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Semiconductor materials

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Conductors and Insulators: Good conductors such as copper and silver can conduct electricity with little resistance because their crystal structure allows a loosely bound valence electron per atom to move freely throughout the lattice. Insulators do not conduct electric current as no free electrons exist in the material. Semiconductors: The two semiconductors of great importance are silicon (Si 14) and germanium (Ge 32), which both have four valence electrons. In crystal structure (lattice) is a tetrahedral pattern with each atom sharing one valence electron with each of four neighbors (covalent bonds). If an electron gains enough thermal energy (1.1 eV for Si or 0.7 eV for Ge), it may break the covalent bond and becomes a free electron of negative charge, while leaving a vacancy or a hole of positive charge. In an electric field, a free electron may move to a new location to fill a hole there, i.e., both such electrons and holes contribute to electrical conduction. Such crystal is called intrinsic semiconductor. At room temperature, relatively few electrons gain enough energy to become free electrons, the over all conductivity of such materials is low, thereby their name semiconductors.

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Doped Semiconductors: The conductivity of semiconductor material can be improved by doping, i.e., by adding an impurity element with either three or five valence electrons, called, respectively, trivalent and pentavalent elements. o n-type semiconductor: When a small amount of pentavalent element is added, a silicon atom in the lattice may be replaced by a pentavalent atom with four of its valent electrons forming the

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covalent bounds and one extra free electron. This is an n-type semiconductor whose conductivity is much improved compared to the intrinsic semiconductors, due to the extra free electrons in the lattice, which are called predominant or majority current carriers. There also exist some tiny number of holes called minority carriers. p-type semiconductor: When a small amount of trivalent element is added, a silicon atom in the lattice may be replaced by a trivalent atom with only three valent electrons forming three covalent bounds and a hole in the lattice. This is a p-type semiconductor whose conductivity is also much improved compared to the intrinsic semiconductors, due to the holes in the lattice, which are called predominant or majority current carriers. There also exist some tiny number of free electrons called minority carriers.

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pn Junction

When p-type and n-type materials in contact with each other, a p-n junction is formed due to two effects:

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Diffusion: Although both sides are electrically neutral, but they have different concentration of electrons (the n-type) and holes (the p-type), and the free electrons in the n-type material begin to diffuse across the p-n junction between the two materials, due to their thermal motion, and to fill some of the holes in the p-type material. Equivalently, the holes are also drifting from the p-type side to the n-type side. Electric Field If no other forces were involved, the diffusion would carry out continuously until the free electrons and holes are uniformly distributed across both materials. However, as the result of the diffusion process, electrical field is gradually established, negative on the side of p-type material due to the extra electrons, positive on the side of n-type material due to the loss of free electrons. This electrical field prevents further diffusion as the electrons on the n-type side are expelled from the p-type side by the electrical field.

The effects of both diffusion and electric field eventually lead to an equilibrium where the two effects balance each other so that there are no more charge carriers (free electrons or holes) crossing the p-n junction. This region around the p-n junction, called the depletion region as there no longer exist freely movable charge carriers, becomes a barrier between the two ends of the material that prevent current to flow through.

As the depletion region becomes thicker than before.II. positive to n-type) The negative voltage applied to the p-type will repel electrons in n-type and attract holes in p-type so that both carriers are moving away from the p-n junction. Diodes Due to the fact that there exist few freely movable charge carriers in the depletion region around the p-n junction. The conductivity increases as the voltage becomes higher. negative to n-type) The positive voltage applied to the p-type will attract electrons in n-type and repel holes in p-type so that both carriers are moving towards the p-n junction. the conductivity is very poor. if certain voltage is applied to the two ends of the material. . • Forward bias (positive to p-type. However. depending one the polarity of the applied voltage: • Reverse bias (negative to p-type. there is no current through the p-n junction and the conductivity is zero. the conductivity is improved and there is current through the p-n junction. the conductivity may change. As the depletion region becomes thinner.

due to the minority carriers. a tiny current that flows in the reverse direction when . when . is the voltage equivalent temperature. For room temperature . . when . A for Si and • • is about A for Ge. and temperature in degree K. coulomb is the charge of an electron.4 for Si . where Joules/Kelvin is Boltzmann's constant. when In particular. . . . is the • is the ideality factor which is 1 for Ge and 1.The voltage-current behavior of a p-n junction is described by where is the reverse saturation current. .

the resistance : . then we have . but a function of As . else : if . For a diode. then . is not a constant. Diode with a voltage threshold else • Diode with a voltage threshold and a resistance if • . . • • Ideal model: if . then . .. i. .e.The resistance of an electrical device is defined as as is not a linear function. then . and . else A current source can be added to simulate the reverse saturation current. we have If we let Models of diodes: .

