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Feasibility of use of buckwheat ﬂour as an ingredient in ginger nut biscuit formulation
ˇ ˇ ´ Bojana Filipcev ⇑, Olivera Šimurina, Marijana Sakac, Ivana Sedej, Pavle Jovanov, Mladenka Pestoric, ˇ Marija Bodroza-Solarov
Institute for Food Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Ginger nut biscuits are popular traditional biscuits which contain honey. In order to improve their nutritive proﬁle and functionality, standard formulation based on wheat ﬂour was substituted with buckwheat ﬂour at three levels (30%, 40%, 50%). The quality attributes (chemical composition, microelements, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, rutin, quercetin), antioxidative potential, textural and sensory properties) were compared to control biscuit (based on wheat ﬂour) and biscuits substituted with rye at the same levels, since rye is used as an ingredient which improves the quality of ginger nut biscuits. Substitution with buckwheat ﬂour resulted in a signiﬁcant increase (p < 0.05) in protein, Zn, total polyphenols, antioxidative and chelating activity. Total dietary ﬁbre, Cu, Mn and Fe contents also increased but did not exceed those in rye substituted biscuits. Consumption of 100 g of enriched biscuits could contribute to reaching %18–22% (buckwheat) and 16–17% (rye) of the estimated daily average total polyphenols intake, respectively. With the contents of rutin and quercetin at 3.96–6.57 mg/100 g d.b. and 0.087–0.214 mg/ 100 g d.b., respectively, buckwheat substituted biscuits may signiﬁcantly contribute to total dietary ﬂavonoid intake and meet the demands of preventive nutrition. Buckwheat enriched biscuits were rated higher regarding sensory attributes, softness and fracturability as compared to control but lower compared to rye supplemented biscuits. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 28 April 2010 Received in revised form 18 June 2010 Accepted 24 August 2010
Keywords: Biscuits Buckwheat Rutin Quercetin Antioxidative potential Quality
1. Introduction Common buckwheat is a pseudocereal that used to be an important part of human diet but it has been neglected especially since the prevalence of the Western dietary pattern. However, buckwheat has recently received a renewed interest on the basis of its nutritional composition and its feasibility for natural, organic cultivation. Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, ﬁbres, antioxidants and minerals (especially iron, manganese, zinc and sele´ nium) (Christa & Soral-Smietana, 2008; Krkošková & Mrázová, 2005). Some of its components were found to exhibit outstanding health-promoting properties: its proteins were shown to have cho´ lesterol lowering properties (Christa & Soral-Smietana, 2008; Kreft & Germ, 2008; Krkošková & Mrázová, 2005); it is suitable for celiac patients as its prolamins do not exert immunological responses like those in cereals (Krkošková & Mrázová, 2005); substantial amounts of resistant starch may contribute to the lowering of gly´ caemic index of food (Christa & Soral-Smietana, 2008; Kreft & Germ, 2008). Among other compounds with prophylactic value,
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +381 21 450 3778; fax: +381 21 450 725.
ˇ E-mail address: bojana.ﬁlipcev@ﬁns.uns.ac.rs (B. Filipcev). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.055
ﬂavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, phytosterols, fagopyritols and lignans were identiﬁed. The main buckwheat ﬂavonoid is rutin, used for medicinal purposes to strengthen capillary walls, reduce high blood pressure and increase microcirculation. It also improves C vitamin absorption and eye health. Fagopyritols are derivatives of D-chiro-inositol, a special carbohydrate compound, which play an important role in insulin signal transduction and were found to be deﬁcient in patients suffering from Type II Diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Prophylactic properties of these compounds can be associated to their high antioxidant activity. Flavonoids and phenolics in buckwheat seeds manifested antilipoperoxidative potential in the studies of Oomah and Mazza (1996), Watanabe, Oshita, and Tsushida (1997) and Watanabe (1998). Buckwheat seeds demonstrated higher lipid stability protection factor than oats and barley (Holasova et al., 2002). In the recent study of Takahama, Tanaka, and Hirota (2009) it was reported that that the ingestion of dough prepared from buckwheat reduced the nitric acid present in stomach juices to nitric oxide which is important since its presence at gastric level has been shown to exert several important biological functions like antimicrobial activity, improvement in gastric motility, increase in mucus production and mucosal blood ﬂow (Peri et al., 2005). In addition, this may prevent the formation of toxic nitrosamines in the digestive tract.
