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1Faculty

of Engineering, IK International University, Tehran, Iran

2CivilEngrg. Department, Power & Water Institute of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Civil Engrg. Department, Sharif University of Tech., Tehran, Iran

(Received 8 January 2003; received in revised form 30 April 2003; accepted 5 May 2003)

Abstract: Conventional finite element method has been used successfully in linear

and nonlinear analyses in tall chimney structures. The method can be performed by

subdividing the large structure with small uniform elements having approximate shape

functions. Although this replaces a single complicated structural system with the

number of simple uniform elements, in cases of tall concrete chimney structures with

cracking and crushing behavior in concrete material and yielding in the reinforcement,

the computer time and memory can be large. Hence, it is desirable to search for a

procedure requiring lesser number of elements and also less computer time and

effort to model a structure. In this respect, attention is paid to the advanced complex

damped spectral element method, which benefits from the more accurate and also

mathematically complicated shape functions. The use of advanced spectral element

method can help engineers to design a complex structure, like a tall concrete tower,

with a lower cost and weight. Using a computer program, the proposed formulation

has been used to derive the non-linear dynamic response of tall concrete chimney.

Key words: global dynamic analysis, tall chimney, spectral element method, fractional-derivative damping model.

Many authors have proposed exact and approximate have been proposed to increase the efficiency and speed

solutions for dynamic analysis of tall concrete tower of the method, but they are mainly focused on creating

structures. Although vibration damping is an important advanced computer algorithms to save computing power

aspect of many structural systems, current damping and time. So, it is necessary to search for a procedure

models are inaccurate and inadequate. These models requiring less computer time and effort to model a

are founded on mathematical convenience rather than structure. In this respect, attention is paid to the complex

on physical understanding and do not reflect the damped spectral element method which benefits from

non-linear characteristics of material and structural the speed and switching capabilities of the Fast Fourier

damping. Transform.

The application of the finite element method (FEM) As the conventional finite element method requires

to structural dynamics is popular and also successful. many elements to model the mass distribution adequately,

However, in order to guarantee stability and accuracy of the computer power and time needed for dynamic

the solution, the number of elements used to model a analysis of large complex structures is substantial. In

structure may be very large indeed; more precisely, essence, attention is paid to the alternative spectral

accurate results can be obtained only after a substantial approach which works in the frequency domain and

*Corresponding author. PO Box 19395-4691 Tehran, Iran. Email: a.horr@surrey.ac.uk; Fax: +44 1483 450984; Tel: +44 1483 686612.

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

draws its robustness from the speed and switching 2.1. Spectral Element for Axial Vibration

capabilities of the Fast Fourier Transform. As the only The idea of using the spectral solution to solve dynamic

way to efficiently solve problems with complicated problems is general, but to make matters simple, the

boundaries and discontinuities is to develop a matrix formulation for an axial element is also presented.

methodology for use on a computer, the mathematical Consider the governing differential equation of motion

basis of the spectral method can be used to develop a in the following form,

numerical method using matrix methodology. The

spectrally formulated elements can be used to model

different structural members. Moreover, an exact fre- ¶ 2u r ¶ 2 u ¶ 2u ¶ 2u

= ® 2 =l 2 (1)

quency domain approach is used to derive the element ¶x 2

E ¶t 2

¶x ¶t

matrices. As these spectral elements treat the distributed

mass exactly, only one element needs to be placed where l = r / E is a constant coefficient. The spectral

between any two joints. form of this differential equation can be written as,

In the first part of the paper, the theoretical

development of the elementary spectral element method d 2u

2

+ w 2 lu = 0 (2)

is presented. In the second part, the method is extended dx

to the complex damped spectral element, which uses the

fractional derivative damping model, and finally, a the characteristic equation in this case can be presented as,

comparative analysis is performed, highlighting the

stability, efficiency and accuracy of the method (

C w 2l - k 2 = 0 ) (3)

compared to the conventional finite element method. and the two roots are,

The spectral element formulation starts at the same

starting point as the conventional finite element k 1 = +w l ; k 2 = -w l (4)

formulation, however, it works in the frequency domain. hence, the solution is (Horr 1995a,b, 1996a,b,c),

