You are on page 1of 18

What are the 4 ways in which the President can unilaterally advance his objectives?

1.Executive orders
3.Executive agreements
4.Presidential directives

What are executive orders? - Instructions to government officials and administrative

agencies to take certain actions to carry out policies and programs (298)

What are Proclamations? - State administrative policy to groups outside government


What are Executive Agreements? - Presidents can negotiate executive agreements with
other countries allowing them to skip the treaty process and unilaterally commit the U.S.
to international deals on trade, navigation, environmental standards and immigration

What are Presidential Directives? - In the area of national security they can be used to
establish policy across a wide range of issues (298)

What is going public? - How/when the president strategically uses campaign like
techniques and the media to promote themselves/their agendas by appealing to the
public. Their ultimate goal is to get public support to encourage Congress to push the
president's ideas through Congress.

What are the 3 side effects of presidents going public? - 1.Can alienate legislators who
feel that the president is going over their heads
2.Zero sum game rather than working towards a compromise
3.Limit the president's bargaining flexibility by putting details of their proposals on
display in advance of negotiations (306)

What are 3 the reasons presidents fail to influence public opinion? - 1.There are more
options to watch on TV now that distract people from televised presidential addresses
2.Those who are most likely to watch televised presidential addresses are generally
already highly informed/opinionated and hard to persuade.
3.Many who do watch won't remember what the president said.

Research has shown that going public can actually negatively influence public approval
of a president and their agendas. How should presidents use going public differently? -
Presidents do better when they champion issues that the public already favors.
Presidents tend to see success when they use skilled timing in their media campaigns
in moments when the public is especially open to presidential leadership (308)

What is a line-item veto? - Governors have this power but presidents don't. Line-item
vetos would have allowed presidents to veto certain expenditures in budget bills that
were intended to target pork barrel spending but it was held unconstitutional in 1998
because it gave the president's "unilateral authority to change the text of duly enacted
statutes" (297)

What is a pocket veto? - If the president receives a bill but does not sign or reject it and
returns it to Congress within 10 days of congressional adjournment. Such bills neither
become law nor are subject to a congressional veto override (296-297)

What 2 qualities do presidents need to have in order to persuade other political elites
and what do these two skills entail? - Skill:Skillful presidents recognize the limits of their
political capital and have a good sense for what is politically possible.
Will: focuses on whether the president is seen as being strongly committed to
advancing a specific agenda. A president who has realistic ambitions and is strongly
committed to them stands a better chance of success in persuasion.

Presidents are more persuasive when they advance clear, focused, achievable

What are signing statements? - The"Take care" Clause of Article II of the constitutions
says that presidents can issue signing statements to accompany bills they have signed
into law.

What are the 4 sources of cooperation and conflict between the legislative and
executive branches? - 1.Party Loyalties
President and Congress are judged by the public which gives them an incentive to work
When government is divided though these same party loyalties pull Congress and the
President apart (313)
2.Public expectations
Unified governments enact 23% more bills than divided governments (315)
The public expects government to function under conditions of both divided and unified
government (315)

3.Different constituencies
Presidents represent the entire nation while congressional members only represent a
state or district (316)
4.Different time perspectives
Members of the house only have 2 year terms which means that they have to get
legislation done more quickly than a president who has 4 years
Presidents only get a total of 8 years in office and Congressional members don't have
term limits (317)

What does the Two presidents thesis say? And which is more likely to achieve success
with congress? - One presidency is for domestic affairs, and the other is concerned with
defense and foreign policy. (310)
Presidential proposals achieve more success with congress in the international arena
than in the domestic arena (311)

What does Cooper's Balance of power attempt to analyze and how does it do this? -
Analyzes the current state of the balance of power between the president and Congress
by tracing the growth of presidential power from the early 20th century to today in the 3
main arenas of national policy making: the electoral system, the legislative system, and
the administrative system (357)

What 2 things does Cooper argue? - 1.The ability of our constitutional order to work
successfully rests on the needs for consent and the rule of law and on the need for
2.The key to preserving our constitutional order is maintaining a balanced between the
executive and legislative branches.