buckwheat has been considered by many researchers as a highly valuable ingredient with tremendous potential in designing functional food products (Holasova et al. wheat ﬂour is frequently substituted with rye ﬂour in doses up to 20% which contribute to better moisture retention and prolonged freshness of the product. Today. The biscuits were prepared according to a two-phase procedure. total dietary ﬁbre (958. Wholemeal ﬂour is prepared by milling the whole buckwheat grain similarly to wheat. 2. NaHCO3. NaHCO3 and spices were mixed using a kitchen mixer equipped with a spiral hook. Therefore. 2000) were used to determine crude protein (950. development of new functional foods. Baraniak. food uses of buckwheat include mainly home-made dishes like porridge.29). Smietana. Alamprese. Fornal. Krkošková & Mrázová. stews. after cooling to 40 °C.38). functional and/or processing characterisation of buckwheat based functional foods: wheat bread enriched with extracts obtained from green buckwheat plants (Gawlik-Dziki. Wholegrain rye ﬂour (moisture content 9. honey.) were obtained from a local healthy-food store. 2008.1 2 1 13.5 60 40 50 50 Rye substituted ginger nut biscuit 70 0 30 50 10 10 2. vegetable fat. Im. Fornal. 2005. Smietana. Explorers and warriors of the middle ages introduced spices from Asia and the near East to Europe which were later adopted by cake-maker artisans who started the production of spicy sweet honey cakes. lecithin. a mixture of honey. They are a popular type of soft and delicious biscuits containing honey and spices. ´ ´ (Smietana. 2008). g Wheat ﬂour Buckwheat ﬂour Rye ﬂour Honey Sugar Vegetable fat NaHCO3 Spice blend Lecithin Water Control 100 0 0 50 10 10 2.1. Dexter.89% of particles was larger than 350 lm). (2006) broadened the investigation to less common buckwheat products such as buckwheat leaf ﬂour. Soral-Smietana. 2. In the 19th century. it is not odd that the number of new products containing buckwheat has been increasing in the market along with the popularity of functional foods. Several attempts were made to include buckwheat ﬂour into ´ this category of products. Consequently. Kreft et al. breakfast cereals and other confectionary products seems less extensive. and water contents (926. Biscuits were baked at 170 °C for 10–15 min. 2002. lecithin and spices (cinnamon and clove). Ginger nut biscuit making procedure Ingredients used for the preparation of ginger nut biscuits are listed in Table 1. & Rufa. Fornal..3. In the literature.36). In the present research work. Material and methods 2.5 Buckwheat substituted ginger nut biscuit 70 30 0 50 10 10 2. & Mau.14). Soral-Smietana.0–15. a nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6. Traditional recipes for ginger nut biscuits vary across Europe depending on the spice blend. ash 1.03%. In the ﬁrst phase. Light ﬂour is made by milling hulled buckwheat groats. etc. & Fornal. / Food Chemistry 125 (2011) 164–170 165 Consequently. the inclusion of buckwheat ﬂour at various levels to ginger nut biscuit formulation was investigated in order to assess the optimal formulation. This is probably due to limited production caused by low crop yields and a small market. Dough samples were covered with a plastic foil and left to rest over night at 15 °C. Traditionally. Casiraghi. 2009). pilaffs.1 2 1 12. Filipcev et al.37%. Blends of 30% buckwheat and 70% wheat ﬂour are commonly used in households for bread preparation in Slovenia (Kreft & Germ. Chemical analyses Standard methods of analysis (AOAC.3 20 21. reducing sugar (975. 123/1 1994) using the speciﬁc optical rotation for wheat starch 182.2 . & Izydorczyk. Fornal. 1985. Table 1 Formulations of ginger nut biscuits. 2008). Fabjan. ´ ´ Smietana. Dough moisture ranged between 17–20% for the control and rye substituted biscuits and 15.1 2 1 18 60 40 50 50 12 11. several trends in food uses of buckwheat have been anticipated: its use in improving traditional foods. In the protein determination. Campbell. Fornal. grits (ﬁnely ground groats) or ﬂour. Starch content was determined by hydrochloric acid dissolution according to the ICC Standard (ICC Standard No. Yu. Soral-Smietana. & Yasumoto. sugar. Skrabanja et al. Soral-Smietana. You. Liu. wheat bread enriched with husked and unhusked buckwheat at 15% ﬂour substitution level (Lin.. In Japan and Italy.. After that.20% d. Wijngaard & Arendt.53% dry basis). ash 2. type and quantity of honey used and applied technology.. and Hsieh (2003) studied the effect of processing conditions on the physical and chemical properties of cakes obtained by pufﬁng and moulding buckwheat grits. 