One of the main contributions of this research work is to

show the advantages of the spectral method. The length

of the spectral element is not a limiting factor and it

u( x , t ) = å u ( x, w ) e

n

n n

iw n t

= u1 ( x, w 1 )e iw1t

allows a huge reduction in the number of elements

needed for an accurate result. The method herein, which + u2 ( x, w 2 )e iw 2 t + + un ( x , w n )e iw n t (5)

uses an exact shape function, not only does not require

a great deal of subdivision in a structure, but also, treats where un are essentially a set of discrete Fourier

the mass distribution exactly, which eliminates the coefficients. From a comparison between Eqn. 5 and the

additional effort to model the continuous mass time domain solution, it is clear that in the spectral

distribution in a structure. All the assembled equations formulation the time variational terms are formulated in

are solved in the frequency domain, and then are the frequency domain instead of a direct formulation

transformed to the time domain using a Fast Fourier in the time domain. If the spectral solution is applied

Transform. to the conventional method, it gives the following

relationships,

2. SPECTRAL ELEMENT METHOD

The spectral method of analysis concerns the synthesis

of waveforms from the superposition of many frequency

[ Kˆ ] = [ K ] - w [ M ]; [ Kˆ ] [U ] = [ F]

2

(6)

study is based on the exact solution of the governing

where [ K̂ ] is called the dynamic stiffness and is

frequency dependent. In the general case, Eqn. 1 can be

differential equation for the dynamic motion of

written in spectral format as follows,

structures. However, it differs from the classical method

because it uses the Fast Fourier Transform for d é du ù

conversion purposes. As the method uses discrete rather ê EA ú + w n 2 rAu = 0 (7)

dx ë dx û

than continuous transforms, the frequency range is

finite. Discrete points can be obtained by summing the If it is assumed that the stiffness and density are

components over frequency and wave numbers. The constant, the solution of Eqn. 7 is (Horr 1995a),

goal of the present research study is the development of

efficient spectral schemes for the dynamic analysis of - ik n x

structures. un ( x ) = An e + Bn ek n x (8)

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

1 n1 n2

r 2 f1 f2

where k n = w n éê ùú . Using Eqn. 8 as a shape function,

ëEû M1 L M2

x

the equation of motion can be written in spectral format as,

V1 V2

[ ]

Fˆn =

EA ˆ

L

[ ]

K n [uˆn ]

(9)

Figure 1. Typical beam element

(Horr 1996a,b), undamped beam element, the formulation can again be

started with the kinetic and strain energy considerations,

é knL -k n L ù 2

ê tan(k L ) sin (k n L ) ú

l é ¶u( x, t ) ù

[ ]

Kˆ n = ê -k n

ê nL knL ú

ú (10) T ( t ) = 1/ 2 ò 0

m( x ) ê

ë ¶t úû

dx

(15)

êë sin (k n L ) tan(k n L ) úû é ¶u ( x , t ) ù

l

2

0 ò

V (t ) = 1/ 2 EI ( x )ê

ë ¶x úû

dx

and strain quantities can be derived as, where u( x, t ) in this case is the lateral displacement.

Note that the effects of shear deformation and rotary

s = ikEu

(11) inertia have been neglected in the calculation of the

e = iku kinetic and strain energy. Using Hamilton’s principle,

and the axial force is,

¶2 é ¶ 2u ù ¶ 2u

F = ikEAu (12) ê EI ( x ) + m ( x ) =0 (16)

¶x 2 ë ¶x 2 úû ¶t 2

A very important point in this formulation is that as Assuming constant stiffness and density

the shape function is an exact solution of the governing

differential equation, the number of rod segments in ¶ 4u ¶ 2u

EI+ rA =0 (17)

the present formulation needs only to coincide with ¶x 4 ¶t 2

the number of discontinuities. Hence, a spectral rod The simple solution of this equation can be written as,

element can be very long. However, as the spectral rod

element may be very long, the ability to calculate the u( x ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 (18)

response between nodes is necessary. If the exact shape where all coefficients are time dependent. The boundary

function is written in terms of nodal displacements conditions are,

(Horr 1995a), ¶u ¶u

u( 0 ) = u1 u(l ) = u2 ( 0) = æçè ö÷ø

æ sin k ( L - x ) ö æ sin kx ö ¶x ¶x 1

u( x) = ç ÷u + u (13)

è sin kL ø 1 è sin kL ø 2 (19)

¶u ¶u

the member load is, (l ) = æçè ö÷ø

¶x ¶x 2

æ cosk ( L - x ) ö æ coskx ö

F ( x ) = - EAk ç ÷ u + EAk è u2 (14) Consider Eqn. 17 in a different form as (Horr 1994a,

