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Akash Thakore

Bharat Maheshwari

Dipa Shah

Girish Nair

Nikita Sanghvi

Prakash Prajapati



11th JAN 2010


Indian organised retail industry is poised for growth. Apparel sector in

particular has a great opportunity with alignment of Indian economy to
globalised markets. With the widespread use of sales promotions- short term
activities which provide material inducements to consumers and trade it
becomes imperative for managers to understand such practices and understand
challenges. This study investigates retail activities of casual cotton apparel
stores in Ahmedabad market and compares them on various dimensions. It
presents major findings and provides insights on the sales behaviour of various
apparel stores in organised sector & unorganised sector. Lifestyle, for instance,
has a loyalty programme called `The Inner Circle', while Pantaloons offers a
`Green Card' Rewards programmes, Westside has `Club West' to woo the sales
& compete in the market. Managerial challenges are posed in planning and
implementing such activities. The report concludes with future bright outlook.


We extend our warmest thank and appreciation to all people who have
assisted us in the preparation of this report.
First of all we would like to thank Mr. Karthik Mehta, Sales &
Marketing manager of ‘QIM Analysis’ for his valuable contribution,
involvement and advice throughout the report preparation. We are
thankful to him for sharing his skilful knowledge in the subject and
his assistance in developing this report.
We are also thankful to all the vendors, shop owners, staff of malls
and shops who has co operated with us and providing information that
make possible for us in the completion of our project report.
We would specially like to thank our faculty member, Dr. Himani
Joshi, Academic Co-ordinator for her guidelines, suggestions,
feedback & constant encouraging support from initial stage of market
survey to the presentation of the project report.



1. Abstract 2
2. Acknowledgement 3
3. Executive summary 5
4. Introduction 6
5. Features of Indian apparel 6
6. Characteristics of casual
cotton apparel retail
7. Classification of apparel 8
8. Organised sector & 9
unorganised sector
9. Supply chain 12
10. Methodology 13

11. Price mechanism 16

12. Sales promotion 19
13. Emergence & survival of 21
international companies
14. SWOT analysis 22
15. Conclusion 24
16. Reference 25


The Indian retailing industry, which was traditionally dominated by small and
family-run stores, has come of age. The retail sector is the second largest
employer after agriculture in the country and also the second largest untapped
market after China. There are some 12 million retail outlets in India.
Organized retailing is only 2%of the total retail industry
Over the past couple of years there have been sweeping changes in the general
retailing business, mainly in apparel retailing which was once strictly a made-
to-order market for clothing has changed to a ready-to-wear market. Flipping
through a catalogue, picking the color, size and type of clothing a person
wanted to purchase and then waiting to have it sewn and shipped was standard
At the turn of the century some retailers would have a storefront where people
could browse, and new pieces being sewn or customized in the back rooms.
Among the few players who have been catering to the branded market are Park
Avenue, Charagh Din, Liberty, Double Bull, Proline and Snowhite. It took a
quite long time for brands such as Allen Solly and Van Heusen to create a
respectable market share in the ready-to-wear market. Big players like Tata,
Raheja, Biyani, etc have intensified the competition with their professional
retail chains like Westside, Shopper’s Stop and Pantaloons. Recently, India is
increasingly being looked upon as a major supplier of high quality fashion
apparels and Indian apparels have come to be appreciated in major markets
The following report covers various aspects of apparel retailing in Ahmedabad,
starting from global overview to future outlook of Indian casual cotton apparel
market. It also provides an in-depth study of current Indian apparel market
scenario, which includes manufacturing capabilities and exports market. The
report covers pricing techniques and sales promotion technique of different
apparel brand in organised sector & unorganised sector.


i) To compare pricing & product range across exclusive and multi brand

ii) To explore rationale behind various sales promotion & market scheme



Cotton textiles count among the oldest industries in India. One can follow it
back to the times of Indus Valley Civilization, when cotton fabrics of India were
in great demand even in the countries of Europe and West Asia. It used to be a
cottage or village industry during those times. The spinning wheel comprised its
only machine- simple but exceedingly inventive. The modern textile industry in
India first began at Fort Gloster near Calcutta in early 19th century. But it
actually made a headstart in Mumbai, when a cotton textile mill was set up
there- exclusively out of Indian funds, in 1854.