2009) and soba noodles (Hatcher et al.61% d. 2005).31%. Another objective of the paper was to compare buckwheat substituted biscuits with those containing rye in the same proportion. casseroles and pancakes in which buckwheat is used in the form of groats (coarsely cracked hulled hydrothermally treated grains). buckwheat ﬂour mixed with wheat ﬂour is used for preparation of noodles.08% of particles were less than 150 lm) whereas buckwheat ﬂour was coarse (48. ash 0.ˇ B. 2004. development of food additive from buckwheat with special biological effects and better use of buckwheat by-products (Krkošková & Mrázová. Materials Dough samples were prepared from ingredients purchased from local suppliers: commercial soft wheat ﬂour type 500) (moisture content 14. Szpendowski. the production of ginger nut biscuits was mechanized and approached the phase of industrial production. In both industrial and artisan practise.2. 2006).b. 2. Hatcher. divers reports can be found dealing with nutritional. Huff. 2006. the dough was rolled on a pastry board to uniform thickness of 10 mm and cut into 6 cm diameter rounds. less literature data can be found on the topic. Ginger nut biscuits are products with a long tradition. Szpendowski.25 was used. fat (935. The ﬁrst gingerbread is thought to have been made by Catholic monks in Europe for special holidays and festivals.5).7 grd ml/g dmÀ1 in calculation. and Pagani (2007) successfully included buckwheat into gluten-free pasta formulations. Lin. Rye ﬂour had ﬁner granulation (72. In the second phase. Fornal.) and wholegrain buckwheat ﬂour (moisture content 12. such as in the trials of Smietana et al. sugar and water was heated to 65 °C. Kreft. and Szpendowski (1987) investigated the extrusion process of mixtures containing buckwheat ﬂour and characterised the obtained products. Dough consistency and stickiness were subjectively estimated by an experienced baker. However. and ´ ´ Szpendowski (1985). & Fornal 1988) where buckwheat was used as a component mixed with milk pro´ ´ teins and cereals. Dziki. ﬂour blends.5% for buckwheat biscuits.b. Water was added in amount to produce dough with acceptable handling characteristics. characterise the improvement in the nutritional value and biological functionality and evaluate textural and sensory properties of the products. the use of buckwheat in so-called convenient food or ready-to-eat food products such as biscuits. buckwheat beer and vinegar. Ingredients.
The mixture was allowed to stand for 120 min with intermittent shaking. Performance of the chromatographic method Stock solutions of rutin and quercetin standards were prepared at a concentration of 1.2% and for the obtained peak area less than 3%. The accuracy of the procedure applied for determination of the minerals in ginger nut biscuits was validated by analysis of certiﬁed reference material NIST SRM 1567a Wheat ﬂour (National Institute of Standard and Technology. 0. for both tested standards. Filipcev et al.039 lg/ml. Degradation rate of extracts was calculated as proposed by Al-Saikhan. 2. Rutin and quercetin in a sample extract were identiﬁed by matching the retention time and their spectral characteristics against those of the standards. (1): AOA ¼ Degradation rate of control À Degradation rate of sample Degradation rate of control Â 100 ð1Þ IC50 value (mg/ml) was deﬁned as the concentration of extract at which 50% inhibition of free radical activity is observed under the experimental conditions. 2. equipped with a diode array detector (DAD).0 mg/ml in methanol. 2. Roth.9997). 20–30 min.01 mg/100 g for Mn.0125 and 0.0101. The dried extract was redissolved in ethanol/water (80/20. The purity of the peaks was determined to ensure the identiﬁcation. Afterwards. The solutions were diluted with 1% formic acid to obtain a series of dilutions in the range of 0. and the absorbance at 750 nm was measured (Jenway. R2 = 0. Three composite samples of each biscuit type were analysed.293.9984) was plotted on the basis of seven calibration points within the range of 1. the sample was ﬁltered through ﬁlter paper (Whatman. Reducing power Reducing power of the extracts was determined in accordance with the method of Oyaizu (1986).1 ml) were diluted with pure water (7. 2. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantiﬁcation (LOQ) calculated on the basis of three and ten times the standard deviation of the mean blank determinations from 15 measurements were 0. The composite samples were prepared by homogenisation of six individual biscuit samples. Based on the previously used method (Cetkovic et al. Australia.1. The external standard method was a technique used for quantiﬁcation. (2000) was used. were: for rutin LOD = 0. After 1-h shaking. at the concentration of 0.166 ˇ B. The run time and post-run time were 45 and 10 min.7 ± 3. The resulting supernatants were combined and dried by vacuum-evaporator. Following extraction. AOA was expressed as % inhibition relative to the control using an Eq.005 mg/100 g and 0. 