, already complete, ceases, and this wave jumps out of the trenches and rushes to the assault of the first hostile trench. The second wave consisting of men in one line, elbow to elbow, with machine guns immediately in rear, follows about 75 yards behind the first wave. ' • 225. The first ~ave. This wave starts off without any danger. It will take the enemy an appreciable time to discover the start of the attack, and to concentrate fire on' it. The wave may thus be immune from fire directed intentionally at it for from 10 seconds to severa.! minutes. This is its chance to gain the first opposing trench. The line must burst forward intact. There must be no late comers. l\fen who delay and follow several yards in rear are liable to catch the enemy's fire. As the defenders' heads appear above the hostile trench they are fired on by th~ riflemen in the first wave, the firing being done on the run. It will be perhaps impossible to hit them, but at least it will have a tendency to keep their heads' down, and keep them from firing accurately. As the trench is approached the riflemen pause, lie down in the ditch and fire rapidly. Then is the time for the grenadiers, also lying prone, to throw hand grenades over the heads of the riflemen into the hostile trench. A grenade should be thrown into the corner
[216J

226-227
of 'each bay, against the traverse, and one in the rear of each traverse, and at the openings into the communicating trenches. The riflemen should not jump into the trenches until the grenadiers have had a chance to clean them out. They then jump in, bayoneting" all men who offer any ~esistance. A trench must be cleaned out before it is left, so that there may be none of the enemy left iri rear to fire into the backs of the attacking lines. The first trench having been taken, the first wave. proceeds ten yards beyond the trench and lies down and opens fire. 226. The second wave follows the first at about 75 yards. , They occupy the trenches taken by the first wave, support the first wave and open fire to the front with machirye guns. They reinforce the first wave lying ten yards in advance of the captured trench if necessary. The re-organization being quickly completed, the advance of both waves again starts forward, their obj~ctive being the next hostile trench. Grenadiers in rear of the second wave take care of the communicating trenches, and any parties of the enemy that hold on to isolated points in the trenches. In this manner the successive defenses of the enemy are taken. -

227. Attackers to keep in the open. Under no circumstances should the attacking lines be permitted to advance through the communication trenches. Their advance must be confined to the ground above the trenches. 'A party of the enemy in a communicating trench can easily' stop an attempt to advance through it, and to attempt to do so is a waste of time and mel1, and leads to the attack being broken up into a number of small. isolated engagements in the trenches. Grenadiers and a few riflemen chosen in advance follow up the comllltmicating trenches according to a prearranged scheme. They are to discover any parties of the enemy lurking in these trenches, clear them out, if possible or else engage them to prevent their enfilading the attack lines.

228-229 228. Cohesion of the attack. The men in any line must ' not go forward in disorder, as they would be at the mercy of any slight offensive return or counter attack. They should always keep on the'line of officers and noncommissioned officers, reforming their-lines if necessary as they advan<'e. The lines thus go forward almost shoulder to shoulder, the only men in rear being the grenadiers and macPine gunners. 229. The charge. The advance is usually in double time. A Jaster pace is seldom advisable, as it results in the line straggling from some of the men not being able to keep up at the fast run, and it winds and exhausts the men. Ordinarily a charge will not be necessary, it being preferable to pause a little in the ditch in front of the trench to allow the grenadiers a chance to bomb the trench and thus clear it out before the

FIG. 1

riflemen go into it. If, however, the trench is stronrly held, and our artillery preparation has not caused as much destruction as hoped, it will become necessary to assault the trench with the bayonet. The line goes forward at double time, and when about 75 yards from the trench the charge starts. The line should be maintained as straight as possible so as to hit tl~e enemy at the same moment everywhere. The men run forward
[218]

230-231
'at full speed, yelling. The rifle is dropped to the height of the waist. The troops run straight on the hostile trench. If possible for a rifleman to fire he does so, and every enemy who shows himself receives a rifle shot. As the parapet is approached the riflemen watch the loop-holes and the crest of the parapet. If a head or rifle shows itself, it is fired upon. The men then jump on the parapet. By rifle shots and bayonet thrusts they destroy everything in their way. No one must be left behind to shoot our men in the back, as has so often happened. I f all the enemy surrender at once they should' not be massacred, but quickly disarmed. 230. Holding on. Small isolated groups have a tendency to withdraw precipitately before the least counter attack or' offensive return, particularly if they have become separated from their officers. There must be no retreat: The ground gained must be stubbornly held at all costs. Isolated groups can hold on in the corner of a trench or in a shell crater. Even if their ammunition becomes exhausted, they may be able to get hold of rifles and ammunition of the enemy. Four or five resolute, sheltered men, firing coaly, as they have been taught to do on the rifle range, and having some degree of shelter can hold on almost indefinitely. I f the attacking line . should be stopped temporarily, these small groups are very useful. They prevent the enemy reorganizing and consolidating his position, and allow the resumption of the attack with a much greater chance for success. 231. The first and second line trenches having been taken, the attackers get beyond the zone of their artillery preparation, and here the enemy will endeavor to establish a It now becomes necessary to advance stubborn resistance. with more precaution. No longer is it possible to advance slowly across the open; rather must the units try to creep up inside the communicating trenches, taking the groups of the enemy in flank, and endeavoring in every way_ to get
[219]

232 as far forward as possible before they are finally. stopped. Remember that the getting of a patrol two or three hundred yards forward in a communicating trench may make it possible to get a battalioH up on that line in the night. Troops advancing through trenches in this manner should be plentifully supplied with hand grenades.

FIG. 2

232. The second line. During the artillery preparation . the troops of the second line are placed in the support trenches in rear of the fire trenches. \Vhen the first line has gone forward to the attack the second line moves down into the fire trenches and gets ready to advance. This line should start forward when the first line has taken the first zone of defense of the enemy-that is, when it has progressed up to the enemy's second line. of trenches, beyond the reserve trenches. They should not wait too long before starting to advance, but it is absolutely necessary that they should not get mixed up with the attack of the first line. A premature departure would result in their getting. mixed up with the last wave of the first line, and they would be absorbed in the same combat. Such an action would add little to the efforts of the first line, as the first line already has as many men in it as can use their weapons effectively. A good formation for the first line to advance in at the start is platoon columns. The mission of
[2201

233
the second line is to take up th~ attack when the first line is exhausted, generally when the first line has passed the enemy's' fire, support, and reserve trenches, and is halted before the second series of lines. The enemy is all in disorder. He has withstood several days of intense shelling. His trenches opposite our troops were first blown to pieces, and then taken by our first line. If some small groups hold on, they' feel the resistance of their comrades giving way around them. From . now on many of them are only too ready to retreat. But at some points in the second line reserves have come up, have nlanned certain points in that line, and are making a stubborn resistance. N ow is the time for the second line to concentrate against those points where the resistance continues, and. which holds the first line back. :Machine guns are brought up, and fire with the utn~ost rapidity, not only against the points still held, but to prevent access to the undefended zones on either side of' these points of resistance. Some' of the second line must attack these points of resistance, while other organi. zations press boldly on through the empty spaces in the line, endeavoring to press forward as far as possible, and to take these advance points of resistance of the enemy in the flank. or rear. As the second line approaches the advanced line of battle its action and organization becomes a repetition' of the first line. 233. Action of the reserves. The reserves follow the . second line, but much farther in rear. They are held intact to be used as ordered by the supreme commander. The attack is nearly to open ground, beyond which there are no trenches. The enemy still c,lings 011 in places, and there is danger that his reinforcements, coming up in haste, may soon . convert these points into another insuperable barrier if we give them any respite. It is against these last points of resistance that the commander empl<1ys the reserve. Thus the last resistances are definitely shattered with the' reserve.
[221]

234-235

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234. Consolidating the position. There is a limit to the depth to which the attack can press forward. There comes a point where the troops are exhausted, where they get beyond. the support of there artillery, where their units must be reorganized to get that cohesion necessary to advance or even to resist. Here the lines must stop and consolidate. The troops must stop and dig in, must reserve the nearest captured trench.

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FIG.

