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# Damped Spectral Element Method

## A. M. Horr1*, M. Safi2 and N. Asadpour 3

1Faculty
of Engineering, IK International University, Tehran, Iran
2CivilEngrg. Department, Power & Water Institute of Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 Civil Engrg. Department, Sharif University of Tech., Tehran, Iran

(Received 8 January 2003; received in revised form 30 April 2003; accepted 5 May 2003)

Abstract: Conventional finite element method has been used successfully in linear
and nonlinear analyses in tall chimney structures. The method can be performed by
subdividing the large structure with small uniform elements having approximate shape
functions. Although this replaces a single complicated structural system with the
number of simple uniform elements, in cases of tall concrete chimney structures with
cracking and crushing behavior in concrete material and yielding in the reinforcement,
the computer time and memory can be large. Hence, it is desirable to search for a
procedure requiring lesser number of elements and also less computer time and
effort to model a structure. In this respect, attention is paid to the advanced complex
damped spectral element method, which benefits from the more accurate and also
mathematically complicated shape functions. The use of advanced spectral element
method can help engineers to design a complex structure, like a tall concrete tower,
with a lower cost and weight. Using a computer program, the proposed formulation
has been used to derive the non-linear dynamic response of tall concrete chimney.

Key words: global dynamic analysis, tall chimney, spectral element method, fractional-derivative damping model.

## 1. INTRODUCTION computational effort. In the literature, several techniques

Many authors have proposed exact and approximate have been proposed to increase the efficiency and speed
solutions for dynamic analysis of tall concrete tower of the method, but they are mainly focused on creating
structures. Although vibration damping is an important advanced computer algorithms to save computing power
aspect of many structural systems, current damping and time. So, it is necessary to search for a procedure
models are inaccurate and inadequate. These models requiring less computer time and effort to model a
are founded on mathematical convenience rather than structure. In this respect, attention is paid to the complex
on physical understanding and do not reflect the damped spectral element method which benefits from
non-linear characteristics of material and structural the speed and switching capabilities of the Fast Fourier
damping. Transform.
The application of the finite element method (FEM) As the conventional finite element method requires
to structural dynamics is popular and also successful. many elements to model the mass distribution adequately,
However, in order to guarantee stability and accuracy of the computer power and time needed for dynamic
the solution, the number of elements used to model a analysis of large complex structures is substantial. In
structure may be very large indeed; more precisely, essence, attention is paid to the alternative spectral
accurate results can be obtained only after a substantial approach which works in the frequency domain and

*Corresponding author. PO Box 19395-4691 Tehran, Iran. Email: a.horr@surrey.ac.uk; Fax: +44 1483 450984; Tel: +44 1483 686612.

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 33

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

draws its robustness from the speed and switching 2.1. Spectral Element for Axial Vibration
capabilities of the Fast Fourier Transform. As the only The idea of using the spectral solution to solve dynamic
way to efficiently solve problems with complicated problems is general, but to make matters simple, the
boundaries and discontinuities is to develop a matrix formulation for an axial element is also presented.
methodology for use on a computer, the mathematical Consider the governing differential equation of motion
basis of the spectral method can be used to develop a in the following form,
numerical method using matrix methodology. The
spectrally formulated elements can be used to model
different structural members. Moreover, an exact fre- ¶ 2u r ¶ 2 u ¶ 2u ¶ 2u
= ® 2 =l 2 (1)
quency domain approach is used to derive the element ¶x 2
E ¶t 2
¶x ¶t
matrices. As these spectral elements treat the distributed
mass exactly, only one element needs to be placed where l = r / E is a constant coefficient. The spectral
between any two joints. form of this differential equation can be written as,
In the first part of the paper, the theoretical
development of the elementary spectral element method d 2u
2
+ w 2 lu = 0 (2)
is presented. In the second part, the method is extended dx
to the complex damped spectral element, which uses the
fractional derivative damping model, and finally, a the characteristic equation in this case can be presented as,
comparative analysis is performed, highlighting the
stability, efficiency and accuracy of the method (
C w 2l - k 2 = 0 ) (3)
compared to the conventional finite element method. and the two roots are,
The spectral element formulation starts at the same
starting point as the conventional finite element k 1 = +w l ; k 2 = -w l (4)
formulation, however, it works in the frequency domain. hence, the solution is (Horr 1995a,b, 1996a,b,c),
One of the main contributions of this research work is to
show the advantages of the spectral method. The length
of the spectral element is not a limiting factor and it
u( x , t ) = å u ( x, w ) e
n
n n
iw n t
= u1 ( x, w 1 )e iw1t
allows a huge reduction in the number of elements
needed for an accurate result. The method herein, which + u2 ( x, w 2 )e iw 2 t + + un ( x , w n )e iw n t (5)
uses an exact shape function, not only does not require
a great deal of subdivision in a structure, but also, treats where un are essentially a set of discrete Fourier
the mass distribution exactly, which eliminates the coefficients. From a comparison between Eqn. 5 and the
additional effort to model the continuous mass time domain solution, it is clear that in the spectral
distribution in a structure. All the assembled equations formulation the time variational terms are formulated in
are solved in the frequency domain, and then are the frequency domain instead of a direct formulation
transformed to the time domain using a Fast Fourier in the time domain. If the spectral solution is applied
Transform. to the conventional method, it gives the following
relationships,
2. SPECTRAL ELEMENT METHOD
The spectral method of analysis concerns the synthesis
of waveforms from the superposition of many frequency
[ Kˆ ] = [ K ] - w [ M ]; [ Kˆ ] [U ] = [ F]
2
(6)

