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Inferential Statistics

Usama Khurshid

Semester 5th BBA-A

Contents

Question 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

Question 2 ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

Question 3 ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

Question 4 ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

Question 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

Question 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

Question 7 ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

Question 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

Question 9 ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

Question 10 ................................................................................................................................................... 8

Question 1

By running a normality test on the following scale variables in our given data, we get the following

results.

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

reading score .105 200 .000 .980 200 .006

According to the following tests, all our scale variables are not normally distributed as their p values

(highlighted ones) are all less than our significance value i.e. 0.05. So, we reject the null hypothesis that

the values are normally distributed.

Question 2

Ho: µ = 55

H1: µ ≠ 55

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

math score 200 52.6450 9.36845 .66245

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 55

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference

t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper

math score -3.555 199 .000 -2.35500 -3.6613 -1.0487

As our p value is less than our significant value of 0.05. we reject the null hypothesis that µ = 55.

Question 3

According to the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test our p value is less than 0.05 and hence we reject the

hypothesis that median = 50.

Question 4

Ho: p = 0.5

H1: p ≠ 0.5

Binomial Test

Female Group 1 male 91 .46 .50 .229

Group 2 female 109 .55

Total 200 1.00

According to the binomial test for testing if the female population is in fact equal to male population in

our total population, the p value is 0.229 which is greater than our significance value of 0.05 and

therefore we accept null hypothesis that p = 0.5.

Question 5

Ho: Hispanic = 20%, Asian = 20%, African-American = 10% & White = 50%

H1: Hispanic ≠ 20%, Asian ≠ 20%, African-American ≠ 10% & White ≠ 50%

Race

Observed N Expected N Residual

Hispanic 24 40.0 -16.0

Asian 11 40.0 -29.0

African American 20 20.0 .0

White 145 100.0 45.0

Total 200

Test Statistics

Race

Chi-Square 47.675

Df 3

Asymp. Sig. .000

According to our chi-square test the p-value is less than our significance value of 0.05, and so we reject

our null hypothesis that Hispanic = 20%, Asian = 20%, African-American = 10% & White = 50%.

Question 6

H0: µ1 = µ2

H1: µ1 ≠ µ2

Group Statistics

female N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

science score male 91 53.2308 10.73217 1.12504

Levene's Test for

Equality of

Variances t-test for Equality of Means

Std. 95% Confidence

Mean Error Interval of the

Sig. (2- Differen Differen Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) ce ce Lower Upper

science Equal variances 3.609 .059 1.812 198 .071 2.53352 1.39790 -.22316 5.29021

score assumed

Equal variances 1.785 176.5 .076 2.53352 1.41958 -.26800 5.33505

not assumed 55

Since p value is less than our significance value of 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis that the science

scores are same for males and females.

Question 7

Ho: µ1 = µ2

H1 : µ1 ≠ µ2

Ranks

female N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks

math score male 91 101.98 9280.00

female 109 99.27 10820.00

Total 200

Test Statisticsa

math score

Mann-Whitney U 4825.000

Wilcoxon W 10820.000

Z -.330

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .741

a. Grouping Variable: female

According to our p value the average math score for both males and females are almost identical and so

we accept the null hypothesis.

Question 8

female

male female Total

type of school public 77 91 168

private 14 18 32

Chi-Square Tests

Asymptotic

Significance (2- Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1-

Value df sided) sided) sided)

Pearson Chi-Square .047a 1 .828

Continuity Correctionb .001 1 .981

Likelihood Ratio .047 1 .828

Fisher's Exact Test .849 .492

Linear-by-Linear Association .047 1 .829

N of Valid Cases 200

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 14.56.

b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

As the p value for our chi square test is greater than our significance value 0.05 we conclude that there

exists no relation between the gender and type of school selected. This tells us that there is no

statistically significant association between Gender and Type of school.

Question 9

ANOVA

reading score

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 3716.861 2 1858.431 21.282 .000

Within Groups 17202.559 197 87.323

Total 20919.420 199

We can see that the significance value is 0.000 (i.e., p = .000), which is below 0.05. and, therefore, there

is a statistically significant difference between the means of read between the three different programs,

as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(2,197) = 21.282, p = .000). So, we reject the Ho.

Question 10

Ho : µ1 = µ2

H1 : µ1 ≠ µ2

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Pair 1 reading score 52.2300 200 10.25294 .72499

N Correlation Sig.

Pair 1 reading score & writing score 200 .597 .000

Paired Differences

95% Confidence

Interval of the

Std. Std. Error Difference Sig. (2-

Mean Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df tailed)

Pair reading score - - 8.88667 .62838 -1.78414 .69414 -.867 199 .387

1 writing score .54500

Reading and writing scores are positively correlated (r = .597, p < 0.001).

There was no significant average difference between Reading and Writing scores (𝑡199 = -0.868,

p = 0.387).

On average, reading scores were .54500 points lower than writing scores (95% CI [-1.78414,

.69414]).

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