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Greenbelt, Maryland NATIONAL

Phone (301) 982.4955-56.57 After Hours 474-9000 AND .PACE ADMINI.TRATION



Beginning with the observations of the early Babylonian of the heavens, scientific The

Egyptian, Chinese, and Greek observers

astronomy has developed in a logical, step-by-step process. first real plateau was a comprehensive

skymapping of all celestial

objects visible to the naked eye. With the use of radio astronomy in thiS century, scientific
-a radio-emission

minds have established a second plateau
Now another field of

map of the heavens.

astronomical plorations

exploration is possible with the launchings of the OAO's.

As in previous ex-

which employed new techniques and equipment, the GAG will first undertake a

skymapping operation. 'l'here exist several narrow windows through which man can view the universe around him. The earliest,

naked-eye observers were limited to a rather restricted
'l'ne Iirst optical telescope

view lying

wItmn tne VlslDle spectrum.

served to enhance and

Sharpen this view but did not widen the window.

Not satisfied with this limited outlook, systems which broadened

science next developed photographic plates and other photo-detection

me wmaow, gIving tne observer a view 01 tne spectrum whicn extended further into the ultraViolet at one ena ana turther into the intrarea at the other. Raaio astronomy opened an

entIrely new ana separate winaow turther along the spectrum, in our own time we have seen the optical window widened in the ultraviolet
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from about 3900 Angstroms

(A) wavelength down to about 3000 A by photographic and

J.J.J.VJ.~ -





As an example, the two photographs of Crab Nebula show the

enhancement of our view of the heavens by shifting the spectral window. Widening this

window below -3000 A. is expected to further enhance the view. The lower spectral

limit at 3000 A has been set, not by our technology, but by a natural limit imposed by the earth's atmosphere.

Energy radiated to us from the heavens at wavelengths below

3000 A is masked by the absorption effects of the atmosphere. From theoretical considerations and rocket-borne

observations of a few stars

we know that many stars must emit in the 1000 to 3000 A range. This emission is a natural function of bodies operating at temperatures Only by establishing an ultraviolet observatory between 4000 and 8000 Kelvin.

far outside the earth's atmosphere will This is the function of the

we be able to observe such emissions for extended periods

The OAO-A2 contains two experiments (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's

Celescope and the Wisconsin University package), each looking out opposite ends of the OAO's central tube, and mated at the midsection of the spacecraft. is to operate at -22°F its one-year life. -30°C) with a permissible This obs~rvatory of:!: 27°F for

deviation in temperature

The observatory can look at any point in the sky, except the 450 cone

about the earth-sun line when 300 to the sun. If the telescope is thermally tied to the spacecraft central tube via radiation interchange and insulated from the space environment, it will operate within 20 to 5°F of the spacecraft structure temperatures.

Wisconsin Experiment Package
The University of Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) will be carried aboard The primary function is to gather spec-

OAO-A2 along with Smithsonian's Celescope. tral energy distribution information

on selected stars and nebulae in the ultra-violet

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range (1000 to 4000 A). As a secondary function, WEP will measure time-varying spectral intensity data on particular stars. This function requires repetitive measure-

WEP consists of two major packages, the Prime Instrument Package and the Control Electronics Package. The former is subdivided into seven observing instru-

Four 8-inch diameter stellar photometers,

each of which covers a spectral

band of approximately programmable bandwidths. filter

1000 A with partial overlap; each is equipped with a device to further subdivide the coverage into 250 A

Two scanning spectrometers

augment the stellar photometers; one covers
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the range from 1000 to 2000 A, the other from 2000 to 4000 A; the spectrometers may be cycled in 100 steps, thereby yielding a spectral band intensity only 10 or 20 A wide. The last instrument is a 16-inch diameter nebular photometer capable of measuring spectral intensity of star clouds as observed through five programmable filters covering approximately
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600 A each; total coverage ranging is equipped with both


from 1500 to 3800 A. Each of the seven instruments analog and digital output circuits. controllable

Gain, exposure time and filter position are

from the ground station.