3

The artillery must be brought up to positions close in rear, and must set about providing a barrier of fire. Ammunition, water, supplies, must be brought up, and for this purpose it, may be necessary to construct roads through the devastated area. The wounded and prisoners must be taken to the rear. Communication between the various units and parts of the line must be re-established. A further progress of the attack must await all these things, and also a second artillery preparation, and the bringing up of fresh attacking troops. 235. The role of the individual soldier. The dispositions being made, the artillery preparation completed, the general throws his infantrymen into the fight. He counts or: them,
[222]

235 .(Contd.)
their Country relies on them, for the victory .. Each of them, even the most humble private, is responsible to his Country for his part in the day's work. The object is not to get killed bravely and disappear; HE lVIUST LIVE, AND FIGHT,

AND CONQUER!
vVhat must the private soldier do in the combat? His preparation really starts the day he enlists or is drafted. He is trained mentally and physically for the supreme effort of atI

FIG. 4

. tack. If he has taken his training seriously, if he has in him th~ spirit of the soldier, he finds himself fit on the day of the crisis. As he rests in the trenches, awaiting the pause in the artillery bombardment which will be a signal for him to go forward, every muscle throbs with life and power, every faculty is alert, his vrain is clear. Then comes the signal or command from his officer. He jumps up, and with one bound is clear of the trench. With his comrades he rushes forward, bent on cleaning up the enemy's positi011. He participates in the capture of several trenches. It seems easy at first-some short, quick
[223]

235 (Contd.)
dashes, a little firing when one glimpses a hostile head; and he is in and out of, and lying down in front of the trench. His officers imbue him with the idea that all the ground possible must be gained while the going is good. But the time comes when the fire of the enemy increases. No longer can his regiment carry an entire trench in an assault. The enemy held on at certain points. The company on his right is stopped,-diverted to attack one of these points. Shortly afterwards the platoon on his left encounters a group of the enemy in a communicating trench, and stops to clear tl;em, so there will be 110 fire from the rear. The way to the front is 'still open,-he must go on, he must gain every foot of ground possible .. The fire is getting heavier. :Men on his right and left are falling. .It is too much. They can go no farther. \Vhere is the platoon commander? He is nowhere to be seen! . \Vhat must the soldier do? He is an individual now. There is no more order;-he and his comrades must arrange it. For what were their brains trained? \Vhat spirit has been inculcated in them? They must hold on. THEY MUST LIVE AND FIGHT, AND CONQUER! They seek sheIter,perhaps a hole that was once a trench, or a shell crater. Here they organize, form up, and take stock of each other. As. long as their ammunition remains they can hold out indefinitely against infantry fire and attack. They must make their fire effective and .hold on, a dozen resolute men in a little hole in the ground.
J

Perhaps off to the left they see a portion of the struggle that is goirig on. There is a trench occupied by the enemy. The men in it are firing at several of our c~mpanies piled up in a ragged line of shell holes and the remains of an old trench. Our men are suffering heavy losses. that we can see by the way they lie, hugging the bottom of the trench. and not firing much. And when they do fire they do not raise up high, and their bullets go high over the heads of the enemy. From where
[2'::4]

we '

235 (Contd.)
, dozcn mcn now are we can see down a portion of the enemy's trench. Can we not help out our comrades? Let us crawl tv . the side of this hole, get into our gunslings, set our sights, and 'at a given word open up rapid fire. It is done. After the first couple of magazines there appears to be trouble in the enemy's trench. They are firing faster, then their fire slackens. They sink down in the trench. \Ve see them no more. Our com-' , rades, who have been under the enemv's fire are recovering. VVe see them crawling about re-forming their lines. Now they come forward as fast as they can. They jump into the enemy's trenches only to find them vacant, except for 20 or 30 dead men. These undirected efforts of this handful. of privates in a' shell hole,-these men who, unknown, unheralded. follow their Country's flag,-turned into victory i~pending defeatl

QUESTIONS
CHAPTER I TACTICAL FORTIFICATIONS

l 1 How does the modern soldier protect and shield himself , (2) from fire arms? \Vhat great progress and development has been noted in the elaborate and extensive trench systems that have been developed on the 'Vestern front of Europe? (2) How.are fortifications classified in the United States ser- ~ "I: vice? (3)j

1

'Vhen a:nd where are strategical fortifications usually con-J structed? (3) 'Vho generally constructs tactical fortifications and for what ~ ~ purpose are they constructed? (3) ~ How are tactical fortifications most satisfactory classified? (3) , . \Vith what tools are hasty intrenchments built, and from what kinds of fire must they be. capable of sheltering the troops? (3) 'Vhat are field fortifications t,hey constructed? (3) Draw a complete fire trench of the various parts. (4) and with what end in view are (Fig. 3) and give the names

'l

Draw in plan (Fig. 4) a typical intrenched position, the product of the present European 'Var. (4) By whom may hasty intrenchments be constructed? (5) \Vhen troops have deliberately assumed a position with a view to preparing it for defense, and are not under fire, but expect an early attack, what must their commander first de-l cide? (6)

'1

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I,~

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Give the measures he must cqnsider in his decisions as to which are of the greatest relative importance. (6) \ Vhere should the trenches be traced? (6) \Vhat should be a voided where possible? (6) Describe the method of deploying an organization on. the line of. trenches and the preparations made previous to the beginning of actual digging. (6) , \Vhat is the quickest way to get protection from rifle fire? (6) What thickness of an earth parapet will stop rifle and 'machine gun bullets? (6) : Describe the method each man follows in digging the lying trench. (6) If time permits into what may the lying trench be developed?

(6)

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. What must be provided as the work proceeds beyond the lying trench, and why? (6) . . vVhat must troops do when stopped in the open by the fire of the enemy? (7) Where will troops caught in this manner, usually have to intrench? (7) . I f necessary and possible, how should the firing line be ' 'shifted? (7) , \Vhat will insure a fair position at least? (7) vVhen in line of skirmishers lying down and under' fire, what does the front rank man do as he lies? (7) \Vhat is the rear rank man doing? (7) Describe how the front rank man digs himself in. (7) \Vhat precaution is taken when throwing up new earth and how is this effected? (7) \Vhat can be said as to the time required to dig a bullet proof lying trench in the above manner? (7) What is of primary importance as regards the parapet of the trench? (8)
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\Vhat indicates the position for the' new parapet if craters have been made in the parapet by shells or if a section of the trenches have been blown up by mining operations? (8) .~ \Vhat may a lull in the artillery fire' signify? (8) ) In such case what is done? (8) ~ \Vhat should every effort be made to maintain? (8) \Vhen conditions permit what work should be started, and when? .(8) \Vhat advantages are obtained when a parapet is well con~ cealed? (9 ) How should the parapet be constructed if small in size? (9) . \Vhat will greatly facilitate the construction of the parapet?

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(9)
\Vhat precautions should be observed in placing stones in the parapet, and why? (9) \Vhen in lying position, what affords considerable immunity against serious shrapnel wounds? (9) . In the lying trench what care must be taken in the construction of the furrow or trench? (9) . 'j \Vhen troops are forced to halt and intrench durin~ an attack the intrenching should be done primarily with what view?

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\Vith what fact should the soldier be impressed? (9) j \Vhat determines to a considerable extent, the line to be' occu'pied? (10) . ~ \":hat conditions, as far as possible, should a position deliberately assumed, not under fire fulfill? (10) . \Vhat is the next step after. having selected the general line to be fortified? (II) '., State the things to be considered in, this connection. (I I) \Vhat does the first consideration require? (I 1)1 Give the advantages and disadvantages of locating trenches near the base of hills, and on the ."military crest." (II). ,
[228], ' .

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How is it determined whether we should locate our trenches. on high or low ground? .( I I ) Give the advantage and disadvantage of the high .ground.

(II)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of low ground?

(II)
What is the natural inclination in selecting ground, and, as a rule, what will this choice cause? (I I) With regard to the nature of the ground, how should trenches, if practicable, be located, and why? (I I ) What is the next thing to do, after the position of the trenches has been decided upon? (12) What does the regimental commander do with the sector assigned to him? (12) What does each battalion commander do with his sector?

