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SECTION 4 RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES Frank A. Iddings, San Antonio, Texas 92 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW PART 1 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION The Photon ‘The German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen discov- coud gen US whe ong th ee Se gaseous clischarge tube. Electrons were emitted from a cathode and accelerated toward a target, which they struck with a high velocity: He found that avery ponctraing rade tion was emitted from this bombarded target. Almost imme- diately these X-rays were used to penetrate the humnan body and solid, materials, and radiology and radiography wore well on their way to becoming important parts of their respective flelds: medicine and nondestructive testing Further research over the momy years since Roentgen's discovery indicated that the radiation photon has a. dual character, acting sometimes like a particle and at other times lke a wave. This duality was hinted! at hy Hhe quantum theony as put forth by Planck at the turn of the Century. Planck postulated thatthe photon energy was contained in an lotomaznetic pct of raat. or gut. sc ‘was proportional to its froqueney. His equation E = hv (where Eis the energy associated withthe quantum, visits frequency and his Planck’s constant) bas been used success. fully to explain many physical phenomena, All radiant energy has similar characteristics and varies cnly in frequency. Photons all have equal velocity, have no electric charge and have no magnetic moment. Photon characteristics are listed in Table I-A chart ofthe radiation TABLE 1. Photon characteristics Vetociy « Frequency vaca Weel naw Mass vice ‘Momentum vic Energy fw spectrum is shown in Fig. 1. Only avery small region of the art is oceupied by the visible spectrum. X-Rays and Gamma Rays Xcays are a form of electromagnetic radiation having ‘wavelengths in the region of 0.001 to 1.000 nm (4 10" 4 10-li in). They are wonally prodiced by allowing « stream of high energy electrons to impinge ona metallic tar get, producing photons by deceleration of the electrons ‘They may ala be produced by aoveleration of electrons, usually tangential acceleration of high energy electrons by @ very strong magnetic field. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation originating fom the nuclel of atoms and have very short wavelengths. X-ays originate in the extranuclear structure ofthe atom; gamma rays are emitted by atomic FIGURE 1. The electromagnetic spectrum 8 be cma ars ———.| PHOTON ENERGY megaelectronwots nucle in the state of excitation, ‘The emission of gamma rays usually occurs in close association with the emission of alpha and beta particles Generation of X-Rays X-rays are emitted whenever electrons are rapidly accel- crated or decelerated. Usually, deceleration is used, as when matter is bombarded by a stream of electrons, If it is assumed that an electron starts with zero velocity at the cathode surface, its kinetic energy upon arrival atthe target ‘of an electrostatic Xray tube is w ne =v (Eq) = electron energy inouls () toas of electron (91x10 g) electzon velocity (n me, small compared with the velocity of light); charge of electron (1,6 x 10" C); and pplied potential difference, in vols, between cathode and target. [Note that 1 eV = 1.6% 10° J Transformation of Electron Energy into XRays ‘When an electron with kinetic energy eV strikes the tar- get ofan X-ray tube, the energy may be transformed in ral ways. The simplest Uansformation oveus whew the electron interacts directly with the nucleus of a target atom. Theclectron stopped by the nucleus, which, because of cay mass, 8 not appreciably disturbed and 90 gains no energy Hence, al te kinetic energy of the electron stra formed into a quantum of radiation whose minima wa length i he wv 12,395 v m= (Ba.2) Where hh = Planck’ constant (6.6 x 10 Js); and = the velocity of light (3 10° ms) Production of Continuous Radiation Most of the impinging electrons interact with electrons associated with the target atoms. Only a part of the energy of a high speed electron is required to remove an electron es RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 93 from an atom. When an impinging electron has lost some of its energy in this way and then is suddenly stopped by an atomic nucleus, the energy transformed into an X-ray pho- ton less than the original kinetic energy eV ofthe electron. ‘The quantum of radiation produced in this manner has wavelength greater than Ay, In general, X-rays of many ‘wavelengths age emitted, The X-ray spectrum is continous ‘When an electron is removed from an atom of the target the atoms eftin an unstable state with greater than normal energy. If an electon replaces the ejected electron, the ‘atom returns to its normal state. Ie emits one or more pho: tons with an energy he/h. corresponding to a wavelength A ‘Shatter of te element These nag ban of ve- lengths, called characteristic spectral lines, are of higher Ins thn tection Spectrum: Bo penton ccc at he sae ine i he operon of ae Xora Cube A ‘ypieal X-ray spectrum is shown in Fig 2 Production of Monochromatic X Radiation Homogeneous, monochromatic X-rays may be obtained from such spectra by using ether a double spectrometer or filters. ‘Ata given angular setting @ ofa crystal grating with con- stant spacing only rye vith a certain wavelength can be reflected atthe definite angle 20 from the primary undev- ated beam, according to Bragg’ la: mh = 2dsin’ (Bq, 9) FIGURE 2. Typical Xray spectrum RELATIVE INTENSITY WAVELENGTH nanometers) 94 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW TABLE ?_ Bragg angles for various crystals and Kat radiations Radiation Kar (degrees) a Crystals Reflections Molybdenum Copper __Nickel__Cobalt__ ron Manganese Chromium alumina 02 18 39 42 4649 54 58 Gypsum 020 27 58 63 63873 80 a7 Balumina 08 36 79 8s 91 99 tak ne Pentacrytits! 02 ar 10.1 9 118 ze 139 152 Guar, 100 61 133 44 156 16914 20.1 Fluotice mn 65 ra 15218517995 213 Uren mire 002 85. 42 153 166 180196 214 Catcte 200 67 4? 8 171 186 203, 222 Rock sat 200 72 159 1185 201 ag 240 Damana mn 9 uO e258 2681 308 399) For a simple cubic lattice the diffracted intensity is approxi- mately 1 NGF +E +BY 1K = (Eq.4) ‘where nis the order of diffraction and h, kare the Miller indices. Consequently, a second spectrometer or other apparatus ean be adjusted to receive the purely monochro. ‘matic beam. Table 2 shows the Bragg angles for various crystals and Ko. radiations, Some metals absorb more of certain wavelengths than others do and show characteristic absorption edges. Ifa molybdenum target tube is exited at 30 KV, the spectrum shows the K sees lines superimposed on the covtinious spectrum. Ifthe ust part of te band and the KB lees could be suppressed, the Kaine would be left in essential undiminished Intensity. Zirconium has # K exit abso, tion wavelength of 6580 piconcters (pm) (08558 Ay, oly between KB and Kat wavelengths of mabindenuny, vee betiveen 63. and 708 pm (0.631 and0.708 4) A thin sce ium seren wil eborb praca al sat wth ae: lengths ‘shorter than 68.58. pm (0.6888 A), but wlll be transparent tothe most intense Kline. In practice, a zitco nm fiber used witha molybdenum tare uel eta Copper target and manganese with an ron target. PART 2 RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 95 RADIATION ABSORPTION Categories of Absorption Radiation absorption can be separated into three major categories: the absorption of photons, the absorption of hanged prices and the absorption of neutrons absorption of photons has played the most impor- tant role in the field of nondestructive testing. Almost from the very day that Roentgen announced his experimental resus, plato have come forth in the ks of radi a ‘medicine, experimental physics and thick- SS. gue tame tow Thecoe te hajoremphass hhere is on the physical characteristics of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, or photons. Absorption of Photons Atbeam of Xrays or gamma rays exhibits a characteristic ‘exponential absorption in ts passage through matter. This a ‘consequence ofthe fact that usually a photon is removed from a beam by a single event. uch an event is a result of th photnsintracton wth acl oan ata leton of the absorbing element and can be clasfied as one of three predominant types: the photoelectric effec, seater- lagand pir en "A fourth but minor contributor to absorption is photodisintegration. ‘The following analysis of photon absorption assures arrow beam geomet; that, any photon thats deflected, however small the angle, is considered completely absorbed, Because the number of photons removed from a rmoncenergetic beam ata thickness of an absorber is pro- portional to the intensity at that thickness Ix), the number ‘of atoms per cubic centimeter n and the incremental thick- ness of material frversed dr, the change inthe heam inten- sityin de may be expressed as ale) = 1@)node (Eq.5) Here, ¢ ie « proportionality constant and is interpreted 4s the total probability {more often refered to asthe cross section because it has the dimensions of an area) per atom for sentering or absorption of a photon of the original ‘energy. Integration of Eq. 5 gives 1G) = Le (Eq. 6) ‘where I, isthe intensity ofthe incident beam. The number ‘of atoms per cubic centimeter n can also be expressed as NNpvA, where Nis Avogadro's number, Ai the atomie weight ‘of the absorption material and p is the density of the mate- ial. The exponential factor in Eq, 6 can be expressed as { Nee s 47) = atomic attonuation coofliciont; No/A = up = mass attenuation coefficient; and NopiA = [t= linear attenuation coefficient ‘The total attenuation coefficient consists of the sum of the attenuation coefficients for each ofthe various processes ‘mentioned shawn ‘That ic, the total atomic attonation eae ficient is given by: © = Gy +6, +0, +0y (4.8) Where 6,4 = attenuation coefficient due to photoelectric effect; 6, = attenuation coefficient due to scaterin Gy, = attenuation coefficient due to pair production; and ,a = attenuation coefficient due to pphotodisintegration. Photoetectnc Effect ‘The photoclectric effect is defined as that process in which a photon of energy E,tranafoe its total energy to an electron in some shell ofan ‘atom (Fig. 3). This energy may be only sufficient to move the electron from one shell to nother, ori may be sufficient to remove the electron com- etely from (ce. to ionize) the atom. Inthe latter ease, the Finctic energy ofthe ejected electron is jst the difference ‘between the photon's energy and the hinding energy of that particular electron in the atom. 96 / NONDESIKUCIIVE TESTING OVERVIEW FIGURE 3. Photoelectric interaction of incident photon with orbital electron & As the photon energie increased from zoro, the photons ate absorbed by electrons in deeper ying shells ofthe atom, When the photon energy reaches the binding energy of a articular shell of electrons, dhere i an abrupt increase in the absorption. The energy at which this sharp change ‘cours for K electrons, called the K absorption edge, repre- Sens a situation where the Kinetic energy ofthe ejectad K electron is zero. Further increase of the photon ene causes the absorption to decrease approximately inverse with the eube ofthe energy. The phrtolocie tention coefficient for an atom may be expressed asthe sum of the coefcens representing the contributions ofthe KL ete clectron shells: The energy dependence forthe photoleo- tric absorption in uranium is shown in Fig. 4 The solid ave represents the total ttennation coefcient and the dotted curves show the components, The total scattering curve includes the Compton elict, coherent seatering and «correction fr the average binding ofthe electrons in thelr shell structure. The absorption inereases so rapidly with the atomic number Z (between Z* and Z°) that for heavy ele- ments it remains appreciable to energies of the order of few milion elecromvats = Scattering of Photons ‘Upon increasing the photon energy past the K edge, the ‘main process contributing to absorption changes from the photoelectric effect to the Compton effect. This is really not true absorption, since part of the photon’s energy is not absorbed but merely redirected (Fig, 5). In the Compton effect a photon collides with an electron, Instead of giving up all its energy to the electron as m the photoelectric pro- cess, however, the photon only shares its energy with the struck electron.! The binding energy ofthe electron is ust ally considered negligible compared with the photon’ energy FIGURE 4. Absorption curves for uranium, showing components of total attenuation Coefficient as function of energy (to convert mass attenuation coefficient to square meters per kilogram, multiply by 10) MISS ATTENUATION COEFFIOENT lequare centimeters per gram) ENERGY megaelectronvots Compton Scattering Analysis of the Compton process shows thatthe energy ofa scattered photon is alays les than that ofthe primary photon; the elfect is, therefore, one of incoherent setter Jing. The famous analjsis made by Compton was based on the particle properties ofthe photon andthe conservation of energy and momentum during the collision, The energy shift predicted depends only on the angle of scattering and not on the nature of the scattering medium, the larger energy shifts being due to the larger angles through which the incident photon is scattered: A compete anlis ofthe Compton energy angle relationship and the Klien-Nishina formula for calculating the associated scattering cross sec- tions may be found inthe literature. RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 97 FIGURE §. Compton scattering in which incident photon ejects electron and lower energy scattered photon FIGURE 6. Coherent scattering of photon without loss of energy we Figure illustrates the decrease inthe attenuation coef- ficient, attributable to the Compton effect, asthe photon energy increases. This decreasing of the number of scat- tered photons is equivalent, ofcourse, to an increas in the penetrating power ofthe photons with increasing energy Coherent Scattering If a photon does not experience an enesgy shift pon being sosttered by an atom, te process pol of as beng coherent. This phenomenon is often referred to as the Rayleigh process. It can only occur for soft radiation for which the binding energy of the electrons in their atomic shells is important. Classically speaking, the atomic elec- ‘trons are set into oscillation by the absorption ofthe inei- dent photon. Then, acting as a common souree, they emit a photon of the same frequency as the incident photon (Fig 6). The contribution of this typeof coherent scattering to the total attenuation coefficient is never greater than about 20 percent. Coherent seattering can also occur from the atoms in cnpstallin structure. However, because ofthe many ways an atomic system may be ordered in nature and because this of seattering is primarily contained in very small angles ‘wh respect tothe incident photon, the fet has ile ‘importance in increasing the attenuation coefficient, and therefore it wll nt be considered further here. Pair Production ‘Very high energy photons are absorbed in matter by a _rocess in which « photon is converted inthe electrical field ‘of a nuclens into an electron and a positon (Fig. 7). This is pair production, Because both members of the pair have a nonzero mass, there isa minimum energy corresponding to creation ofthe rest masses ofthe two particles, below which pair production cannot occur. The value ofthis threshold is 1.02 MeV. Any energy in exces ofthat needed for creating an electron-positron pair appears as kinetic energy of the ‘Pir particles. The probability of occurrence of the process FIGURE 7. Pair production of electron and positron from incident photon increases approximately logarithmically with energy above the threshold value and then levels off for extremely energy photons. This process may also occur in the field of aan orbital electron and in this case is sometimes referred to as tnplet production. However, the third electron, which is often seen because of its large recoiled energy, is not ere- ated in the process but is the orbital electron. The combined effect of these two pair production processes 1 plotted in Fig. 4 Photodisintegration In addition to the three dominant photon ebsorption processes already discussed, the effets of photodisintogra- tion of muclet are of interest Here, a photon is captured by a nucleus, which then loses one or more ofits constituent par- ticles (Fig 8). This may be thought of asthe nuclear analog ‘of the photoelectric effect. This effect, however, is very small and its first maximum, usually between 10 and 20 Me¥, is only afew percent ofthe attenuation coefficient Z Dependence and Eneray Dependence It is apparent that the attenuation coefficient depends very strongly upon the atomic number Z, varying approxi- Inately as 22+} for pie production, deel with Zor the 90 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW FIGURE 8. Photodisintegration in which incident photon ejects electron from nucleus 5 ‘Compton effect, and between Z* and Z° for the photoelec- tric effect. The attenuation coelicient decreases with increasing energy for the photoclectric effect as E- decreases for the Compton éilect in the region of interest roughly as E~ and increases approximately logarithmically ‘with enengy for pair production Attenuation Coefficients of the Elements Attenuation coeflicient tables give the radiation attenua- tion coefficients of most of the elements of importance in nondestructive testing.’ For elements not listed, the attenu- ation eoetficients can be calculated by direct interpolation, using the proper Z dependence and energy dependence for the various components ofthe total attenuation coefficients ‘Some care should be exercised in using these tables because they are based on narrow beam absorption, Neutron Irradiation Production of Neutrons ‘The most frequently used source of neutrons i the iaclear reactor Here the neutrons are formed by fas, there an unstable hey element otope (uri or pc tenn Rane by mewion eae dats Se Gra elements wih the reese of several eons, Ths reaction veator produces continuous Marvellan nor spect sng energy alu sab 1 ee bet odin in tn thea energy rage or soma depending onthe ype of eat Type intents asic ge ee ae Ph seen a tes timeter per second (neutrons ens), Artficilly produced radioactive neutron sources are of {wo general fypes: those formed by the interaction of alpha (a) pices th he ight elements, eg, Bena, boron or Wim; and those formed by interaction of gathma photons with neutron producing targets. Neutrons from these radioactive sures sly have energies inte 10 MeV energy range Spontaneous fission is a popular source of neutrons. ‘These sourees produce a fsionspeetnim, including unfor. Auntely many alpha particles and gamma radiation for each neuron rode. An eampe efi 352 The we of these neutron sources requires great care and shield tds lsc in more deta lswhere * Particle accelerators capable of producing beams of pro- tons, deuterons and alphe particles can produce neutrons by target interactions, an atceleator capable of imparting energies up to 10 MeV can produce monoenergctle new trons at energies up to 27 MeV. Very high enengy acceler tom (2100 MeV) tan prodace lange ness ses from heavy materials Because of multiple nuclear interac. tions within the target material, notably photo-neutron and pPhoto-fision caused by secondary seatious ftom the pi tary particle beam. When large particles or elements