The WEP and the Smithsonian skymapping experiment are each located in onehalf of the center cylindrical portion of the spacecraft,





Smithsonian Experiment
The SAG, Project Celescope, a term derived from celestial telescope, is designed to measure the brightness of 50,000 main-sequence stars in the ultraviolet
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from 1200 A to 2900 A. The Celescope consists of four independent, 12-inch diameter Schwarzschild telescopes, each employing an imaging Uvicon (UV) system to scan a particular


1200 A to 1600 A, 1300 A to 1600 A, 1600 A to 2900 A and







2300 A to 2900 A. The Uvicon is a special TV vidicon designed to operate in the ultraviolet region. The four UV readings will be used to determine the shape of the spectralcurves for different types of stars. In addition to studying the single absorption will be

energy distribution stars, the brighter investigated.

gaseous and planetary nebulae and interstellar

Planned on a much lower priority

is a UV study of both the illuminated

and dark portions of the earth's atmosp~ere. Typical Experiment Operation The OAO will point the experimental package toward preselected areas of the sky as directed by ground station command. Reorientation and fine pointing commands will

be carried out while the OAO is out of contact with, but approaching, the specific ground station. The Celescope will operate only in real time.

A typical pass commences with execution of a stored series of commands which slews the OAO into proper orientation and turns on all calibrator or more before beginning a ground-station pass. Calibration lamps five minutes

exposures are made during charge

the first three minutes of the pass and stored on the Uvicon targets as electrical patterns until the full facilities of the OAO are available to Celescope. First, the

Uvicons are scanned in the digital-direct tion information, is transmitted

mode and the first picture, including calibrathe

to the ground through the wide-band transmitter;

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one or more standard C elescope data sequences are commanded, depending on the length of the pass over the groWld station. Each of these sequences includes a 60-

second exposure and digital-direction scan for each camera. The four exposures are
commenced and terminated to send real-time nearly simultaneously. The remainder of the pass is used

commands to the GAG to control the Celescope sequence of operations

During the remaining minutes of the pass the command memory may be loaded for operations to be performed during the rest of the orbit including slewing 1.8 degrees

to the next position, and the status may be read out through the wide-band transmitter. In order to maximize the value of C elescope in the event of premature termination, the region of the sky containing the constellation Orion, with its large number of steady-state high stars in the UV, will be surveyed early in the life of the OAO area will serve as a prime calibration This

source for the experiment during later orbits lamps may deteriorate.

since it will remain constant while the onboard calibration

Optical The Smithsonian experiment optics consist of four electronically-recording telescopic cameras serving as broadband photometers. Each uses Schwarzschild

telescope optics with a UV detector television tube at the focal plane. The cameras, each having a Uvicon tube with high-voltage power supply and video preamplifier, mounted in the experiment package which is inserted into the central tube of the are


The Celescope structural

system is fabricated of materials

with different coeffiin temperature

cients of expansion, selected to compensate for a wide variation -more -



conditions (+ 300 to -50°C) while maintaining correct focus of the optics. integrating structure

Most of the

is being provided by Grumman as the experiment container is

essentially part of the GAG. The experiment container is so constructed that the individual optical elements and telescope modules can be aligned in the laboratory.





Goddard Experiment Package (GEP) Through rocket flights, astronomers have been able to examine the spectra of a

limited number of stars in the region below 3000 A, and then only with low resolution

(50 A) instruments.

The GEP is expected to examine about 14,000 stars a year, at first

producing resolution of 2 A, which will later be upgraded to resolutions between 0.04 and 0.05 A. GEP will be carried Princeton University The primary on GAG-B, the third flight vehicle.

Experiment Package (PEP)

objective of the Princeton Experiment Package is to provide quanabsorption lines. A secondary objective is the study The telescope has a clear aper-

titative observations of ultraviolet of the ultraviolet

spectra of stars at high dispersion.

ture of approximately

32 inches, a speed of f/3 and an effective focal length of 630 inches of both the GEP and PEP experiments necessi-

The high resolution requirements

tate a corresponding high degree of pointing accuracy of the OAO. Since the control system star trackers of the GAG have a limiting accuracy of one minute of arc, an ex"': This signal is fed to

periment fine guidance error signal is provided to the spacecraft.

the GAG control system which maintains the GAG in a given attitude to an accuracy of

up to 0.1 seconds of arc







Spacecraft Manager

National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration
Goddard Space Flight Center

Greenbelt, Maryland Prime Contractor
Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation

Bethpage, Long Island, New York GAG Experiments University of Wisconsin Experiment Package to