(12)
. With what are the company commanders charged? (I2) . Upon what does the length of the sector to be assigned to . a unit depend? (13) \\That may be assumed as a suitable strength with favorable conditions, in a purely passive defense? (13)" . What can be said about the discontinuity of the line of fire trenches and the present exception to this rule? (14) What are Hsupporting points" and how are they selected? (IS) Of what may a supporting point consist? (IS) Upon what does the interval between supporting points depend? (16) . As a rule what is this interval? (16) What is sometimes the purpose of leaving large intervals between supporting points occupied by units the size of a division or more? (16) Upon what does the size of the unit occupying a supporting point depend? (17)
[229J

Give the size of the force generally the smallest tmit that would occupy a supporting point. (17) • How are the troop., occupying the trenches divided? (18) \Vhat are communicating trenches? (18)'

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\Vhat does each battalion have and where is it usu~tlly 10-",1.,," cated? (19) , '\Vith what in view are supports located? (19) \Vhat are "local" or "sector reserves" and what units hold them out? (20) ~ Upon what does the size and location of these reserves , depend? (20) \Vhat is meant by the general reserve?, (21) , Upon what does its strength depend? (21) \Vith what in view are the reserves posted? .(2 I) : \Vhat cover is provided for reserves? (2 I) \Vhat care must be taken in placing reserves near friendly artillery? (21) As a rule, how should local reserves be held? (2 I) \Vhat is the next thing in order after the sectors have been assigned? (22) , , \Vhat is the normal working unit in the construction of ' field fortifications? (23) \Vho assists the company commander, and what does he do in the absence of specific instructions about his trenches? (23) Specifically, what does the organization of' a company sector involve? (23) , How do you locate the trace? (24) How may the trace be conveniently marked? (24) Give the method employed by the men a fter the trace has been marked. (24) If an attack is likely during the progress of the work what should the first efforts he directed towards? (24) How may n~en be posted five feet apart;' three feet apart? (24)
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. \\lith what may' the dimensions of rifle trench~s be laid off? (24) .'. Describe a convenient method of marking the trace of a Parapet when time permits. (24) \\lhat kind of a parapet should be made, and why? (24) How can the height necessary for the parapet on any particular piece of ground be easily determined? (24) \\That is meant by the command? (24) What'must be the condition of the immediate foreground 'yith a cOl;lmand 0 f less than 10 feet? (24)' Who constructs these works? (25)' \Vhat troops assist and under whose orders are they employed? (25) .\Vhat should be done with 'troops detailed for this work in order to perform the work to the best advantage? (25) \Vhen niaking any but the smallest intrenchment how IS the total time divided? (26) Upon what docs the length of reliefs depend? (26) How is the size of each relief calculated? (27) \Vhat can be said as to the capacity of. the average untrained man for continuous digging? (28) How much work should be assigned to each relief? (28) Why should the first relief have a slightly greater task than . the others? (28) What intrenching tools in addition to the portable type does a regiment of infantry have and where are they carried? (29) Give the equipment of pack tools prescribed in Infantry , Unit' Accountability Equipment Manual, 1916, for a regiment of infantry. (29) Where is this equipment carried? (29) When the regiment is attached to, or serving with a brigade or division, what becomes of 'the intrenching tool wagon and its contents? (29)

In case the regiment is permanently detached from the brigade or division, what becomes of the intrenching tool wagon? (29) , Describe the taking of tools by a relief. (.3°) \Vhat is the proportion of the various tools per 100 men for ordinary trench digging? (30) Describe the placing of a relief on the work after the tools ha ve been taken. (3 I ) Give the method of intrenching in hard ground. (32) \Vhy is constant supervision of the work necessary? (33) \Vhat are the duties of squad and platoon leaders in the " supervision of construction? (33) For what is the company commander responsible? (33) Discuss expediting the work by various machinery. (34) Give a convenient way of saving the sod to conceal the parapet. (35) Draw a profile of a typical modern fire trench. (36) \Vhat should be the depth of the trench below the crest of the parapet, and why? (37) . Discuss the following points of a trench:- The sides; the width at top and bottom; the bottom; firing step and elbow rest. (37) Discuss the following points of parapet :-Height; width; borrow pit; exterior slope; superior slope; concealment. (38) , \Vhat is meant by defilading a field work? (39) , '\Vhy are trenches never made continuously straight? (39) \Vhat is a traverse? (40) How is it usually constructed in practice? (40) \Vhat are the purposes of traverses? (40) Give their disadvantageous features. (40) \Vhy are they absolutely necessary? (40) \Vhat has the present war shown as to the size of traverses?

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(4°)
\ Vhat should be the distance between traverses?
[232]

(40)

What is a parados? (41) How are recesses best made and what purpose do they serve? (42) What are sortie steps and where are they cut? (43) What is a supervision trench and what is its purpose? (44) , Describe the construction and the use of the "S" and 'IT" trenches. (45) vVhat objection is there to'this form of trench? (45) \Vhere and for what purpose are shelters, dug-outs, and bomb proofs constructed? (46) In general, into what two classes may they be divided? (46) Describe the construction of the most. satisfactory dugouts.

. (46)

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What can be said about the effective resistance of. roofing , materials against shrapnel bullets, ordinary 3-inch field guns, field howitzer~ of 'less than. 6-inch, and howitzers and heavy guns of 6 to 12 inches? (47) How are passage ways to deep dug-outs made? '(47) State the g;eneral rules for shelters. (48) "That general rules are followed in constructing shelter in supporting trenches? (49) \\There and how are latrines constructed? (50) How must the first shelter of any kind provided in rear of. the supervision trench be chosen? (5 I) . What is their usual construction? (5 I) Whenever possible what provisions should be made for these trenches? What purposes do communicating trenches serve? (52) Ordinarily, where do these trenches lead from? (52) II ow is the number constructed governed? (52) What trace should they have and how constructed? (52) What can be said of their concealment and how is this accomplished? (52) What is the width of this trench? (52)
[233]

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\Vhat is head cover? (53) \Vhat is a notch or rifle embrasure and give an example?

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(S~Jhen is an opening in the .head cover called a. loophole? (54) In what respect do notches and loopholes differ? (55) 0:1 Describe the various parts of ~ loophole. (55) Give an' example of a serviceable form of loophole. (55) /' How may a hotch become a loophole? (55) \Vhen may a loophole take the forin of a long slit and howi ~ is this 'made? (55) .' State the advantages (56) and the disadvantages (57) of'" head cover. \Vhat is the purpose of listeners and look-outs in advance of the fire trench? (58)j \ Vhat are listening posts and look-out stations? (58 ):~ How is passage to them usually made? (58) Describe the construction of a listening post. ( 58) From what must the post be protected and how is this done? (58) ~. . How is the listening conducted? (58) \Vhy should the communicating 'gallery under the parapet 'of the fire trench be carefully guarded? (58) Discuss the use and need of sign boards as developed in the present European war. (59) . \Vhat are supporting points and where are they located? (60) \ Vha t pu rposes do t hey serve? (60) How are they approached? (60) \Vhy must they be very carefully concealed? (60) \Vhat is a revetment and what qualities should it have? (61) \Vhat is meant by crowning? (61) Describe the construction and discuss the use of the following revetments:
[234]

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Board (62); sand bag (63); sod (64); brush work (65); fascines (66), (67); hurdles (6<) ; continuous hurdles (70); brush revetments (71); gabions (72), (73), (74), (75); wire and canvas (76); miscellaneous (77). . Discuss the need and system of drainage for trenches. (78) State the objects that obstacles used in front of fire trenches should, if possible, attain. (79) How much of their length should be under fire and within what range of the defenders? (79) How far from the fire which defends it at night should an obstacle be? (79) Why should they not be too close? (79) What requirements should obstacles fulfill? (79) Why should they not be continuous? (79) How are the gaps protected? (79) \\That form of obstacles is being used on all fronts in Europe more than allY other kin'd? (80) State the ways in which wire may be used. (80) . \Vhy is wire entanglement the best of all obstacles? (80) Describe the construction of low wire entanglement. (81) In connection with high wire entanglement what points must be borne in mind. (82) How is barbed wire used? (82) . What is an ahatis and how is it constructed? (83) Describe the construction and use of kni fe rest entanglements. (84)

CHAPTER II THE SERVICE OF THE TRENCH:ES

How is the routine of duty regulated when two armies face each other in trenches, and,the power of each to maneuver ha.s become greatly restricted? (85) \Vhat is meant by billeting and how is it done? (86) \ Vhat is required of the inhabitants upon whom the troops are billeted? (86) , , As 2. general rule where is infantry and where are mounted troops billeted? (86) 1 \Vhat do you understand by billeting areas? (87) How can enlisted men leave the billeting area? (8 7 In case. of billeting in the enemy's country what restrictions are placed upon its inhabitants and why? (87)] \ Vhat warning should be given to all soldiers? (87) \Vhere is, and what is the purpose of a place of assembly 'j for each company? (87) . , \Vhit is the composition and duties of a billeting party? (88) 1 Discuss the discipline that must be maintained in billets. J (89) ,

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\Vhat sanitary measures should be observed in billets? (90) State the arrangements that must be made in taking proper precautions in billets. (91) \Vhat is the equipment of all troops entering trenches?(92) Give the duties of officers, regarding property, when enter~ ing trenches. (92) \Vhat instructions should fore leaving billet.s? (93) company commanders give be-

\Vhen is the garrison of the fire trench usually relieved? (94) , \\Thy should certain parts of the new organization arrive early the day before? (94) \Vho will go in first, probably early.in
[236]

the day? (94) .