3V) for silicon (or germanium) material.18 V for Si ( for Ge ( . Example 1: In the half-wave rectifier circuit shown below.75 V 0. ) ) In general. and . through and voltage across .67 V 0. when the forward voltage applied to a diode exceeds 0.12 V 0.58 V 0.7V (or 0. . is a silicon diode. Find the current . .1 mA 10 mA 100 mA 0. the diode is assumed to be conducting with very little resistance.06 V 0.

Method 1: Since the diode is forward biased. As the diode is forward biased. while the second is obtained by KVL. the current is .• Method 0: The simplest model is to assume the diode is an ideal rectifier with infinite resistance when it is reverse biased but zero resistance when it is forward biased. we can assume the voltage across the diode is and the current can be determined by Ohm's law to be . and voltage have to satisfy two equations • • Method 2: The current simultaneously: The first equation relates the current through and voltage across a diode. Substituting the first equation .

The intersection point of the two curves is approximately at .into the second. Method 3: The two simultaneous equations above can also be solved graphically. The first equation curve of the diode. the variation (ripple) of the output DC voltage must be 5% or less. When the load is . while the second equation line. . which can be . Example 2: Design a converter (adaptor) that converts AC power supply of 115V and 60 Hz to a DC voltage source of 14 V. then can be found. a straight line passing through and is the characteristic is the load . we get solved numerically for • .

• During the period between two peaks charge on the capacitor is reduced by . and the current is: . the load current is . Otherwise the exponential decay of the voltage across capacitor should be used. we get . as the voltage drop is small. The voltage across the capacitor is therefore dropped by . the • • Solve above equation for . • When the load is . . This is an approximation based on the assumption that the load current is constant. the ratio of the transformer should be 115:10.• The peak of the secondary output is with RMS value .

a thin and lightly doped n-type material is sandwiched between two thicker p-type materials.III. while in a pnp transistor. . In the following we will only consider npn BJTs. a thin and lightly doped p-type material is sandwiched between two thicker n-type materials. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) has three terminals connected to three doped semiconductor regions. In an npn transistor.

In many schematics of transistor circuits (especially when there exist a large number of transistors in the circuit). . the circle in the symbol of a transistor is omitted.

there are three different configurations: common emitter (CE). The common emitter (CE) is the most typical configuration: • Common-Base (CB) In the normal operation. common base (CB) and common collector (CC). Depending on which of the three terminals is used as common terminal. the EB junction is forward biased while the CB junction is reverse biased. output and the common terminal of both input and output. .The three terminals of a transistor are typically used as the input.

e. are combined o The base-collector (BC) junction: . where is due to electrons from E to B.g. ) go through base to reach the CB junction. is due to the holes from B to E.. only a small number of the electrons with the hole in base. the fraction very close to unity . As p-type base is thin and lightly doped. i. is Most electrons from emitter (e.The behavior of the npn-transistor is determined by its two pn-junctions: o The emitter-base (EB) junction: The forward biased EB junction allows a current to flow through.

electrons in n-type collector). . but lets through the minority carriers. electrons in base and holes in collector. including most of the electrons from emitter the reverse saturate current of the CB junction . These two currents form the overall collector current The base current equal currents is the small difference between two nearly and : • Common-Emitter .The reverse biased CB junction blocks the majority carriers (holes in p-type base.

and the output current is Solving for . we get Here is the current-transfer ratio for CE (typically. is the reverse and ). .The input current is . and saturation current between collector and emitter. .

CB configuration has not current amplification effect. voltage are defined in the opposite direction. the current depends on the current . When and is is increased correspondingly. . except both axes are reversed (rotated 180 degrees) as both voltage current increased. The only slightly effects as is slightly increased when is increased. As . as the effect of collector-base voltage is small. This is similar to the diode current-voltage characteristics seen before. the current caused by the minority carriers crossing the pn-junction. When . . Input/Output Characteristics and AC Behavior • Common-Base: o Input characteristics: The EB junction is essentially the same as a forward biased diode. The currentvoltage characteristics is essentially the same as that of a diode: o Output characteristics: The CB junction is reverse biased.IV.

is will . crossing the pn-junctions. the EB junction of CE is essentially the same as a forward biased diode. as the effect of collector-emitter voltage is small.• Common-Emitter: o Input characteristics: As in CB case. Also. . When correspondingly increased by slightly increase fold. The current-voltage characteristics is essentially the same as that of a diode: o Output characteristics: The CB junction is reverse biased. the current caused by the minority carriers is increased. as increased but much greater increase in increases. the current depends on the current . When . will increase more significantly as .

. .• It is seen that various parameters of a transistor change as functions of temperature. the voltage drop is . Find output voltage Find Find about . value increases along with temperature. . In particular. . As the BE junction is forward biased. and . o o . • Example: Assume in the CE circuit shown above.