## components. The spectral approach used in the present

study is based on the exact solution of the governing
where [ K̂ ] is called the dynamic stiffness and is
frequency dependent. In the general case, Eqn. 1 can be
differential equation for the dynamic motion of
written in spectral format as follows,
structures. However, it differs from the classical method
because it uses the Fast Fourier Transform for d é du ù
conversion purposes. As the method uses discrete rather ê EA ú + w n 2 rAu = 0 (7)
dx ë dx û
than continuous transforms, the frequency range is
finite. Discrete points can be obtained by summing the If it is assumed that the stiffness and density are
components over frequency and wave numbers. The constant, the solution of Eqn. 7 is (Horr 1995a),
goal of the present research study is the development of
efficient spectral schemes for the dynamic analysis of - ik n x
structures. un ( x ) = An e + Bn ek n x (8)

## 34 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

1 n1 n2
r 2 f1 f2
where k n = w n éê ùú . Using Eqn. 8 as a shape function,
ëEû M1 L M2
x
the equation of motion can be written in spectral format as,
V1 V2

[ ]
Fˆn =
EA ˆ
L
[ ]
K n [uˆn ]
(9)
Figure 1. Typical beam element

## where the dynamic stiffness matrix can be derived as

(Horr 1996a,b), undamped beam element, the formulation can again be
started with the kinetic and strain energy considerations,
é knL -k n L ù 2
ê tan(k L ) sin (k n L ) ú
l é ¶u( x, t ) ù
[ ]
Kˆ n = ê -k n
ê nL knL ú
ú (10) T ( t ) = 1/ 2 ò 0
m( x ) ê
ë ¶t úû
dx
(15)
êë sin (k n L ) tan(k n L ) úû é ¶u ( x , t ) ù
l
2

0 ò
V (t ) = 1/ 2 EI ( x )ê
ë ¶x úû
dx

## which should be calculated at each frequency. The stress

and strain quantities can be derived as, where u( x, t ) in this case is the lateral displacement.
Note that the effects of shear deformation and rotary
s = ikEu
(11) inertia have been neglected in the calculation of the
e = iku kinetic and strain energy. Using Hamilton’s principle,
and the axial force is,
¶2 é ¶ 2u ù ¶ 2u
F = ikEAu (12) ê EI ( x ) + m ( x ) =0 (16)
¶x 2 ë ¶x 2 úû ¶t 2
A very important point in this formulation is that as Assuming constant stiffness and density
the shape function is an exact solution of the governing
differential equation, the number of rod segments in ¶ 4u ¶ 2u
EI+ rA =0 (17)
the present formulation needs only to coincide with ¶x 4 ¶t 2
the number of discontinuities. Hence, a spectral rod The simple solution of this equation can be written as,
element can be very long. However, as the spectral rod
element may be very long, the ability to calculate the u( x ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 (18)
response between nodes is necessary. If the exact shape where all coefficients are time dependent. The boundary
function is written in terms of nodal displacements conditions are,
(Horr 1995a), ¶u ¶u
u( 0 ) = u1 u(l ) = u2 ( 0) = æçè ö÷ø
æ sin k ( L - x ) ö æ sin kx ö ¶x ¶x 1
u( x) = ç ÷u + u (13)
è sin kL ø 1 è sin kL ø 2 (19)
¶u ¶u
the member load is, (l ) = æçè ö÷ø
¶x ¶x 2
æ cosk ( L - x ) ö æ coskx ö
F ( x ) = - EAk ç ÷ u + EAk è u2 (14) Consider Eqn. 17 in a different form as (Horr 1994a,
è sin kL ø 1 sin kL ø 1995c, 1996d),
As these quantities are in the transform coordinates, the
time history is obtained by using a FFT. ¶ 4 u rA ¶ 2 u ¶ 4u 2
4 ¶ u
+ = 0 ® + l =0 (20)
¶x 4 EI ¶t 2 ¶x 4 ¶t 2
2.2. Spectral Element for Flexural Vibration
To apply the spectral method of analysis to solve the where again, l4 = rA / EI is real and constant valued.
flexural vibration in a beam, the previous formulation can The spectral solution of Eqn. 20 is,
be extended to a four degree of freedom beam element - i (k n x - w n t )
(Figure 1). The spectral beam element models the mass un ( x, t ) = Ce (21)
distribution exactly, and hence can be very long as in the which gives the characteristic equation as,
case of the rod element. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli
theory for flexural vibration of the perfectly elastic (
C k 4 - w 2 l4 = 0 ) (22)