1999). Karlsruhe. respectively. 60–70% A. Mn (95. The retention time and peak area repeatability was checked by injecting the mixture of rutin and quercetin.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 6. Eclipse XDB-C18.3 ± 4. LOQ = 0. v/v). respectively. Germany) before injection into the HPLC system. 2.010 mg/ml for each standard. 0.005–34 lg/ml in methanol:1% formic acid in water (1:1. Preparation of ethanolic extracts Ethanolic extracts were prepared by suspending 5 g of powdered biscuits in 50 ml of ethanol/water (80/20. v/v) for external standard calibration and linearity check at 280 and 330 nm for rutin and quercetin.6. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantiﬁcation (LOQ) under the given chromatographic conditions.8 lm.7. Determination of rutin and quercetin One gram of biscuit was extracted with 20 ml methanol/water (90/10. ultrasonicated for 10 min followed by ﬁltration through a 0. 10–20 min. 2.00–6. 0– 10 min.02 mg/100 g for Fe.47) and Zn (101. ´ ´ Kevrešan. Howard.6) and 1% potassium ferricyanide and then incubated at 50 °C for 20 min. the suspension was left overnight at ambient temperature.0025 mg/100 g and 0.5 ml) and Na2CO3 solution (1.02 mg/100 g for Cu. . v/v) at room temperature during 24 h. 2008). Kelemen-Mašic.9.0 mg/ml) were mixed with equal volumes of 0. The injected volume of samples and standards was 5 ll and it was carried out automatically. and Mandic (2001).005 mg/100 g for Zn. Extracts (0.6 Â 50 mm column.009 lg/ml. while obtained linearity range for quercetin was between 0.9 ml).50–20.51). into the HPLC system over six runs. determined at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 and 10. R2 = 0.009–17 lg/ml (y = 3546. It was derived by interpolation from linear regression analysis. The sample preparation con´ sisted of a dry ashing procedure at 450 °C as described in Pavlovic. The within. 2. Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent (0. / Food Chemistry 125 (2011) 164–170 All analyses were performed in duplicate. Determination of total phenolics Total phenolics analysis was based on the Folin–Ciocalteu method (Singleton. new chromatographic conditions were developed. and Miller (1995). A gallic acid calibration curve (c = 97.9. LOQ = 0. The total phenolics content of ginger nut biscuits were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg GAE/100 g on dry mass basis).8. The linearity range for rutin was obtained within the concentration range 0. 10–25% A. Extracts (0. USA).9 ± 3.23). on an Agilent.015 mg/100 g and 0. Cu (105.2.39x À 0. 4.and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the retention times was less than 0.131 lg/ml. UK). MD.039 lg/ml.05–20 lg/ml (y = 10056x + 0. v/v) to 10 ml volume and used to determine total phenolics and antioxidative potential. The mean recovery percentages for the studied elements obtained from eight replications conﬁrmed the accuracy of the procedure: Fe (101.6 ± 2.107 Â A + 0. Mulgvare Victoria. 25–60% A. and the procedure was repeated twice with 50 ml of solvent. Gaithersburg. and for quercertin LOD = 0. Antioxidative activity (AOA) in b-carotene/linoleic acid model system AOA by b-carotene bleaching method as described in detail by Moure et al. using an autosampler. at a ﬂow-rate of 1. 6405 UV/Vis). Orthofer. The solvent linear gradient programme was created by varying the proportion of solvent A (methanol) to solvent B (1% formic acid in water (v/v)) as follows: initial 10% A. Determination of antioxidative potential 2. The spectra were acquired in the range 210– 400 nm and chromatograms plotted at 280 and 330 nm with a reference wavelength set at 550/100 nm.10). 0.45 lm pore size nylon ﬁlter (Rotilabo-Spritzenﬁlter 13 mm. respectively.4. 2. respectively.000 ml/min. HPLC analysis was performed by using a liquid chromatograph (Agilent 1200 series).9999).9. R2 = 0. 1989) atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a background correction (D2-lamp). concentration 20 g/ 100 ml) were added and mixed thoroughly. 1. Grade 4 Chr..5 ml.0849. Determination of mineral composition Mineral composition was determined using a Varian Spectra AA 10 (Varian Techtron Pty Limited. The column was operated at 30 °C.5 ml 10% trichloroacetic acid was added.00 lg/ml of gallic acid in the reaction mixture. & Lamuela-Raventos.5.