.o o Find Find Load Line: The last equation above is a straight line. which passes through the following two points: When When . . . called the load line. . as they have to satisfy both the internal I-V characteristics of the transistor and the external voltage source ( operating point or and load resistor -point. given a specific base current . o o The actual collector current and voltage can be determined as the intersection of the load line and the curve in the current-voltage characteristics. The intersection is called the . on the output (collector) current-voltage characteristics plot.

Consider the following example: The value of the transistor can be estimated from the plot to be: Assume and the load resistance is points that determine the load line are . .V. . The overall input base current is . common-emitter configuration is commonly used for amplification. The two • • Also assume the input current is a superposition of DC current a sinusoidal signal and . Dynamics with AC input As . .

e. i. Sinusoidal component of output current is (between 2 mA and 6 mA): • Sinusoidal component of the output voltage is • Overall output current is • Overall output voltage is . we can find graphically DC component of the output (collector) current is DC component of output (collector) voltage is . . From the I-V characteristics plot.therefore . • • • ..

The is higher than . the transistor is . i. the supply and the collector and emitter resistors ( linear relationship said to be saturated and no longer holds. . Switch From the current-voltage plot of the output characteristics.The magnitude (peak-to-peak) of the input current is the magnitude of the output current is amplified 40 fold. as can be seen in the following sections. we see that the operation of a transistor can be in one of the three possible regions: Linear region: When the input voltage is about transistor works in the linear range where the collector current is proportional to base current region due to this relationship. .e. • Saturation region: When the input voltage will significantly increase (due to the exponential relationship between and ).. But as the maximum value of is restricted by the voltage ). Amplification takes place in the linear (possibly negative). the current is • . the . Cutoff region: When the input voltage and transistor is said to be cut off. • . In this case. Severe distortion in output will be caused if a transistor amplification circuit is working near either the cutoff or the saturation region. is close to zero.

or the switch is open.8V.Example Assume find output voltage . The transistor is cutoff. the forward bias of BE junction is insufficient. is 0.7V and 0. . . 0. . . .2V. when the input voltage • . . .

linear. from the input characteristics. The transistor is Conclusion: a change in input from 0. This means it is from the power source of . the transistor is in the linear region. as the maximum current is In this case. and the transistor is in cut-off. .2 V. or the switch is closed. we find . and in saturation range. and saturation region.2 to 0. DC Biasing .2V (intersection of load line and the curve corresponding to ). the BE junction is forward biased. is only valid when VI. the BE junction is forward biased. can be determined on the output characteristics to be about 0.• . • . and . we find . . . and the output voltage from 15 to 0. respectively. from the input characteristics. The transistor is in linear range.8 switches the output current from 0 to about 10 mA. and . impossible for the transistor to draw .

the base The collector current is which is directly proportional to .The DC operating point of a transistor circuit need to be set up for it to work properly. The output voltage is . The operating point is determined by the biasing circuit: • Fixed current biasing This is the simplest biasing. As the voltage (0.7V) is small compared to current can be estimated to be: (>10V).

Assume . Example 1: In the circuit of fixed current biasing. . Find the operating points for .As and depend on . which is different for different transistors and changes as a function of temperature. . o o When . . and the two extreme values of When . the operating point is unstable and inconsistent. and changes from to .

• corresponding to the transistor Self-biasing To correct the problem above. Qualitatively. How can there be a negative voltage while the voltage supply is 15V? The collector current can no longer be determined by . if is increased due to increased or temperature. as the maximum fully saturated with is .o When . the following happens: . self-biasing circuit is used to decrease the effect of changing by negative feed back.

can we approximate by than the current through voltage divider as: If the condition is not satisfied. To analyze this circuit quantitatively. Note that only when the base current is much smaller ( ). we first find the base voltage base current and .This is a negative feedback loop which tends to stabilize the operating point. we have to use Thevenin's theorem to replace the base circuit by a voltage source in series with a resistance .

we get .Next we use KVL to the base loop to get Substituting and solving for .

Comparing this is directly the resistors independent of the with fixed biasing..The last approximation is based on the further assumption that even for the minimum possible that satisfied. e. and thereby the Q operation point is totally determined by value of the transistor. . Assume . Find the operating points for .g. and and the . circuit has a much more stable operating point. it is still true . value of the transistor in the circuit. . . If this condition is . changes from to . two extreme values of o When . Example 2: In the circuit of self-biasing. . . where proportional to the value of the transistor.

.o When .

.o When .