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 35

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

## k 1 = +l w ; k 2 = -l w ; ì z11 = 1 - e - iz e -z ; z12 = e - iz - e -z ; z21 = e - iz + e -z ü

ïï - iz - z
ïï
k 3 = + il w ; k 4 = - il w (23) 2 2
í z22 = 1 + e e ; det = ( z11 + z12 )/(1 + i) ý
ïz = kL ï
and the solution is (Horr 1994b, 1996e; Doyle 1989; ïî ïþ
Britton 1968),
The stiffness matrix is symmetrical, as for the
( )+ ( )
å å
i l w x + wt - i l w x - wt
u( x , t ) = C1e C2 e conventional finite element method, and the terms are
mostly complex.
+ åC e 3
iwt - l w x
+ åC e 4
iwt + l w x
(24)
2.3. Efficiency Analysis
The displacement function can also be written as a In order to assess the computational efficiency of the
superposition of different components as, spectrally formulated finite element method, parametric
studies are performed and the results are compared with
u( x, t ) = u1 ( x, w 1 )e iw1t + u2 ( x, w 2 )e iw 2 t the conventional finite element method. One of the main
advantages of the matrix methodology involved in the
+ + un ( x , w n )e iw n t (25) finite element method is that once the basic mathe-
matical derivation of the element is established, then
where un are again a set of discrete Fourier coefficients. complicated problems can be solved simply by piecing
The flexural vibration equation can be written in spectral together all these elements. The same procedure of
format as follows: assemblage can be used in the spectral finite element
method. However, the spectral element matrices are
d 4 un derived using the exact solution of the governing
EI - w n 2 rAun = 0 (26)
dx 4 differential equation, and hence it should have greater
efficiency than the conventional finite element method.
One of the solutions of this differential equation is: To examine the accuracy and efficiency of the spectral
finite element method, the dynamic stiffness matrix can
- ik n x
un ( x ) = An e + Bn e -k n x be closely examined. When the damping is zero, k, is
(27) real and the first term in the dynamic stiffness matrix for
+ Cn e - ik n ( L - x ) + Dn e -k n ( L - x )
the spectral rod and beam elements can be written
1
respectively as,
rA 4
where k = w é ù . Using Eqn. 27 as a shape
êë EI úû
function, the governing equations of motion can be
(kˆ )
11
rod
=
( EA)(kL)
L tan(kL )
(30)

## rewritten in spectral format as:

[ ] EI
[ ]
Fˆn = 3 Kˆ n [ uˆn ] (28)
(kˆ )
11
beam
=
EI
L3
L
( cos(kL )sinh(kL ) + sin(kL )cosh(kL ))(kL)3
´ (31)
[ ]
The K̂ matrix can be determined using the boundary 1 - cos(kL )cosh(kL )
conditions as
The first term in the dynamic stiffness matrix for the
conventional finite element formulation is,
ìkˆ11 = kˆ33 = (iz11z22 - z12 z21 )z 3 /det ü
ï ï EA rAL EA (kL ) EA
ïkˆ12 = - kˆ34 = 0.5(1 + i )( z11z22 - z12 z21 )z 3 L/det ï ( k11 ) rod = k11 -w 2 m11 = -w2 = - (32)
ï ï L 2 L 2
ïkˆ13 = i ( z11z 21 - z12 z22 )z 3 /det ï
í ý
ïkˆ14 = - kˆ23 = -(1 - i )( z11z12 )z L/det
2
ï 12 EI 13rAL
( k11 ) beam = k11 - w 2 m11 = -w2
ïˆ ï L 3
35
ïk22 = kˆ44 = ( z11z22 - iz12 z21 )zL /det
2
ï
12 EI 13(kL) EI
4
ïˆ ï = - (33)
ïîk24 = ( - z11z21 + iz12 z22 )zL2 /det ïþ (29) L3 35 L3

## 36 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

9
1.10
0 2
100 9
5 1.5
0 –1.10
-100 4
200 1
-200 3
400
600 0.5
1 2 (k 11) SE 800
2 L 1000
3 1
(k 11 ) SE 4 w
L (a)
5

(a)
w


12
11.8
2
11.6
11.4 1.5
0 1
-100 200
5 400
-200 600 0.5
-300
4 (k11) FE 800
L
3 1000