Means were compared using the Tukey’s test at the 0. From the force–time plot.c Not detecteda Not detecteda 167.11c 7.5. 0.72 ± 0.59 ± 0.05 level of probability.44a.0 ml of DPPH_ (90 lmol/l) and 2.49 ± 0. 2003). mg/100 g Total phenolics. According to the literature data. Textural analysis Textural analysis of ginger nut biscuits was performed by puncturing using a TA. the biscuits are prone to excessive drying and hardening.05 ± 0.b 32.87 ± 0.61 ± 0. Quality characteristics of biscuits included the estimation of several parameters: shape.16 ± 0. g/100 g Total reducing sugar content.11a 8.95 ± 0. 2.5 ml of supernatant and the absorbance was measured at 700 nm (Jenway.78 ± 0.9 ml methanol were vigorously mixed and left to stand in the dark for 60 min.03a. g/100 g Protein content.08a 7. Kagawa. Results and discussion 3.43 ± 0.d 0.88b.14 ± 0.77 ± 1.56 ± 0.001. an extract concentration at which the absorbance of reaction mixture reaches 0. The scores for each parameter ranged from 1 to 5. Each parameter was assigned a different factor of signiﬁcance: 0. the minimal required mois´ ture content of ginger nut biscuits is 7% (Gavrilovic.72 ± 0.0110d 238. chewiness.. Results were expressed as IC50 value or the concentration of extract required to scavenge 50% of the initial amount of DPPH_.143 ± 0.03b 1.22 ± 0.e.34 ± 0.26a 43.20a 43.09d 0.13b 3.4 for fracture. Parameters Control Buckwheat 30% Moisture content. appearance of upper surface.b 1. Filipcev et al.94c 8. g/100 g Fat content.08b.10e 50% 8. Each biscuit was precisely centred on the platform with a holed plate and the probe was lowered to puncture the sample at a travel distance of 20 mm and test-speed 0. two parameters were derived: the area under the curve represented the biscuit hardness and the linear distance was an indication of fracturability.18a 5.33b 50% 11. mg/100 g Rutin content.03a 0.45 ± 4.90 ± 1.d 0.21c Not detecteda Not detecteda 191.c 8.12 ± 0.3 for shape. 2. appearance of lower surface.04a.09a 41.84 ± 0.03a.21 ± 1. fracture.64 ± 1.05b 0.66 ± 0. Yasuhara.81f Rye 30% 11.70 ± 0. height and width (diameter).22 ± 0.47 ± 0. The buckwheat supplemented biscuits had signiﬁcantly lower moisture contents of all samples.58 ± 2.58 ± 0. A 2 mm cylinder probe and a 5 kg load cell were used.53b 1.07 ± 0.11.11 ± 1. randomly chosen biscuits were taken to measure weight.1.84b 29. 0.08 ± 1.17a 43. Spread was calculated from the ratio of width and height.73 ± 0.33 ± 1. 1. 2006) but it seems that the moisture absorption behaviour of buckwheat ﬂour is much inﬂuenced by its granulation.0 mg/ml).13b 8.10a 5.08a 7.97a. mg GAE/100 g 9. Eight measurements per each biscuit type were made.22b 0.c 1.02a 0.087 ± 0. The analyzer was set to measure force in compression.78 ± 0. Below this value.38 ± 0. previously multiplied with the corresponding factor.95c 40% 11.93 ± 0.0169c 202.51 ± 0.39 ± 0. / Food Chemistry 125 (2011) 164–170 167 After centrifugation at 650g for 10 min.87 ± 0.17b.10b 1. d.90d. It was calculated from the absorbances of the control and samples using an Eq.06b 1.15 ± 0. .0 for ﬂavour. DPPH radical scavenging activity The method was adopted from Hatano. Statistical analysis Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA).13c 7. mg/100 g Cu.28a.10b. 0.00 ± 0.88 ± 0. 2.b 27.55b. g/ 100 g Total dietary ﬁbres.6 for structure. 6405 UV–Vis).09a 8. Chelating activity ð%Þ ¼ 100 À Absorbance of sample at 562 nm Â 100 Â 100 Absorbance of control at 562 nm ð2Þ Results were interpolated and expressed as IC50 value or the extract concentration which chelates 50% of present Fe2+ ions under the given conditions.48 ± 0. g/100 g Zn.c 0.PRJ.09c 2.45 ± 0.16 ± 0. .5 for upper surface.b 0. and Okuda (1988).12a 8.96 ± 0.81 ± 0.61 ± 0.04b 0.21d 0. Fe2+ chelation activity Chelating activity was measured according to the method of Decker & Welch.57 ± 0. 0.. g/100 g Starch content.76d a. Oklahoma).26a 31.16b 5.36a.03a 0. 1990).77a 8.12c 7.13a 44.15b 6.15a 45. The trigger force was set Table 2 Chemical composition of buckwheat and rye supplemented ginger nut biscuits (given on dry basis). assuming as the consequence of low moisture absorption of rather coarsely milled wholegrain buckwheat ﬂour.90 ± 0.06 ± 3.17 ± 0.34c 1. Then.02a.5 ml FeCl3 and 2.76d 0. and ﬂavour.35 ± 0.12b. Parallel measurements were done for each sample.03 ± 1.e 40% 8.37 ± 0.80 ± 1.19a.29 ± 0.1 statistical software (StatSoft Inc.18c 8.50–20. absorbance at 517 nm was measured. All the samples tested met this criterion.05b 0. structure. mg/100 g Mn.b 0.12b 7.05).9.8 for chewiness and 1.11b.b 25.c 3.0005b 196. Reducing power was expressed as IC50 value i.94 ± 0.26a 42.60 ± 0.30 ± 0. 