are formed, the process is usually referred to as spallation Eugen ration astro uc ue ees det ion beams impinging on trated targets to produce 1d MeV neuton. Special smal vactum-seaed machines are bl spevifeally for thie purpose. Neutron Absorption ‘The absorption of neutrons relies on completely differ- ent mechanisms than that of changed partclos, The neu. tron, eanying no charge, does not lave any Coulomb interactions, and is free to travel through material unt it has a direct collision witha target nucleus or an orbital oloo tron. In the later case, the electron isso small as to eon- teibute only negligibly to the total absorption. In general, neutrons interact with matter in tun ways, the neutron ie either scattered by the nucleus o is absorbed into the nucleus. Because of many reactions possble for shsorbing new- trons and their complicated energy and mass dependencies, there is no simple way to present the total absorption effec. However, the probability of any interaction between nese trons and matter ean be made qualitative by means of the concept of eros sections, The eross section Gis the effective target area ofthe nucleus as seen by the impinging neutron of & given energy The number of interactions per unt time wal Bera tere ns the numberof nuts por at volume moving with velocity » towards the target of N ruclel. The quantity nv is the neutron flux density. The cross section ois usually expressed in bams (10 mm?) PART 3 BASIC GENERATOR [RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 99 CONSTRUCTION ‘A conventional X-ay generator consists of three main components: (1) Xray tube; (2) high voltage source and {B) contre. While evamining each ofthe major components In some detal, it should be remembered that all conven tional units wil have similar construction. ee X-Ray Tubes arly Xray tubes made use of gs filled tubes and a cold cathode from which electrons were freed by postive ton ‘Dombardinent. Modern tubes used in radiography are ofthe high vacuum varity, allowing for reduction in size, catended tube life and more stable operation Eeetrons ace supplied by thermionic emission from the filament, The accelerating potential (in vots) andthe tube ‘current (in ampe) ean then be independently vaxied with the exception tha, at low accelerating voltages, tube amper- is aflected by the space charge that accumulates around cathode. Envelope Envelopes for X-ray tubes are usually of the glass or smetal- ceramic type (Figs. 9 and 10), Gass envelope tubes, although stil-in common use, ae far more susceptible thermal and mechanical shock than the metal-ceramic tenvelope and are currently being replaced in many indus- {al applications with more durable metal-ccrauie tubes "The vacuum envelope of the metal-ceramic tubes con- sists ofa metal cylinder capped on both ends with ceramic disks, usualy composed of aluraiuui uxide. These ceraanie {insulators are designed o allow for more effective use ofthe insulation characteristics of both the ceramic and the high tension grease used in sealing aonections betwoon the high ‘oltage source and the tube. This design allows for redue- {don inthe sizeof the tube housing, especially important for Igher energy unis Cathode ‘The eathode includes the tungsten filament which pro- vides thermal electrons for acceleration. The filament is ust ally powered by altematng current (50 tv 60 112) from a ‘separately controlled transformer, although in some units l- lament current is fixed or automatically controled to main- fain a constant tube current, Notunaly, Blament currents range from Ito 10 A. Tube current, passing between cathode land anode by means of high speed electrons, ranges from Several handed microanperes (HA) for microfoous units up to.20+ mA for conventional industrial radiographie units, FIGURE 9. Glass X-ray tube FIGURE 10. Metal-ceramic Xray tube 100 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW Beam Focusiriy At times the filament is located ina recess in the cathode called focusing cup. This surrounds the emerging bean of electrons with an electric fleld that repels the beam away {rom the cup wall end into a more localized form, ‘The importance of a well defined beam of electrons arses fro the fact thatthe sharpness or unsharpness of an Image depends on the focal spot size (Fig. 11) The relation- shup for geometne unsharpness U; (4.9) Where. U, = geometric unsure (mess fs iae -numbra effect); m Real spot ses diane tet eal petto objet) nd 4 1 Gi fon eee ia Notthntd »thicaes foo ven the crdng mean (lm) is flush against the back of the radiographed object. From te stone ee at ees Gy ax the foal spt smc Beer eke the laments odin ofthe Samoa mh FIGURE 11. llustration of geometric unsharpness U, = be a solution to geometrical unsharpness, bt this approach 'imited bythe rb ofthe fen One alternative, called line focusing is to project the approximately rectangular beam produced by the flament ‘onto a target angled with respect to the beam (approi- mately 21 degrees). This projects an X-ray beam that {peers ose sm a focal pt wth apostle lateral dimensions (Fig. 12). In practice, this method allows production of units with focal sizes in the range of 1.0 to 5.0mm (0.04 0 0,12in,), By use of a deep focusing cup, advantage can also be taken of the soreen effect (Pig 19) Ths Teles tothe FIGURE 12, Diagram of line focusing setup sre (wr cvcies) removal of the lower energy electrons that are produced during that portion of the AC cycle where the potential dif ference between cathode and anode is significantly less than ‘asim Ta pein hic iprmoetnt ent to the output ofthe unit. A loss of approximately 25 percent i eperieoed in uns wth high seen elect Thi an be compensated for. in part. with higher filament current though this adversely affects the lifetime of the filament. An alternate method of removing low energy components of the electron beam is found in the discussion on. constant potential (CP) units stl further fora of the beam is desired, asin mero, ‘us radiography and some analytical applications, additional methods may be used: conversion of the conventional diode arrangement of cathode and anode into a triode arrange- ment including a focusing electrode or grid; and electro- static or magnetic deflection systems. For the triode arrangement, which is used widely in the rmicrofocus industry, a negative bias of up to 150 V is applied tothe third element of the tube to further focus the beam and remove lower energy components. This confign- ration allows a reduction of beam size, producing fcal spots smaller than 50 jm (0.002 in.) and subsequent drop in tube current In the case of electrostatic deflection, even more ele- rents are included within the envelope, while @ magnetic deflection system is external to the tube. These types of deflection systems have an additional advantage in the fact ‘that the beam may also be deflected to various areas of the target for added service hfe. Units that incorporate their ‘own vacuum systems usually allow for replacement of both filament and target components. These types are available ‘as standard microfocus and analytical units Anode ‘Ay mentioned previously, heat ts the major form of ‘energy produced asthe eloctons strike the target. Uncon- troled, this heat would quickly cause the surface ofthe tar- get to cree, whieh in tain would reduce the definition uf the fac spot In adtn, the vaporized target material would reduce the high vacuum of the tube and lead to pre- ‘ature failure due to conduction witha the tube. To avoid overheating ofthe target, the anode to which itis attached is composed of a material with high thermal conductivity, such pzeppor th olin demand ar elt low foe low enengy unt or intermittent use, cooling is often accom plied By means of conductor that passes through the fube end for conneetion to the high voltage source; this allows for radiation of heat into an oil or gas reservoir sur- rounding the tube. Although not the most efficient, the ‘weight of such a tube is minimal because ofthe absence of ‘pumps or heat exchangers. RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 101 For higher energy units in continuous uso, it is usually necessary to cool the anode by injecting coolant directly into it This is accomplished by hollow construction ofthe anode conductor Another way of alleviating the problem of lea et ‘ng ofthe target is by use of a rotating anode in which the target, a hingsten dig, ie driven a8 shown in Fig, 14. This allows the tube current to be inereased by as much as ten times the value for a stationary target. The focal spot on such units ean be reduced to less than 1 mm (0.04 in.) for short exposure times, which is of value in medical as well ax some specialized industrial applications, including lash radiography. Target In radiographic applications, the target is usually tung- sten and is bonded ts the copper anode however analy ‘units make use of several other target materials to take advantage of the characteristic X-rays produced. Some of ‘these materials include copper, ron and cobalt. ‘The orientation of the target with respect tothe electron ‘beam strongly influences the size and shape of the focal spot, Orientations from 0 degrees to 30 degrees are used for various applications. For example, zero isthe angle used for panoramic units. An angle of 30 degrees is commonly selected for retional ntsbaense inthis ase the dist bution of X-rays is predominantly perpendicular tothe tube tui, This is shown graphically in Fig 1, The actual ma ‘mum of intensity occurs at +12 degrees. For ra of Cbjocs whee tral dines ess than ame the FIGURE 14, Rotating anode 102 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW focustoriln distance (objects which subtend an angle of less than 30 degrees) the variation is seldom consequential Another cause for intensity