\Vhen is the general relief and why?, (94) Give the methods of companies in going up to and entering the fire trenches. (94) What details must the regimental commander, who enters the trenches the morning before his command goes in, learn?

(95)
What equipment do signallers bring with them, and what must they learn? (~l» What are trench runners and what duties do they perform? (97) State what the machine gun commander must know and learn concerning his positions. (<)8) Discuss' the procedure of companies during the relief of fire trenches. (99) How does the number of sentries vary by day and by night? (99) \Vhen is everyone on the alert? (99) \Vho has charge of the posting of the sentinels, and how long does a sentinel remain on post? (99) . State what information an incoming company officer should obtain froni the outgoing officer. (100) What control is impossible in the trenches? (101) Who is the most important individual and why? (101) How much control can a company commander exert, and upon whom is he dependent? (101) , To what will regimental, battalion, and company commanders be obliged to limit their activities? (101) \Vhat can l)e said of the work done by day and that done by night? (10.3) , \Vhat classes of sentinels are there? (1°4) How are they posted by day and by night? (1°4) Give the duties of sentinels in fire trenches. (1°4) \Vhat does a sentinel do in the following cases: If he sees an attack starting; if hostil~ aeroplanes appear; when the hos[237]

tile aeroplane disappears; if a gas attack is imminent; in case he sees a bomb thrown from the opposing trench? (104) How do sentinels reach listening or look-out posts? (1°5) \Vhat may these positions be? (105) How is communication maintained? (105) \Vhat equipment do the!re sentinels carry? (1°5) State what these sentinels must listen and look for. (105) \Vhat rest do men in the trenches get? (106) \Vhat are the restrictions as to smoke in trenches by day, and how do men secure hot meals or drinks without smoke?
( 10

7)

\Vhat can be done over a candle flame? (1°7) \Vhat rations will be the rule in the trenches? (1°7) Discuss the initiative that must be maintained by all platoon commanders, and the reasons there for. (108) \Vhat should be done during the moments when the enemy is outside his shelter or t'renches? (10<» , How can a view over the whole of the enemy's trenches obtained? (110) , be

\Vhat details of the enemy's trenches can be seen by careful observation through field glasses? '( I I I) \Vhat can be learned from this observation? ( I II) How are field glasses used to watch through an observation loophole? (I II) Give several ways for making damage may be done him. (112) the 'enemy appear' so that soldiers, ,

How do young soldiers, and how do experienced regard shell fire?' ( I 13)

State how you would protect yourself from shell fire. (114) How may a good company be distinguished in regard to its trenches? (I IS) \Vhat work must he continually kept up on all trenches and, on those that are being fired on? (I 15) . .
[238J

What provisions should always b'e at hand for repair w'ork and what efforts should be made towards improvements to the front of trenches? (lIS) How is a trench cleaned and what is done with the refuse collected? (I Is) How are trenches weather? (I IS) kept dry and what is done in muddy

Of what importance is patrolling at night? (116) How does each company conduct this? (II6) \Vhat is the usual composition of patrols? (116) Give the strength of raiding parties and in what should they be especially strong? (Il6) When are grenades carried? (116) \Vhen a patrol goes out, what warning it done? (lIo) What other instructions is given and how is

should be given at the same time?

( lIO)
How is fire maintained with a patrol out to the front? (116) How does a patrol proceed on this duty? (1I6) • '\Vhat inspections should be made daily by platoon or company commanders? (117) Discuss the care of rifles in the trenches? How are supplies obtained ( II9) \Vhat trenches by a regiment

(lIB)
in the trenches?

should b~ screened

from hostile aeroplanes?

(120)

\

What should all men do when a sentinel gives the warning of ~he approach of a hostile aeroplane? (120) , What should men standing be cautioned what should they be taught? (120) \Vhat does a sentinel do when danger passed? (120) about doing, and is

from an aeroplane

What does a sentinel do if he sees a bomb thrown enemy's trench? (121)

from the

\\That action do the men take? (121) How can bombs from trench mortars be avoided? (121) Give the questions a platoon commander should ask himself when in command of a section of a trend;." (122)'

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[2401

. CHAPTER SNIPING
What What How videttes State \Vhat What snipers?

III

is meant by sniping? (123) effect does it have on an enemy? (123) has the policy cha!lged as regards opposing sentries, and outguards, from that practiced formerly? (123) the requirements of effective sniping. (124) are the targets a sniper has to shoot at? (124) is the custom in all armies as regards detailing of (124)

State what qualifications a sniper must possess besides the ability to shoot. (124) What men are the best for this work, and how are they. obtained in newly raised forces? (124) What special equipment does the sniper have, and why?
(12

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What advantages are secured by using the telescopic sight? (125) \Vhat size target. can a first class marksman properly equipped, hit at the following ranges: roo yds.; 200 yds.; 300 yds.; 400 yds.; and 500 yds.? (126) . \Vhat is meant by keeping the rifle sighted in? (127) \Vhy must the sniper always keep his rifle sighted in? (127) \Vhat m11st he know in order to do this? (127) What causes the shooting of a rifle to vary? (127) What means must a sniper absolutely have frequent resource to for keeping his rifle sighted in? (127) How only can he be sure of doing effective work on th~ \ small targets that will present themselves? (127) '\ .' How many snipers in every. company? (128) Give the duties of a sniper. (128) \Vhat is needed to make the sniper's work effective? (129)
[2411

How
(129)

can sentinels

help him to make his work effective?

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\Vhat assistance will he usually want? (129) How do snipers often work, and what advantage is thereby gained? (129) How can a good sniper's firing point be made? (13°)1 Where may a sniper be hidden and looked for? (130) \Vhat is his most usual position and why? (130) How many firing points should he have and why ? (130) \Vhat is a sniper's first consideration after he has relieved the outgoing sniper and gotten all the "dope" from him?(131) \Vhat should be the direction of a sniper's loophole, and why? (13i) Describe the construction of such a loophole. (13 I) How is the opening of a loophole made to give almost perfect protection? (131) \Vhat means are taken to prevent the enemy from seeing. through the loophole opening? (131) \Vhy is it necessary to have a number of loopholes? (131) \Vhat must the sniper know conc~rning the enemy's area .covered by each loophole? (131) Give the considerations which govern the size and shape of each loophole. (132) How many typical arrangements of single loopholes are there, and what are the points which influence the selection of a particular type? (132) \Vhere should, as a rule, good bullet-proof articles be used in loopholes when only a limited number of them are available? (132) ,.~ To what is the angle of splay usually limited in types A and n? (132) How can this splay be increased in Type C loophole? (132) What is a convenient Widtl;.;:/he narrowest part?

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How is the actual width obtained?' (132) To what width may the cut in' the plate of a loophole be , reduced? (132) , \Vhy can it not be used when below 20 inches? (132) \Vhat provisions are often made in loopholes for the purpose of increasing the facilities for viewing a large area of ground , without undue exposure to fire? (132) Why does a rifleman not shoot naturally or conveniently directly to his front? (132) \ 'Upon what does this have an important bearing, and why? (132) In practice when is this point usually attended to and what difficulty is then apparent? (132) How is this dlf11culty often accentuated? (132) Describe 'a "shingle" loophole. (132) vVhat material is available, how can the difficulties of getting satisfactory loopholes with sandbags, turf, etc., made by men ignorant of the use and powers of the rifle, be overcome? (132) Why are loo'pholes seldom used for observation? (133) , How do snipers and sentinels observe the opposing trenches?

, (133)

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What is a pe'riscope and how is it used? (133) Describe the constr,uctioh of a simple extemporized periscope. (133) How can the field of view be made to include the entire trench? (133) . . What should be' done with that portion of the periscope which projects over the parapet? (133) How many should each company have? (133)

CHAPTER IV. GRENADES AND GRENADIERS ..