1 2 w (b)
2
(k11 )FE 3 1 Figure 3. Spectral and; (b) FE beam element dynamic stiffness
L 4
versus frequency (rad/sec) and element length
5
w
(b)
Figure 3 shows the same behavior for the spectral and
Figure 2. (a) Spectral and; (b) FE rod element dynamic stiffness
conventional dynamic stiffness for the beam element. A
versus frequency (rad/sec) and element length
comparison between the spectral and conventional finite
element methods shows that while they both have a
similar behavior at low frequencies, the spectral
Figure 2 shows the three dimensional plot for the first term dynamic stiffness intersects the zero axis a number of
of the spectral dynamic stiffness matrix of rod element times in a higher range of frequencies. However, the
versus frequency and element length. For a constant conventional finite element formulation shows a single
element length in Figure 2(a), as the frequency increases intersection with the zero axis even in the higher
the number of intersections increase and it is also true frequency range.
for a constant frequency and various lengths. However,
Figure 2(b) shows a different behavior for the finite 3. NON-LINEAR SPECTRAL
element dynamic stiffness with a single intersection. In FRAME ELEMENT
physical terms, it means that for the conventional finite The effect of cracking, crushing in concrete material and
element formulation to have the same accuracy as the yielding in steel reinforcement can be incorporated in
spectral method, it is necessary to subdivide a member. the spectral element method simply by substituting a
The degree of subdivision depends on the range of fractional derivative complex module in the spectrum
required frequencies. Only with a very large number of relation. The mathematical basis of the generalized
elements would the conventional method match the integro-differential operators to arbitrary order can be
spectral method in the required range of frequency. dated back to the nineteenth century. The concept of using

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 37

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

fractional calculus in the formulation of constitutive elements in the conventional finite element method are
equations for engineering materials has been proposed used for the three-dimensional modeling of solid
during the last 50 years. In particular, a number of authors structures. These elements are defined by corner nodes
have explicitly used fractional calculus as an empirical having three degrees of freedom at each node. The failure
method of describing the properties of viscoelastic of brittle concrete material including both cracking and
materials. The traditional differential operators are crushing failure modes may be taken into account. The
typically employed in the formulations of complex failure mode of concrete material due to multi-axial
viscoelastic constitutive relationships. An example of stress condition may be written as,
fractional operators has been presented in appendix
P
A. However, the advantages of fractional operators in -S³0 (34)
establishing a richer variety of functional families, and fc¢
hence the possibility of improved generalized integro-
differential type curve fitting of constitutive relationships, where P is a function of principal stress condition, fc¢
have attracted much attention in recent years. is a uni-axial crushing strength of concrete material and
There are several mathematical possibilities to establish S is failure surface, which is a function of principal
a generalized integro-differential calculus of any stresses and strength parameters. The concrete
fractional order. However, from a physical point of view, material model will crack if any principal stress is in the
attention should be given to that method which is capable tension state while the material would crush if all
of more accurate modeling of physical applications. principal stresses are compressive. Figures 4 to 6 show
Many problems in physical science and engineering, e.g. the conventional concrete element with its fracture
constitutive relation theory, potential theory and surface.
transport theory, can be solved by using the fractional
derivative approach. Fractional-derivative stress-strain 3.2. Formulation of Fractional Derivative Model
constitutive relationships for concrete material not only The concept of using a fractional-derivative model in
describe the mechanical properties like cracking and the formulation of viscoelastic damped structures has
crushing, but lead to straightforward solutions of the been proposed previously Bagley (1979), but, these
spectral element equations of motion for damped attempts to solve the resulting equation of motion for the
structures. structure lead to long and tedious calculation, with long
computer times and large memory requirements. One of
3.1. Conventional Smeared Concrete the simplest of these models is to use a complex constant
FE Element modulus in which the constitutive relationship is
The concrete element is essentially a brick solid element, formulated using the complex uniaxial, biaxial or triaxial
which models the concrete material behavior. The brick modulus. The general form of constitutive equation for

K, L, O
Z
TOP
N
P M J
I
LN=NL
K

O
N
L
P Z J
M
LN=1
Y X
BOTTOM
I
Y

X
Figure 4. Concrete finite element smeared element

## 38 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

4 M
O,P
P
5
N
O

6 I K,L

J
M N
Z Prism Option
z (rebar)
2
f
L M,N,O,P
Y y 3
X q I
x K
K,L

I J
1 Tetrahedral Option
J

## Figure 5. Solid concrete finite element smeared element

the concrete material can be written in fractional where the time variational terms are formulated in the
derivative form as (Horr 1995a, Bagley 1979), frequency domain instead of a direct formulation in the
time domain, and ŝ ( iw ) and ê (iw ) are the stress and
M N strain histories in transform coordinates. The more
s (t) + å ai D i [s (t )] = e0 e (t ) + å f D [ e ( t )]
b cj
j (35) familiar relationship between stress and strain can be
i =1 j =1 obtained by rewriting Eqn. 37 as (Horr 1995a),
e + f ( iw )
c
where ai , bi , c j , e0 and fi are model parameters. Using sˆ ( iw ) = b e ( iw )
ˆ (38)
only the first fractional derivative term in each series, 1 + a( iw )
the result is a five parameter model expressed as, which can be written as,
s ( t ) + a D b [s ( t )] = e e ( t ) + f D c [e ( t )] e + f ( iw )
c
(36)
sˆ (iw ) = Eˆ (w )eˆ( iw ), Eˆ (w ) = (39)
1 + a( iw )
b