0. 2. Proximate composition Proximate composition of ginger nut biscuits is outlined in Table 2. model Testo 650 (Testo.12c.00 ± 0.24 ± 0. Different superscripts within the same raw represent signiﬁcant differences between the results (p < 0.c 6.20 ± 0.3.73 ± 0.37 ± 0.12 ± 0.34c.b 7.4 for lower surface.88 ± 0. England.214 ± 0. mg/100 g Quercetin content. Physical characteristics and sensory evaluation Biscuits were evaluated for different parameters. (2): at 5 g.06a 0.15a 8.05 ± 1.13.1 ml of extract (0.15b.14 ± 0.b 1. Total score was obtained by summing the scores for each parameter. 0.16 ± 0.13a 8.03c 0.14.HDplus Texture Analyzer (Stable Micro Systems.37 ± 1.5 ml of distiled water was added to 2.51 ± 1.70 ± 0. A panel of seven judges was engaged in the biscuit scoring.25a.04b 1.c 0.47 ± 0. .10. Isolated buckwheat starch was reported to have higher water-binding capacity than wheat and corn starch (Wijngaard & Arendt.b 29.10b Not detecteda Not detecteda 177. mg/100 g Fe. Tulsa.12 ± 0.57 ± 0.19b 0. Tests were conducted 24 h post-bake on a composite sample prepared from six biscuits broken into small pieces at 21 °C.b 25. b. general linear models of the Statistica 7. Six.c 0. 2.16 ± 0.92 ± 1.13a 0.ˇ B. Water activity measurement Water activity was measured using an Aw-meter. UK) according to embedded project ‘‘Biscuit penetration” B1S1-P2.16 ± 0. Germany) with accuracy ± 0. 0. c.07a Not detecteda Not detecteda 157. 3.17c 8.12.99 ± 0.5 mm/s. 2.
2 ± 0.61–6.05c 23.b 12. by consumption of 100 g of buckwheat biscuits. & Schimmel. Various prophylactic effects of buckwheat. Haenen. Rutin is often denoted as vitamin P1 whereas quercetin has been addressed as the main ﬂavanol in human diet. Mn.12a 11. 2007). Strong scavenging activity on DPPH_ of buckwheat enriched biscuit extracts was partly due to the presence of rutin which possesses a strong ability to scavenge DPPH_ (Yang. Biscuit containing 50% buckwheat was the highest in the polyphenols content (238. Within biscuits with 30% and 40% buckwheat and 50% rye. .b. The intake of ﬂavonoids as a special class of polyphenolic compounds.70a 50% 23..00 ± 0.75 mg/100 g d.72) between the results obtained in the reducing activity assay and DPPH assay which can be explained by the same principles of these methods. Buckwheat enriched biscuits were characterised with higher antioxidant potential in comparison to rye enriched biscuits. Filipcev et al. anti-inﬂammatory and anti-tumour effects have been associated with the activity of rutin and quercetin.) contents (Table 2). The addition of buckwheat or rye ﬂour did not affect the fat content.c 11.. Estimations showed that the total intake of polyphenols reaches approximately 1000 mg/day in case of subjects who have a habit to daily consume several portions of fruits.94b 15.19 mg/day.)). 2000). Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and quercetin (the precursor of rutin) are the major bio-functional compounds of buckwheat belonging to the category of ﬂavanol glycosides. This is several times higher than the contents of rutin and quercetin reported for the buckwheat bread (15% buckwheat ﬂour on replacement basis) which ranged between 0. supplemented biscuits exhibited signiﬁcantly higher total polyphenols contents (Table 2) as compared to control which increased with increasing supplementation levels of both buckwheat and rye.25 ± 1. Deriemaeker.05).96–6.b. The intake of rutin and quercetin would be at 3. 2010). Rutin and quercetin were not detected in the control and rye supplemented biscuits for apparent reasons. b.26c. 2002). 2008).79 ± 0. & Yuan.06 ± 0. Content of polyphenols As expected.46d 18. 2008). total dietary ﬁbre and mineral content.28b. respectively (Lin et al. There was a strong correlation between AOA IC50 and total phenolics content (r = À0.09a 8.35 ± 0.1a 5.47c 50% 28. and 0.38a 26.66 ± 0.84 ± 0.98 ± 0. there are experimental data supporting that wheat is also a potent Fe2+ chelator (personal correspondence) which can explain good chelating activity of the control sample. 