\Vhat are grenades and of what do they consist? (134) How do they operate on exploding? (134) \Vhat kinds of grenades are there? (134) How are the rifle grenades used and for what purpose are they intended? (134 ) \Vhat kind of hand grenades are there and how does each kind operate? (134) How is the Babbitt rifle grenade used? (135) Describe the setting of the range for th~ rifle grenades? (136) . Give the loading, aiming and firing of a grenade. (137) Discuss the action of the grenade on firing. (138) \Vhat happens upon the impact of the grenade? (138) \Vhat can be said of the instructions for the use of the rifle grenades? (139 ) How is the stem c of the grenade graduated and what is the purpose of this? (139) How can the space between the minimum rangc, as marked on the stem, and the firing point be covered? (139) \Vith this angle of elevation, the ranges obtained will. be approximately what part of the ranges marked on the stem? (139) How can the angle of elevatioil of 80 degrees be approximated? (139) \Vhat is the maximum pressurc obtained from the special blank cartridge issued with the grenades? (139) To what range does this pressure correspond? (139) How have the best results been obtained in firing rifle grenades? (139) . .
[244]

What effect does the impact of a small arms bullet grenade have? (139) What blank cartridge only should be used with. grenade and why? (139) \ Discuss the handling of a rifle grenade that has detonate on impact. (139) How is a grenade disassembled and in the presence should it be done? (139) \\That is the dummy rifle grenade? (140) How does its operation compare with the real

with the the rifle failed to of whom

grenade?

(140)
How is it distinguished from it? (140) What is it used for? (140) How does its construction differ from the real grenade? the possibility of accident when using rifle grenades, what points should be strictly observed? (141) Describe the construction of the hand grenade. (142) What is the action of a hand grenade? (143) Give the instructions for the use of the hand grenades. (144) What precautions must be observed in the throwing of hand grenades? (144) How should it be thrown when there is ample space behind the parapet? (144) . What is the danger of swinging them in a vertical plane?

(14°) . To prevent

(144)
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What care should be taken in assembling the hood, after removing the safety cup? (144) Why should the rope be examined? (144) How are grenades which have been thrown and failed to de-.tonate, handled? (144) How can they be rendered safe for transportation? (144) '\That is done in case it is desired to throw the grenade a second time? (144)
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I f practicable,' what should be done with a grenade which, has failed to explode? (144) , \Vhat are dummy 'hand grenades and for what purpose are they issued? (145) How does their construction differ from the real grenades?

(145) . \Vhere should the grenade be detonated for the maximu111 effect? (145) '..... IIow can extemporized ignition grenades be constructed? (147) . ~ .\Vho should construct them? (147) G REN AD! ERS. Discuss the requisites for grenadiers. (148) 1 \Vhat are the various steps in the training of men for this' duty? (149) 1 \Vhat should be impressed upon them from the beginning?
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(149) . \Vhat equipment do grenadiers have? (150) . \Vhat is it essential to remember in taking a line of trenches? I (151) ~ In such a case what is of paramount importance? (151) \Vhat are the duties of the grenadier, party in such cases? (151) \Vhere is their position in going forward to the assault?( IS I) How do grenadiers advance in trenches? (152) \Vhat do the leading bayonet men do? (152) \ Vhat is done when the enemy is encountered? (152) \Vhen the hostile trench is reached and the enemy not en~ countered on or in advance of the parapet, how is the attack by grenadiers conducted? (153) , \Vhat men form a large part of a raiding party and how docs' it operate? (!54) \Vhere is the best position for grenadiers in defense, al1(,1 why? (155)
I

\Vhy is a supervision (155) vVhen an attack

trench

very useful

for this puq-;ose? is made of by Capt.

is expected,

what disposition

grenades? (155) Give the method of clearing a trench B. C. Lake, British Army. (156)

advocated

CHAPTER V. GAS WARFARE.
\\That can be said of the use of poisonous and asphyxiating gases in trench warfare? (157) , . Give the methods employed in the attack. (158) \Vhen can the emanation method only be used; what is its 'object, and how is it done? (159) In order to be successful, what conditions are required? (159) \Vhat happens if the wind is too strong? (159) I f the wind is too light, what results? (159) Upon wilat is the time tor an attack depended? (159) \Vhat gases are used in the tube method and how can they be detected? (160) . How can these gases be disbursed, should they by accident get into our trenches? (160) Name the gases that are used in liquified form from cyl. inders. (161) \Vhat results if the element of surprise is not present in the attack? (161) How long should men wear the gas or smoke helmets after gas dissemination has ceased, i~ an assault following a gas attack? (161) . 'Vhat must always be borne in mind regarding the enemy's, machine gunners? (161) \Vhen doe's the assaulting party remove helmets? (16r) In the shell and grenade method what forms of gas may he used? (r62) 'Vhat are lacrimatory shells and what do they contain? ( 162) How are they prepared and what is their effect in a trench? (162) . . How should they be used and how are they thrown? (r62)
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What is the best means of learning the defense? (163) vVhat must always be noted? (163) \Vhen will the enemy's gas attack always take place? (164) \Vhat sounds in the enemy's trench are sometimes heard that are indicative of gas attack preparation? (164) How can the enemy get the true indication as to the wind? \ (:64) How can the cylinder
( 1(4)

method

of emanation

be detected?

, vVhat alarm is given when anyone discovers the start of a gas attack? (1{)5) Where are these gongs placed? (165) \\That is donc on hearing this signal? (165) Where do men in shelters, dug-outs and covered emplacements, go? .(165) What is done with machine guns in covered emplacements?

(163)
\Vhat helmets for gas or smoke are issued to each man re- ~ quired to serve in the trenches? (166) H ow are these helmets made? (165) When are they removed from the waterproof cases in which they are supplied? (166) How many times should a helmet be used? (166) vVhat protection does the new helmet provide? (166) Give the direction for the use of the helmet. (167) \Vhat directions are given for the care of the helmet? (168) In what must men be practiced regarding helmets, and what kind are used for this instruction? (169)' What are rcspirators and when are they used? (17°) , What is thc Lest kind of a respirator and what type must not be uscd? (170) Give the protective measures that will be found useful if a soldier does not possess one of the gas helmets. (171) What are knapsack sprayers issued for? (172)
[249]

How does a man operate it, and what may happen"if it is not used? (172) How are supports or reinforcements proceeded when el1ter~ ing a trench charged with gas? (172) Describe the charging of the sprayers. (172) \Vhat should every officer defending a trench against an enemy's gas attack endeavor to do as regards information? ~173) \ \Vhy is this important and of particular value? (173) If a shell attack is made, what should be done with unexploded shells, or portions of them? (173) \Vhat details and symptoms should be noted? (173) \Vhat absorbent must always be used, and in what ratio?

"

( 174)
In what kind of bottles is this kept, and why? (1'74) \Vhat is perhaps the simpler form to issue hyposulphite in at ,the front? (174) Describe the' use of burning liquids by the Germans at :Malancourt and at Vauquois. (175) How may columns of liquid fire be squirted into the opposing trenches? (175) , If the oil fails to remain lighted, how may it be fired? (175) \Vhen is this means of attack employed? (175) \Vhat may be done as a defense measure? (175) How can you make sure of prompt ignition? (175) \Vhat advantage does heavy oil afford? (175) How can this arrangement be made into a formidable obstacle? (175)

"i~

'1

~ ~

j

,

.'\

\

t

\ CHAPTER VI BA YONET FIGHTING
Of' what importance is bayonet fighting? (176) What .does every attack which results in th~ penetration of the enemy's position, result in? (176) Upon what ina great measure does the success of these attacks depend? (176) \Vhy must infantry officers know the full details of every movement and exen.~se? (176) ,\Vhat is the practice in Europe as regards rifle and bayonet for officers? (176) How much daily instruction should be devoted to the use of bayonet? (177)' \Vhat .has the present European war demonstrated as to the importance and prominence of the bayonet? (177) At what points of the adversary should the bayonet attack be directed? (178) \Vhere should the bayonet not be driven, and why? (I7~) \Vhat takes place when the first wave of an attacking line reaches the enemy's trench? (179) What chance has the soldier who is skilled in using his bayonet, to live through the ~elee? (179) \Vhat positions of the feet have been taught by the British? (180) . \Vhat two attacks used hy the European troops can be learned with profit? (180) Describe the short point (or short thrust) (181), and the jab. (182) \ \Vhere is the rifle butt used with great effect, and where are the blows directed? (183) How are the men taught to throw their opponents off their balance? (184)

\Vhat are they taught about tripping? (184) How may the bayonet be withdrawn from an opponent's body? (185) . Give the different steps in training of bayonet fighting, (186) \Vhen is bayonet combat most valuable? (187) How should a company be divided for this instruct'ion? (187) How is this instruction conducted to make it more realistic? (187) In what position should the men be taught to carry their' rifles in the charge? (188) \Vhat is the position qf "High Port"?' (188) \Vhat advantages does this position afford? (188) \Vhat is done first before the enemy is met? (188) In his training what should be gradually instilled In the soldier? (189) \Vhat must not be taught? (189) .\Vhat should he be taught in the latter stages of his in!. struction? (I&)) , \Vhen has the ultimate end to which the bayonet training was 'directed been reached? (189)
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE BAYONET