## Taking the Fourier transform of Eqn. 36 leads to,

which is similar to s = Ee for elastic materials.
sˆ (iw ) + a ( iw ) b sˆ (iw ) = eeˆ( iw ) + f ( iw ) c eˆ (iw ) (37) However, in the concrete fractional derivative model the

szp

fc

## r2 sxp = syp = szp

r1

r2
r1

r1 r2
h
syp

fc
s xp

fc Octahedral Plane

Figure 6. Fracture surface used for nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete material

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 39

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

modulus is complex, frequency dependent and, most the sectional modulus in the element due to the cracking,
importantly, it is a function of fractional powers of crushing and yielding. Another important point here is
frequency. A more comprehensive discussion about that the dynamic stiffness matrix includes the damping
fractional derivative model can be found in Horr (1995a). effects, therefore there is no need to assemble an
individual damping matrix for the structure. The same
3.3. Spectral Concrete Frame Element procedure may be followed for the spectral beam element
Consider the governing differential equation of motion to obtain the fractional derivative dynamic stiffness. For
for a rod element as, a small displacement, the axial and flexural displace-
ments are uncoupled and the total fractional dynamic
d 2u stiffness matrix for the two-dimensional frame element
+ w 2 lu = 0 (40)
dx 2 in the local coordinate system can be derived as (Bathe
1982, Clough 1996),
where l = r /E. The damped from of the equation can be
written as, ék11Rod 0 0 k12 Rod 0 0 ù
ê ú
ê k11Beam k12 Beam 0 k13 Beam k14 Beam ú
d 2u ê k24 Beam ú
+ w 2 l ( iw )u = 0
dx 2
(41)
[ Kˆ ]
ec =ê
ê
k22 Beam 0
k22 Rod
k23 Beam
0 0 ú
ú

## r ê Sym. k33 Beam k34 Beam ú

where in this case l (iw ) = . The only change that ê ú
E ( iw ) êë k44 Beam úû
occurs in the spectral relation for the damped rod (46)
element is (Horr 1995a),
It should be noted that any combination of axial, lateral
1 1 and torsional actions can be augmented in the general
k c = ±w ( l ) ¾ ¾¾¾® k f = ±w [ l ( iw )]
2
fractional
2 (42) dynamic stiffness matrix (for example, if an axial twist
is acting along the length instead of the axial force,
where subscripts c and f represent the conventional and the rod terms can be replaced by torsional terms).
fractional derivative module cases, respectively, which The description of the dynamic stiffness for three-
gives the following spectral relation when the fractional dimensional frames follows from the assumption that the
derivative constitutive relation is employed, response of a general member is a simple superposition
of axial, lateral and twisting actions. Hence, the twelve
1 by twelve dynamic fractional dynamic stiffness matrix
k f = ±w ê
( ú
)
é 1 + a( iw ) b r ù 2
(43)
can be assembled by using the same procedure as
ê e + f ( iw ) ú
c
ë û é
ê [ Kˆ ]11ec [ Kˆ ]ùú
12 ec

[ ] Kˆ ec =ê ú (47)
and the fractional derivative element shape function can
be written as (Horr 1995a,1997),
ê
êë [ Kˆ 21ec ] [ ]
Kˆ 22 ec úú
û

## æ sin k f ( L - x ) ö æ sin k f x ö 4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

uˆ( x ) = ç ÷ u1 + ç sin k L ÷ u2 (44) In this section, the application of the Fractional-Spectral
è sin k f L ø è f ø element method developed in the preceding sections
is investigated. Two different set of analytical models
Thus the dynamic stiffness matrix, which includes the have been used to find the nonlinear dynamic response
fractional derivative module effects, is, of tall concrete chimneys. Figure 7 shows a sample
é kfL -k f L ù finite element model for the three-dimensional concrete
chimney structure in which the fine meshed concrete
ê
(
tan k f L )
sin k f L ú(
ú
)
[ ]
ˆ ê
K f = -k
ê fL kfL ú (45) solid elements (conventional smeared elements by
William 1975) is used to investigate the nonlinear
ê ú
(
êë sin k f L ) (
tan k f L úû ) dynamical responses. Finite element models of concrete
chimney with different geometries have been developed
The effect of fractional derivative module in the spectrum using the ANSYS Ver. 5.6 general-purpose finite
relation and the dynamic stiffness matrix is to decrease element program (Ansys 1999).