variation is the electron boas self. A cross sceivn of the electron beam from the ‘lament would resemble Fig 16, with relative bean inten- sity also shown, Figure 16b shows a similar representation fora microfocus beam, The beau distibution in Fig. 16b ts said to be Gaussian (bell shaped) because ofthe shape of the intensity curve. Such a beam profile is required when it 4s nocesary to dfine wory closely spaced ulject, such ab mierocireutry components Hood Addition of a hood to the anode has two functions (2) clninaing portion ofthe X-ray beam outside the cen- tral cone of radiation and (2) electrically shielding the insu- lating portions of the envelope (glass or ceramic) from FIGURE 15. Xray distribution qraph aN (degrees) INTENSITY fperceng charge buildup beesse of electrons scattered from the tungsten target or released by the photolectric elect ier ‘femoving the unused radiation diectly at the anode reduces the amount of radiation shielding that mt be po vided extrsaly or incorporate into the tube howing The ood, normally cogstracted of copper may have mates wth high atomic numbers, such tngaten, neo tea apt The ct hing ano the hood may be improved by the ation ofa bemoan ‘sindow over the Xray prt. A window sever listers in thicknese wl stop elatrons with nogighle elo om the veal Xray ear, FIGURE 16. Electron beam distributions: {a} conventional beam; (b) microfocus beam PN, DISTANCE ACROSS TARGET ELECTRON BEAM INTENSITY to) EF a 2 é 3 i Lo DISTANCE AcRes TARGET Rod Anode ‘The rod anode (sometimes referred to as en oxtail is another adaptation af the anode. Ths type of tube arrange- ment requires special circuit considerations which allow the anode to be grounded. This tube, developed for use through small openings, has heen partially replaced hy a metal ceramie tube, which ean have a diameter of less than 50 mm (2 in.) and tube head diameter as small as 76 mm (3 in.) ‘The target of sch an end grounded tube: ean be cooled by circulating water in direct contact with the anode. Beam focusing soften required for longer tubes, Coolant ‘With the exception of the end grounded configurations and units designed for ow energy output (less than 50 keV), the tube insert is surrounded by an insulating coolant and ‘encased ina housing called the tube head. ‘The coolant may be highly dielectric gas or oil. Ifo is used, simple convection may be sufficient for lower output ‘units For larger nits, an cil ereulating pump, combined with a heat exchanger, ether internal or external tothe tube head, may be used For nits making se ofa fixed amount of oi in the tube and acircolating pump to circulate it within the tube head, an ol resistant bellows is incorporated to allow for expan sion and contraction ofthe oil. Because of the compre ity of insulating gases, this is not required for gas filed heads, but a pressure gauge is normally included to monitor possible los of coolant insulation Tank Type Head ‘The housing itself structurally protect the tube, contains the coolant and forms the structural support for the tube FIGURE 17. Hooded anode tube RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 103 insert, electrical connections, fitings, pumps, thermal andl high voltage overload sensors and radiation shielding con- tained in the head. For the tank type unit, the tube head ako houses the high voltage and filament transformers. If the unit has seperate components, the tube head will also provide for connection tothe high voltage source. High Energy Sources From ne voltages inthe range of 100 to 250V, the high tension circuitry supplies potential differences to the tube from 5 RV to a6 much as/420 RV forthe larger industria radiographic units. Several standard circuit designs are used for various applications. The portable tank type units gener- ally employ ane ofthe designs shown in tg. 1. FIGURE 18. Standard high voltage circuit designs for portable tank type units: (a) with cathode ground: (b) with center ground; {c] with anode ground rt BS [ 104 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING VERVIEW ‘These circuits are all self-retified: the X-ray tuhe itself limits the flow of electrons to one direction in the circa. While the anode is at negative potential with respect tothe cathode, no tube current flows. One drawhack of the slfrectified system isthe possbil ity of tube backfire. Ifthe target ar anode overheats reverse fondution can oecut during the esate half excl. Thi ‘ype of unt is normally used for tubes producing X-rays in therang af 50100 ke peak end bees a Sma. Cathode Grounded Circuit ‘The main advantage ofthe cathode grounded configurs- tion sthatitallows the filament transformer to be external to the tank, because the eathode i at ground potential and does ‘not require isolation, The tube head can be reduced in soo and weight and soften gus lle to further decrease weight Center Grounded Circuit Both center grounded and anode grounded units require olted flea tanfomers, whee aoa kee sulequatoly. Fr the ceuter grounded unt this i justified by ‘eduction of the high tension (HTT) transformer insulation, ‘The transformer needs to supply only one hall ofthe poten, tsl difference to cach electtle, rather than having either the cathode or anode held t ground potential and supplying the entire accelerating voltage tothe other electrode {In the range of 200 to 300 kV pea with beam eurrents to 15 mA, center grounded systems can be made smaller than comparable end grounded units. ‘Anode Grounded Circuit For the anode grounded or end grounded system, the snag sn these wea thr rode ‘or metal-ceramie tube for access through small openings. As ‘mentioned cals, cooling ofthe target is als simplified, With the addition of capacitors and diode rectifiers, the {ransformer is normally placed in a tank separate from the head. The additional clement allow the current tobe rect fed by means of valve tubes or sold state diodes and to be filtered and smoothed to provide a more nearly constant accelerating voltage. Several creuits “and their ‘efor sho in ig 1 ee Villard Circuit ‘An extension ofthe half-wave system, the Villard circuit Allows production of accelerating potential of twice the transformer pesk voltage. Capacitors are charged durin One halo the cle a dchaed en ne Suse through the tube, augmenting the voltage prodiced by the transformer (Fig 194), Graetz Circuit ‘The fll wave or Graetzrcut allows use ofboth halves of the AC oe witha substantia erase tn eet peruniume Ths som my me mt Sons but is use les than constant potental (CP) enn instal applications (Fg. 5b) Greinacker Circuit As can see from the output waveform, the Greinaker cites ofthe constant potential ype (Fig 196) Batealh variation ofthe Villard crest: whith cope charged ding both hates of te ole the alge ene ath dahl et emai ae ann eh the gel. This pves enhanced high mong erga nee int the etal ses placed onthe heed ak Enhanced tbe lie and abot 30 percent reduc nono sure times ae the rents ‘A cominon misconceptions that constant potential units povide a bean of constant eneng Xray Atheh te lecton beam is neatly ronosnergetie the Kraya ee roe, Aueed during random deceleration procases ‘Te sores of low energy elections rece the number af los nen Xerays but doesnot clminate them ‘Alternative Circuit Designs ‘A method for improving tube output, which ean be used {in conjunction with any of the above eucate including those fn tank units, isthe use ofa higher frequency waveform to power the high tension (HT) transformer. Although this equires additional electronic czeuitry ora motor generator, the core ofthe high tension transformer can he vesince in size because of increased reactance at higher requencies This can be used to advantage in portable or mobile units, Also, if filtering i to be done, the variation or ripple of the ‘output voltage can he reduced even Further, ‘A variation of this technique is the use of three phase Input power with the high tension transformer, Commonly used in medical X-ray generators, this method is now in use by several indusiral manufacturers as well er | Another approach is to use an output waveform other 4 than the unr sine wave: Approsngte spate wee Pts, in conjunction with both phase inversion circuitry and a high frequency transformer, can provide accelerating potentials wi extremely low ripple characteristics, Sut ‘units are currently available for industrial applications, High Tension Connections ‘One remaining topic in one disenssion of conventional ‘voltage sources is connection of the high tension trans- former tothe tube, For tank units this is not a major consid ‘oration since the transformer can be connected directly to tube electrodes. However, for units with separate compo- nents, insulation and connection of leads (which may cary ‘Voltages in earess of 200 kV) its an important consideration RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 105 ‘The high tension cables themselves are shielded to provide protection against electrical shock. Cables used at lower Energies are relatively flexible but as the amount of insula- tion is increased, the fleblity decreases and sharp bends luring instalation should be avoided. “The cables are inserted into terminations usually made of pele (hemnoseting ple) o comics ene sealed agains air by use of insulating epoxy materials called potting compound. The phenolic termination used pray (c} Greinacker circuit (@ TO GH VOUAGE CONTROL SS —- TIGURE 19. Typical anode grounded circuits and their waveforms: (a) Villard circuit; (b) Graetz circuit; 106 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW ‘with glass and lower energy metal-ceramie tubes is ofthe SoemShown nya ‘These connectors have rather large dimensions in com- ‘paisou to the newer style Ceramio terminations (Fig, 205) used primarlly with higher energy metal-ceramic tubes. Both