Consists of four 8-inch stellar photometers, two scanning spectrometers

augment the stellar photometers and a 16-inch diameter nebular photometer capable of measuring spectral intensity of star clouds. The package is designed to provide data on energy distribution
clusters in the invisible light field

of selected stars and star


Cook 'l'echnological Center Morton Grove, Illinois

~mithsonian Astronomical


Consists of a Celescope, an observation aevice composea of four inaepenaent ~chwarzchi1a telescopes each emplOying a speCial 'l'V tube aesignea to operate in the ultraviolet region. 'l'hiS paCKage Will measure the brightness ot

50,000 main-sequence stars in the inVisible Ultraviolet portion of the light
fielO an<1 stuoy the Oark portions 01 the t;arth's atmosphere.



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OAO Experiments: Contractor

Smithsonian Astronomical




Research. Inc.

Sarasota. Florida
Tracking and Data-Acquisition Stat!ons (Operated under the supervision of OAO Control Center, Goddard Space Flight Center)

~~cking Stations Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network
Data Acquisition Stations

(a) Rosman, N. C.
(b) Quito, Ecuador
(0) Santiago, Chile

(d) Orroral,

Australia Malagasy Republic

(e) Tananarive, Launch V ehicle M~ager Lewis Research Center Cleveland. Ohio Launch Operations at ULO!KSC!ETR Launch Site

Complex 36B, Cape Kennedy Space Center, Cape Kennedy, Florida

Launch Rocket Orbit Azimuth
Orbital Period Window

Two stage Atlas/Centaur
480 statute mile circular 60 degree true 100 minutes nominal 3:00 to 5:00 a.m. EST -mid November (tentative) orbit inclined 350 to the Equator

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Total 4400 pounds. 1,000 pounds of the total weight is devoted to experiments.

Main Body

Octagonal cylinder, 7 feet wide across the flats 10 feet in length.


8 solar


.Upper inbd paddle is 5-1/4 ft. long by 4-1/2 ft. wide. .Lower outbd paddle is 5-1/2 ft. long by 4-1/2 ft. wide. .Each outboard paddle is 5 ft. long by

2-1/3 ft. wide.
Total solar cell area is approximately 220 square ft. 2 Sunshades on ends of spacecraft, by a sun sensor to protect experiment optics from direct rays of the sun.

Two balance weight booms
-Automatically injection. extended following orbital








Non P-10 .o./cm Solar cells. 107,900 cells per array. Peak power capability 1800 watts. Charges batteries and supplies

power during light period.


3-20 AH batteries to supply all power during dark and be recharged by solar arrays during light period.

Power Control Unit


logic and control functions of the

battery charge system. Power Regulating Unit Regulates power from Solar array to battery and vehicle. Regulator/Converter and Inverter Converts and regulates power from battery to :I:: 28v, +18v and :l::10vDC and to 1, 2, and 3 phase AC power. Spacecraft Power Utilization Nominal System Voltage COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: 422 watts nominal. 28v DC

Wideband Telemetry


(1 Kilobit,

50 Kilo-

bits) PCM/Split Phase/FM (Tape Recorder input) 66 Kilobit Two 7 watt 400.550 MHz RF transmitters (redundant) .

Two data handling units. Spacecraft and Experiment Tape Recorder (Spacecraft Data)
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Narrowband Telemetry



Two 1.6 watt 136.260 MHz RF transmitters (redundant) .
Radio Command Four command receivers (dual redundant

pairs with combiner in each redundant pair) Tracking (CW Two 160 mw 136.400 MHz RF transmitters (redundant) .

Antennas: VHF
2 Slot antennas in upper Solar Paddles. Radiation pattern is omnidirectional. Polarization is linear on direction per-

pendicular to the direction of slot.


2 Pitchfork Antennas omnidirectional.

Radiation pattern is

DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM Primary Processor and Data Storage (PPDS) Quadruple component redundancy at the logic circuit level in parallel triple arrangement, or modular redundancy at the functional

Total weight is 244 pounds and 4.62 cubic ft


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Functions to verify received signals, provide experiment data storage, accurately position the gimballed star trackers, control spacecraft attitude changes (slews), issue commands in Real Time and Delayed Modes to the experiment and to other spacecraft equipments, and store commands for Delayed

Primary Processor and Data Storage (PPDS) (Continued)

Mode. System Clock
Provides timing signals for all spacecraft equipment and elapsed time reference for stored command execution. Receive and Verify Unit Provides on-board verification ground station. Command Decoder and Distributor Accepts, decodes, and distributes verified and error

detections of commands received from the

commands as determined by the operation and selection codes contained in the first command word. Command Storage Unit Employs four random access memory arrays, each array having 30 planes of a 16 x 16 core arrangement to obtain dual redundant storage of 256 commands. Data Storage Unit Employs two 25 plane arrays, each plane Pro-

having a 64 x 64 core arrangement.

vides sequential address storage for 4,096 25-bit words in a redundant mode or 8,192 25-bit words in a nonredundant mode.