Why are the barriers to agreement even greater at the institutional level than the policy
level according to Cooper? - on the institutional level what is in dispute is the basic
framework of decision making (385)

What does Cooper argue we have done in history to balance conflicting views of the
goals of constitutional order and what does he think we should do in the future? - What
we have done over the course of our history is to tolerate and balance conflicting views
of the goals and needs of our constitutional order without treating any particular set of
goals and needs as so vital that damage to the others can be disregarded. We need to
continue to do this now with greater attention to the dangers of expanding presidential
power (385)

What are the 4 stages of policy making? - 1.Setting the agenda

2.Formulating policy
3.Adopting policy
4.Implementing policy

According to the stage of policy making "setting the agenda" what are the 3 ways in
which problems move onto the agenda and an example of each - 1.As a result of a
crisis or an attention grabbing event:
-Example: Sandy Hook shooting which led to renewed attention to gun control
2.Gradual accumulation of knowledge:
-Example: rising awareness of global warming
3.The accumulation of past problems that no longer can be avoided or ignored
-Example: the safety of the nation's food supply (401)

What are policy entrepreneurs? - They push agenda items by investing their time and
energy into promoting a particular issue (402)
What does the "formulating policy" step entail in policy making? - Lawmakers and
others discuss items on the political agenda and explore potential solutions.

What are the 2 important factors in determine success in the "Adopting policy" stage? -
1.Policy window: the opportunity presented by circumstances and attitudes to enact a
policy into law. 2.Once policies are ripe for adoption, they must gain popular

In the "Implementing policy" once the legislature and high level executives create policy
who puts it into effect? - A federal agency.

What are the 3 types of policy? - 1.Distributive


What is distributive policy? How does it effect interests? What are 3 examples? - -
Government actions that convey tangible benefits to private individuals, groups or firms.
These benefits are often called pork as a derogatory term for program benefits or
spending specifically designated for members' states or districts.
-It makes many interests better off and few worse off.
2.Tax breaks
3.Advantageous regulatory provisions

What is redistributive policy and why does it tend to be the most controversial type of
policy? What is 1 example? - -Government shifts resources from one group to another.
These issues tend to be ideological, dividing liberals and conservatives on fundamental
questions of equality, opportunity, and property rights.
-Example: The Affordable Care Act- paid for largely by taxes on upper-income earners,
the law provides substantial subsidies for low-and moderate income citizens to
purchase insurance (408)

What is regulatory policy? . Does it cause controversy? Give an example - -Designed to

protect the public from the harm or abuse that might result from uncontrolled private
-Can cause a lot of controversy:
-Example: the clean-air debate involves the basic issue of costs versus benefits: To the
public health benefits of cleaner air outweigh the financial costs of obtaining it?

Why have earmarks been criticized and name an example of one. - Criticized as
wasteful and unnecessary, especially in an era of rising fiscal deficits.
Example: the "bridge to nowhere"- a $230 million bridge connecting a small Alaskan
town of 8,000 to an island with 50 residents (405)

What are the 5 characteristics of congressional policy making? - 1.Bicameralism

3.Piecemeal policy making
4.Symbolic policy making
5.Reactive policy making

Bicameralism: How do the length of members terms, who they represent and the rules
they follow affect policy making in the House and Senate? - -6 year terms, allow
senators some freedom to act as statesmen for at least part of each term before the
approaching elections force them to concentrate on fence mending (409)
-House districts often promote clear positions on a narrower range of questions than
those that face the entire state.
-House rules are designed to allow majorities to have their way. Senate rules give
individual senators great latitude to influence action (409)

How does localism affect congressional policy making? - Usually programs are directed
toward states, municipalities, counties, or geographic regions.