Small Signal Model and H parameters Two-port circuit: A transistor circuit can be treated as a two-port circuit with input and output ports with four variables . .VII. In general two of the four variables are independent and the rest two can be expressed as their functions: We use the third hybrid model to describe the CE transistor circuit with . and : . Taking the total derivative. we get: .

is in the range • : output admittance with (input opencircuit). (output short-circuit). representing how can be ignored. In general is small and can be ignored.where are the hybrid model parameters: • : input impedance with (output shortcircuit). In general (input openis small and • • : forward transfer current ratio or current amplification factor with of 20 to 200. these differential quantities can be rewritten as . Typically. affects . : reverse transfer voltage ratio with circuit). . It is slope of the current-voltage curve in the output characteristics. . This is AC resistance between base and emitter. and are small signals (around the DC operating If all variables point and far away from either the cut-off or the saturation region). the reciprocal of the slope of the current-voltage curve of the input characteristics.

. and are small and could be assumed zero to further simplify the model. as shown on the left of the figure.In general.

. as shown in the figure below: . the base voltage is can be found as around the DC operating point and the base current is (1) Note that . . .The equivalent AC resistance between base and emitter below. Based on the small signal model. a transistor can be analyzed as a two-port circuit containing four elements. Assume small signal . and Then we get Typically.

If the capacitances of the coupling capacitors and the emitter by-pass capacitor are large enough with respect to the frequency of the AC signal in the circuit is high enough. these capacitors can all be approximated as short circuit. a single transistor AC amplification circuit is given as shown in the figure. it can be treated the same as the ground. and the . and in parallel: input impedance of the circuit is the three resistances . AC Amplification Based on the previous discussion. where is the internal resistance of the signal source. the input of the amplification circuit is shown below.VIII. Moreover. note that the AC voltage of the voltage supply is zero. Now the AC behavior of the transistor amplification circuit can be modeled by the following small signal equivalent circuit: AC Input Impedance: For AC signals.

as discussed before: AC Output Impedance: This is simply the resistance of the resistor AC Amplification Gain: Given the AC input voltage be found (voltage divider) to be . .where is the resistance of the PN-junction) between the base and the emitter of the transistor. the base voltage can and the base current is The collector current is and the output voltage is Here the negative sign indicates the fact that as is out of phase with .

.e. The DC and AC circuits are shown below: .e. We assume the capacitors are large enough so that they can be considered as short circuit for the AC signals.The voltage gain is therefore In particular.. i. and the output resistance is much smaller than the load resistance. i. then the gain can be approximated as Example: This figure shows a common-emitter amplification circuit of npn BJT. Assume . if the input resistance is much larger than the internal resistance of the voltage source.

• • . Find AC load line: The AC load is : The intersection of the DC load line and the is the DC operating point with ). The intersections of AC load line with axes can be found by . when .. The DC load line is determined by these two points Find DC operating point curve corresponding to and (i. .• Find base current: • Find DC load line: when .e. The AC load line is a straight line passing the DC operating point with its slope equal to and .

and the corresponding base current can be found from the input i-v characteristics to be • between 20 and 60 . Find the voltage gain: • .and • Find input current: Assume input voltage is . Note that the output is in opposite phase (180 phase shift) with the input. Find AC output voltage: This can be found graphically from the output i-v characteristics. the overall base voltage is and . and the current is . to be . based on .

as shown below. otherwise distortion may be caused. The circuit above can also be analyzed using the small-signal model. its DC operating point has to be set right. the dynamic range should be maximized by setting the DC operating point at the middle point of the load line. So to avid distortion.For a transistor to work properly. .

. the output resistance is .The DC variables: The AC variables: The voltage gain is: The input resistance is .

DC operating point Solving these equations. and . The input and output of the emitter follower are the base and the emitter. therefore this circuit is also called common-collector circuit. we can get AC small-signal equivalent circuit . Emitter Follower An emitter follower circuit shown in the figure is widely used in AC amplification circuits.IX. respectively. .

is smaller than but approximately equal in parallel with the resistances of the circuit to its right . and have Voltage gain: As to 1.We assume and therefore can be ignored. The input resistance: The input resistance is including the load . which can be found by we have . But as .

we see that the emitter follower has a very large input resistance. where including the source. this resistance can be found as output voltage with load open-circuit short-circuit internal resistance to . the voltage source can be converted by Thevenin's theorem and can be found to be . The output resistance: The output resistance is in parallel with the resistances of the circuit to its left . To find and a load and and . where is the is the current with load with . which can be found by and we have Alternatively.Comparing this with the input resistance of the common-emitter circuit .

and its small output resistance capable of driving heavy load. we see that the emitter follower circuit has very small output resistance. due to its large input resistance drawing little current from the source. Conclusion: Emitter follower does not amplify voltage. . However.now we have The overall output resistance is Comparing this with the output resistance of the common-emitter circuit . it is widely used as both the input and output stages for a multi-stage voltage amplification circuit due to its property of very favorable input/output resistances.

multi-stage amplification circuits are needed. coupled in one of three possible ways: • Capacitor coupling: o o o o Independent DC operating point. Cannot amplify DC and low frequency signals. Such a circuit is typically composed of two or more cascaded transistor amplifiers. . Difficult implementation on IC. Multi-stage Amplification In order to have an amplification gain.X. AC amplification of high gain if coupling capacitors are larger enough.