è sin kL ø 1 sin kL ø 1995c, 1996d),

As these quantities are in the transform coordinates, the

time history is obtained by using a FFT. ¶ 4 u rA ¶ 2 u ¶ 4u 2

4 ¶ u

+ = 0 ® + l =0 (20)

¶x 4 EI ¶t 2 ¶x 4 ¶t 2

2.2. Spectral Element for Flexural Vibration

To apply the spectral method of analysis to solve the where again, l4 = rA / EI is real and constant valued.

flexural vibration in a beam, the previous formulation can The spectral solution of Eqn. 20 is,

be extended to a four degree of freedom beam element - i (k n x - w n t )

(Figure 1). The spectral beam element models the mass un ( x, t ) = Ce (21)

distribution exactly, and hence can be very long as in the which gives the characteristic equation as,

case of the rod element. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli

theory for flexural vibration of the perfectly elastic (

C k 4 - w 2 l4 = 0 ) (22)

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

ïï - iz - z

ïï

k 3 = + il w ; k 4 = - il w (23) 2 2

í z22 = 1 + e e ; det = ( z11 + z12 )/(1 + i) ý

ïz = kL ï

and the solution is (Horr 1994b, 1996e; Doyle 1989; ïî ïþ

Britton 1968),

The stiffness matrix is symmetrical, as for the

( )+ ( )

å å

i l w x + wt - i l w x - wt

u( x , t ) = C1e C2 e conventional finite element method, and the terms are

mostly complex.

+ åC e 3

iwt - l w x

+ åC e 4

iwt + l w x

(24)

2.3. Efficiency Analysis

The displacement function can also be written as a In order to assess the computational efficiency of the

superposition of different components as, spectrally formulated finite element method, parametric

studies are performed and the results are compared with

u( x, t ) = u1 ( x, w 1 )e iw1t + u2 ( x, w 2 )e iw 2 t the conventional finite element method. One of the main

advantages of the matrix methodology involved in the

+ + un ( x , w n )e iw n t (25) finite element method is that once the basic mathe-

matical derivation of the element is established, then

where un are again a set of discrete Fourier coefficients. complicated problems can be solved simply by piecing

The flexural vibration equation can be written in spectral together all these elements. The same procedure of

format as follows: assemblage can be used in the spectral finite element

method. However, the spectral element matrices are

d 4 un derived using the exact solution of the governing

EI - w n 2 rAun = 0 (26)

dx 4 differential equation, and hence it should have greater

efficiency than the conventional finite element method.

One of the solutions of this differential equation is: To examine the accuracy and efficiency of the spectral

finite element method, the dynamic stiffness matrix can

- ik n x

un ( x ) = An e + Bn e -k n x be closely examined. When the damping is zero, k, is

(27) real and the first term in the dynamic stiffness matrix for

+ Cn e - ik n ( L - x ) + Dn e -k n ( L - x )

the spectral rod and beam elements can be written

1

respectively as,

rA 4

where k = w é ù . Using Eqn. 27 as a shape

êë EI úû

function, the governing equations of motion can be

(kˆ )

11

rod

=

( EA)(kL)

L tan(kL )

(30)

[ ] EI

[ ]

Fˆn = 3 Kˆ n [ uˆn ] (28)

(kˆ )

11

beam

=

EI

L3

L

( cos(kL )sinh(kL ) + sin(kL )cosh(kL ))(kL)3

´ (31)

[ ]

The K̂ matrix can be determined using the boundary 1 - cos(kL )cosh(kL )

conditions as

The first term in the dynamic stiffness matrix for the

conventional finite element formulation is,

ìkˆ11 = kˆ33 = (iz11z22 - z12 z21 )z 3 /det ü

ï ï EA rAL EA (kL ) EA

ïkˆ12 = - kˆ34 = 0.5(1 + i )( z11z22 - z12 z21 )z 3 L/det ï ( k11 ) rod = k11 -w 2 m11 = -w2 = - (32)

ï ï L 2 L 2

ïkˆ13 = i ( z11z 21 - z12 z22 )z 3 /det ï

í ý

ïkˆ14 = - kˆ23 = -(1 - i )( z11z12 )z L/det

2

ï 12 EI 13rAL

( k11 ) beam = k11 - w 2 m11 = -w2

ïˆ ï L 3

35

ïk22 = kˆ44 = ( z11z22 - iz12 z21 )zL /det

2

ï

12 EI 13(kL) EI

4

ïˆ ï = - (33)