styles use highly dielectric grease to seal out air at join. lng surfaces. Because of the tendency for the long tale. female connections to trap air and substantially reduce the insulation capabilities ofthe grease, these joints are nor sally sated ut about one tenth thetr theoretical values or about 10 kV per centimeter. The linear dimensions of such a termination must be correspondingly increased. At the transformer tank, Us size intease 1 not so important, ut at the tube head the increase in size and weight ean make the unit very cumbersome and bulky. For a 400 kV tube hhead, 200 KY is applied to cach electrode. This requires a termination 175 to 200 mm (7 to 8 in.) long at each end of the tube for proper insulation. ‘The oeramie inulator pictured in Fig, 20b makes fll use of the dielectric strength ofthe insulating grease by provid. ing rigid, fat mating surfaces which exclude air from the Joint. This allows for a substantial decease in the length of ‘the joint. This design has been incorporated into tubes used by several equipment manufacturers for units up to 420 KV. FIGURE 20. High voltage transformer terminations: (a) phenolic connection; {b) ceramic connection 5 Connector ro nae SS As stated above, a transformer is used to provide the potential diference for conventional X-ray units AS the aecelerating voltages are increased toward MeN, standard. transformer and insulation technologies become inade- ‘The major types and their operating principles are discussed below. Resonance Transformer Resonance transformers are used in conjunction with rmulisection tubes to produce X-rays inthe range of 1 to 2 MeV. By resonating transformer circuitry at « multiple of Jnput frequency, the ferromagnetic core ofthe transformer can be eliminated, Weight and bulk ofthe transformer are reduced not only by removal ofthe core, but also by removal ofthe insulation necessary t isolate the core from the Wind: ings. In the absence ofa core, the tube can be placed onthe ais of the high tension windings. Proper spacing of active tube segments allows the aveleraton of electrons to take place in several intervals instead ofthe single active region af the conventional tube. Connections to sequential por tions ofthe tube and winding ae Falltated by the conten. tric arrangement, and the tube is also electrically shielded because ofits central location. although bully in compart ton to more modom generstors,resguanve transformers have proven to be very durable. Many of the orginal units a stllin use ive decades after manufacture. Van de Graaff Generator This generator (Fig. 21a) is unique in thatthe potent difference is produced by mechanically transporting 4 charge to the high voltage terminal va an insulng Bk The terminal is surrounded by a case held at ground poten- tial, Electrons are emitted from an electron gun and pass between the high voltage terminal and the outer case. ‘The Potential difference between the terminal and case causes the electrons to accelerate to very high speeds ‘Upon stiking a target, X-rays are_ produced in lage ‘quantities because of the increased efficiency (10 percent dod gh) ofl i cory gears. The accelerating potential is essentially constant and X-ray output of sever grays (several hundred rads) per minute at I m is attainable, ‘Van de Graaff units are commonly used to provide energies of up to 8 MeV; but because of the size of the larger amachines, radiographic units seldom produce more that 2.5 Mev. The larger umsts find applications in research and development and may be used to accelerate particles othet than electrons. Betatron, The betatron, synchrotron and eyelotron all chare a com ‘mon heritage inthe use of magnetic fields. The oldest mem ber of the family, the cyclotron (Fig. 22) makes use of deflection to bend a stream of heavy, charged icles, such as completely ionized deuterium, into a spi- ral path. Daring each cycle, the particles are accelerated as {hey par between oppostely charged, hollow electrodes shaped like the leter D. Using this type of arrangement, it is possible to produce deuterons with energies of more than 15 MeV, in dees that are just over 100 mm (4 in.) in diameter ‘The spiral path of the charged particles is produced by a fixed magnetic field. By increasing the field in synchroniza- tion with the acceleration of the particles, it is posible to RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 107 ‘maintain a circular path. This allows replacement of tha polar type magnet with a toroidal (doughnut shaped) mag- tet. The resuing nchronized gltron or, scotron an produce particles having energies of more than 500 GeV. Although such units are used mainly for elementary particle research and military application, smaller versions used to accelerate electrons do have radiographic applications The betatron is such an adaptation (Fig. 23). Here, acceleration ofthe electrons is produced asa direct effect of the increasing magnetic field. As the field ofthe polar maz- not increased, an electse Bel is created by the proces FIGURE 21. High energy generators: (a) Van de Graaff generator; (b) linear accelerator (by 108 / NONDESTRUCHIVE TESTING OVERVIEW Induction. The lect fled ets much the same asa poten- tial difference would in accelerating the electrons to high speeds. During each circuit around the betatron, the elee- trone gain sovcral hundred electsunlts of energy. Follow. {ng more than one hundred thousand eyeles, the bean of electrons can have energies of 20 to 50 MeV. The X-rays produced by thie beam ean penetrate 305 to 960 mu (12 t0 1Sin) ofsteetin relatively short exposure tines near Accelerator Electrons introduced into the cavity of a linear wave- apie (caying «sanding or aveling ado Fee) ave) wl experience an electe eld acting cally long th gle Ih Bl actos wl ees thar ete nergy atthe ate of approtatly 15 MeV per moter G0 in) of guide. "This energy increase allows for conetene, tion of very compet nts (Fig 21b) that an proce ray FIGURE 22. Cyclotron IGURE 23. Betatron energies from 2 to. 15 MeV with outputs as high as several gays (evra hundred ad) por minate aL (40 in). Such powerful Xray beams ae capable of wef radiography of steel sections over 500 mmm (30 in) thee These linear accelerators have been used in materials research and weapons technology aswel asin radiography, Control Units under 500 kev Line voltage is ntrodced to the unit through the contra whichis clita capes especialy for pornbie ects ot accepting 110, 220 or 440 V line input. Single phase 3 or 0 THz AC is generally used for porable aplication, while fixed units maybe sig or three phase in Sesgn, Units ty also have some adjusment to compensate for line wliage drops such as those cased by se of lang etension cots ‘Aside from allowing the unt to be armed on and of etl wy lio rth stent an naitoragof the three radiographic variables: exposure time, energy aod tbe outer Te tal cpr a moans ema appearutee may even be absent fom a pariar tal but these funetions wll be performed either manually of stately al uns “The conta wil contain the fuses and circuit breakers, ‘warning and interlock ciety, various ination, termina: ti ad seeurty sees and on some later mods com puterzed memories with digital controls. The partial 36 of control depends onthe range of funtions required of he unit, and jst portant the sll and talniog of the operator For a production failty with standard ted niguesestibished,& programmable contol unl might be 3 Aesrable an ndependeat et ab nay req a onto het lows, yates a ht ged poral | enough for Beld use. Such requirements need to be consi ted bore coquling ny unk ’ Kilovoltage Adjustment X-ray energy is controlled by adjustment ofthe voltage supplied tothe primary ofthe high tenon traf ‘This may be done electronically or manually. For manually adjusted units, a cariac is commonly used. The varie i transformer with toroidal winding that provides al adjustable output voltage from 2ero to about 17 perce above line voltage. This allows fr continuous adjustment o the kV between minimum and maximum values eis usual necessary to reduce the KV setting to is minimum valug before an exposure can be initiated, The variae setting then increased gradually to the desired value, This avoid clectrical stress that would otherwise be experienced by t tube and insulation, For units which are not continuously variable (for units that are variable in steps) adjustment during an exposure should not be attempted, This introduces transients into the high tension circuitry that can exceed design limits of the tube; arcing between the cathode and anode ean occur, leading to tube failure. Such units normally have provisions Serinorwjunen of ochags. wel an etc initiation gee to apply voltage to the tube. Dig- tally contrlled ut val sso have an ination cyele as a puto heir rut, vey rom card ‘Programmable systems range in complexity from card to keyboard and will become a more requested item on most contol units. Miliamperage Adjustment ‘Tube output is controlled by regulating tube current whichis nti, song influenced by lament current As iously discussed, cathode grounded units need not the Slament tanstormer ested. The fsment sup ‘often contained directly in the control, Monitoring of tube RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 109 cnrrent is done by measuring the current passing hetween ground and the secondary ofthe high tension transformer. Gn some units, monitoring and adjustment ofthe cure done automatically within the contro. For units that use center or anode grounded systems, the filament transformer must be isolated and the control wal allow adjustment ofthe input voltage to the primary ofthe filament transformer ‘A fact to remember is that Kilovoltage and millamperage sctings are not completely independent. At high vlages the electrons are quickly accelerated away from the eathode bout at lower klovoltage the X-ray tube operates much less cffciently because of space charge buildup. In addition to space charge, the screen effect aso influences tube output, For units rated to operate at 5 mA, the kilovolt meters cal- ‘brated at 5 mA and will not necessarily be accurate at other values. Likewise, ifthe unit is adjusted to put out 5 mA at 100 KY the tube current may be above limits when the kilo- voltage is raised. Operators should also be aware that some ‘older units do not monitor tube current at all but instead ‘measure filament current. 