There are several worth remarking features of the Indian textile industry. It is
based on indigenous raw materials, especially cotton. In 1995-96, the textile
industry had provided employment to over 64 million persons, next only to
agriculture. Thus it is exceedingly meaningful for a country like India, because
it is a labour-intensive industry. It alone accounts for 4% of the gross domestic
product. More prominently, it is responsible for 20% of the manufacturing value
addition. Lately, it has been bringing home one-third of India`s total export
earnings. In 1996-97 the country had earned virtually 12 billion U.S. dollars.

The industry provides livelihood to farmers, cotton ball pluckers, and workers
engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dying, designing and packaging, not
leaving sewing and tailoring. It is India`s most traditional and esteemed
industry. More importantly, the industry strikes a sensible balance between
tradition and modernity. While the spinning occupation is rather centralised,
weaving is exceedingly decentralised, providing scope for traditional skills of

craftsmen in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery and so on. The hand spun and hand
woven khadi holds back the ancient tradition of providing large scale
employment in one`s home and cottages. Textile industry in India has all along
prospered on its own funds. On the other hand, the country possesses the most
contemporary capital intensive and high speed mill-produced cloth with a huge
market- both at home and abroad.

Lately, the readymade cotton garments industry has been developing in

tremendous momentum to cater to foreign markets. They are thus bringing
home prized foreign exchange. One of the problems faced by cotton textile
industry in India was the old-fashioned technology of old mills and their
industrial sickness. Slowly, but steadily old technology is being superceded by
the new one. India is yet to exploit her enormous potential to manufacture
classic cotton fabrics, for which there is enormous demand in the upper social
classes of the industrialised countries of the globe.
The important centres of cotton textiles industry comprise Mumbai,
Ahmedabad, Coimbatore, Madurai, Indore, Vapi, Sholapur, Kolkata, Kanpur,
Delhi and Hyderabad.


The United States and Bangladesh are the largest buyers of Indian cotton
textiles and their share touches close to over 10% of the total exports. The South
Asian countries continue to be the most important destination for exports in
cotton textiles. The number of man made fibre textile mills is on the rise and
this has led to the expansion of the spinning sector. Around forty percent of the
spindles installed worldwide are installed in India. This development led to a
sharp leap in cotton yarn exports.


Men’s apparel market is 46 percent of the total apparel market in India.

Preference for readymade garments is increasing and this has become inevitable
with the rise in urbanization.
Whereas, women’s apparel market is 17 percent of the total apparel market
in India. The preference for the branded Western and Indo-western apparels
among the working women is on the rise, which is a welcome relief for the
manufacturer and retailers of
branded apparel. The dressing
habits are getting refined if not
changed specifically among the
working women.
Kids’ apparel market is 37
percent of the total apparel
market. Being the brand
penetration in this segment
lowest at 9 percent shows a lot
of potential for the branded
players to exploit this segment.


• Men’s wear: Trousers, pants, Shorts, Dhoti, Shirts, t-shirts, kurta

• Women' wear: salwar suit, kurtis, skirts, pyjamas, t-shirts, shirts, trousers,

• Kids wear

Organized sector contributed major in providing employment to the rural

people. .Handicrafts, decorative items, excessories are some of the products that
are made in the rural areas and supplied to the urban markets. These ethnic
products are in much demand in urban markets. They are representing the
culture of India.


As apparel retail is led by fashion, a player needs to keep a close watch on
fashion amongst teenagers as they are the trend setters. Role of Bollywood

in spreading fashion needs to be understood. Seasonal variations on stocking
pattern and need to clear inventory at the end of season should be
understood by apparel retailer. Typically once an item is sold from the
outlet, retailer ensures that there is no repetition of same. It gets replaced by
different design, style, colour. Importance of store layout, décor is very
critical. A browser visiting the store frequently likes to see changes in the
layout otherwise he may carry the impression that stocks are not moving out
of the store. Category management becomes very crucial function as
transformation of design into production and delivery has to be completed
before fashion or fad changes in the market.