ïîk24 = ( - z11z21 + iz12 z22 )zL2 /det ïþ (29) L3 35 L3

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

9

1.10

0 2

100 9

5 1.5

0 –1.10

-100 4

200 1

-200 3

400

600 0.5

1 2 (k 11) SE 800

2 L 1000

3 1

(k 11 ) SE 4 w

L (a)

5

(a)

w

12

11.8

2

11.6

11.4 1.5

0 1

-100 200

5 400

-200 600 0.5

-300

4 (k11) FE 800

L

3 1000

1 2 w (b)

2

(k11 )FE 3 1 Figure 3. Spectral and; (b) FE beam element dynamic stiffness

L 4

versus frequency (rad/sec) and element length

5

w

(b)

Figure 3 shows the same behavior for the spectral and

Figure 2. (a) Spectral and; (b) FE rod element dynamic stiffness

conventional dynamic stiffness for the beam element. A

versus frequency (rad/sec) and element length

comparison between the spectral and conventional finite

element methods shows that while they both have a

similar behavior at low frequencies, the spectral

Figure 2 shows the three dimensional plot for the first term dynamic stiffness intersects the zero axis a number of

of the spectral dynamic stiffness matrix of rod element times in a higher range of frequencies. However, the

versus frequency and element length. For a constant conventional finite element formulation shows a single

element length in Figure 2(a), as the frequency increases intersection with the zero axis even in the higher

the number of intersections increase and it is also true frequency range.

for a constant frequency and various lengths. However,

Figure 2(b) shows a different behavior for the finite 3. NON-LINEAR SPECTRAL

element dynamic stiffness with a single intersection. In FRAME ELEMENT

physical terms, it means that for the conventional finite The effect of cracking, crushing in concrete material and

element formulation to have the same accuracy as the yielding in steel reinforcement can be incorporated in

spectral method, it is necessary to subdivide a member. the spectral element method simply by substituting a

The degree of subdivision depends on the range of fractional derivative complex module in the spectrum

required frequencies. Only with a very large number of relation. The mathematical basis of the generalized

elements would the conventional method match the integro-differential operators to arbitrary order can be

spectral method in the required range of frequency. dated back to the nineteenth century. The concept of using

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

fractional calculus in the formulation of constitutive elements in the conventional finite element method are

equations for engineering materials has been proposed used for the three-dimensional modeling of solid

during the last 50 years. In particular, a number of authors structures. These elements are defined by corner nodes

have explicitly used fractional calculus as an empirical having three degrees of freedom at each node. The failure

method of describing the properties of viscoelastic of brittle concrete material including both cracking and

materials. The traditional differential operators are crushing failure modes may be taken into account. The

typically employed in the formulations of complex failure mode of concrete material due to multi-axial

viscoelastic constitutive relationships. An example of stress condition may be written as,

fractional operators has been presented in appendix

P

A. However, the advantages of fractional operators in -S³0 (34)

establishing a richer variety of functional families, and fc¢

hence the possibility of improved generalized integro-

differential type curve fitting of constitutive relationships, where P is a function of principal stress condition, fc¢

have attracted much attention in recent years. is a uni-axial crushing strength of concrete material and

There are several mathematical possibilities to establish S is failure surface, which is a function of principal

a generalized integro-differential calculus of any stresses and strength parameters. The concrete

fractional order. However, from a physical point of view, material model will crack if any principal stress is in the

attention should be given to that method which is capable tension state while the material would crush if all

of more accurate modeling of physical applications. principal stresses are compressive. Figures 4 to 6 show

Many problems in physical science and engineering, e.g. the conventional concrete element with its fracture

constitutive relation theory, potential theory and surface.

transport theory, can be solved by using the fractional

derivative approach. Fractional-derivative stress-strain 3.2. Formulation of Fractional Derivative Model

constitutive relationships for concrete material not only The concept of using a fractional-derivative model in

describe the mechanical properties like cracking and the formulation of viscoelastic damped structures has

crushing, but lead to straightforward solutions of the been proposed previously Bagley (1979), but, these

spectral element equations of motion for damped attempts to solve the resulting equation of motion for the

structures. structure lead to long and tedious calculation, with long

computer times and large memory requirements. One of

3.1. Conventional Smeared Concrete the simplest of these models is to use a complex constant

FE Element modulus in which the constitutive relationship is

The concrete element is essentially a brick solid element, formulated using the complex uniaxial, biaxial or triaxial

which models the concrete material behavior. The brick modulus. The general form of constitutive equation for