## 40 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

ANSYS 5.4
MAY 23 2001
13:53:43
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=1
SUB =1
FREQ=1.646
USUM (AVG)
RSYS=0
Power Graphics
EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
DMX=.007049
SMX=.007049
0
.783E-03
.001566
.00235
.003133
.003916
.004699
.005482
.006266
.007049

## In the second set of models, the proposed fractional-

spectral frame elements have been used to develop an Figure 8. First natural mode shape for the concrete chimney
equivalent numerical model. Eqn. 39 is used to model
the non-linear modulus for concrete material in a three- the Lanczos algorithm. This complex analysis leads to
dimensional fractional-spectral model for the concrete the complex eigenvalues from which the imaginary
chimney structures. The program CDSET (CDSET 2002), part represents the damped natural frequency, and the
developed by authors, has been used for the damped real part is a measure of the stability of the system. Due
spectral dynamic analyses. All the structural material to space consideration the results for two sample
data are given in Table 1, where the complex modulus chimneys have been showcased here. Figures 8 to 12
parameters have been found using sensitivity analyses.
A set of modal analyses has been performed using
finite element models to obtain basic dynamic ANSYS 5.4
MAY 23 2001
characteristic of tower structures. Two different modal 13:54:07
analyses have been performed, undamped and damped. NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=1
The eigenvalues for the undamped model have been SUB =3
found using the highly accurate subspace iteration FREQ=9.637
USUM (AVG)
technique, which internally uses the generalized Jacobs RSYS=0
iteration algorithm. For the damped model, the Power Graphics
EFACET=1
complex modal analysis has been performed using AVRES=Mat
DMX=.00703
SMX=.00703
0
Table 1. Mechanical parameters used in this study .781E-03
.001562
.002343
Parametere .003125
Definition Symbol Value Unit .003906
.004687
Elasticity Modulus Ec 2.0e10 MPa .005468
.006249
Damping Parameter a 3.10 — .00703
Damping Parameter b 0.52 —
Damping Parameter c 0.53 —
Damping Parameter fr 5.2e11 MPa
Poisson Ratio n 0.15 —
Density g 2500 kg/m3
Compressive Strength fc 25 MPa
Concrete Tensile Strength ft 10 MPa Figure 9. Third natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 41

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

## ANSYS 5.4 ANSYS 5.4

MAY 23 2001 MAY 23 2001
13:55:41
13:54:53 NODAL SOLUTION
NODAL SOLUTION STEP=1
STEP=1 SUB=7
SUB =5 FREQ=24.625
FREQ=15.581 USUM (AVG)
USUM (AVG) RSYS=0
RSYS=0 Power Graphics
Power Graphics EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
EFACET=1
DMX=.006994
AVRES=Mat SMX=.006994
DMX=.005245 0
SMX=.005245 .777E-03
0 .001554
.583E-03 .002331
.001166 .003109
.001748 .003886
.002331 .004663
.002914 .00544
.003497 .006217
.00408 .006994
.004662
.005245

Figure 12. Seventh natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

Figure 10. Fifth natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

## not been shown due to the axi-symmetrical shape of the

show the first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh natural tower.
mode shapes for the case of concrete chimney with the The fractional-spectral models consists of spectral
height of 30 m where Table 2 shows the first tenth frame elements in which the complex modulus has been
natural frequencies for chimney tower with the height of used to take into account the cracking, crushing and
H = 30 m. The symmetrical natural mode shapes have yielding in the reinforced concrete material. The hard-
ening part of stress-strain curve for the steel reinforcement
has been modeled using multi-linear kinematic
ANSYS 5.4 hardening rule. A set of fractional parameters ( a, b, c, fr )
MAY 23 2001
13:55:09 have been used to calculate the complex modulus
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=1
( )
Ê w for the frame elements, as shown in Table 1.
SUB=6 A short duration impulsive dynamical Excitation
FREQ=23.629 (Figure 13) have been applied at the base of concrete
USUM (AVG)
RSYS=0 chimney. The magnitude of the displacement has been
Power Graphics
EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
DMX=.005006
SMX=.005006
0
Table 2. Natural frequencies for the chimney tower
.556E-03 (H=30 m, Din=1.3 m, t=0.1 m)
.001112
.001669
.002225 Natural Mode of Vibration Frequency (Hz.)
.002781
.003337 1 1.646
.003893 2 1.652
.004449
.005006 3 9.637
4 9.643
5 15.581
6 23.629
7 24.625
8 24.668
9 27.546
Figure 11. Sixth natural mode shape for the concrete chimney 10 27.784

## 42 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

## chosen so as to develop the nonlinear dynamical responses

10.0
in towers. The comparison of top lateral displacements
Base for two set of models are presented in Figure 14 where
Displacement the global lateral responses are compared for the con-
(cm) ventional smeared finite element and the fractional-
spectral models. The geometric parameters of these two
0.0 sample chimneys have also been presented in Figure 14.
0.0 1.0 2.0 To calibrate the complex modulus to take into account
Time (seconds) the nonlinear characteristics of concrete materials, a set
Figure 13. Base excitation used for dynamic analysis
of sensitivity analyses have been performed on two set
of concrete chimney
of tower structures. Figure 15 shows the variation of