How does piecemeal policy making after policy outcomes? - Typically policy is
piecemeal, reflecting the patchwork of committee and subcommittee jurisdictions. The
structure of a policy frequently depends on which committees have reported it (410)

What effect does symbolic Policy Making have on policy? - Bills are often passed to
give the impression that action was being taken, even when the measure adopted is
unlikely to have any real impact on the problem (410)

What does it mean for congress to be a reactive Policy Making body? - Only after
consensus has been built or crisis has focused public opinion in some unusual way, the
representatives act. In the meantime they wait until the signs are unmistakable (411)

Legislative rules say that before agencies or programs receive money, congress should
first pass authorization laws that do what 3 things? - 1. Establish or continue federal
agencies and programs
2. Define the purposes, functions and operations of programs or agencies
3. Recommend the appropriation of funds for programs and agencies (413)

What role does authorization play? - Authorization is a hunting license for an

appropriation, a law that actually supplies programs and agencies with public funds

Using the example of the pentagon asking for money for submarines explain the
appropriation process. - The House initiates appropriation bills- and the House
Appropriations Committee would recommend how much money the Pentagon should
receive for the submarines (413). The committee can then provide the requested
money, propose less funding, or refuse to fund the submarine purchase. If the House
voted to approve $10 billion The Senate appropriations committee would then act as a
court of appeals by hearing navy officials arguments for more money if the senate
agrees, a house-senate compromise is worked out, either in a conference committee or
by the bicameral exchange of amendments (414)

What are appropriations - The process by which Congress provides budget authority,
usually through the enactment of 12 separate appropriation bills (412)

What is discretionary spending? - Programs that Congress can finance as it choses

through appropriations. With the exception of paying entitlement benefits to individuals
almost everything the government does is financed by discretionary spending.
Examples: all federal agencies, congress, the white house, the courts etc. (412)

What is mandatory spending and 1 example? - Made up mostly of entitlements, which

are programs whose eligibility requirements are written into law. Anyone who meets
those requirements is entitled to the money until congress changes the law.
Examples: social security, medicare, unemployment benefits (412)

What is a continuing resolution? - Whenever Congress cannot complete action on one

or more of the 12 regular appropriation bills by the beginning of the fiscal year (October
1st) it provides temporary, stopgap funding for the affected federal agencies through a
joint resolution (415)

What is an entitlement? - Approximately ⅔ of federal spending consists of entitlements

that avoid the annual appropriations review process. Entitlement spending occurs
automatically under the terms outlined in the statute (418)

What are the 3 main things the Budget and impoundment Control Act of 1974 did? -
1.Created House and Senate Budget Committees
2. Created the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The CBO is nonpartisan and
prepares economic forecasts for Congress, estimates the costs of proposed legislation,
and issues fiscal, monetary and policy reports.
3.Limited presidential use of impoundments and established a timetable for action on
authorization, appropriation, and tax measures (422)

What is Reconciliation? - The process by which tax laws and spending programs are
changed, or reconciled to reach outlay and revenue targets set in the congressional
budget resolution. Established by the 1974 Congressional Budget Act (412)

What are the 11 steps in the budget timetable? - 1.First monday in February: President
submits budget to Congress
2.February 15th: Congressional Budget Office submit economic and budget outlook
report to Budget Committees
3.Six weeks after president submits budget: Committees submit views and estimates to
Budget Committees
4.April 1: Senate Budget Committee reports budget resolution
5.April 15: Congress completes action on budget resolution
6.May 15: Annual appropriations bills may be considered in the House, even if action on
budget resolution has not been completed
7.June 10: House Appropriation Committee reports last annual appropriations bill
8.June 15: House completes action on reconciliation legislation (if required by budget
9.June 30: House completes action on annual appropriations bills
10.July 15: President submits mid-session review of his budget to Congress
11.October 1st: Fiscal year begins (423)

What does Thurber evaluate in his chapter? - Describes the history of congressional
budget process over the last 40 years and evaluates congressional attempts to express
strong constitutional "powers of the purse" and the numerous battles with the president
over spending and revenue policies.

What is Thurber's conclusion? - The congressional budget and appropriations process

seem to be seriously broken and in need of further reform. Congress is not doing its
constitutionally required job of controlling the purse strings of the federal government

What three arguments does Thurber use to prove that Congress is not doing its
constitutional duty of controlling the purse strings of the federal government? - 1.The
budget is continuously late (336)
2.The congressional budget reforms did not operate in practice as they were expected
3.Congress has not been able to control the growth of federal spending simply because
of the various process reforms it has enacted (336)

What does Thurber warn will be the impact in the future of the recent ways that
Congress has handled the budget? - Continuing "declining confidence" in the ability of
Congress to make tough decisions about the deficit and debt will certainly have a
negative impact on U.S. markets and the world economy (338)

What are the 4 Types of legislation? - 1. Bills:

2.Joint Resolution:

Requires the approval of both houses and the president's signature, and has the force of law.