This highlights the importance of sales promotions- short term activities
which induces trade or consumer to buy now rather than in future as the
value of apparel after the season, goes down substantially and inventory
carrying burden turns out to be very high. Apparel retailer needs to
understand critical role of sales promotions. Attractive promotions induces
purchase acceleration, stock piling and brand switching on the part of a
consumer which substantially reduces retailer’s financial and inventory risk
and consumer’s financial risk and psychological risk.

It includes:

• Road side outlets

• Retail shops

• Handicraft harts

Unorganized sectors is the backbone of the organized sectors. They are also
contributing in the economy at a greater extent. 70% of the cotton apparel
market is unorganized. It is greatly contributing to economy also.


Weekly Markets, Village and Rural Melas

 Source of entertainment
 Rural and historic reach

Convenience stores

 Neighborhood stores/convenience

 Traditional and pervasive reach

PDS outlets, Khadi stores, Cooperatives

 Government supported
 Availability/low costs/distribution

Exclusive Brand outlets, Hypermarkets and Supermarkets,

Department stores and Shopping malls.

 Shopping experience/ efficiency

 Modern formats/ international

Modern Format retailers

Department Stores
Specialty Chains
Company Owned Company Operated

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Traditional Format Retailers

Street Markets
Exclusive /Multiple Brand Outlets



Indian brands : International Brands:

• Arrow • Dockers
• Van Heusen • Peter England
• Color Plus • John Players
• Park Avenue • Thomas Scott
• Parx • Gotti
• Connexions • Manzoni
• Stanza • Wills Lifestyle
• Allen Solly • Black Berry
• Raymond • Lee
• Reid And Taylor • United Colors of
• Fabindia Benetton
• Wrangler • Levi’s
• Biba • Pepe
• Rimanika • Gas
• Satyapaul • Tommy Hilfiger
• & many more... • Woodland
• Killer
• Espirit
• Plus
• Status Quo
• & many more.

Retail companies in India section in Naukri hubs analysis

and report on Top companies in retail Industry :

• Shoppers stop

• Westside

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• Pantaloon

• Lifestyle

• Wills lifestyle

• Globus

• Pyramid



ginning Stand-
id-size) Garments&
Ginning Finishing
Jute/Wool/S Yarn Con
ilk e
(farms) (small)
Hank Distribution

(Export &
Man- Domestic
Made:Filame Other Markets)
nt Extrusion Handlooms Textile
Process Spinning Products


Figure 1: The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain


ical Plants)
The retail scenario is characterized by logistical challenges,
constant changes in consumer preferences and evolution of
new retail formats. All this increases the challenges faced by
the industry. Various strategies are to be implemented to
improve core business processes, such as logistics, innovation,
transparency, distribution and inventory, management of point
sale (POS) data. Retail majors are under serious pressure to
improve their supply chain systems and distribution channels
and reach the levels of quality and service desired by the

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RESEARCH TYPE: Primary Research

For organised sector: Brand Retail outlet
For unorganized sector: roadside vendors,
local brand retail outlets, handicraft market

SAMPLE SIZE: 20 (ten- organised sector & ten

unorganised sector)


As our research problem requires collection of primary data &
the purpose of the study was exploration we have selected
personal interviews of retailers as our research method.
An in depth structured guide was prepared &personal
interviews of the respective managers were taken to gather the
data about store profile, pricing tools and techniques, product
bundling, relative market share, distribution channel & sales
promotion activities undertaken by the stores.


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For organised sector: retail outlets at S.G.
Highway, Satellite & Judge’s Bunglow
For unorganised sector: retail outlets at
C.G.road & S.P. Stadium Road,
Roadside vendors at Law Garden area,
Gujarat University & Nehrunagar




• There is no differentiation between casual cotton wear

or ethnic cotton wear or traditional cotton wear in the
market. So the promotional activities are of same pattern
for different categories of cotton wears.

