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c 

 
 V
BCCH DECODE STATUS V


 c  V
 V
The Mobile Station (MS) is neither synchronized to the network
À
with respect to time or frequency. If the MS is out of sync, only
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the RxLev can be viewed and all other parameters will read ??? V
The Frequency Correction Burst (FCB or FB) which is used for
frequency synchronization of the mobile is not detected. The FCB
defines the Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) which is assigned to
every other Ts. The FCB is 142 bits long, but carries no
À V
information (It is equivalent to an unmodulated carrier, shifted
in frequency, with the same guard time as the normal burst), it
identifies the FCCH and allows the synchronization Channel (SCH)
to be found on at Ts 0 of the following 51 -multiframe. V
The FCB was detected on the FCCH - now the MS is frequency

synced. and the SCH can be found at Ts 0 of the following 51 -
 V
multiframe. V
SCH decode means that the synchronization channel (SCH) was
decoded and the MS now is time synced. with the networ k. The
Synchronization Burst (SB) has a long (64 bits) training

sequence. It also carries a 78 bit payload consisting of the TDMA
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frame number (FN) and the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) which
consists of the Network (PLMN) Color Code (NCC) & Base stati on
Color Code (BCC). RxLevAm, MSTxPwr & C1 will still read ??? V
All information on the Broadcast Control Channel was decoded.
 This includes the SCH & FCCH, CellID, LAC, MCC, MNC, frequency
 V hopping & more that describes the current control chann el
structure. V

 V
The Synchronization state can not be determined. V

GSM CHANNEL STRUCTURE V

GSM distinguishes between physical channels and logical channels (the


information carried by the physical channels). Several recurring timeslots
on a carrier constitute a physical channel (GSM -900 : 124 RF carriers x 8
timeslots = 992 physical channels), which are used by different logical
channels to transfer information - both user data and signaling. V

BTS->MS: MS
requency orrection annel V frequency
V VV correction V
BTS->MS: MS
roadcast ontrol  synchroniza
ynchronization annel V
V Vannel V tion to the
BTS V
V V
V VV V
V
V VV V V
BTS->MS: MS
terminating
V Daging annel V call
V VV announcemen
tV
BTS->MS:
Acknowledge
channel
ignalinghan ommonontrolann
{ccess rant annel V requests
nel V VelV from MS and
allocate a
SDCCH V
BTS->MS: MS
access
requests,
response to
V ëandom {ccess annel V call
V VV announcemen
t, location
update,
etc. V
V
V VV V VTime
ast {ssociated ontrol an critical
V nel V signaling:
V VV
Handovers V
edicatedontrol low {ssociated ontrol an Link
V Vannel V nel V monitoring V
For
signaling
exchanges
tandalone edicated ontrol
(during
V VV annel V
call setup,
registratio
n / LU). V

Common channels. The forward common channels are used for broadcasting
bulletin board information, paging and response to channel requests. The
return common channel is a slotted Aloha type random access channel used by
the MS to request channel resources before timing in formation is conveyed
by the BSS, and uses a burst with an extended guard period. V

Dedicated point -to-point channels. The dedicated point -to-point channels


are divided into two main groups, the dedicated signaling channels and the
traffic channels. The dedi cated signaling channels are used to set -up the
connection, and the traffic channel of a variety of rates is used to convey
the user information once the session is established. Both channel types
have in-band signaling: SACCH for e.g. link monitoring, and FACCH for time -
critical signaling during e.g. a handover. The FACCH "steals" the entire
traffic burst for signaling. V

POWER CONTROL V

To minimize co -channel interference and to conserve power, both the mobiles


and the Base Transceiver Stations operate at the lowest power level that
will maintain an acceptable signal quality. Power levels can be stepped up
or down in steps of 2 dB from the peak power for the class down to a
minimum of 13 dBm (20 miliwatts) on GSM -900 and 10 dBm (10 miliwatts). Use
this table t o translate between dBm, PwrLev and Power. 

  !"#$ - the bottom 2 rows
indicate the range for a 1800/1900 1 W unit. V

D%

0V 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V 6V 7V 8V 9V 10V 11V 12V 13V 14V 15V
&
V

 
43V 41V 39V 37V 35V 33 V 31V 29V 27V 25V 23V 21V 19V 17V 15V 13V
 V
 
20. 12. 8. 5. 3. 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 2.0V
0V 6V 0V 0V 2V 0V 0V 0V 2V 0V 3V 8V 5V 3V 2V
V

u
 V 30V 28V 26V 24V 22V 20 V 18V 16V 14V 12V 10V
V V V V V
u 100 39 25 15 100
631V 63V 40V 25V 16V 10V
 V 0V 8V 1V 8V V V V V V V

BIT ERROR RATE V

The Bit Error Rate (BER) is the percentage of received bits on a digital
link that are in error relative to the number of bits received, usually
expressed using a logarithmic scale: The RxQual is a 3 bit value, which
means that it has a 0 to 7 value. Use the table below to convert the RxQual
to a BER percentage: V

ë ' V 0V 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V 6V 7V
D
! X 0.2- 0.4- 0.8-1. 1.6- 3.2- 6.4- >12.8

"cë$ V 0.2 V 0.4 V 0.8 V 6 V 3.2 V 6.4 V 12.8 V % V

TIMING ADVANCE V

The Timing Advance is used to compensate for the time it takes a RF signal
to go at the speed of light between the BTS and MS. The maximum BTS radius
of 35 Km is divided into 64 TA steps ( This means 547 meters / TA step - As
a simplificatio n 550 meters will be used) .TA multiplied with 550 meters
will give the minimum distance to the BTS. The maximum distance will be (TA
+1). A TA value will pinpoint a BTS to a circular band 550 meters wide,
with an inner radius of (TA x 550) meters. This ca n be used to triangulate
the position of a BTS by having 2 -3 readings at different positions. V

d 
0V 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V ....... V 63V
{&V
 X 550 550 m- 1100 m- 1650 m- 2200 m- 2750 m- 35
d V m V 1100 m V 1650 m V 2200 m V 2750 m V 3300 m V ....... V Km V

TDMA FRAME STRUCTURE & DURATION V


The TDMA technique means that the data are interleaved several times and
collected in frames. Each TDMA frame has a 22 bit identifier so it can be
told apart from the 2.7 million other TDMA frames any given hyperframe. You
can also see a graphic representation by Thomas Kochanek here V

d

 Consists of: V .V  Consists of: V


V
"d$ V "$ V
d {
  V 4,6 ms V 8 Timeslots V .V 4.6 ms V 8 Timeslots V

  V 120 ms V 26 TDMA frames V .V (#  V 51 TDMA frames V

  V 6 s 120 ms V 51 Multiframes V .V 6 s 120 ms V 26 Multiframes V
3 h 28 m 53 s 2048 3 h 28 m 53 s 2048

  V .V
760 ms V Superframes V 760 ms V Superframes V

© 1998 Janus Christian Krarup V