Can achieve maximal power by impedance match. Easy implementation on IC. XI. Differential Amplifier .• Transformer coupling: • Independent DC operating point. Direct coupling: o o o o o o o DC operating point not independent. Difficult implementation on IC. Can amplify both DC and AC signals. Cannot amplify DC and low frequency signals.

Consider the following three cases: • will decrease. the following changes happen: The output voltage can be further amplified to indicate the difference and its and . the following changes happen: • If . the . versa. which is . i.e. Differential amplification has many applications. • If . then .Differential amplifier can amplify a small difference between two voltages and . Assume the two transistors and in the circuit are identical with the same properties. such as the first stage of operational amplifiers (Op-amps). Due to the fact that the forward biased diodes have fixed voltage . and their emitters are connected to a current source with constant current so that . and vice When the two input voltages are the same and the output voltage is treated as a reference level corresponding to . if increases.. polarity between the two input voltages The current source shared by the two transistors is also shown in the figure.

gate. The gate and the p-type substrate is insulated by a thin layer of to either the source or drain. and drain. .e. Both the source S and drain D are n-type and the substrate between them is p-type. there is no gate current .base voltage of the transistor is also fixed at . Due to this insulation. . Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has three terminals. i. so is the current circuit can be used as a constant current source. source.. the XII.

as shown by the plots below. .Different types of MOSFET The behavior of an n-channel field effect transistor can be described by . . and .

When sufficient voltage is applied between gate and source. the positive potential at the gate will induce enough electrons from the p-type substrate to form an electronic channel between source and drain.The qualitative behavior of an n-channel field effect transistor can be described as: The MOSFET can therefore be considered as a voltage controlled switch. as shown below. and a current and drain is formed. between source .

and also unlinearly as increases (to pull more electrons toward the gate to enhance the n-channel). due . Triode region: When and . with a linear coefficient (Ohm's law). and keeps a constant value independent of affected nonlinearly by . as plotted below: This function can be divided into three different (piece-wise linear) regions: Cutoff region: When to the two pn-junctions. the voltage between gate and drain is: the e-channel at the D end is nearly closed or pinch-off). some electrons in the p-type substrate (minority carriers) are pulled toward the gate to form a inversion layer close to the gate to form an n-type channel with certain resistance between S and D. Now is saturated is only . the behavior of a MOSFET can be described as a function . The current increases roportionally to . when . i. no current flows through S and D.e.More accurately. In particular. independent of . Saturation region: When and further increases. . the • voltage between gate and e-channel close to drain becomes small and the e-channel close to drain narrows. • • .

the current The triode region and the saturation region is separated by the curve . the MOSFET is in cutoff region with . In terms of the current from drain to source. .In summary. this curve can also be represented by . and both MOSFETs in the following circuit are in the saturation region. Specifically. for all is related to by: . and affected by both . • when determined only by . Example 1: Assume when independent of • . . . Find output voltage . or . as shown in the plots above. the current is controlled by both voltages and . the MOSFET is in saturation region with Example 2: Assume and . the and • when MOSFET is in linear or triode region with .

MOSFETs are much more widely used (especially in computers and digital systems) than BJTs. Consequently. .e.Since both MOSFETs are in saturation region with the same determined only by but independent of . Comparison between BJT and FET • as the lower one BJT has a low input resistance . The upper MOSFET must have the same the output voltage has to be . but MOSFET is voltage ( ) controlled.. • • • • • BJT is current ( or ) controlled. MOSFETs have thin insulation layer which is more prone to statics and requires special protection. MOSFETs are easy to fabricate in large scale and have higher element density than BJTs. i. it draws virtually no input current and therefore its input resistance is infinity in theory. MOSFET amplifier . But as MOSFET's gate is insulated from the channel ( ). XIII. the power consumption of MOSFETs is lower than BJTs. BJTs have higher cutoff frequency and higher maximum current than MOSFETs. their which is must be the same.

Assumw in the circuit above and the MOSFET is in saturation region and . then The transfer function of the circuit is .