K, L, O

Z

TOP

N

P M J

I

LN=NL

K

O

N

L

P Z J

M

LN=1

Y X

BOTTOM

I

Y

X

Figure 4. Concrete finite element smeared element

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

4 M

O,P

P

5

N

O

6 I K,L

J

M N

Z Prism Option

z (rebar)

2

f

L M,N,O,P

Y y 3

X q I

x K

K,L

I J

1 Tetrahedral Option

J

the concrete material can be written in fractional where the time variational terms are formulated in the

derivative form as (Horr 1995a, Bagley 1979), frequency domain instead of a direct formulation in the

time domain, and ŝ ( iw ) and ê (iw ) are the stress and

M N strain histories in transform coordinates. The more

s (t) + å ai D i [s (t )] = e0 e (t ) + å f D [ e ( t )]

b cj

j (35) familiar relationship between stress and strain can be

i =1 j =1 obtained by rewriting Eqn. 37 as (Horr 1995a),

e + f ( iw )

c

where ai , bi , c j , e0 and fi are model parameters. Using sˆ ( iw ) = b e ( iw )

ˆ (38)

only the first fractional derivative term in each series, 1 + a( iw )

the result is a five parameter model expressed as, which can be written as,

s ( t ) + a D b [s ( t )] = e e ( t ) + f D c [e ( t )] e + f ( iw )

c

(36)

sˆ (iw ) = Eˆ (w )eˆ( iw ), Eˆ (w ) = (39)

1 + a( iw )

b

which is similar to s = Ee for elastic materials.

sˆ (iw ) + a ( iw ) b sˆ (iw ) = eeˆ( iw ) + f ( iw ) c eˆ (iw ) (37) However, in the concrete fractional derivative model the

szp

–

fc

r1

r2

r1

r1 r2

h

syp

–

fc

s xp

–

fc Octahedral Plane

Figure 6. Fracture surface used for nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete material

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

modulus is complex, frequency dependent and, most the sectional modulus in the element due to the cracking,

importantly, it is a function of fractional powers of crushing and yielding. Another important point here is

frequency. A more comprehensive discussion about that the dynamic stiffness matrix includes the damping

fractional derivative model can be found in Horr (1995a). effects, therefore there is no need to assemble an

individual damping matrix for the structure. The same

3.3. Spectral Concrete Frame Element procedure may be followed for the spectral beam element

Consider the governing differential equation of motion to obtain the fractional derivative dynamic stiffness. For

for a rod element as, a small displacement, the axial and flexural displace-

ments are uncoupled and the total fractional dynamic

d 2u stiffness matrix for the two-dimensional frame element

+ w 2 lu = 0 (40)

dx 2 in the local coordinate system can be derived as (Bathe

1982, Clough 1996),

where l = r /E. The damped from of the equation can be

written as, ék11Rod 0 0 k12 Rod 0 0 ù

ê ú

ê k11Beam k12 Beam 0 k13 Beam k14 Beam ú

d 2u ê k24 Beam ú

+ w 2 l ( iw )u = 0

dx 2

(41)

[ Kˆ ]

ec =ê

ê

k22 Beam 0

k22 Rod

k23 Beam

0 0 ú

ú

where in this case l (iw ) = . The only change that ê ú

E ( iw ) êë k44 Beam úû

occurs in the spectral relation for the damped rod (46)

element is (Horr 1995a),

It should be noted that any combination of axial, lateral

1 1 and torsional actions can be augmented in the general

k c = ±w ( l ) ¾ ¾¾¾® k f = ±w [ l ( iw )]

2

fractional

2 (42) dynamic stiffness matrix (for example, if an axial twist

is acting along the length instead of the axial force,

where subscripts c and f represent the conventional and the rod terms can be replaced by torsional terms).

fractional derivative module cases, respectively, which The description of the dynamic stiffness for three-

gives the following spectral relation when the fractional dimensional frames follows from the assumption that the

derivative constitutive relation is employed, response of a general member is a simple superposition

of axial, lateral and twisting actions. Hence, the twelve

1 by twelve dynamic fractional dynamic stiffness matrix

k f = ±w ê

( ú

)

é 1 + a( iw ) b r ù 2

(43)

can be assembled by using the same procedure as

ê e + f ( iw ) ú

c

ë û é

ê [ Kˆ ]11ec [ Kˆ ]ùú

12 ec

[ ] Kˆ ec =ê ú (47)

and the fractional derivative element shape function can

be written as (Horr 1995a,1997),

ê

êë [ Kˆ 21ec ] [ ]