3.Concurrent Resolution:

Must be passed by both houses but does not require the president's signature and does not have the
force of law.

Used to make rules applicable to both houses.


Deals with matters within the rights of one house

It requires neither passage by the other chamber nor approval by the president and does not have the
force of law

What are the 4 major evolutions the Committee on Rules has undergone? - 1. 1910: The House rebelled
against Speaker Joseph Cannon and removed him from the Rules Committee and became independently

2.1960: Rayburn sought more control of the Rules Committee to help advance Kennedy's New Frontier
program. House agreed to add to committee and 2 new Democrats and 1 Republican were added,
minimizing conservative power.

3.1975: the Democratic Caucus authorized the Speaker to appoint, subject to party ratification, all
Democratic members of the committee.

4.Now:Become the Speaker's committee. It is a "traffic cop" for the House floor and can put major bills
first in line. A rule from the committee sets the conditions for debate and amendment.

What are the 5 special rules? - Establish the the terms for debating and amending legislation.


2.Self-Executing Rule

3.Structed Rule

4.Multiple-Step Rule

5.Suspension Day Rule

Special Rule: Queen-of-the-Hill-Rule: - A number of alternative amendments are made to the underlying
legislation and whichever gets the most votes wins

Special Rule: Self-Executing Rule - Used to reconcile the policies recommended by multiple committees,
correcting procedural or Budget Act violations, or making changes in the base bill to pick up vote to
enact the measure.

Special Rule: Structured Rule - The majority party uses these rules to minimize debate, prevent
unwanted amendments, and maximize its ability to mobilize winning majorities
Special Rule: Multiple-Step Rule - Report a rule that regulates general debate on a bill and then report
another follow-on rule to govern the amending process to the measure

Special Rule: Suspension Day Rule - This type of rule authorizes the Speaker to entertain motions to
suspend the rules on days other than Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday

How does scheduling in the Senate work? - There is a calendar of business on which are listed public and
private bills reported by the committees and a separate Executive Calendar for treaties and
nominations. The Senate has nothing comparable to the scheduling duties of the House Rules
Committee. The Senate majority leader is responsible for setting the agenda.

What are the 4 objectives of Unanimous consent and what is it? - Unanimous consent


1. Expedite work

2.Impose some measure of predictability on floor action

3. Minimize dilatory activities

4.Limit debate on the bill, any amendments, and various motions

The Senate's unanimous-consent agreements are functional equivalents of special rules from the House
Rules Committee. Both waive the rules of their respective chambers and must be approved by the
members (247)

What are the 4 steps in normal Senate floor procedures? - 1.The majority leader secures the unanimous
consent of the Senate to an arrangement that specifies when a bill will be brought to the floor and the
conditions for debating it.

2.The presiding officer recognizes the majority and minority floor managers for opening statements

3.Amendments are then in order, with debate on each amendment regulated by the terms of the
unanimous-consent agreement

4.A roll call vote takes place on final passage (249)

What is a hold in the Senate? - Allows Senators to block floor action on measures or matters by asking
their party leaders not to schedule them
What is a filibuster and cloture? - Any Senator or group of senators can talk continuously in the hope of
delaying, modifying, or defeating legislation.

A filibuster is most effective late in a session because there is insufficient time to break it.

Rule XXII now permits ⅗ of the Senate to shut off debate on substantive issues or procedural motions.
Once cloture is invoked, thirty hours of debate time remain before the final vote occurs on the matter
identified in the cloture motion

What are the 2 major way that differences are resolved? - 1.Conference committees are used to resolve
bicameral differences when the two chambers pass dissimilar versions of the same bill. A conference
ends when its report (the compromise bill) is signed by a majority of the conferees from each chamber.
The House and Senate then vote on the conference report without further amendment.