. then we This nonlinear equation can be represented by the table below: 0 1 1. .8 6.35 2. the output .0 2. when the input decreases from Also when the input decreases from to to out of phase with the input voltage.1 2.5 1.8 1.2 8.0 4.0 2.2 2.32 2.6 1. • • . the circuit behaves as a voltage amplifier with a gain greater than one. . . increases from to . the transistor is in saturation mode. with a gain of In general.9 2.0 5.4 0.3 2.0 10 10 9. the output . with the gain of increases from . to . The voltage gain is indicated as the slope of the tangent of the curve (red) which is a function of . Assume have .4 1.9 0. we see that When .It can be seen that when and .8 1.3 The voltage gain of the circuit is defined as: Note that the output voltage is In particular. the transistor is in saturation mode the slope of the curve (red) indecates the ratio between input and output .8 6.

. . and . as shown in the figure below: Biasing: In the example above. the output voltage . the transistor is in either cutoff or triode region with no amplification capability. the gate voltage may go beyond the saturation region to enter either the triode or the cutoff .• When or . and a sinusoidal input 1. The output voltage can be found as: that varies between In particular. However.5V. the DC offset of the input is at 1.6V. respectively. Consider a MOSFED circuit with . . so that the transistor is working in the saturation region when the magnitude of the AC input is limited.4V and 1. if this offset is either too high or too low. corresponding to and the current are.

the output voltage will be severely distorted.region. As the gate of the transistor does not draw any current. as shown in the figure below (a). In either case. the DC offset voltage will be simply: The input AC signal through the input capacitor is then superimposed on this DC offset. as shown below: It is therefore clear that the DC offset or biasing gate voltage has to be properly selected and setup to make sure the dynamic range of the input signal is within the saturation region. Method 1: One way to provide the desired DC offset is to use two resistors and that form a voltage divider. .

. The output . . Assume . . Solving this we get with corresponding output . . . The bias voltage can be found to be and the voltage between gate and source is voltage is When . and . For this particular circuit. .Method 2: Another way to set up the bias is the circuit shown in (b) above. recall the conditions for the To determine the dynamic range of the input transistor to be in saturation region: To avoid cutoff region: • . .

•

To avoid triode region:

. For this particular circuit,

that is

or

Solving this for

we get

, with corresponding output

Therefore the overall dynamic range for the input is

with the corresponding output range

and the overall voltage gain is about phase with the input voltage.

. Note that the output voltage is in

Source Follower: If the output is taken from the source, instead of the drain of the transistor, the circuit is called a source follower.

Assume

,

and

. To find the input and :

output voltages and the gain of the circuit, consider the current

Plugging in the given values, we get

If

, this equation becomes:

which can be solved to get or . We take the smaller voltage in order for the transistor to be outside the cutoff region:

Similarly, if

, the equation becomes:

and we get

. The voltage gain of the source follower is

Feed back XVI. Specifically. is the ratio between small and the small change in . the DC operation point in terms of the DC variables needs to be set around the middle point of the saturation region. change in XV. Op Amp We can analyse the effect of any supply movement by moving to an ac equivalent circuit in the usual way: . Small Signal Analysis To maximize the dynamic range for the input AC signal. the nonlinear relationship between around the DC operation point for small changes: and can be linearized Here . the behavior of the circuit can be linearized (first term of Taylor expansion of the nonlinear relationship) to simplify the analysis. If the AC signal around the DC operation point is small enough.XIV. called incremental transconductance.

Such a device would have an infinite input impedance together with ZERO output impedance and an INFINITE "open loop" gain. Some of these 'dreams' can be approached in practice . Discussion of "ideal" Op-amp characteristics. The effect of any variation in the supply is shown as v sub ee.but never all together! However as we shall see later on when we look hard at the effects of feedback in real circuits we will find that performance can become in reality so close to perfection as to be irrelevant.The Thevenin voltage in this case is the sum of v sub 1 and v sub 2. .

Then a realistic op-amp . This figure also shows the 'internal' output resistance of 75 ohms which is specified for the 741 . A range of op-amp abilities: .000 and is carefully shown in this sketch as a voltage source (to earth) which applies this amplification figure to the differential voltage which has been applied to the + and .and again this can be made to approach the ideal zero value when feedback is applied.inputs. Notice here that the input differential impedance is specified at 2 Megohms .000 to 200.the 741.and with feedback we will find that is easy to increase that by a thousand times! The "open loop gain" is specified to be a figure of 100.

.15 millivolts causes the output to saturate at the positive or negative rail: In the lab you will attempt to measure this open loop gain and you will find that it is not easy! In most applications we make use of negative feedback to "damp down" the typical 100.Before the end of this lecture every aspect of this Table should be clearly explained but it is worth noting the huge range of abilities which is available. With such a huge open loop gain there are very limited applications of op-amps in the open loop configuration because as can be seen from the following an input as small as 0.000 + open loop voltage gain.

There are four basic feedback possibilities: We start looking at op-amp circuits with the most important one which is the noninverting amplifier with voltage feedback: .