• The consumers are more price conscious than brand


• There dominance of major players is absent in this

market. Each & every retail outlet has different segment
of the population to serve.

• The segmentation is done on the basis of purchasing

power of the consumer.

E.g. Tommy Hilfiger & Espirit serves rich class group

whereas Color Plus & Wrangler serves upper-middle


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a) Setting the price
The assortment drivers for price in apparel are size, style &
A. For launching a product in already established market, the
retailer has to select the segment of the population to serve &
then follow price trend of that market.

B. For launching a new style of product, the price is set in the

following procedure-
There are four phases for establishing the price of a new style
of product in the market. They are:
1. Introductory phase
2. High price phase
3. Markdown price phase
4. Clearance price phase
During the introductory phase, the price of the new casual
cotton apparel is kept low so that the product enters into the
competitive market &accepted by the consumers as Indian
people are more price conscious than brand conscious. After a
certain time period when the product demand settles at the
peak, it is sold at its full price.
The company tries to sell 90% of its inventory during this
phase. This is the period when the company wants to earn
maximum profit margin.
At later stage, due to fashion change or change of season, the
demand for that product decreases, the company now
markdown, the product price. This new price does not incur
lose but decreases the profit.
This is done by extensive sales promotion so that the inventory
doesn’t pile up in the store.
Finally the remaining apparel inventory would be sent to
factory outlet to be sold at clearance price which is quite lower
than cost price.

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b) Price variation

Male Shirt’s / t-shirt’s Male Trouser’s price

Brand name
price (Rs.) (Rs.)
1600-3500 -
(Foreign brand outlet)
ESPIRIT (Foreign brand
1800-3000 2000-2500
1400-1600 1800-2500
(Indian brand outlet)
LEE (Foreign brand
849-1599 1799-2299
MILLS OUTLET) (local 350-3000 500-2500
brand outlet)

The variation in the costs of all brands for the same style of
male shirt or male trouser is on the basis of their target
customer segment.
e.g. Ratanam & Color plus are the retail outlets of the same
company Arvind Mills. They sell same size, same style &
same quality shirt at Rs.500 in Ratanam & at Rs. 1500 in
Color Plus. It is because both the outlets have been launched to
provide service to different market segments.

c) Margins
The apparel industry always keeps the profit margin of 50% on
each category of product.
The annual business plan of a brand apparel company for the
particular year depends upon the last year’s profit & adds 10%
to it in the present year.

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a) Setting the price

The assortment drivers for price in apparel are fabric quality &
The prices are set according to the market demand. The prices
fluctuate according to the volume of sales & the prices are set
by the retailer himself. If a product is introduced at a certain
cost & people give good response to it the retailer would hike
its price to a certain limit. If the demand is affected adversely
by this increase in price then he would again reduce the price
to clear the inventory.
E.g. A female apparel named leggings was introduced at the
cost of Rs.150. The market gave positive nod to its
introduction so its demand increased at a wider scale. So even
when the prices were increased from Rs.150 to Rs. 300, its
demand kept on increasing.

b) Price variation
Local Retail outlet Roadside vendors
Apparel market price
price (Rs.) Price (Rs.)
Kurti 250-800 150-350 125-300
Salwar suit 400-3000 300-2000 200-900

The price variations between these two types of sellers are

because –

Roadside vendors do not have any shop maintenance expense.

They do not pay government taxes.

Roadside vendors & handicraft marketers need not to spend on

advertisement & sales promotion, and ambience. The essence
of customer care is absent here.

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The handicraft market directly purchase apparel from
manufacturers so the additional cost of other intermediaries is

c) Margins

Unlike the organised market, for unorganized sectors margin

of profits varies from the market to market and area to area.
For Road side vendors the margin varies from 5% to 300%.