2."Ping-pong" Method: House and Senate amendments between the chambers until each house is
satisfied with the product

What are the 4 most important determines in how members will vote? - 1.Party




What are the 3 types of legislative bargaining and what does each mean? - 1.The collective-action

The challenge of merging individual goals into group achievements(285)

2.Implicit Bargaining:

Occurs when legislators take actions intended to get certain reactions from others, even though no
negotiation has taken place (286)

3.Explicit Bargaining:

Make compromise(286)

What is logrolling? - Bargaining in which members exchange support so that all parties to deal can attain
their individual.

Members agree to support one measure in exchange for later support for another measure (288)
What are the 6 steps in House floor procedures? - 1.Adoption of the Rule

2.Committee of the Whole

3.General Debate

4.The Amending Phase


6.Recommit and Final Passage

House Floor Procedures: Step 1-Adoption of the Rule - The Speaker, decides when the House will debate
a bill and under what kind of rule. The House votes on the previous rule in question motion. Its approval
brings the House to an immediate vote on the rule. Rejection of the previous question could allow the
minority party an opportunity to amend the rule (241)

House Floor Procedures: Step 2-Committee of the Whole - Function is to expedite consideration of
legislation and to promote member involvement in general debate and the amendment process

House Floor Procedures: Step 3-General Debate - A rule from the Rules Committee specifies the amount
of time for a general discussion of the bill under consideration.

House Floor Procedures: Step 4-The Amending Phase: - The amendment is brought to a vote. If there is
an open rule, opponents may try to load a bill with so many objectionable amendments that it will sink
under its own weight. The reverse strategy is to propose sweetener amendments that attract support
from other members.

House Floor Procedures: Step 5-Voting - Members vote on amendments

House Floor Procedures: Step 6 Recommit and Final Passage - Provides a way for the House to return
the bill to the committee who reported it. The motion to recommit has 2 forms:

a. "straight" motion: return the measure to committee (which effectively kills it)

b.A motion to recommit with instructions that the committee report "forthwith" which means the bill
never really leaves the House.

The motion to recommit is now frequently employed to achieve 2 political purposes:

a.To defeat or delay majority party policies

b. To force majority lawmakers to vote on "gotcha amendments".

What are the 3 factors in scheduling in the House? - 1.Suspension and privileged bills

2.Special Rules

3. Dislodging from committees

What are Suspension and privileged bills in terms of scheduling in the House? - -Suspension:

Used for saving time for noncontroversial bills and is controlled by the Speaker because he can
determine who speaks. Permits only 40 minutes of debate, allows no amendments, and requires a ⅔
vote for passage (230)

-Priviledged bills:

Budget, appropriation and a limited number of other measures are seen as prividged. The House grants
them a "ticket" to the floor (231)

What are the 4 Special Rules in terms of scheduling in the House? - 1.Move up calendar

2.Limit debate

3.Limit amendments

4.Order previous question

What is dislodging from committees: in terms of scheduling in the House? - To find a way around
committees, members have 3 options:

-1. The discharge petition: Allows the House to relieve a committee over a stalled measure. If a
committee does not report a bill within 30 legislative days after the bill was referred to it, any member
may file a discharge motion (petition) requiring the signature of 218 members.

-2.The Calendar Wednesday Rule: On Wednesdays, committees may bring up from the House Calendar
or Union Calendar their measures that have not received a rule from the rules committee. However, the
clerk will not call committees on Wednesdays unless the committee chair gives notice on Tuesday that
he or she will seek recognition to call up a measure under the rule.

-3. Ability of the Rules Committee to extract a bill from committee: The committee can propose rules
that make bills in order for House debate even if the bills have been niether introduced nor reported by
standing committees. (241)

What are the 4 theories to explain why committees are needed? - 1.Distributive theory
2.Informational Theory

3.Partisan Theory

4.Preference outliers

What does Distributive theory state the reason why committees are needed? - Legislatures create
committees to give lawmakers policy influence in areas critical to their reelection (176)

Pork Barrel: Any federal money that will go to a specific state or district

Example: construction project

What does Informational theory state the reason why committees are needed? - Provide lawmakers
with the specialized expertise required to make informed judgments in a complex world. Committees
have a diverse membership with wide-ranging perspectives. The basic goal of committees, then, is to
formulate policies that resolve national problems (176)