\ Vhat is required in order to attack effectively with the hayonet? [I89-a (I)] \Vhat is the limit of range of a bayonet? [I89-a (I) 1 At what range is the killing more often done? [I89-a (I)] The bayonet is, essentially, what kind of a weapon? [I89-a (I)] How is it directed at an opponent? [I89-a (I)] I f no opening is obvious, how does an attacker use his bayonet? [I89-a (I)] \Vhat is meant by, "hand-to-hand fighting with the bayonet is indi vid ual"? [I 89-a ( 2 ) ]
[252]

/

In a Why ranks? What
J\fETIIOD

bayonet assault who will be able to kill? [189-a (2)] must the spirit of the bayonet be inculcated into all [189-a (3)] is the essen~e of bayonet training? [189-a (4)]
OF CARRYING OUT BAYONET TRAINING AND HINTS

TO INSTRUCTORS

\\That important points are to be kept in mind in a bayonet training? [I 89-b (5)] Give the simplest means of attaining this end. [1S9-b (5)] How should the class work, whenever possible? [189-b (5)] \\That does this. procedure develop, and what should be omitted? [189-b (5)] . How are.rapidity of movement and alertness taught? [189-b

(5)]

\Vhy should the. daily practice rarely last more than Jlalf an hour? [189-b (6)] / How is the spirit of the bayonet to be inculcated? [189-b

(7)]

(9)]

In what spirit must men learn to practice bayonet fighting? [189-b (7)] .How is interest in the work to be created? [189-b (8)] . How is progression in bayonet training. reg~lated? [I89-b

\\That is the outcome of continual practice? [189-b (9)] Why should classes be frequently practiced in charging short distances? [189-b (10)] W~o should be taught how to instruct [189-b (II)] in bayonet training?

Give the reason why all the company officers and N. C. O's. should be taught how to instruct in bayonet training? [189-b

(II)]

" With what and how should sacks for dummies [189-b (12)]
[253]

be filled?

How can a realistic effef:'t be obtained? [189-b (12)] How are these sack dummies made to stand on end? [I&)-b (12)] , \Vhere (12)] also can they be placed with good effect? [189-b [18g-b or

How should dummy (12)] \Vhat' care is taken butt? [189-b (13)]

sacks be hung from gallows? to prevent injuring

the bayonet

'Vhat are to be used for parrying practice? [I89-h (13)] Give the chief causes of injury to the bayonet. [189-b (13)] \Vhose duty is the upkeep and proper filling of dummies? [I89-b (14)]

(IS)]

'Vhat must there always be for practicing of the dummies of discs
I

direction?

[I89-b

. Ilow is the "life" [189-b (IS) ] If the supply [ 189- b (I 5) ]

considerably

prolonged?

fail, what

can be improvised?

PRELIMINARY

BAYONET

LESSONS.

Describe how ranks are opened for bayonet practice. (16)]

[189-c

How should small classes be opened out? [189-c (16)] How should classes always work? [I89-c (16)] Give the method when teaching a new position. [I89-c (16)] Of what does the Recruit course consist? [189-c (17)] \ How are the hours in the syllabus for bayonet training divided? [18g-c (17)]

[I89-c (17)]

, In what

kit should

the training

be carried

out

chiefly? [I89-c

\Vhat should the men be accustomed (17)]

to, however?

\Vhat must be provided for every two men "pointing" and "parrying" pract~ce? [189-c (17)]

for

the

How much daily practice should be devoted to bayonet fighting by the trained soldier? [189-c (18)] \Vhat are developed by this daily practice and to what does a soldier become accustomed? [189-c (18)] ,How should this half hour ~e apportioned? [189-c (18) J ' Describe the position of "on gu~rd." [r89-c (r9) J What should this position allow?
\
'

[I 89-c (19)]
also be taught? [189-c

(19)]

How will the "on guard"

position

Give the common faults. [I89-c (19)] How is the position of rest assumed? [18g-c (Ig) Describe the position of the rifle and the hands port." [I 8g-c (J 9) J

J
in "high

How is the position of the rifle maintained when jumping , ditches, surmounting obstacles, etc? [I8g-c (19)] , Describe the position of the rifle and the hands in "long point." [I89-c (20)J , How is the chief power in a "point" derived? [189-c (20)] Where must the eyes be fixed? [r89-c(20)] , \\That is the movement of the left foot in making "points" , other than straight to the front? [189'-c (20)] In what should the men he practised during the later stages of this lesson? [J89-c (20)] Name the COl1lmon faults. [18g-c (20)J At what range is the "long point" made against an opponent? [r89-c (20)J How is the hayonet withdrawn '(21)] after a "long point?" [I&]~C

\\Then must' the left hand fi~st be slipped piling swivel? fJ89-c (21») \Vhen will a pupil adopt this method? I
[255J
,

up close to the
(2 I )

[J. 89-c

J

\Vhat should be' practised before returning to 'the guard" position, after every "point?" [I89-c (21)]

u

011

Progression
FIRST PRACTICE

At what should men always be made to point? [I89~c (22)] How should oblique "points" be practised? [I89-C (22)] As progress is made, how is the pause between the "point'; and the "withdrawal" changed? [I 89-C (22)] At how many points of the body should they be taught to point? [I89-c (22)] How do you practice action against a retreating (22)] foe? [I89C
\

\

If possible, at what point of an Opponent should the point
of the bayonet be directed? [I89-c (23)] Name other and vulnerable parts. [I89-c (23)] How much penetration is sufficient for incapacitation and yet allow a quick withdrawal? [I89-c (23)] \Vhat happens if a bayonet is driven in too far? [I89-c (23)]
SECOND PRACTICE

Describe how th.e class should be practised various directions. [I89-c (24)]
THIRD PRACTICE

in pointing

in

At what distances and how are men taught to point at discs on dummies? [I89-c (25)] How must the advance be made? [I89-c (25)] \Vhere must the rifle never be drawn when making a "long point"? [I89-c (25)] \Vhat supplies sufficient force? [I89-c (25)] \Vhat is done with the bayonet after ,the upoint"? [I89-c [I89-c (25)]

(25)]

\Vhen is the rifle liable to injure the hand?
[2561

When the practice is carried out collectively, men be to guard against accident? (I 89-c (25)] vVhen will the principles of this practice how should they be applied? (I 89-c (25)]
LESSON 2 THE RIGHT AND LEFT PARRY

where

must and

be observed

,Describe the position parry." (189-d (26)]

of hands
I

and rifle in "right

(left)

\Vhere must the eyes be kept? (189-d (26)] Give the common faults. (189-d (26)]

(26)]

How

\

should

men be' taught

to regard

the parry?

(r89-d

As soon as the movements of the parries have been learnt, what should they be accompanied by? [r8g-d(26)] How wiII parries also be practised?
1ST PRACTICE

(r89-d

(26)]

l\1en when learning the parries should be taught to observe what, and how long should they be kept at this practice? [r89-d (27)]
2ND PRACTICE

(27)]

Describe how the class works in parrying

.

light sticks. [r89-d

3RD

PRACTICE

(27)]

\Vhat

should

later

immediately

follow !he parry?, the "point"?

[189-d (ISg-d

(27)]

What is finaIIy Gone before delivering

The men must also be taught to parry points made at t!lem' by an enemy in' what position? (r89-d (27)]
[2571
I i

j

1

LESSON TIlE

3

SHORT POINT

Describe the position of the rifle and the hands in the ",short point." [189-e (28)] . At what range is the "short point" used? [189-e. (28) ] If a strong "withdrawal". is necessary, what should be done with the right hand? [189-e (28)]
PRACTICE

How is the "long point"? Parries will point? [189-e

"short point" taught 1t1 conjun~tion with the [189-e (29)] also be practised from the position of what (29)]
LESSON
JAB

4
POINT

OR UPWARD

Describe the position of the rifle and the hands in the "jab" • or "upward point"? [189-f (30)] \Vhat are the common faults in this movement? [189-f (30)] . "'hat will men be practiced in from the jah position? [I89~f '~ (30)] \Vhen making a "jab" from the "on guard" position, what hand is brought up first, and why? [189-f C~o)] " "'hen can the jab be employed? [189-f (30)]
LESSON :\fETHODS OF INJURING

5
AN OPPONENT

\Vhat should the instruction? Describe the Butt stroke I Butt stroke III

be impressed upon the class in this phase of [189-g (31)] following movements: [I 89-g (32)]; Butt stroke II. [I 89-g (32) f; [189-g (32)]; Butt ~troke IV [189-g (32)].
[258]

.