2006. Very lower intake of quercetin. There is a correlation (r = 0. mg/ml) of buckwheat and rye supplemented ginger nut biscuits.71 ± 0.37 ± 0. Scalbert & Williamson. Morand.16b a.2. and vegetables (Manach. was reported to vary widely: from 20 to 1000 mg/day (Kühnau.90–1.17a.83 ± 0. It is likely that the enrichment of biscuits with buckwheat ﬂour contributed to metal chelating activity on Fe2+ since rutin has been evidenced as a potent metal chelator (Yang et al. In this view. respectively.d 11.c 12. anti-atherogenic and anti-proliferative (Boots. anti-hypertensive. Distinct differences in chelating activity on Fe2+ were observed between the buckwheat and rye supplemented biscuits (Table 3).b.51 ± 0. expectedly. respectively. All in all. Moreover. & Bast. phenolic acid-rich beverages.36c 25. & Jimenez 2004. especially that of Zn.28b.b. including increased antioxidant..52 ± 0. The results expressed as IC50 values (mg/ml) for better comparison. Mn and Fe.36 ± 0. facilitate to meeting the demands of preventive nutrition.10 ± 0.c 9.00 mg/day and 0.06 ± 0.24 ± 0. The obtained results indicated a beneﬁt of using both buckwheat and rye ﬂours in order to achieve better functionality of produced biscuits.57 mg/100 g d.92 mg/100 g dry basis (d.168 ˇ B.. & Hebbelinck.03– 0. Increased levels of buckwheat ﬂour increased rutin (3.10 ± 0. 3. Likewise. The doses of rutin which demonstrated therapeutical effects have been reported to range between 180 and 350 mg (Schilcher. Patz.29b 28. Data on average daily dietary intakes of polyphenols are rather scanty due to a number of limitations. More recent studies revealed that less than 20 mg/day quercetin is administered by food (Mullie.10b 28. 3.b. Scalbert. The ability to scavenge DPPH_ by the extracts of rye and buckwheat supplemented biscuits was signiﬁcantly higher (p < 0. 1976).21 ± 0. Knekt et al. The consumption of 100 g of ginger nut biscuits supplemented with buckwheat at the tested doses would only cover approximately 1–3% of the therapeutical dose. 1996.10a 40% 25. 1990). Remesy. Zn. anti-bacterial. Järvinen.17b.68c 26. Antioxidative potential of ginger nut biscuits Proﬁling of antioxidant potential of ginger nut biscuits was assessed here by applying four different antioxidant assays (Table 3). Guo. the replacement with rye ﬂour increased the content of ﬁbres.3 mg/day was estimated in the Finnish population (Knekt.02 ± 1. Control Buckwheat 30% Antioxidative activity (AOA) Reducing activity DPPH_ scavenging activity Chelating activity 32. products enhanced with buckwheat may signiﬁcantly contribute to total dietary ﬂavonoid intake and hence.87e 11. Lower IC50 values are indication of higher antioxidant potential.04 mg/100 g d. Table 3 Antioxidative potential proﬁle (IC50.1c. 3. Clarys. / Food Chemistry 125 (2011) 164–170 Partial replacement of wheat ﬂour with buckwheat ﬂour considerably improved the protein. Antioxidative activity of biscuits measured by the inhibition of bleaching of b-carotene followed the order: control = 30% rye < 40% = 50% rye < 30% = 40% buckwheat < 50% buckwheat.36c 40% 29.08–0.92d 28.) and quercetin (0..62a Rye 30% 31.67d 29. Consumption of 100 g of ginger nut biscuits made with buckwheat and rye could contribute to reaching %18–22% and 16–17% of the estimated average intake.90) suggesting that phenolic compounds presented in all produced biscuits mainly contributed to their overall antioxidant properties. Although ofﬁcial dietary reference intake for rutin has not yet been established.09–0.61 ± 0.05 ± 0. Beneﬁcial effects of quercetin range from high antioxidant activity and anti-inﬂammatory capacity to miscellaneous effects like anti-ﬁbrotic. d. 2008). One of the important mechanisms to protect against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation is to chelate metal ions. & Reunanen.30 ± 0. there was no signiﬁcant difference in the content of total phenolics. Fe and reducing sugars.66 ± 1.72c 10.21 mg/100 g d. 2009). e Different superscripts within the same raw represent signiﬁcant differences between the results (p < 0. The starch content showed a decreasing trend with increasing supplementation levels but it was significant only in the case of 50% rye supplemented biscuit in comparison to the control.05) than the ability of an extract obtained using the control biscuit. c.26 ± 0.92 ± 0. 100 g of biscuit containing 50% of buckwheat could contribute to appreciable 24–60% of the proposed daily dose for adults.06a 26.d 17.3.46 ± 0. advice suggesting the intake of 10–25 mg/day of rutin for adults and 5–10 mg/day for children can be found elsewhere (Anon.