## H=30m Din=1.3m t=0.1m

0.15
Finite element method
0.03
Spectral element method
0.11
Top displacement [m]

0.09

0.07

0.05

0.03

0.01

-0.03
Time [sec]
(a)

## 0.1 Spectral element method

Top displacement [m]

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5
-0.02
Time [sec]
(b)
Figure 14. Top lateral displacement of concrete chimney for FE and proposed methods

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 43

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

0.0014

0.0012

## Drift Ratio Error

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0
0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56
b

0.0012

0.001
Drift Ratio Error

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0
0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56

0.0008
0.0007
Drift Ratio Error

0.0006
0.0005
0.0004
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9

Fr *e11

## Figure 15. Sensitivity analysis for fractional-derivative modulus parameters

modulus parameters based on the differences in the optimum complex modulus have been used in a set
mean total drift ratio of two towers with the height of 20 of nonlinear dynamical analyses. Table 3 shows the
and 30 meters consequently. The amount of total drift comparison in CPU time for the finite element and the
ratio errors for two models have been plotted verses the proposed Fractional-spectral models. As it appears from
individual modulus parameters. The optimum values for the results, a huge computer time saving has been
the parameters have been chosen as to create a minimum achieved using the proposed method for the global
response error. Based on the sensitivity analyses, the nonlinear dynamical responses of concrete chimneys.

## 44 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

## Tower Geometry [m] CPU Time [Sec] SE/FE [%]

Tower External Shell FE Proposed Percent Ratio
Height Diameter Thickness Method Method of CPU Times
15 1 0.1 5548 175 3.15
20 1.2 0.1 5992 168 2.80
24 1.2 0.1 6540 181 2.77
28 1.25 0.1 7033 178 2.53
30 1.3 0.1 8881 160 1.80
32 1.3 0.15 9765 155 1.59
35 1.35 0.15 10250 170 1.66

5. COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS results in much less computer time and power (almost
It can be concluded that the frequency domain equations 2.5 % of the FE solution time on an IBM Pentium III).
of motion for damped three dimensional chimney The opportunity to investigate the consequences of the
structures can be constructed and solved in a straight- period changing during non-linear dynamic analysis of
forward manner when mechanical characteristic of reinforced concrete structures (Period Tracing) will be
the reinforced concrete material are portrayed using the considered, and this will be the subject of a subsequent
fractional derivative model. The fractional derivative paper.
non-linear model allows for the continuous transition
from the viscous state to the solid state. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The theoretical basis of the spectral element method The technical support and cooperation by the
of analysis has been presented and it has been shown R&D Department of the Paymabargh Power Engineering
that the method is capable of making accurate prediction Contractor Company is gratefully acknowledged.
of the frequency-dependent dynamic characteristic of
reinforced concrete chimney towers. The approach is
unique, as the conventional finite element treatment REFERENCES
appears to have a lack of physical meaning. The non- Ansys (1999). General Purpose Finite Element Program, Revision
linear damping solution was shown graphically, and the 5.6, Ansys Co., USA.
consistency of method has been investigated. As it Britton, W. G. B. and Langley, G. O. (1968). “Stress pulse dispersion
appears from the presented analytical methods, the main in curved mechanical waveguides”, J. of Sound and Vibration,
advantage of the spectral method lies in its capability to Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 417-430.
model a long length of uniform section as one element, Bagley, R. L. (1979). Application of Generalized Derivatives to
and also its non-linear damping characteristic in a single Viscoelasticity, Ph.D. dissertation, Air Force Institute of
formulation. Technology, Ohio, USA.
As far as stability and efficiency are concerned, it can Bathe, K. J. (1982). Finite Element Procedure in Engineering
be assessed that even though the assemblage of global Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
matrices has to be repeated for all frequency components Clough, R. W. and Penzien, J. (1996). Dynamics of Structures,
in comparison with the single assemblage procedure for McGraw-Hill, New York.
the conventional finite element method, the spectral Doyle, J. F. (1989). Wave Propagation in Structures, Berlin,
element approach completely outperforms the conven- Springer-Verlag.
tional method in the nonlinear dynamic analysis of CDSET (2002). Complex Damped Spectral Element Technique,
three-dimensional concrete chimney structures (CPU Version 3.0, Paymabargh R&D Department, Tehran, Iran.
time for the new approach is almost less than 2.5 percent Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1994a). “A comparative study of
of conventional method). Furthermore, the proposed performance of various finite element methods for the vibration
method is capable of dealing with structural dampers, of a beam”, Proceeding of Int. Conf. on Computational Methods
with frequency-dependent damping behavior, in a linear in Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Hong Kong, Vol. 2,
manner without need of iteration. A fully documented pp. 618-623.
example has been solved, and it has been shown that the Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1994b). “Comparative study of
proposed method is capable of producing accurate performance of various methods for vibration of Timoshenko

## Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 45

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

beams”, Proceeding Australasian Struct. Engrg., Sydney, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 12, No. 2,
Australia, Vol. 1, pp. 489-494. p. 59-67.
Horr, A. M. (1995a). Energy Absorption in Structural Frames, Ph.D. William, K. J., and Warnke, E. D. (1975). “Constitutive model for
Dissertation, University of Wollongong, Australia. the triaxial behavior of concrete”, Proceeding International
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1995b). “Closed form solution Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Vol. 19,
for the Timoshenko theory using a computer based mathematical ISMES, Bergamo, Italy, pp. 174-180.
package”, Computers & Structures, Vol. 55, No. 3, p.
405-412. APPENDIX I. Example of
Horr, A. M. (1995c). “A non-linear damping model for design of a Fractional Operators
satellite antenna”, First Conf. Space Tech. & Developing In order to show the basic definition utilized in fractional
Countries, Tehran, Iran, Vol. 1, p. 233-239. calculus, consider the following function,
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996a). “Dynamic response of a
damped large space structure: A new fractional-spectral
f ( x ) = Lx n (A-1)
approach”, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 10, which can be expanded into a power series with positive
No. 2, p. 134-141. exponents. The fractional derivative for the qth order
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996b). “Modeling of non-linear gives,
damping characteristic of a viscoelastic structural damper”,
dq
Engineering Structures, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 154-161. = Ln( n - 1)...( n - q + 1) x n - q (A-2)
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996c). “Frequency domain dx q
dynamic analysis of large space structures with added elastomeric
dampers”, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 11, No. 3, This operator can be rewritten as,
p. 279-289.
dq n!
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996d). “A fractional-spectral
q = L x n-q (A-3)
method for vibration of damped Space structures”, Int. J. of dx ( n - q )!
Engineering Structure, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 947-956.
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996e). “A spectrally formulated where the value of q can be any integer or fraction
finite element method for vibration of a tubular structure”, number. Figure A-1 shows a series of fractional deriv-
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 3, atives of different orders plotted against the variable
p. 209-226. x for the function f ( x ) = x 5. It can be seen that the
Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1997). “Complex fractional-spectral fractional functions are an interpolation between the
method for space curved struts: theory and application”, integer values.

## 2. d 0.5 /dx0.5 [ f (x)] =2.29258 x4.5

100
3. d1/dx1 [ f (x)] =5x4
80 (3)
4. d1.5/dx1.5 [ f (x)] =10.3166 x3.5

f (x) 60
(2)

40
(1)

20

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

x
Figure A-1. Fractional operators of the function f(x) verses variable x

## 46 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 7 No. 1 2004

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

## APPENDIX II. Notation [K] Stiffness matrix

Symbol Description k̂ Spectral dynamic stiffness member
A Cross sectional area of member L Length of the element
a First modulus parameter [M] Mass matrix
b second modulus parameter r Density
[C] Viscous damping matrix w Natural frequency
c Fifth modulus parameter z Damping ratio
D[ ] Fractional operator k Wave number
E Young’s modulus h Loss factor
Ê Longitudinal complex module s Stress
e0 Third modulus parameter sy yield stress
F< > Fourier transform function e Strain
f Fourth modulus parameter
G Shear modulus
Ĝ Shear complex module

Amir Masoud Horr has got his M.Sc from University of New South Wales at 1992,
Sydney, Australia. He has got his PhD from Wollongong Univ., Sydney, Australia at 1995.
He has also got a post doctorate degree from Wollongong Univ., Sydney-Australia at
1996 and is currently an Associate Professor of computational mechanics at the
IK International University, Iran, and a researcher at the Space Structure Center of the
University of Surrey at UK.
Tel: +44 1483 686612 / Fax: +44 1483 450984
PO Box 19395-4691, Tehran, Iran
Email: a.horr@Surrey.ac.uk

Mohammad Safi has got his M.Sc. from Tehran University at 1997, Tehran, Iran.
He is a PhD student at the Amir Kabir University of Technology at Tehran since 1998.
He is also currently a senior lecturer at the Power & Water Institute of Technology at
Tehran, Iran.
Tel: +98 21 731 3062 / Fax: +98 21 879 4671
PO Box 19395-6869, Tehran, Iran
Email: msafi@pwit.ac.ir

Naser Asadpour has got his M.Sc from Sharif University of Technology in 2000. He is
now a senior Structural Engineer at technical Department of Yademan Sazeh Co.,
Tehran, Iran, and is working on the analysis and design of Milad 435 meter tower (fourth
tallest structure in the world) in Tehran, Iran.
Tel: +98 21 8885951/Fax: +98 21 8794671
PO Box 19395-4691, Tehran, Iran