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CH AR A~'1'RRT~'1'T~~


Programmer and Star Tracker Signal Controller (PSSC) Control System Programmer Sequencer provides signals to the stabilization and control equipment. High-Level Jet Controller provides control

signals to the pitch, yaw, and roll high-level

Star Tracker Signal Controller Mode Selector generates control signal for each Star Tracker selecting either the Command or Track Mode. Error Inhibit logic generates a signal that

either inhibits or enables the use of Star Tracker error qy the Stabilization and Control System. Star Presence -Counter for determining sition. Orbit Counter provides counts of four, three or two as an indication for determining the number of stars required for star patterns and star acquisition. Restabilization Reset Generator provides a provides counts of

two, three, and four in the Roll Search Mode star pattern and star acqui-

reset signal to the Orbit Counter due to loss of all star presence signals after star pat-

tern acquisition has occurred.
Star Pattern and Star Acquisition Detector samples the count of both the Orbit Counter and the Star Presence-Counter. -more -


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SYSTEMS DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM Spacecraft Data Handling Equipment (SDHE)


Organizes, encodes, and transmits space-

craft data received from all OAO systems to ground stations via the narrowband transmitter or to data storage in the PPDS, or the tape recorder. SDHE receives digital data, hi-level data, analog data, and NRZ signals. Analog signals are encoded and transmitted as an eight-bit binary coded output.

Analog Multiplexer

12 groups of 22 channels, each group having an output isolation AND-gate, and 12 groups of 2 channels, each group having an output isolation AND-gate.


Converts an input of zero to + 5 volts, or 0 to + 200 mv analog to an eight-bit digital

signal. Digital Multiplexer
16 AND-gates feed one OR-gate for each of the 24-bits in the system. Outputs from the OR-gate are fed to the Word Generator where the information stored until readout time occurs. Gimbal Storage Register Converts gimbal serial input information (commands) to broadside readout to the Word Generator via the Digital Multiplexer. Holds gimbal error and Star Tracker status information. is









Spacecraft Data Handling Equipment (SDHE) (Continued) Word Generator Contains a 25-bit shirt register, buffer amplifiers, 25 output

parity counter, code flip

flop and drivers. Programmer
Control unit for the entire SDHE system. Contains a storage register and counters synchronized by the PPDS 50 kc clock. Power Pack Comprised of a DC-to-DC various filter networks. Converter isolates and converts 28 volts VL: primary power to the various DC voltages required for operation of the SDHE system. Experimenters Data Handling Equipment (EDHE) Assembles and formats analog and digital data from the experiments for transmission to the ground in the Real Time Mode or to data storage in the STORE Mode. Operation is determined by the lJata Hanoling Command Word and discrete commands from the experiments. Consists of analog gates, digital gates, analog-to-digital encoders, programmers shift registers, and a clock. Analog Multiplexer Three groups 01 ten ChannelS, eaCh navrng an output isolation AND-gate. converter and



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Experimenters Data Handling Equipment (EDHE) (Continued) Analog-to-Digital Converter Converts an input of zero to + 5 volts analog to an eight-bit digital signal.

Digital Multiplexer

12 AND-gates feed one OR-gate for each of the 25-bits in the system.

Word Generator

Contains a 25-bit shift register, buffer amplifiers, and drivers. flop, and two serial-code

25 output

parity counter, code flipoutput AND-gates

Pro grammer

Contains storage elements to store all Primary Processor commands, except the until the eight STORE-DIGITAL-WORDS,

proper time to execute a given command. Proper command execution time is determined by the 50 kc oscillator, counters, and timing matrices. binary

Power Pack

Composed of a DC -to-DC converter and various filter networks. Converter isolates and converts 28 volts DC primary power to the various DC voltages required for operation of the EDHE system.