What does Partisan Theory state the reason why committees are needed? - Views committees as agents
of their party caucuses. According to this perspective, committee members are expected to support
their party's programs or, at minimum, not advance policies opposed by a majority of their own party

What does Preference outliers theory state the reason why committees are needed? - Members whose
homogeneous preferences for benefits to their constituents put them out of step with the heterogenous
views of the membership as a whole (176)

According to Kroger what occurred in November 2013 in terms of the Senate's use of the filibuster?
What were the short term and midterm affects of this? - In November 2013 when the Democratic
majority interpreted its rules to prohibit obstruction against executive and judicial branch nominations,
leaving only Supreme Court nominations vulnerable to a filibuster.

Short term: Allowed the democrats to approve dozens of nominations, at the cost of hours of Senate
floor time.

The medium-term: Make it more likely that senators will use the same tactic to convert the Senate into
a simple-majority legislature (326)
According to Binder we can't know if the high levels of polarization in recent times are just a hiccup and
will soon level out but there are 5 things to keep in mind before jumping to a conclusion like that: - 1.
Level of legislative deadlock have steadily risen over the past half-century

2. Even when Congress/president agree on a policy solution, it can led to new problems (202)

3. Unclear if levels of partisanship will go away

4. If we move beyond legislative productivity as the benchmark for judging congressional performance,
the assessment is still grim. Congress, in recent years, has struggled to fund federal programs on time
and to conduct effective oversight of the executive branch, while the Senate has often been wrapped in
partisan knots over the confirmation of presidential appointees.

5. Changes in the structure of electoral competition in recent decades likely alter lawmakers' calculation
about coming to the bargaining table (203)

What are the 4 steps to confirming a presidential nomination? - 1. Presidents make a nomination and
then hand them over to the Senate with hopes they will confirm the nomination.

2.Nominees are vetted

3.Confirmation hearings

4. Senate votes

What are the 3 things that can cause hiccups in the confirmation process? - 1.Fillibuster

2. Place holds on nominations: they notify party leaders that they oppose floor consideration of certain

3.Senatorial Courtesy: Senate will delay or not act on nominees for office in a state if opposed by a
senator of the president's party from that state (326)

What are the 6 steps in the Rulemaking process? - 1.Agency developed draft proposal Rule

2.OIRA reviews draft proposed rule

3. Agency publishes proposed rules

4. Agency receives comments and makes changes to proposed rules

5. OIRA reviews draft final rule

6. Agency publishes final rule and it may undergo judicial review or congressional review
What is the purpose of executive rule making? - Congress delegates the task of implementing rules and
regulations for carrying out the mandates contained in laws to the executive branch because legislators
don't have time and expertise to devise the detailed language needed to implement the goals of
complex statutes (333)

Statutory Standards for Rulemaking: What is the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) 1946? - Regulatory
agencies are required to publish a notice in the federal registrar of their proposed rulemaking. The
notice gives information about where and when people can comment on a proposed rule. The public
comment period generally runs for at least 30 days. People can testify in public about the pros or cons of
proposed regulations and can comment on federal rule making through the official website (334)

What are the 2 ways to repeal/minimize rule making regulations? - 1.The only way for a president to
stop final rule is to put the whole process in reverse and begin again (335)

2.Appoint agency officials who will slow down implementation and try to minimize enforcement (335)

What types of things are supported by administrators who are Republican and who are Democrat? -
Republicans: Administrators tend to have a pro business regulatory perspective, favoring voluntary
compliance and giving key regulatory jobs to corporate and industry officials who are keen on reducing
regulation (335)

Democrats: Tend to appoint individuals to head agencies who support worker safety and consumer and
environmental protections (335)

Before agencies can publish rules in the federal registrar what must happen? What is this persons role
and what powers do they have? - -Must be reviewed by the White House regulatory czar

-This czar is the chief of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) within the Office of
Management and Budget.