The open loop gain always applies to the differential input signal so that: We then evaluate the input impedance with feedback applied: .

And then of course the output impedance with feedback applied: .

It is worth commenting and emphasising that we have not yet applied a load to this non-inverting amplifier . .when we do so it obviously takes the following shape: The simplest very useful circuit which arises from the analysis of this circuit is the "voltage follower" which has amazingly useful properties.

an absolutely enormous input impdance (resistance!) and extremely close to zero output impedance.Upon substitution you will find that this circuit has a voltage gain of unity . The following sketch shows the non-inverting amplifier with current feedback: This looks to be exactly the same as the previous voltage feedback case but the following sketch shows that the output load resistor is in fact an integral part of the circuit: . It provides an extremely useful 'buffer' stage.

This circuit is really just included here for completeness . For general use we would really prefer an output which is referenced to ground and to achieve this the remainder of this circuit has to be "up in the air".VN)/RF. The inverting input is a virtual earth so that the inverting gain is simply the ratio of the feedback resistance to the input resistance R1.you can see that the load is "up in the air". Then we have an inverting amplifier with voltage feedback: Analysing currents i1 = (Vin .VN)/R1 must equal minus the current if which equals (Vout . .

Also because of the virtual earth the input impedance (with feedback) is simply equal to R1. . Have a go at developing the output impedance with feedback in this case yourselves. And this is the inverting amplifier with current feedback: A very common usage for this configuration is to place something like a 1 mA current meter directly in the lead at the output of the op-amp and use it to measure microamps at the input.

There are however difficulties at the high frequency end where the following sketch illustrates three single lags operating in series (which could simply be three op-amp circuits in series): .A frequency response curve shows that the various op-amp designs perform superbly right down to DC because they are inherently DC coupled.

The following sketch is a repeat of the diagram from Lecture 4 and we recognise the lowpass form because at high frequencies the capacitor becomes a short circuit effectively and no signal gets through. To analyse this we simply treat it as a voltage divider: .We need to analyse the phase lag through each simple lag (i. simple low pass filter).e.

For one lowpass filter the maximum phase lag it can produce approaches 90 degrees at very high frequencies .Up to now we have just been interested in the shape of the 'magnitude' characteristic but here we need to understand what happens with the phase.far above the corner where the characteristic 'starts' its logarithmic fall of 6 dB per octave (ie per doubling in frequency) which is the same thing as 20 dB per decade (ie per 10 times change in frequency!). .

which equates to -45 degrees. A simple fix in this case would be to design the circuit to have a gain well in excess of 1000 and then the highest frequency will still be inside the 180 degree total lag.You can see that at the 'corner' frequency the phase lag is minus the inverse tan of unity . Another 'fix' is to apply another single lag (low pass filter) with the response shown here in blue which falls below unity gain (ie below 0 dB gain) before the total lag reaches 180 degrees. Stability/oscillation issues: When you study the following graph you will note that the total phase lag reaches a value of 180 degrees in the interval between 1 and 10 Megahertz. If for example you tried to design a feedback amplifier with a gain of 100 it will have a bandwidth greater than 10 Megahertz and will definitely oscillate because at the high frequency end the feedback becomes POSITIVE. As you discover in the laboratory this compensation process is very severely applied to the 741 which starts to fall from 10 Hertz! .

which is beyond the ability of the 741.the issue Suppose that you wanted to apply an ac input through a capacitor to a noninverting amplifier design as shown here. From the table of op-amps presented early in this lecture you can see that the "slew rate" for the 741 is specified to be 0.a major problem until you provide the DC path! .Addressing the effect of 'slew rate'. The fix is simple .reduce the peak amplitude at this frequency or decrease the frequency of operation. It is immediately clear that there is no DC path to earth . The reason for this is that the sine wave needs to get from zero volts to the peak of 14 volts in 25 microseconds .5 volts per microsecond.that corresponds to a slew rate of 0. In the following sketch an input of 14 volts (peak) at 10 kilohertz is applied to a simple voltage following using a 741. It is obvious that the output result is nothing like a sine wave. Balancing the input bias with a non-inverting amplifier design .56 volts/microsecond .

Balancing the input bias with an inverting amplifier design . Oscilator Prinsip Kerja Osilator memanfaatkanfeedback positif •Pengelompokan –Osilator RC •WienBridge (sbg α) •Bridged-T (sbg β) •Twin-T (sbg β) •Penggeser fasa . 2005 Copyright © Godfrey Lucas XVII. Table of Contents Last Updated: April.the issue With the following non-inverting situation the inverting input will find a path to earth through the feedback resistor and it is then important that the path to earth for the non-inverting input be balanced to the same value otherwise there will be an offset which will be amplified to be a potential problem at the output.