For the retail outlets their profit margin varies from 30% to
500% depends upon area of the market.

d) Risk

Risk attached with unorganized sector is the movement of

piled stock. As there is no brand attached with the cloths or it
was not belonging to organized market the unsold product risk
and the cost attached with it. They have only option to sell
these goods with sales or with complimentary offers. At one
point of time to recover their stationery finance they use to sale
it at production cost or even to bear loss also.

It has been noticed in the study that there is a huge difference
in price range of apparels brand outlets & exclusive local retail
outlets. It can vary from Rs. 350 to Rs. 2500 for a same quality
& style shirt. The organised sector prices are of high range
because of the customer service they provide & the popularity
of the brand name. The popular the brand name, the higher
would be the price.
Whereas in unorganised the prices varies according to market
demand & geographical behaviour.



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Usage of sales promotion activities has a direct impact on
behaviour as it motivates a consumer to buy now rather than in
future, enhances value of an offer temporarily till the
promotion period, encourages switching, reinforce or reward
loyalty etc. Broadly, objectives set for these activities are;

i)to generate store traffic,

ii) to move excess inventory,
iii)to enhance store image and
iv)to create a price image( high or low).

Traffic building is achieved by inventory reduction through

end of season sale; creation and building store image through
feature advertising and displays and joint promotions and price
image by highlighting the discounts. It helps consumer reduce
not only financial risk but also psychological and social risk by
making consumer confident of his/her purchase, conformation
to group norms by shopping at famous stores/brands and
possibility of acquiring well known branded apparel during
promotions. Promotions may induce non buyers to walk in to
the store and loyalty programmes may encourage buying more,
more often or upgrading to better quality. Exciting promotions
also have tendency to generate positive word of mouth and
help consumer feel a smart shopper. Thus not only utilitarian
benefits like, saving of money, time or quality up gradation but
hedonic benefits like feeling confident, feeling of excitement
and entertainment etc.


Sales and promotional offers for unorganized sectors are
depends upon the consumer market association of particular
market. They are the decision makers in the market and they
only decide upon the complimentary offers such as off upto
20%, reduced cost sale, combo packets, etc in the market.
Traffic building is achieved by special event promotions like
Diwali, Rakshabandhan promotions.

The objective of sales promotion is different for both
organised sector & unorganised sector.

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In organised sector it is done for reducing the inventory pile up
& this is mainly done through end of season sale. The time
period for this promotional activities is generally set the head
offices of the outlets.

Whereas in unorganised sector, the promotional activities are

done according to the market needs. They generally do these
kind of activities in festive season. Their main motive is to
push up the sales & demand.


Khadi is again a government unorganized sector. This is also

Indian culture and again contributing in the growth of an
economy. Khadi stores are undertaken by various state
governments for development of small to medium scale
industries in the rural areas. They have the system of the sales
only on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti in the tribute of


Fabindia is another chain of stores which are dealing in

handicrafts. Again they are promoting rural activities and rural
development. Fabindia is the only departmental chains which
do the sales promotion through advertisement by events.In
events they display their all whole range of products. Their
competitors are sales in branded outlets, local handicraft
outlets and roadside vendors.


Product bundling is known as ‘combo scheme’ or ‘pack

scheme’ in apparel market. It is a very common marketing
technique done by retailers mainly in organised sector.

In this the retailer analyses & makes a consumer basket

according to the trend prevailing in the market. E.g. If it’s a
clearance season of winter collection, then the retailer will
prepare a basket of sweater, socks & scarf. He will markdown
his prices in sweater but increases the prices of socks &

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The retailers do not lose any profit margin from their annual
business plan. Whenever they decide to markdown the prices
they initially deal with the respective manufacturer of the

E.g. If the retailer has decided to give 10% off on the sweaters
he will ask the manufacturer to divide this markdown equally
between them. So the retailer & the manufacturer both will
lose 5% from their profit margins. But the former cover up this
lose from the consumer basket & the latter incur loses.

So ultimately, we analysed that the retailer is the KING of the

Supply Chain.

Product bundling is done only in organised sector & not in

unorganised sector.