J

I

I'

How also can the butt [189-g (32)] Where is this method

be used

in' individual and why?

fighting? (32)]

impossible,

[189-g

\\That should be clearly understood [ 189-g ( 32 ) ]

in employing

the buttl.

What is Butt Stroke I essentially, and when only can it be successfully employed? [189-g (33)] \\That can be said of the employment [i89-g (34)] , How can the opponent be tripped of the Butt Strokes? ,[189-g

when wrestling?

.(35)]
\Vhat wiII the above methods only do? [189-g (35)]
PRACTICE

Describe the practice when the classes have been shown the methods of using the "butt and the knee. [189-g (36)] \Vhy should light dummies be used for practice with the butt? [1~9-g (36)]
TACTICAL ApPLICATION OF TIlE BAYONET

\\Then should a bayonet assault preferably (37)]

be made?

[189-h

Why is thc prospect of success greatest in these circumstances? [189-h. (37) ] What can IJC said of the employment of the bayonet at night? [189-h (38)] , The bayonet is cssentially what kind of weapon, and how must it be used? [189-h (39)J . To await passively an opportunity of using the bayonet entails what, and why? [189-h (39) ] . In an assault with what should the enemy be killed? [18<)-h (40)] \Vhy should firing be avoided? [189-h (40)]
[2591

FINAL

ASSAULT

PRACTICE

\Vhen only is this practice to be carried out, and why? [18g-i (41)] \Vhat must the Final Assault Practice approximate as nearly as possible? [1S9-i (41)] What combines to tire an assaulting party? [189-i (41)] How only can a comparatively fresh foe be overcome?

[189-i (41)]
Give the essentials of greatest importance in bayo~et fighting which need the same careful attention ,and constant practice as are devoted to obtaining efficiency with the rifle. [189-i

(41)]
How is the accuracy of the aim tested in the charge in the Final Assault Practice? [18g-i (41)] In this practice where should the men be made to begin the assault from, and wh.en do they cheer? [I89-i (41)] Describe an excellent course for the Final Assault Practice. [18<)-i (4~)] From where should assaults be made, and why? [I89-i (42)] How are the edges of the trench protected and the men prevented from slipping? [189-i (42)] \Vhat should be done if gallows cannot be erected? [189-i . (42)] \Vho will be responsible for the construction of the Final Assault courses, and what will he decide on? [189-i (42)] \Vho will be responsible for the upkeep of the courses? [189-i (42)] How can extremely interesting and practical schemes in trench warfare be arranged? [18<)-i (43)] How can competitions be arrange~? [18<)-i (44)] Only when should competitions be carried out? [189-i (44)]
[260]

;

TACTICAL

PIUNCIPLES

TO DE OBSERVED DURING TRAINING

BAYONET

J\IETIIODOF

CARRYING

RIFLE

WITn

BAYONET

FIXED

What is the position of the the open)? [189-j (45)] For what is this position vantages? [189-j (45)] How is the rifle carried in tion)? [189-j (46)] What advantages does this

rifle in quick short advances suitable and what

(in

are its ad(close forma-

the long advance posi~ion afford?

[189-j (46)]

How is the rifle carried in the long advance (open order) ? [ 189- j (47)] vVhat cannot be over-emphasized throughout the conduct of a bayonet assault? [189-k (48)] \Vhat must be remembered in this, as in all other military operations? [189-k (48)] vVhat should men be shown by demonstrations? [189-k (48)] Give the general principles that will be observed during training? [189-k (49)] How docs the first stage of slow advance affect the enemy and what d~cs it make certain of? [189-k (49)] In what condition does it allow the attacking force to reach its objective? [189-k (49)] If the assault is allowed to develop without control and in . a haphazard fashion, what results? [189-k (49)] Over what'distance will the actual charge be made? [I89-k (So)] \Vhat will he the position of the rifle when within the last ten yards and before closing with the enemy? [189-k (So)] How long, as far as possible, will line be maintained? [ 189-k (50)] .

I

What must be done as soon as the position has been taken, and prior to any attack on a further position or any other operation whatsoever? [189-k (51)] in trench warfare what must never be allowed unless orders to that effect have been given by the leader of the assaulting party? [189-k (5 I) ] \Vhat has experience shown regarding unorganized pursuit? [189-k (51)] . In most cases by what branch is the work of immediate pt1r~ suit better done? [189-k (51)] How does the infantry assist in this? [189-k (5 I) ]
ASSAULT PRACTICE

What materials are assumed in the useful form of Final Assault Practice which can be adapted to a variety of "special idea"? [189-1 (52)] Give the action of the assaulting party on "A." [189-1 (53)] What must men be constantly practised in throughout the training? [189-1 (54)] \Vhat should instructors endeavor to do? [189-1 (SS)] \Vhen should the "special idea" to be adopted, be explained? , [189-1 (S5)] \Vhat must be instantly checked and what should be im~ pressed on all ranks? [189-1 (S5)] \Vhat does lack of imagination, which allows men and their leaders to violate the most elementary principles of tactics in practice assaults against dummies, lead to? [189-1 (55)]
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BAYONET TRAINING PRACTICE

How will "on guard," "withdraw," all points and parries, and the "j ab" be taught? [I 89-m (a)] From what position will all "short points" be, practiced, except after a "point" into a dummy; and why must this be marked? [1&]-m (b)]
[262)

I

'"

What will squads, from the outset, be frequently practiced' in, and why? [189-111 (c)] . '\Vhat will always be named when working by word of command? [189-m (d)] . How will it be indi~ated when working in class? [189-m (d)] What must be the distance apart when working in ranks. and whY?[189-m (e)] \Vhen "points" have been made advancing, how will ranks . change position? [189-m (e)] , When working against dummies what will men always do? [ 189-111(e)] \Vhen will the "withdrawal," once taught, always be made! [189-m (f)] What will be done with the hand after a "point," advancing rear foot or on the advance? [189-m (f)] \Vhat is done with the hand in the 1st and 2nd practices; and why? [189-111 (f)]. What 111ustbe done with one end of all sticks? [189-m (g)] How also will the '~points" be practiced in the third practices, as a prepatation for the Final Assault Course? [189-m (h)] , When only illay scabbards be removed from the bayonet? .

[~89-nl (i)]

CHAPTER VII MACHINE GUNS
\Vhat has the present European war shown as to the' importance of niachine guns? (190) Give th~ numbers now employed. (190) \Vhat are the characteri"stics of a machine gun so as to permit a great economy of men on a front, and the concentrating of forces thus freed for use in other parts of the field? (191) \Vhere was this done on a large scale? (191) How were machine guns employed by the Germans against the immense Russian armies? (191) How should officers learn to load and fire the guns and recti fy simple stoppages. and jams? (192) . On the defense where should machine guns generally be mounted? (193) \Vhere else may they be mounted, and what are they espe..; cially available for in such positions? (193) How is the ground in front of the salients guarded, and why? (193) How can these salients then be held? (193) Supporting points in rear of the fire trenches should be held how? (193) , How are machine guns often used within the works themselves? (193)

MACHINE GUN EMPLACEMENTS
\Vhat points should be considered in sighting machine gun emplacements? (194) \Vhat should the two great aims he? (194)' \Vhat" kinds of weapons are machine guns? (195) \Vhen are they to be used? (195)
[264]

/

When What' by him? Why

has their fire the greatest value? (195) will the enemy do once their position is discovered (195) should they be concealed? (195) accomplished? (195) (195)

How is this concealment Give the reasons alternate positions moved. (196)

At night every effort is made to conceal what?

why every gun should have one or more or emplacements, into which it can be

When should an open emplacement be constructed for each gun? (197) What type of emplacement becomes untenable during a gas attack, and why? (197) When does the gun become particularly useful in repelling the ,infantry assaults which always follows a successful gas at~ack? (197) Dy whom are machine gun emplacements constructed? (198) , ' When may infantry assist them? (198) Where should the shelter for each detachment be located, and why? (198) What provision is made for a lookout? _(198) How should emplacements be designed? (199) How should they be constructed? (199) What should the emplacement permit of? (199) How can the flame of discharge be masked at night? (199) Describe a type (Fig. 2) of open emplacement for use during gas attacks. (199) , \Vhat accessories to the emplacements should be provided? (200) , I f a portion of the line be held by machine guns only, what details are made for such portion, and why? (200) What loopholes will have to be constructed? (200)
[265]

I

~

\:Vhat information fense? (201)

sh')l~1d the machine gunners
,

have in de-

\Vhat should they also have if possible? (20 I Y How is their fire directed in these places at night? At what targets only should machine

(201) to

guns be required

fire? (20~). \Vhat should be remembered regarding the firing of machine guns? (202) In their training what should machine gunners be practiced , in? (202) Describe the instruction in the training camps. (202) \Vhat'rate of fire has experience in the European war d~termined as the desirable maximum? (2°3) \Vhat is the effective range of machine guns as compared with the rifle, and why? (203) How many rifles has a machine gun been estimated to be equal to? (203)
TIlE ATTACK

How are machine guns transported? (204) Into what types are they divided? (204) \Vhere are the heavier types usually used? (204) How are the lighter types used? (2°4) In attack, what lines do the machine guns usually accom-' pany? (205) \Vhen do they follow? (205) How can machine gunners profit by the fight of the first', wave? (205) \Vhere are they usually pushed to, and why? (2°5) \Vhat advantage is secured if the guns can be gotten in advance of the line, by means' of some covered way? (2°5) I n attack, how will machine guns have to operate? (206) \Vhat must be done if they receive heavy fire? (206) How can slight shelter be provided? (206)
[266]
/-

,4

How can machine guns be used in villages? (2°7) Why are they often not noticed in this kind of fighting? .