110 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW PART 4 X-RAY OPERATING RECOMMENDATIONS Baseline Data Once a unit is acquired, actual operating characteristics should be checked against quoted vnlues and ooorded for {ature relerenee, Ths baseline information i usefl not only for technique determination, but also for troubleshooting, Equipment Literature Information avaible from the manufacturer might include weight and size, enengy, tube current, inherent A, tration, normal gas pressure and presure rise (for gas fled head}, coolant requirement, lite current, focal spot ssc, peratng temperature, ec, Service manuals ale sup efi information and shouldbe aogured forall units ‘Thc ‘information should not shyly be kept on fe it tou be used by personnel operating the uni. A separate specifics ton fo the Xray abe is olten arlene turer ar from the tubo supplies Exposure Charts For any unit that will be used in a variety of applications, se of epomure chars at ifirent ont one he useful and should be produced for each unit Ths should ho done under conditions representative of procedures at the facility using the unit, Tis necessary to do this foreach unit (or at least, for each type of unit) because of differences in generator characteristics, tube efficiency and inherent fry. tion ‘Te produce a chart for a particular energy range and rateral type, several exposures ofa step werlge are made. ‘ivi ar ae ‘bpe, screens, chemistry and processing times are kept com, Sin or each chart only exons Us ena ne three, preferably five, exposure times are then selected that ately span the range of posible exposure Umes, The preted made aa ‘Processed (fresh developer chemi. ate recommended). Density measurements are then made for each thickness represented on the radiograph ‘Usually densities of 1.5 w 3.0 are chosen and conespondiag ‘material thickness and exposure times are plotted, This is done to convert the exponentially increas graph into strulght line representation. Production of such a graph not only allows for accurate determination of exposure toch, niques but also allows the unit performance te checked at any later date by comparison with established chart wl. Another exposure chart commonly used shows hilywult- age versus thickness, exposure being constant. This chart can be made at varios fn dense Focal Spot Size As previously discassed, foal spot size en beam inten 2 par tos seen ie Beam aditon "many codes require. Cleat of et 'nsharpess for echngue pro For cone Nay 2a ap to 00 ke, mean nents done wsinga standard pinkie pertue Ganga ee rine fn without screens, an exposure mck peti, The flan procested and be nage hea sing 5x to 10x carted secu: Toca mene men of smaller focal sot, the aperture salle that magneton of Sc ubtabed fos Bed eases Land 255mm (045 and0.10in) and amaguiaton ete for focal ses between 0:3 and 12 mm (O01 nal Gos oy Slr focal spots requ ul aernstve sna ay technique in which a standard grid pattern koala ofthe pinhole camera. For Xras over 300 kel hanes igus ar equed Additional Data ce min nt tg a nectar Hing act oe EARS oe Selecting a Unit Tn addition to size limitations aud suobity, the process of ‘matching the unit to the jo i in many cases determined by equipment availabilty. However, in those instances where choice exists, including equipment purchase, there are ‘some basic considerations to take into account Application “he appeation sage of appli (lading dhe material and thickness, configuration and accessibility and production rates) forms the first consideration in election EP unit This wil ditate the tohntque tbe wed id re tate at which the exposures are made Applicable Specifications ‘Tho government or commercial specification, to which the radiograph is being produced, suay also illuence oyu ment selection. As an example, some specifications requie ‘arious energy ranges for diferent materials and thicknesses ‘Quality and scnatity eequrements are also in his category Energy Range Operating a unit continually at maximam output will shorten the between naitenance Aral followed by many fapertenced rs 1s never to exceed 90 percent of ‘maximum keV rating ofthe tube, This provides a measurable {nerease in tube, transformer, connector and conte life. Likewise, upeatig tube at nicl below half ofits max- imum output voltage, although not taxing on the electrical components ofthe unit, is not recommended as the stan- dard mode. Again, availability may require uch usage, Buta nt sued im this manner usualy operating at 2 much reduced efficiency and may not provide optimum results ‘As an example, consider a 200 keV unit. If operated at 70 KY, many times the inherent filtration of the tube and tube head is such that a lange fraction ofthe low energy pho- tons are absorbed before lowing the housing, Consequently, tube current and/or the exposure time must be increased to ‘compensate for the los. Duy Cycle eens eee eee eee eee Aluty cycle must alse be considered in selection of & ent Aithough overheating protection is pred by al major fran ees wes a ee Te unt reich cut tempore ole allowing t soul The pasa led overeating of rete Ae ol Sher cotponceri shel ay seh ed duty cycles are exceeded. In conjunction with production requirements, the above items form the basic considera- "ni eld gency be asd nthe ay 90 percent of its maximum output voltage of 50 to exposure RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 111 times and production rates consistent with the duty cycle oes ae ty oy Tube Warmup To avoid thermal shock, arcing, backfire due to out- gassing of the target or other detrimental effects, iis advis- fable (and generally recommended by manufacturers) to follow a warmup procedure when placing a unit into service. “The longer the pened between wes, the longer the recom: ended warmup. Starting at approximately 50 percent of the tn a poring 10 pret increments ‘maximum output will generally suffice for overnight or wrecked potas Te tut of eae sage auld not be much longer than two minutes and should not exceed values consistent with the rated duty cycle If uctuations in ‘output are noticed, such as jumps in tube current (ana), the keV setting should be reduced unt a stable value is ‘objained. Warmup should be continued from this point with 1 decrease in the size ofthe increments uscd. Maintenance ‘The etent ofthe maintenance performed by the seri, of course, determined by the capabilites of the personnel Some ions of tatfeuroce that can and sho formed on a routine bass are sted below be per 1. Unit cleantines, This includes removal of dir and oi from the tube head, connectors and control. This should not be considered a cosmetic function by any ‘means. Minutes spent here may avoid hours of down- time for epair. Few controls are totally sealed against ‘rt or moisture and oil can cause insulation to break ‘down prematurely 2 Visual inspection. Wiping down the unit and power cables also affords an opportunity to inspect the come ponents for damage, such as @ broken wire or loose ‘connections. Loose connections and partially broken wires should not be overlooked, because they ean introduce transients into the high voltage circuitry. Burnt or loose pins on connectors are equally impor- tant. Oil seepaye ur evulnt ne ave ites Uae ca also be detected at this tie. 3. Fuse replacement. Use of the correct size is recom- mended. Ifthe unit repeatedly blows fuses, repair is indicated. Use of fuses larger than specified may overload other components. For advanced maintenance and troubleshooting, refer to the manufacturers service instructions o_o 112 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW ——— Electrical Safety Xray eyulpment manufactured today must conform to sanyo and international dogs eau 1 onder for safety features ofthe equipment to remain opera, tive and effective, proper maintenance and operation is ‘equired, All personnel involved withthe operation of Xray equipment should be familiar with the manufacturer’ ating instructious and the specific safety features of the machine. General electrical safety considerations are listed below, Power Sources Many X-ray units are adaptable to diferent line voltages, Use the appropriate power cable and connector. The vt, sge selection dal onthe cmrel pond on hc te in use, Required wiring ‘changes should be per, Ered in according th he an se Grounding All Xsay machine power cables must be grounded. Do not use an ungrounded power circuit. Replace connectors that have defective or missing ground plugs. Failure todo so ‘sa shock hazaud and may bea fre hazard as well, Fuses Replacement fuses should be rated at the amperage required by manasa’ apeiontey Bg eee ets ofan electra hazard to the operator Say tec rom the use of nappropnate isc Contro! Circuits ‘Do not bypass or override the overload and overheating circuit breakers or the tube head limit switches. Electr overload and excessive heat can damage electrical compo- nents, Tube head limit switches are required for safe hd legal operation of the equipment, XRay Safety The radiation hazards associated with the use of X-ray auipment can be minimized by adherence to state regula, fions and the manufacturer’ operating and maintercuce instructions. Written instructions for the safe and reliable tse