–OsilatorLC (rangkaian resonansi) •Menggunakan rangkaian resonansi sebagai pembangkit gelombang •Menggunakan penguat untuk mengatasi redaman oleh resistansi dalam induktor dan konduktansi kapasitor –Osilator Kristal –Multivibrator Astabil Wien Bridge–pada frekuensi osilasi teganganoutput vo dan input V+ sefasa pada 0 derajat–sinyal akan berbentuk segi empat dan frekuensi akan turun apabila penguatan terlalu besar–perbandingan nilai kapasitor dan resistor menentukan tingkat kestabilan frekuensi .

5) .•Osilator Penggeser Fasa–pada frekuensi osilasi tegangan input dan output penguat berbeda fasa 180 derajat–perbedaan fasa diperoleh dari jaringan tangga RC tiga tingkat–Menggunakan umpan balik tunggal–Frekuensi resonansi 1/(2π(RC)0.

Osilator LC –Osilator Colpitts –Osilator Hartley –Osilator Clapp •Osilator Colpitt .

•Generator Pulsa

–(rangkaian multivibrator astabil) –umumnya menggunakan rangkaian RC sebagai penentu waktu –rangkaian mutivibrator astabil dengan transistor

**–Rangakian multivibrator astabil dengan rangkaian terintegrasi 555
**

•frekuensi osilasi 1.1/(RAC) dengan RA >> RB

**•Generator Gelombang Persegi Empat–menggunakan
**

rangkaianRC dan inverter CMOS–Menggunakan rangakian RC dan inverter dengan Schmitt trigger–Menggunakan rangkaian RC dengan D flipflop–kestabilan frekuensi terhadap temperatur buruk karena tegangan threshold juga merupakan fungsi suhu

**•Pembentukan pulsa simetri
**

–dari pulsa asimetri menggunakan pencacah dua (misalnya dengan T flipflop) dengan frekuensi hasil setengah kali frekuensi inputnya

–dari gelombangsinusoidal menggunakan komparator, batas ambang diatur sedemikian hingga output yang diperoleh merupakan gembang persegi empat dengan duty cycle 50%

•GeneratorGelombang segitiga –rangkaian terdiri dari komparator dengan histeresis dan rangkaian integrator –rangkaianintegrator harus mempunyai konstanta waktu yang lebih besar dari frekuensi sinyal diinginkan –Frekuensi sinyal output ditentukan oleh rangkaian RC dan rangkaian histeresis •Osilator Kristal –menggunakan kristal sebagai elemen resonansi –Faktor kualitas resonansi sangat tinggi > 104 .

1000–beda fasa rangkaian penguat 0o–osilasi terjadi pada resonansi seri–buffer digunakan untuk memperoleh gelombang persegi empat .–kestabilan frekuensi terhadap temperatur sangat baik hingga 10ppm per derajat celcius –respons frekuensi dan rangkaian ekivalen kristal: •Ada dua frekuensi resonansi. seri (short)dan paralel (open) •Osilator Kristal dengan inverter CMOS–duainverter CMOS memberigain total 30 s.d.

•OsilatorPierce–menggunakan hanya satuinverter CMOS–rangkaian umpan balik merupakan rangkaian π– Beda fasa penguat dan rangkaian umpan balik 180o •Osilator Pierce dengan Transistor –Menggunakan rangkaian mirip dengan osilator Colpitt (pada frekuensi osilasi kristal mendekati fungsi induktansi) .

•Sumber Sinyal DC –digunakan bila diperlukan sinyal DC dengan regulasi yang lebih baik dari sumber daya –kontrol tegangan dapat diperoleh dengan rangkaian buffer dan pembagi tegangan. ketabilan tegangan dapat diperoleh dengan zener •Sumber Sinyal DC–tegangan presisi dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan rangkaian terintegrasi.1% hingga dapat diperoleh tegangan dengan akurasi 10 mV . kestabilan hingga 10 ppm per derajat Celcius–Pengaturan tegangan dapat dilakukan dengan potensiometer multiturn dengan linearitas hingga 0.

•Rangkaian Terintegrasi Generator Fungsi –berbagai rangkaian terintegrasi generator fungsi dapat diperoleh dengan mudah. berikut ini beberapa contohnya .

•Sintesa DigitalGelombangSinusoidal–rangkaiandigital berupa ring counter atau Johnson counter–rangkaianresistor dirancang hingga memberikan langkah tegangan yang lebih dekat dengan fungsi sinusoidal –data dari rangkaiancounter dapat pula digantikan dengan data dari memori yang lebih menyerupai sinusoidal dan rangkaian DAC untuk mengubah data digital menjadi sinyal analognya–dalam dunia komunikasi digital dikenal juga istilah DDS XVII. Soal dan Pembahasan .

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