(2°7)
What fire can be concentrated on them? (z07)' What is the only successful method of, destroying them? (z07) / How are machine guns employed in position? (208) vVhat is done when they can no longer fire over the head , of the infantry, or their fire is masked by 'the troops in front? (z08) , . / \Vhat do they finally do? (zo8) How is the ammunition supply for guns entering the attack maintained ~ (zO<) \Vhy will the demand for ammunition in the attack not be as' great as might be supposed? (z09) \ \Vhat is done after a burst of fire on a target that disappears? (zog) Discuss the instruction of machine gun aetachments and companies in training cat~ps? (ZI0) vVhat must they be taught? (ZI0)

..

\


CHAPTER VIII MISCELLANEOUS
How is communication almost entirely maintained in a system of trenches? (211) To what are companies and battalions connected, and by . what? (2II) To what are regimental headquarters connected? (211) \Vhen is control established? (211) How are dressing stations connected? (211) How many miles of telephone wire for a division? (2II) Upon whom does the operation of this system fall? (2II) How many signallers are needed in each regiment and who is in charge of them? (211) . In what matters must signallers be instructed? (212) \Vhat must" they know how to detect and at what rate should they be able to send and receive the buzzer? (212) \Vhat should they know about message blanks? (212) \Vhy not teach them visual signalling? (212) \Vhat is decidedly the best instrument for use in the trenches? (212) How are wires usually laid and why? (212) \Vhat re~ults have been obtained by the use of the steel . helmet by the French and the British? (213) \Vhat are bomb throwers and for what are they used? (214) How do they operate? (214) \ Vhat are trench mortars and how are they operated? (215) \Vhat type of projectile is used? (215) By whom are they usually operated? (215) Upon what does their range depend? (215) \Vhat does mining consist in? (216) \Vhat is average distance and the extreme limit to which it is profitable to run a gallery? (216)

. r 2('181

vVhat is the object of running a number of galleries at th~ same time? (216) By whom are mining operations conducted? (216) / When mining operations have once started why must as fast ~ rate as possible be kept up? (216) Where is mining always undertaken? (216) . \Vhat are the dimensions of the usual gallery now used? (216) How is the dirt disposed of? (216) How many sand bags will be needed for a gallery of 400 feet? (216) " How is work on the gallery carried out? (216) . What is the average rate of daily progress? (216) \yhat is the most satisfactory method for disposing of the dirt? {216) Give an excellent plan in the event of having a surplus of , dirt? (216) , How much high explosive has been used to produce a crat~r and what were the resulting dimensions of it? (216) \ How is drainage and ventilation provided in galleries? (216) What is the great secret in successful mining? (217) How does the enemy know that mining operations are being conducted? (217) 1£ they should discover a gallery being dug what action do they take? (217)' vVhat action will ~he enemy take when he believes he has approached near to the head of our gallery with his mining? (217) Skill in rifle firing is not essential at what ranges? (218) \\That is the range limit used by the British in training troops for the European .war? (218) . Upon' what is great stress laid, and what is the end aimed at? (218)
I

\Vith what' should the infantryman be first taught to shoot? ' (218) To what is'special attention paid? (218) How are men practiced; in this? (218) \Vhat is don~ with those who develop special skill? (218) How does discipline relax in the trenches when not fighting, (219) and what results therefrom? \Vhat is done when they return to billets or cantonments for t their short respite from trench duties? (219)

/

CHAPTER IX THE ATTACK
\Vhether the infantry will wear the pack into action or not depends upon what? (220) \\That does the pack afford considerable protection from? (220) , \Vhat are the disadvantages of carrying the pack? (220) I f the pack be not taken, what must still be carried? (220) How much ammunition is carried? (220) \Vhat does each grenadier carry? (220) \Vhat additional supply should riflemen carry when accompanying. grenadier parties told off to search out the communi'catioil trenches? (220) \Vhen should the men have a meal if going into an attack? (220) " Give "the general principles of the attack. (22 I) \Vhat program must the artillery in its preparation carry through in order for the infantry to attack with minimum losses? (222) How is the infantry attack conducted as the artillery pre_paration reaches its completion? (223) As a rule, what troops participate in the attack? (223) \Vhat is the object 0 f the attack? (223) To overcome the successive defenses of the enemy what must the attacker have?' (223) Of what is the first line composed? (224) . Of what is the first wave composed? (224) ,\Vhat is done at a given signal?, (224) How'is the second wave conducted? (224) Des'cril)c the conduct of the first wave? (225) ,Vhere is the second wave during the advance of the first?

,

(226)

.

How is it conducted (226)

and how' does it assist the first wave? . is completed . what is their objec-

\Vhen the reorganization tive? (226) \Vhat do grenadiers (226)

in rear of the second wave take c~re of? line not be permitted to advance

\Vhat should the attacking through and why? (227)

\Vho follows up the communicating trenches? (227) \Vhy must the lines go forward almost shoulder to shoulder with perfect cohesion? (228) \Vhat line should the men always keep on? (228) At what gait is the advance made? (229) Why is a faster pace seldom advisable? (229) \Vhy will ordinarily a charge not be necessary? (229) \Vhen .will it become necessary to assault the trench with I the bayonets? (229) How does the line go forward and when does the charge start? (229) \Vhy should the line be maintained as straight as possible? (229) How do the men run forward, and how is the rifle carried? (229) As the parapet is approached what do the riflemen watch? (229) How do they destroy everything in their \vay? (229) \ Vhy must no one be left behind? (229) . I f the enemy surrenders at once, what should be done with them? (229) \Vhat do small isolated groups have tendency to do? (230)' \Vhere can such groups hold on? (230) \\That may they be able to do even if their ammunition becomes exhausted? (230)

[272]

/'

\Vhat can four or five resolute, accomplish? (230)

sheltered

men, firing coolly,

How can these small groups be very useful if the attacking line should be stopped temporarily? (230) , vVhat is done when the attackers get beyond the zone of their artillery preparation, the firsf and second line trenches having been taken? (231) vVhat will the enemy endeavor How only can the attackers \Vhat must they now endeavor to do here? to do? (231) (231) now advance ? (231)

The getting of a patrol two or three hundred yards forward in a communicating trench may make what possible? (231) Troops advancing through trenches in this manner should be plentifully supplied with what? (231) \Vhat is done \vith troops of the second line during the, (232) artillery preparation? vVhat does the second line do when the first line has gone forward to the attack? (232) vVhen should this line start forward? (232) vVhat would a premature dep'arture result in? (232) 'vVhat is 'a good formation for the first line to advance in at the start? (232) ,What is the mission of the second line? (232) When is it time for the second line to concentrate against points where the resistance continues? (232) How are machine guns used against these resisting points? (232) , \Vhat must other organizations do while some of the second line attacks these points of resistance? (232) \Vhat do the reserves follow? (2~33) How and where are they held? (233) Against what points does the commander employ the reserve? (233)
[273J ,

'.

'VVith \vhat does he definitely shatter the last resistance? (233) \Vhat is the limit of the depth to which the attack can press forward? (23-4) \Vhat must be done when this limit is reached? (234) 'VVhat. developments must a further progress of the attack await? (234) Describe the role of the individual soldier in the attack. (235)

COMFORT
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GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING 'COMPANY
MENASHA,
.f':lr Banta's Complete Catalogue ilf Military

WISCONSIN
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