42 ± 0.96a 29.11b.17a Height. the highest sensory scores were given to the biscuits supplemented with rye.77a 17. The biscuits with added buckwheat had a drier mouthfeel than those Fig. Filipcev et al.08 ± 497.42 ± 0.b 0.23 ± 0.55 ± 0. mm 17.17 ± 351.92 ± 1.59 ± 0.c 0.01b.12 ± 164.08a 3.59 ± 0.12 ± 0.61b 20.05).01c 0.72 ± 0.60b 61.4 points).46 ± 0. 2003).07a 3.56 ± 0. Sensory evaluation of ginger nut biscuits As seen in Fig. There were no signiﬁcant differences in the weight of biscuits. increased in the ginger nut biscuit formulations with rye and buckwheat.23 ± 206.76b.54 ± 0.50 ± 0. The biscuits made with buckwheat ﬂour were also scored signiﬁcantly higher than the control with the highest score given to the formulation at 40% level (17.37a 169 Fracturability.c 3.36 ± 210.3 points).60 ± 0. c Different superscripts within the same raw represent signiﬁcant differences between the results (p < 0. Mhta.33 ± ± 0. The least fracturable were the biscuits made with rye.52b 20. Ginger nut biscuit type Control Rye ﬂour Dose. 2000).58 ± 0.97a 4413. 3.62b 61.78 ± 68.42a 29. their aw was signiﬁcantly higher than that of the control.79b 789.62 ± 0. Fuhr (1962) suggested that any ingredient that absorbs water during dough mixing will decrease the spread ratio.59 ± 81.57 ± 0.60 for biscuit with 40% rye ﬂour) are not likely to increase their susceptibility to microbial growth (Fontana.65 ± 57. The softest were the biscuits supplemented with rye ﬂour whereas biscuits made with buckwheat ﬂour were softer from the control but harder from those made with rye. Rye ﬂour was a better absorbent of water than buckwheat ﬂour presumably because buckwheat ﬂour contained more coarse particles which held less water in comparison to the ﬁne particles of rye ﬂour. However.22a 20.31c 383.03 ± 0.c 62.51a Spread ratio 3. Water activity. its propor- .61c 62.55 ± 0.87 ± 0. Physical characteristics of ginger nut biscuits Data on the physical and textural characteristics of ginger nut biscuits are presented in Table 4.49 ± 0. The thickness was signiﬁcantly increased by the addition of rye ﬂour at all levels whereas buckwheat ﬂour did not signiﬁcantly affect this parameter. 3.80a 795. The structure of biscuits made with the addition of rye was more porous. a measure of food dryness and susceptibility of a product to microbial spoilage.87a 29.49 ± 0. Sensory evaluation and total sensory score of ginger nut biscuits supplemented with buckwheat and rye ﬂour.01b Hardness.02 (40% rye). The most fracturable biscuit was the control sample.35 ± 366.63b 450.51 ± 0.03a 0. Only samples made with 30% and 40% buckwheat ﬂour did not signiﬁcantly differentiate from the control. could be observed. In general. Buckwheat ﬂour contributed to a porous but mainly granular structure whereas the control sample was compact.70a 663.02b 0.52 ± 1.5.87 ± 1. g 28. The diameter of cookies was reduced signiﬁcantly except in the case of biscuits made with 30% and 40% rye ﬂour.14 ± 736.16b 17. Although less water was needed to make homogeneous dough in the case of buckwheat biscuits.53 ± 1.4. / Food Chemistry 125 (2011) 164–170 Table 4 Physical characteristics and texture of ginger nut biscuits supplemented with buckwheat and rye ﬂour. 1. A similar grouping was observed regarding fracturability.49b.71 ± 0. It is important to note that the characteristic aroma of buckwheat was completely masked even at the 50% supplementation level. g s 1166.82a 3473.60 ± 43.45 ± 0.02c Water activity 0.46a Diameter.13 ± 0. of which the best were the formulations at 30% and 40% level (18.14b.06c 3.46 ± 0.39a 30.b 0. mm 63. Two groups.02a. 50%) had signiﬁcantly higher density as compared to the control and rye supplemented biscuits. 4.60 ± 0.c 62.01c 0.% 0 30 40 50 30 40 50 Weight. Samra. The supplemented biscuits were softer than the control and therefore rated higher for chewiness.46 ± 31.29a 30. signiﬁcantly softer from the control.01c 0.26 ± 275. 1. The biscuits differentiate in hardness and fracturability.89a 28. b. g/ cm3 0.13b 2289.03a 0.65 (control) to 3.66 ± 0.47b 3925. Dough ﬂow mostly depends on its viscosity: the higher the viscosity the lower the spread rate. According to Gurjal. The biscuits with buckwheat (40%.37 ± 0.ˇ B.53 ± 0.51a Buckwheat ﬂour a. g s 6724.00a 0.69b 1596. Granular structure of buckwheat biscuits may have affected this increase.12 ± 0. these groups of biscuits differentiated in chewiness and structure. & Goyal.02c 0.30 ± 24.20a 3.73 ± 0.01a.54a 17.c 3. The higher water activity values found in these supplemented cookies (up to 0. made with rye. Conclusion Buckwheat has been scientiﬁcally proven to exert a wide range of bioactivities with beneﬁcial health effects.43b 60.88 ± 0.22 ± 1.36c 1922.b 0.10b Density. Supplemented biscuits exhibited a decreased spread which ranged from 3.02 ± 0.86b 349.65 ± 0.56 ± 0.02a. two factors affect the spread ratio: expansion of dough by leavening and gravitational ﬂow.
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