Kˆ 22 ec úú

û

uˆ( x ) = ç ÷ u1 + ç sin k L ÷ u2 (44) In this section, the application of the Fractional-Spectral

è sin k f L ø è f ø element method developed in the preceding sections

is investigated. Two different set of analytical models

Thus the dynamic stiffness matrix, which includes the have been used to find the nonlinear dynamic response

fractional derivative module effects, is, of tall concrete chimneys. Figure 7 shows a sample

é kfL -k f L ù finite element model for the three-dimensional concrete

chimney structure in which the fine meshed concrete

ê

(

tan k f L )

sin k f L ú(

ú

)

[ ]

ˆ ê

K f = -k

ê fL kfL ú (45) solid elements (conventional smeared elements by

William 1975) is used to investigate the nonlinear

ê ú

(

êë sin k f L ) (

tan k f L úû ) dynamical responses. Finite element models of concrete

chimney with different geometries have been developed

The effect of fractional derivative module in the spectrum using the ANSYS Ver. 5.6 general-purpose finite

relation and the dynamic stiffness matrix is to decrease element program (Ansys 1999).

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

ANSYS 5.4

MAY 23 2001

13:53:43

NODAL SOLUTION

STEP=1

SUB =1

FREQ=1.646

USUM (AVG)

RSYS=0

Power Graphics

EFACET=1

AVRES=Mat

DMX=.007049

SMX=.007049

0

.783E-03

.001566

.00235

.003133

.003916

.004699

.005482

.006266

.007049

spectral frame elements have been used to develop an Figure 8. First natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

equivalent numerical model. Eqn. 39 is used to model

the non-linear modulus for concrete material in a three- the Lanczos algorithm. This complex analysis leads to

dimensional fractional-spectral model for the concrete the complex eigenvalues from which the imaginary

chimney structures. The program CDSET (CDSET 2002), part represents the damped natural frequency, and the

developed by authors, has been used for the damped real part is a measure of the stability of the system. Due

spectral dynamic analyses. All the structural material to space consideration the results for two sample

data are given in Table 1, where the complex modulus chimneys have been showcased here. Figures 8 to 12

parameters have been found using sensitivity analyses.

A set of modal analyses has been performed using

finite element models to obtain basic dynamic ANSYS 5.4

MAY 23 2001

characteristic of tower structures. Two different modal 13:54:07

analyses have been performed, undamped and damped. NODAL SOLUTION

STEP=1

The eigenvalues for the undamped model have been SUB =3

found using the highly accurate subspace iteration FREQ=9.637

USUM (AVG)

technique, which internally uses the generalized Jacobs RSYS=0

iteration algorithm. For the damped model, the Power Graphics

EFACET=1

complex modal analysis has been performed using AVRES=Mat

DMX=.00703

SMX=.00703

0

Table 1. Mechanical parameters used in this study .781E-03

.001562

.002343

Parametere .003125

Definition Symbol Value Unit .003906

.004687

Elasticity Modulus Ec 2.0e10 MPa .005468

.006249

Damping Parameter a 3.10 — .00703

Damping Parameter b 0.52 —

Damping Parameter c 0.53 —

Damping Parameter fr 5.2e11 MPa

Poisson Ratio n 0.15 —

Density g 2500 kg/m3

Compressive Strength fc 25 MPa

Concrete Tensile Strength ft 10 MPa Figure 9. Third natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

MAY 23 2001 MAY 23 2001

13:55:41

13:54:53 NODAL SOLUTION

NODAL SOLUTION STEP=1

STEP=1 SUB=7

SUB =5 FREQ=24.625

FREQ=15.581 USUM (AVG)

USUM (AVG) RSYS=0

RSYS=0 Power Graphics

Power Graphics EFACET=1

AVRES=Mat

EFACET=1

DMX=.006994

AVRES=Mat SMX=.006994

DMX=.005245 0

SMX=.005245 .777E-03

0 .001554

.583E-03 .002331

.001166 .003109

.001748 .003886

.002331 .004663

.002914 .00544

.003497 .006217

.00408 .006994

.004662

.005245

Figure 12. Seventh natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

Figure 10. Fifth natural mode shape for the concrete chimney

show the first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh natural tower.

mode shapes for the case of concrete chimney with the The fractional-spectral models consists of spectral

height of 30 m where Table 2 shows the first tenth frame elements in which the complex modulus has been

natural frequencies for chimney tower with the height of used to take into account the cracking, crushing and

H = 30 m. The symmetrical natural mode shapes have yielding in the reinforced concrete material. The hard-

ening part of stress-strain curve for the steel reinforcement

has been modeled using multi-linear kinematic

ANSYS 5.4 hardening rule. A set of fractional parameters ( a, b, c, fr )

MAY 23 2001

13:55:09 have been used to calculate the complex modulus

NODAL SOLUTION

STEP=1

( )

Ê w for the frame elements, as shown in Table 1.