Though in India people are more Price conscious than Brand
conscious, 5% of the total population of India, (which is a
huge amount of a billion+ population) prefers branded clothes.
To serve this segment of the market international companies
enter the Indian market.

Also Indian economy is growing at a faster pace among all the

developing nations & hence the purchasing power of the
people is also increasing so they have started to shift their
preference to branded clothes.


The Indian Textile industry adds 14% to the industrial
production and 8% to the GDP of India. It provides
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employment to 38 million people and thus, is the second
largest employment provider after agriculture. The Indian
Apparel & Textile Industry is one of the largest sources of
foreign exchange flow into the country with the apparel
exports accounting for almost 21% of the total exports of the
country. A systematic SWOT analysis of the casual cotton
apparel industry indicates the following:-


I. Raw material base

India has high self sufficiency for raw material particularly

natural fibres. India’s cotton crop is the third largest in the
world. Indian textile Industry produces and handles all types of

II. Labour

Cheap labour and strong entrepreneurial skills have always

been the backbone of the Indian Apparel and textile Industry.

III. Flexibility

The small size of manufacturing which is predominant in the

apparel industry allows for greater flexibility to service smaller
and specialized orders.

IV. Rich Heritage

The cultural diversity and rich heritage of the country offers

good inspiration base for designers.

V. Domestic market

Natural demand drivers including rising income levels,

increasing urbanisation and growth of the purchasing
population drive domestic demand.


I. Spinning Sector

Spinning sector lacks modernization and there is a need of

introducing new technology.
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II. Weaving Sector

India has relatively less number of shuttle-less loom.

III. Fabric Processing

Processing is the weakest link in the Indian textile value chain,

adversely affecting its ability to compete in exports.

IV. Poor Infrastructure

High power costs and long export lead times are eroding
India’s export competitiveness across the textile chain.

VI. Low Labour Productivity

Productivity levels for manufacturing various apparel items are

far lower in India in comparison with its competitors.


VII. Less attention on man power training

VIII. Poor quality standards

IX. Distance of the potential market

X. Lower average consumption in domestic market

XI. Lack of professionalism and integration of supply


XII. Dependence on quota system

XIII. Very low investment on R&D

XIV. Limited exploitation of economies of scale


I. Growing Industry

World textile trade would continue to grow at a rate of 3-4% to

reach $200-210 billon by 2010.

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II. Market access through bilateral negotiation

The trade is growing between regional trade blocs due to

bilateral agreements between participating countries.

III. Integration of Information technology

‘Supply Chain Management’ and ‘Information Technology’

has a crucial role in apparel manufacturing. Availability of
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange), makes communication fast,
easy, transparent and reduces duplication.

IV. Opportunity in High Value Items

India has the opportunity to increase its UVR’s (Unit Value

Realization) through moving up the value chain by producing
value added products and by producing more and more
technologically superior products.


I. Decreasing Fashion Cycle

There has been an increase in seasons per year which has

resulted in shortening of the fashion cycle.

II. Formation of Trading Blocks

Formation of trading blocks like NAFTA, SAPTA, etc; has

resulted in a change in the world trade scenario. Existence of
bilateral agreements would result in significant disadvantage
for Indian exports.

III. Phasing out of Quotas

India will have to open its protected domestic market for

foreign players thus domestic market will suffer.


Today, the buyers of ready made garment segment are aware

of the running trends, and demand the newest in fashion and
products at a reasonable cost. At the front position of this

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evolution are the smaller players, which private labels that are
thoroughly transforming the dressing way of men, women and
children. With the supply chain limitations eased, organization
in real estate markets, and rationale tax structure, the
readymade garment segment has become more
lucrative and it is anticipated that the readymade garment
segment will be the main segment in the next five years.
• brand outlets at Iscon Mall, S.G.Road-
Tommy Hilfiger
• Fabindia At Judge’s Bunglow Road
• Brand Outlets At C.G.Road-
Kewal Sons
My My
John Players
• Outlets At S.P. Stadium

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Femina Town
Anjali Dress Wala
Q N Q Full Stop Dress Stop

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