of equipment should be, and often are required to be, supplied to all operators. Operators should be swure of tg Physiological hazards af penetrating radiation, Ts allt zeta attention mst be given to pesoanel monitoring facility design and radiation survey techniques, Many states have regulotions that require the seyistra- tion of X Xray equipment should always check with the radiation Avision ‘of their siate health departmont to dtcroien whether theyre requited to register thelr units and, ise, the course of action to fallow: Personne! Monitoring Stato regulations usually specify the extent ofthis moni- toring, Film badges or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are required for recording accumulated doses of ‘equipment by serial number. The owners of ‘adkation cxpooure, Pocket dosimeters or chambers andor | other radiation detection equipment shouldbe uss snk cn often required. These devi low for the timely deta af radiation exposure. Denner consertion aed na sppropriate tothe energy level ofthe Xrayn beng ee Dosimeter housings made of aluminum or compte sete ak nerd ration exponre toon energy ge G00 a ss) more rey dan eles dnc Reon -eeping of the results of personnel monitoring yseas et ale comp with state webatons sone Facility Design Faciiy design comprises tvo categorie, fied and erable, The design oft fed facity shoul be seve ule expr, Condon nae opens cccupaney of adjacent areas, the adcooury of shielding, ‘arming signals and signs, tnterocks, tbe head yest cet editing pres, Ea tance toate regulation eset sh subj tohopee ton or suit by reuulatny spe hed shielding i inpracteal for portable operations ‘he protection of personnel nd the public depos det crate ns there sponse pera Procedures Aron ith rd lel 8 OU ae snore in Th atm (40 in) fom a soure of rdaon oop surface though ich aiationpeneite a th eee sn iet to ig h Symbol and the words grave danger on trea. hea of dation ease ark hi ich ms nv the perimetor posted wi sign digo he ‘aation symbol andthe weds danger: igh aden ‘The perimeter of areas with radiation leer in exces of Suse! (Sh) mart bo ponte thes ping ‘he ation symbol and the words cation: nelatos os Areas within a perimeter with radiation loves in exes of 20s 2m or 60 pS! Rye! a sted wet acces Limited to onnel Acces t0 Wesabe conuelel by he maoge surveys Radiation surveys are an integral part of the safe opera- tion of Xcray machines. These surveys are conducted to determine the extent of radiation hazard in any given area ‘The survey meter isa rate instrument which indicates the exposure that will be received per unit time, Most com- monly used instruments are the Geiger-Miller (GM) and fonization chamber meters. Energy response of the meter should be consistent with energy ofthe X-radation. A meter suitable for field isotope use may be relatively insensitive to RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 113 low energy X-ray. Likewise, the sie ofthe Geiger Miller tube or chamber must also be considered, A lage detector gal ve ere er wen apie to all ation Fede rguaton require quater alban ofthe survey instrument whereas regulations of some agreement States, such as Texas, require sit month calibration. Use of a calibration source similar in energy to the measured X-rays is preferable, The conscientious use of a calibrated survey meter is the most reliable way to ensure the sale use of Xray equipment. Failure to use the survey meter isa factor in most occupational overexposures. This function may be performed either by those performing the X-ray work a the facility or by an outside service at specified intervals (annu- ally or semiannually) 114 / NONDESTRUCIIVE TESTING OVERVIEW PART 5 ISOTOPES FOR RADIOGRAPHY Radioactivity Historical Background A year after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by ontgen ‘Germany, the French plysiist Beoquere] discovered that ‘uranium emitted penetrating radiation, Under his direction, the Curies isolated and identified several natural elements such as radium and polouiuna, which were less slable thas ‘wanium. The unstable elements were called radioactive Rutherford in England and Viliard in France identified the alpha, beta, and gamma sadiaions emitted by radioac: tive elements. ‘By 1934, artificial radioactive elements had been prepared by charged particle (Cockeroft and Walton) oe etn ara) (Geter and Wal) their properties, such as half-life, were well known. Half-Life Half-life Tis the time required for half the original num- ber of atoms to decay or change to the daughter atoms? Half-life describes the probability of decay for lye mn bers of stoms nd i much more commonly tse than the actual probability 2 (decay constant) of an atoms dlsitegats ing pe nit tine. The nanber af one dose unit time can be expressed a 2. times the total amber N of parent atoms: disintegrations Aiea: ay (Fq, 10) ‘The cure (Ci) is the unit formerly used to describe decay sate a5 27 x 10" disintegrations per second (dps). The SI pate wes the Beguee (Bq), which sone disintegration Pend Thar een Sen = 008 (eam ‘where 0.693 is the natural logarithm of 2, The number of radioactive atoms or the umber of atoms decaying por unit time changes exponentially with ume, The mate of decay for a number of radioactive atoms (or intensity I of radiation from them) and the number o atoms jf any timo can bo expressed (ia terms of te) asthe nus ber n of elapsed half-lives, (&q.12) ate 7m I (®q.13) A more convenient expresion in terms of time ¢ elapsed would be: = eter (Eq.14) or the loguithmc form i 1 t | +) = coat (4.35 (+) a.69a-t Eq.15) | ‘Thos, intensity of radiation fom « quantity of radioac- tivity i plotted as a function of time on semilogarithmic coordinates, a straight line results, as shown in Fig 24 For the convenience of users, suppliers uf zadhoactve isotopes have converted these half-life oF decay charts, as shown in Fig. 24, into digital printouts of activity values for specific dats. Selection of Radiographic Sources OF the several hundred known radioactive isotopes, « ‘baudful have become widely used for radiography. The ‘remainder are unsuitable for 8 variety of reasons, incding short halflife, unacceptable radiation or energy of radiation, low available intensity andior high cost 4 ‘The following discusses the production and radiation characteristics of the four most popular radiographic sources (see Table $ und Figs. 25 and Beh, Radium-226 is no longer used for radiography because of the hazards presented hy its alpha doy i poco tadioactive daughtes (radon) and the fact that itis bone seeking element Cobalt 60 Cobalt is a magnetic metal, having a melting point of 1495 °C (2.783) and densoy of Sg oh oa ‘hat similar in physic properties to iron. Tt occurs iD nature asa single top, ebb, which change int RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 115 ARLE 3__ Characteristics of four widely used radiographic isotope sources Element caractentte covet coum tum Thala isotope «o 137 192 170 rare S27 yeas 30 years TH ns 129 dos Chemal form Gomes GsChceramic metal Toe Dena (ger) 89 19 ae 23 arm as eyes) fay Ode a31:047; 060 O004: 0052 ‘oundance of gama rays (gamma rays per integration] 10:10 os 147; 067; 0.27 0.03; 005 ngs eyecare) 31 os oe 10 ivr att moog" Rr a | mc) Ssii3) 92034) 130 048) 81 (0.0030 Fractal spec actin GB. (Ch 11850 60) 925 125) 13.000 350) 37,000,000) Paces Cog errs (err) T7008 50) 3.300 0) 300,000,000) 150,000 1004 Praccal mGym at | ment Ri! at | men!) 600/600), 330183) 44,000 400) 100 (10 Common adograptic source aces anbecauec (ere soso) 2.800975} 74mnpom as 5 inoue at tim en | 50 65) 30030) 960,96) an radioactive cobalt 60 after capturing a neutron (Co FIGURE 24. Half-life plot Cr « expire gamma rays) This isotope decays with ahalf- Ife ofS yeas by emission of beta pate and two high we . encrgy guna aj (Fig 25) resuling i the 12 MeV aver a ten gra ray ene 8 ERE tueso we acruy, "Ecleulation ofthe specific activity to be expected in 1.6 x a a Meer clues -- | 1.6 mm (0,06 x 0.06 in.) pellets of cobalt after irradiation at =o o to ‘a flux of 10" neutrons per square centimeter per second « t Sa | neutrons em) for one 16-day eyee results ina value of se 2B, FE] S3'Ci (60 ma) per pellet, or about 70 GBq @ Ci) per £ "Es Z| gramspeciicuctiity By leaving te eabaltin the eatoe for z 5 ak Iany cycles of radiation, such as a year (I7 eyeles), at 5 10! neutrons ems wil result in the above pellets having : 58 FIGURE 25. Disintegration schemes of a Cobalt, thule 70 and cestume137 Gs {diagonal arrows represent beta rays; vertical Bot “a frrows represent gamma rays: energies given “tie Laitinen ct in megaelectronvolts} dee Ry eo he acd BF [Eee ELAPSED TIME IN HALF LIVES Voltage {ilovelts| _per DI 310 Lar 6 2 470 oar 28 35 600 027 n 18 about 1 Gi of activity each. Such small pellets can be used ‘ther singly or in groups to supply the desired total activity. ‘The pellets must be encapsulated in stainless steel to facil- tate banding and to prevent smal radioactive coblt xi ton particles from entering the environment. ‘adiographers employ eobalt-60 chiefly for inspection of iron, brass, copper, and other medium weight metals with thicknesses greater Hhan 95 man (1 in.) Cabal is ration ically equivalent to a3 MeV X-ray generator, though it Emote source teom be sod oma ond ao ‘aphs through at most 200 mm (8 in.) of ste! Because ofits penetrating radiation, coball-60 i «dif cult material to shield; the average half value layer of lead is 12.7 mm (05 in). Figure 27 shows the shielding necessary to mest the 2,000 wSi-h- (200 rah) atthe surface of a ge, required for shipment on common carriers. The Teh cant fro texte box thn wich located the sphencal lead shield of stated diameter: ‘Additional requirements for packaging and shipment of radioactive isotopes are detailed in the United States Code of, ederal ions, Title 