SUB=6 A short duration impulsive dynamical Excitation

FREQ=23.629 (Figure 13) have been applied at the base of concrete

USUM (AVG)

RSYS=0 chimney. The magnitude of the displacement has been

Power Graphics

EFACET=1

AVRES=Mat

DMX=.005006

SMX=.005006

0

Table 2. Natural frequencies for the chimney tower

.556E-03 (H=30 m, Din=1.3 m, t=0.1 m)

.001112

.001669

.002225 Natural Mode of Vibration Frequency (Hz.)

.002781

.003337 1 1.646

.003893 2 1.652

.004449

.005006 3 9.637

4 9.643

5 15.581

6 23.629

7 24.625

8 24.668

9 27.546

Figure 11. Sixth natural mode shape for the concrete chimney 10 27.784

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

10.0

in towers. The comparison of top lateral displacements

Base for two set of models are presented in Figure 14 where

Displacement the global lateral responses are compared for the con-

(cm) ventional smeared finite element and the fractional-

spectral models. The geometric parameters of these two

0.0 sample chimneys have also been presented in Figure 14.

0.0 1.0 2.0 To calibrate the complex modulus to take into account

Time (seconds) the nonlinear characteristics of concrete materials, a set

Figure 13. Base excitation used for dynamic analysis

of sensitivity analyses have been performed on two set

of concrete chimney

of tower structures. Figure 15 shows the variation of

0.15

Finite element method

0.03

Spectral element method

0.11

Top displacement [m]

0.09

0.07

0.05

0.03

0.01

-0.03

Time [sec]

(a)

Top displacement [m]

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5

-0.02

Time [sec]

(b)

Figure 14. Top lateral displacement of concrete chimney for FE and proposed methods

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

0.0014

0.0012

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0

0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56

b

0.0012

0.001

Drift Ratio Error

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0

0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56

0.0008

0.0007

Drift Ratio Error

0.0006

0.0005

0.0004

0.0003

0.0002

0.0001

0

4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9

Fr *e11

modulus parameters based on the differences in the optimum complex modulus have been used in a set

mean total drift ratio of two towers with the height of 20 of nonlinear dynamical analyses. Table 3 shows the

and 30 meters consequently. The amount of total drift comparison in CPU time for the finite element and the

ratio errors for two models have been plotted verses the proposed Fractional-spectral models. As it appears from

individual modulus parameters. The optimum values for the results, a huge computer time saving has been

the parameters have been chosen as to create a minimum achieved using the proposed method for the global

response error. Based on the sensitivity analyses, the nonlinear dynamical responses of concrete chimneys.

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

Tower External Shell FE Proposed Percent Ratio

Height Diameter Thickness Method Method of CPU Times

15 1 0.1 5548 175 3.15

20 1.2 0.1 5992 168 2.80

24 1.2 0.1 6540 181 2.77

28 1.25 0.1 7033 178 2.53

30 1.3 0.1 8881 160 1.80

32 1.3 0.15 9765 155 1.59

35 1.35 0.15 10250 170 1.66

5. COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS results in much less computer time and power (almost

It can be concluded that the frequency domain equations 2.5 % of the FE solution time on an IBM Pentium III).

of motion for damped three dimensional chimney The opportunity to investigate the consequences of the

structures can be constructed and solved in a straight- period changing during non-linear dynamic analysis of

forward manner when mechanical characteristic of reinforced concrete structures (Period Tracing) will be

the reinforced concrete material are portrayed using the considered, and this will be the subject of a subsequent

fractional derivative model. The fractional derivative paper.

non-linear model allows for the continuous transition

from the viscous state to the solid state. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The theoretical basis of the spectral element method The technical support and cooperation by the

of analysis has been presented and it has been shown R&D Department of the Paymabargh Power Engineering

that the method is capable of making accurate prediction Contractor Company is gratefully acknowledged.

