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ASSIGNMENT 3

Inferential Statistics

Usama Khurshid
Semester 5th BBA-A
Contents
Question 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 2
Question 2 ..................................................................................................................................................... 2
Question 3 ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
Question 4 ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Question 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Question 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 5
Question 7 ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Question 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Question 9 ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Question 10 ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Question 1

By running a normality test on the following scale variables in our given data, we get the following
results.

Tests of Normality
Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
reading score .105 200 .000 .980 200 .006

writing score .134 200 .000 .947 200 .000

math score .071 200 .016 .977 200 .002

science score .076 200 .007 .985 200 .035

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

According to the following tests, all our scale variables are not normally distributed as their p values
(highlighted ones) are all less than our significance value i.e. 0.05. So, we reject the null hypothesis that
the values are normally distributed.

Question 2

Ho: µ = 55

H1: µ ≠ 55

One-Sample Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
math score 200 52.6450 9.36845 .66245

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 55
95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper
math score -3.555 199 .000 -2.35500 -3.6613 -1.0487

As our p value is less than our significant value of 0.05. we reject the null hypothesis that µ = 55.
Question 3

According to the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test our p value is less than 0.05 and hence we reject the
hypothesis that median = 50.
Question 4

Ho: p = 0.5

H1: p ≠ 0.5

Binomial Test

Category N Observed Prop. Test Prop. Exact Sig. (2-tailed)


Female Group 1 male 91 .46 .50 .229
Group 2 female 109 .55
Total 200 1.00

According to the binomial test for testing if the female population is in fact equal to male population in
our total population, the p value is 0.229 which is greater than our significance value of 0.05 and
therefore we accept null hypothesis that p = 0.5.

Question 5

Ho: Hispanic = 20%, Asian = 20%, African-American = 10% & White = 50%

H1: Hispanic ≠ 20%, Asian ≠ 20%, African-American ≠ 10% & White ≠ 50%

Race
Observed N Expected N Residual
Hispanic 24 40.0 -16.0
Asian 11 40.0 -29.0
African American 20 20.0 .0
White 145 100.0 45.0
Total 200
Test Statistics
Race
Chi-Square 47.675
Df 3
Asymp. Sig. .000

According to our chi-square test the p-value is less than our significance value of 0.05, and so we reject
our null hypothesis that Hispanic = 20%, Asian = 20%, African-American = 10% & White = 50%.

Question 6
H0: µ1 = µ2
H1: µ1 ≠ µ2

Group Statistics
female N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
science score male 91 53.2308 10.73217 1.12504

female 109 50.6972 9.03850 .86573

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
Std. 95% Confidence
Mean Error Interval of the
Sig. (2- Differen Differen Difference
F Sig. t df tailed) ce ce Lower Upper
science Equal variances 3.609 .059 1.812 198 .071 2.53352 1.39790 -.22316 5.29021
score assumed
Equal variances 1.785 176.5 .076 2.53352 1.41958 -.26800 5.33505
not assumed 55

Since p value is less than our significance value of 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis that the science
scores are same for males and females.
Question 7
Ho: µ1 = µ2

H1 : µ1 ≠ µ2

Ranks
female N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
math score male 91 101.98 9280.00
female 109 99.27 10820.00
Total 200

Test Statisticsa
math score
Mann-Whitney U 4825.000
Wilcoxon W 10820.000
Z -.330
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .741
a. Grouping Variable: female

According to our p value the average math score for both males and females are almost identical and so
we accept the null hypothesis.

Question 8

female
male female Total
type of school public 77 91 168
private 14 18 32

Total 91 109 200


Chi-Square Tests
Asymptotic
Significance (2- Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1-
Value df sided) sided) sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .047a 1 .828
Continuity Correctionb .001 1 .981
Likelihood Ratio .047 1 .828
Fisher's Exact Test .849 .492
Linear-by-Linear Association .047 1 .829
N of Valid Cases 200
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 14.56.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

As the p value for our chi square test is greater than our significance value 0.05 we conclude that there
exists no relation between the gender and type of school selected. This tells us that there is no
statistically significant association between Gender and Type of school.

Question 9

ANOVA
reading score
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 3716.861 2 1858.431 21.282 .000
Within Groups 17202.559 197 87.323
Total 20919.420 199

We can see that the significance value is 0.000 (i.e., p = .000), which is below 0.05. and, therefore, there
is a statistically significant difference between the means of read between the three different programs,
as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(2,197) = 21.282, p = .000). So, we reject the Ho.
Question 10
Ho : µ1 = µ2
H1 : µ1 ≠ µ2
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 reading score 52.2300 200 10.25294 .72499

writing score 52.7750 200 9.47859 .67024

Paired Samples Correlations


N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 reading score & writing score 200 .597 .000

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Std. Std. Error Difference Sig. (2-
Mean Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df tailed)
Pair reading score - - 8.88667 .62838 -1.78414 .69414 -.867 199 .387
1 writing score .54500

 Reading and writing scores are positively correlated (r = .597, p < 0.001).
 There was no significant average difference between Reading and Writing scores (𝑡199 = -0.868,
p = 0.387).
 On average, reading scores were .54500 points lower than writing scores (95% CI [-1.78414,
.69414]).