49 (Part 173), Tide 10 (Part 71), and the International Atomic Energy Agency Reg. ulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Sertes No. 6 (1979) and Safety Series No. ST (1952). Iridium-192 ‘The 743 day half-life isotope iridium-192 is produced by ‘neutron irradiation ofthe element, a white metal ofthe plt- {num Family that melts a 2.410 °C 4,370 °F) and has aden- sity of 224 gem", Natural iridium occars as two isotopes, ‘38 percent iriium-191 and 62 percent irdium-193, The lighter isotope yields the desired radioactivity. FIGURE 26, Disintegration scheme of iridium-192; eneray levels in Kilovolts; numbers in arrows are hhumbers of gamma rays per 100 alsintegrations 7 i ow Po 7s me 7 | faz . as mm Decay of iridium-1¥% proceeds chiefly by beta ray emis sion to platinum-192 but also by electron capture to ‘osmaium-192, both of which are stable, At least 24 gamma rays are known; the currently accepted decay scheme? is show in ig 28. For radiographic purposes, dm 102 radiations may be approximat shown in Table 4 Production of iridium-192 is shown in Fig. 28, which resents the results of computations for 32 x 32 mm. (0.13 % 0.13 im.) metal wafers (or pellets) inserted into the by the three gamma rays FIGURE 27. Shielding requirements for shipment of cobalt-60 in interstate commerce (lead shielding must be encased in steel to prevent shielding loss In a fire); curves refer to lead spheres in various size boxes; because the curves assume nealigible source size, source diameter must be added to pig diameter to obtain required outside diameter 9 go oe : g % 8 : 8 ge 5 go ae CC (zA0 Pc OWWETER nal Foamy cx cna Sonia | Benet PEEEISe RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 117 reactor for varying numbers of three wock cycles. These carves reach maxima both because the isotope decays dur- Ingiaaion nd beens the target materi is being grad iy used up. The curice shown are offoctice curies (the Yalues obtained ifthe gamma ray output of the wafer in Behr at 1 mis divided by 0.550). A maximum specific activ- ity of about 18.5 TBq (500 Ci) per gram of iridium is the ‘most that can Be generated in 1.6 x 6 mm (0.06 x 0.06 in) wales (or pellets) that eliminate some neutron slfabsorp- tion ler of larger wafers Tridium-192 is used widely forthe radiography of steel in sections 3.2 to 76 mm (0.18 to 30 in.) thick, where it pro- coe rcultscmilar to those fram a 1 MeV X-ray generator. However, the percent sensitivity required by some specif- cations is very difficult to achieve in stel sections less than 10 mm (0°75 in thick. ts relatively low energy permits the tse of uranium shells weighing under 18 fg G0 Tb) for source strengths of 2 to 5 TBg (60 to 125 Ci), making the ‘kotope ideal for field work where portability and smal size FIGURE 28. Production of iridium-192 in 3.2 x 3.2 mm (0.12 x 0.12 in.) metal wafers for various numbers of three-week irradiation cycles; cures (gigabecquerels) are as measured by gamma ray output; one fourth the activity will result from irradiation of 1.6 x 1.6 mm (0.06 x 0.06 in.) waters a COESERVABLE GIGABECQUERELS (OBSERVABLE CURES UNPERTURBED FLX. i Sate 118 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW are st a premium, Figure 29 gives data on container ies tnd lead sphere Gametersnetesary t shld idm 102 in interstate commerce. Thutlum-170 ‘The element thulium is one ofthe rare earth metals hav- fing a density of about 9 gm Tt exists in nature as the sin. le isotope thulium-160. Because the metal is extemely «dificult to produce, the material is generally handled as the ‘oxide TiO, ether ar an encapsulated powder of density approximately 4 geear? or sintered into pellets of density 7 gm Single neutron capture produces thlum-170. “Thuliam-170 decays wit 4 198 clay hala by emission of I MeV beta particles. In 24 pereent of the dsinegrations, FIGURE 29. Shielding requirements for shipment of iridium-192 in interstate commerce; curves refer to lead spheres in various size boxes and assume negligible vin cures ‘MULICURIES peer eenet Bet ve ws isahe iBae the mucleus is left in an excited state which is stabilized either by emission of an 4 keV gamma ray orby ejection of an orbital electron (internal conversion). Tt has been shown? that 3.1 peroent of the disintegrations result in 4 keV pasa ray emission and 3 peavent in 52 heV Xorays characteristic of yterbium, In addition to these two soft guaata, a proportion of continuous Xaations alo gener ated by develeration of the 1 MeV beta rays ia the body uf the souree. The spectra produced by a concentrated and a ) photograph (a) () RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 125 FIGURE 36, Exposure device for up to 3.7 TBq (100 Gi of iridium-192; (a) photograph: {b) diagram fab = TER AERIAL THe oo 126 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW FIGURE 37. Exposure device with crankout and guide tube FIGURE 38. Exposure device with source exchanger: (a) exchanger (left) closed, exposure device fitted with short exchange tube; (b} exchanger open and attached, ready for source transfer to the ‘exchanger (note source pigtail in left hand storage position) fa tb) FIGURE 39. Portable exposure device for up to 9.25 TBq (250 Ci} of cobalt-60 the exposure rate is from the time the shielded source is ‘obtained, through the working day, and until the sonree. is replaced into storage. Because a human cannot detect radi- ation without such a device, performing radiography with- fut a survey meter, or ignoring the inefmiment when itis available, is inexcusable. RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND SOURCES / 127 United States regulations require the use of an instru- ment that can operate in fields as low as 10 uSv-ht (I'mBch") and as high as 10 maSv-h! (1,000 mRchr). Also, the instrament must have been calbrated within 90 days (or six months in some agreement states) of its use. Survey meters designed specifically for the application must be tsed for X-ray, neutron and isotope radiography. Dosimetry Equipment In addition tothe survey meter, which provides immedi- ate information op radiation exposure, personnel dosimetry ‘equipment must be used. Generally this wil include at least f pocket dosimeter, film or thermoluainescent dosimeter (ALD) and an alarming rate meter, These devices provide a expose warning fr the operator. Procedures Procedures related to safety include (1) checking the radiographic expocien device with the survey meter at the boginning and end of the day; (2) using the survey meter during exposure of the source and whenever approaching the exposive device after an exposure: (3) placement of bar- ricades to prevent public entry into exposure areas; (4) checking radiation exposure rates atthe barricade limits; tnd (5) periodic leak tests ofthe source capsule. Should the Source capsule lose some of its radioactive material, serious Cverexposures to the radiographer and/or the public could fccur, Leakage of radioactive material from a source capsule ust be determined every sit months following manufe- tore. hall he ragrapher mast be provided wih emer ency proces and ares to experened lpi. he vent of an accident. 128 / NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OVERVIEW REFERENCES 1. Nondestructive Handbook, second edition. Vol. 3, Radiography and adiation Testing, Colum: us, OF: American Society for Nondestructive Testing (1985), 2 Evans, R.D. The Atomic Nucleus. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company (1955). 8, Johns, MW. and SV. Noble. “Disintegration of Irid- Suu-192 and Trtdtum-194.” Physics eview, Vo. 98. Woodbury, NY; American Institute of Physics (1954): p 1,599, 4 West, IL “Low-Euergy Gamma Ray Sources.” ‘Nucleonics. Vol. 11, No.2. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Book Company (1953); p 20. 5 Halmshaw. R, “Thulium-170 for tdustrial q raphy.” British Journal of Applied Physics. Vol 6 (1855): p 8. 4 Harrington, E.L.. H.E Johns, AP. Wilee and ©, Garrett: “The Fundamental Action of Intensifying Sereens in Gamma Radiography.” Canadian Jour: nal of Research. Vol. 98. Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council (1048): p 540. “Protection against Raditions from Radium, = Cobalt-60 and Cesium-197.” National Bureau of Standards (US) Handbook. No, 54. Gaithersburg, MD: National Insitute of Standards and Technol. ogy (1954) RADIATION PRINCIPLES AND souRcES / 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY Nondestructive Testing Handbook, second edition: Yok 3 Radiography and Radiation Testing. Colun- bus, OH: American Society for Nondestructive ‘Testing (1985). Becker. G.. ed. Radiographic NDT. Wilmington, DE: ELL du Pont de Nemours & Company (1990). Davis, J. Mark. Mathematical Formulas and Refer- ‘ences for Nondestructive Testing, second edition Itasca, IL: Art Room Corporation (1994) Halmshaw, R., ed. Industrial Radiography, revised edition, Morse, Belgium: Agfa-Gavaert N'. Halmshaw, R. industrial Radiology: Theory and Practice, second edition. London, United Kingdom: ‘Chapman & Hall (1995). Intemational Institute of Welding. Handbook of sraphic ‘and Technigues, second edition, Abington, United Kingdom: The Welding Institute (1973). 10, UL. Knoll, GE. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Second edition. New York. NY: John Wiley & Sons (1988). MeGuire, S.A. and C.A. Peabody. Working Sofely in Gonna Tdiography.-NUNEG/DI-0034. Wash- ington, DG: United’ States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (reprinted 156). Munro, JJ, Il and FE, Roy Jr, Gamma Radiogra- phy Radiation Safety Handbook, Burlington, MA: ‘Amersham Corporation (n.d). Quinn, R.A, and C.C. Sigh eds. Radiography in oder Tn. fourth ein. Rocher NY ‘Eastman Kodak Company (1980). Schneeman, Justin G. Industrial X-Ray Interpreta- tion. Columbus, OF: American Society for Nonde- structive Testing (1985).