-OIRA can reject major rules, require revision, or approve them (336)

Who has authority over the federal personnel system? - Congress has authority over the federal
personnel system

What sparked the need for civil service in appointing members of executive branch? And how did
Congress react? - Civil service was created after an angry job seeker assassinated President James A.
Garfield in 1881. This prompted Congress to end the spoils system. In 1883 congress passed the first civil
service law that substituted merit for patronage.
What are recess appointments? - The Constitution says that "The President shall have power to fill up all
vacancies that may happen during a recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at
the end of their next session

Example: A recess appointee named in 2016 could serve until late 2017 (327)

Which 2 Supreme Court cases have most famously recognized Congress's oversight authority? - Watkins
v. United States (1957): Congress has broad investigatory power broad that encompasses inquiries
concerning the administration of existing laws and proposed statutes (338)

Barenblatt v. United States (1959): The Supreme court said that the scope of Congress's power of inquiry
is far reaching.

Which act and which federal office have helped Congress to formalize its oversight duties? Explain what
the act did and what the office does - -Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946: Directed all House and
Senate committees to watch over programs and agencies in their jurisdiction.

-The Government Accountability Office (GAO): Chief investigative arm of the legislative branch, provides
the House and Senate at the start of each new Congress with "high-risk" reports in the management and
accounting practices of federal agencies and departments (338)

What are the 3 main purposes of congressional oversight? - 1.Check the power of the executive branch

2.Determine how laws are being implemented and whether they need adjustments and refinements

3.Shine the spotlight of public attention on significant executive actions and activities

What are the 6 political purposes of oversight? - 1.Generates favorable publicity programs

2.Urging the elimination or reduction of agencies

3.Responding to requests from special interest to influence agency decisions

4.Winning electoral support from constituents or groups (339)

5.Opportunity to claim credit for assisting constituents and to receive favorable publicity back home

6.Poke interest groups and the media (344)

What are the 7 main oversight powers of congress? - 1.Hearings and investigations
2. Congressional vetos

3.Mandatory reports

4.Nonstatutory controls

5.Inspectors General

6.Appropriations process


What are 3 potential affects of hearings and investigations? - 1.The threat of congressional hearings is
often enough to keep agencies in line (340)

2.Make government accountable to the people.

3.They can spawn new laws change bureaucratic operations (340)

What are congressional veto and why are they beneficial for the legislative and executive branch? - -
Permit presidents or agencies to take actions subject to later approval or disapproval by one or both
house of Congress (340)

-Executives: gain decision-making authority they otherwise might not have

Congress: retains a second chance to examine decisions (340)

What are mandatory reports and what is their purpose? - Congress can require the president, federal
agencies, or departments to assess programs and report their findings. Reports can act as a mechanism
to check that laws are having the intended effect and can drive a reluctant bureaucracy to comply with
laws it would otherwise ignore (341)

What are nonstatutory controls - Congressional committees use informal means to review and influence
administrative decisions. These range from phone calls, letters, personal contacts, and informal
understandings to statements in conference reports, hearings, and floor debates (342)

What is the role of Inspectors general offices? - Congress has established inspectors general offices in
nearly every federal department and agency. IGs conduct audits and investigations of agency programs
and operations to prevent and detect fraud and abuse.
Who exercised the appropriations power? What is their role? How does the appropriations process play
in congressional oversight? - -The House and Senate Appropriations Committees, especially through
each panel's 12 standing Subcommittees.

-These panels annually recommend funding levels for federal agencies and departments so that they can
carry out their program responsibilities (343)

-By cutting off or reducing funds Congress can abolish agencies, reduce programs, or obtain requested
information (342)

What role does congress play in impeaching federal judges and members of the executive branch
including the president and vice president? - -The House has the authority to impeach an official by
majority vote. It then tries the case before the Senate, where a ⅔ vote is needed for conviction (343).

Who are the only 2 presidents to be impeached and on what grounds? - -The House impeached
President Andrew Johnson in 1868 after Radical Republicans in the House said that he had violated the
Tenure of Office Act by dismissing the secretary of war (He wasn't elected but took office when Lincoln
was shot) (344)

-In December 1998, Clinton became the first president to be impeached by the House. The charges
against Clinton were perjury and obstruction of justice. Two months later the Senate voted acquittal on
both articles of impeachment (344).