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(Continued) Most circuits are primarily resistive voltage dividers.
Power is supplied to the SCU at a 10 volt level and the maximum total consumption is 6.0 watts.

Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU)

Physical size is 3.75 cubic inches and 12-1/2 pounds.
SCU prepares transducer signals indicating the status of the OAO and delivers these to the SDHE for transmission to storage. Control Command Junction Box (CCJB) Controls ON and OFF switching to spacecraft equipment by relays which are energized by either a control command pulse that has been amplified by a pulse stretcher or by a signal from specific units within the to the ground or

Tape Recorder (l'R) (GFE) To record spacecraft (SDHE) data on a continuous basis and transmit Wide Band Transmitter. SAC Buffer Box Provides surge current limiting during SAO to ground via

Buffers all timing signals which the BAO experiment shares with other spacecraft components. mandable) (32 bit gates, 4 clocks, 1 com-

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Expands the spacecraft control command capability for controlling heaters. ON and OFF switching of spacecraft equipment and (An extension of the CCJB)

Command Control Switching (CCSU) (GFE)

Government Furnished Equipment Interface (GFEI) (GFE)

Provides signal conditioning and control circuits for the tape recorder.

A free running clock is provided to give a non-resetable spacecraft time. subcommutator is

A synchronous hi-level

provided such that 120 hi-level channels are arranged into five output groups. A command verification counter is provided

to count the number of spacecraft ground commands received and verified. STABILIZATION AND ATTITUDE


Sensors SunSensors
Eight coarse sensors (four on pitch axis and four on yaw axis). Disable eye

Rate Gyros

Three gyros, one for each axis, the voltage output of each being proportional to the angular rate about its sensing axis.

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(Continued) Six Gimballed Star Trackers, on a two-degree-of-freedom One Boresigilted each mounted gimbal system.

Star Trackers

Star Tracker aligned with

the experiment optical axis.


Three (one per axis) which sense earth's magnetic field.

Actuators Primary Gas Jets Six high-pressure stabilization jets used during initial

and restabilizations. jets which reduce inertia

Six low-pressure wheel speed. ~econ<1arylias Jets Six high-pressure initial stabilization

jets for backup during and restabilizations and

for use with RAPS.
lnertia WneelS:

Coarse w tleelS

Three wheelS (one lor eacn aXIS) usea to slew the spacecraft upon command.

Fine WheelS

Three wheels (one for each aXis) used to control spacecraft attitude.




By magnetically torquing the spacecran, removes long term disturbances.




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Digital Logic Unit (DLU)

Process signals from PPDS for distribution to six Gimballed Star Trackers. Controls Star Trackers gimbal motion from Star

Decodes error information Trackers
to STSP.

(D/ A conversion) for distribution

Star Tracker Signal Processor (STSP)

Averages, weighs, and amplifies Tracker error fine wheels.

Star to

signals for distribution

Sensor Signal Processor (SSP)

Sums, averages, weighs, and amplifies for distribution Thrust Jets).


signals from all Sun Sensors and Rate Gyros to system actuators (Fine Inertia Wheels, Low Thrust Jets, and High

Fine Wheel and Jet Controller (FW&JC)

Controls all Fine Inertia Wheels, Low Thrust Jets, and High Thrust Jets using error signals supplied by the STSP and SSP.

Coarse Wheel Controller

(CWC) Controls Coarse Inertia Wheels used for

spacecraft reorientation.
High Torque Controller (HTC) Controls torque mode (high and low) of Fine Inertia Wheels. Magnetic Unloading System (MUS) Processes magnetic and wheel speed data to correct for disturbance torques.







Rate and Position Sensor (RAPS) Sun Sensors Eight sensors (four on yaw axis, two on pitch axis, one null and one anti-eye). Gyro Unit Three gyros, one for each axis, the voltage output of each being proportional angular rate/position axis. to the about its sensing

Gyro Electronics

Process signals from gyro unit for distribution to the RAPS Controller. RAPS Signal Processor (roll only) and FW&JC .

RAPS Controller

Controls six secondary gas jets for sun bathing (power stand-by attitude) or attitude

hold. RAPS Signal Processor Pneumatics Process signals to roll FW&JC.
N 2 at 3250 psi stored in 8 tanks; about 64 lb N2 total, primary and secondarysystem.



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