of the frequency-dependent dynamic characteristic of

reinforced concrete chimney towers. The approach is

unique, as the conventional finite element treatment REFERENCES

appears to have a lack of physical meaning. The non- Ansys (1999). General Purpose Finite Element Program, Revision

linear damping solution was shown graphically, and the 5.6, Ansys Co., USA.

consistency of method has been investigated. As it Britton, W. G. B. and Langley, G. O. (1968). “Stress pulse dispersion

appears from the presented analytical methods, the main in curved mechanical waveguides”, J. of Sound and Vibration,

advantage of the spectral method lies in its capability to Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 417-430.

model a long length of uniform section as one element, Bagley, R. L. (1979). Application of Generalized Derivatives to

and also its non-linear damping characteristic in a single Viscoelasticity, Ph.D. dissertation, Air Force Institute of

formulation. Technology, Ohio, USA.

As far as stability and efficiency are concerned, it can Bathe, K. J. (1982). Finite Element Procedure in Engineering

be assessed that even though the assemblage of global Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

matrices has to be repeated for all frequency components Clough, R. W. and Penzien, J. (1996). Dynamics of Structures,

in comparison with the single assemblage procedure for McGraw-Hill, New York.

the conventional finite element method, the spectral Doyle, J. F. (1989). Wave Propagation in Structures, Berlin,

element approach completely outperforms the conven- Springer-Verlag.

tional method in the nonlinear dynamic analysis of CDSET (2002). Complex Damped Spectral Element Technique,

three-dimensional concrete chimney structures (CPU Version 3.0, Paymabargh R&D Department, Tehran, Iran.

time for the new approach is almost less than 2.5 percent Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1994a). “A comparative study of

of conventional method). Furthermore, the proposed performance of various finite element methods for the vibration

method is capable of dealing with structural dampers, of a beam”, Proceeding of Int. Conf. on Computational Methods

with frequency-dependent damping behavior, in a linear in Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Hong Kong, Vol. 2,

manner without need of iteration. A fully documented pp. 618-623.

example has been solved, and it has been shown that the Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1994b). “Comparative study of

proposed method is capable of producing accurate performance of various methods for vibration of Timoshenko

Damped Spectral Element Method for Global Dynamic Analysis of Chimneys

beams”, Proceeding Australasian Struct. Engrg., Sydney, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 12, No. 2,

Australia, Vol. 1, pp. 489-494. p. 59-67.

Horr, A. M. (1995a). Energy Absorption in Structural Frames, Ph.D. William, K. J., and Warnke, E. D. (1975). “Constitutive model for

Dissertation, University of Wollongong, Australia. the triaxial behavior of concrete”, Proceeding International

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1995b). “Closed form solution Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Vol. 19,

for the Timoshenko theory using a computer based mathematical ISMES, Bergamo, Italy, pp. 174-180.

package”, Computers & Structures, Vol. 55, No. 3, p.

405-412. APPENDIX I. Example of

Horr, A. M. (1995c). “A non-linear damping model for design of a Fractional Operators

satellite antenna”, First Conf. Space Tech. & Developing In order to show the basic definition utilized in fractional

Countries, Tehran, Iran, Vol. 1, p. 233-239. calculus, consider the following function,

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996a). “Dynamic response of a

damped large space structure: A new fractional-spectral

f ( x ) = Lx n (A-1)

approach”, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 10, which can be expanded into a power series with positive

No. 2, p. 134-141. exponents. The fractional derivative for the qth order

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996b). “Modeling of non-linear gives,

damping characteristic of a viscoelastic structural damper”,

dq

Engineering Structures, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 154-161. = Ln( n - 1)...( n - q + 1) x n - q (A-2)

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996c). “Frequency domain dx q

dynamic analysis of large space structures with added elastomeric

dampers”, International Journal of Space Struct, Vol. 11, No. 3, This operator can be rewritten as,

p. 279-289.

dq n!

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996d). “A fractional-spectral

q = L x n-q (A-3)

method for vibration of damped Space structures”, Int. J. of dx ( n - q )!

Engineering Structure, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 947-956.

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1996e). “A spectrally formulated where the value of q can be any integer or fraction

finite element method for vibration of a tubular structure”, number. Figure A-1 shows a series of fractional deriv-

Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 3, atives of different orders plotted against the variable

p. 209-226. x for the function f ( x ) = x 5. It can be seen that the

Horr, A. M. and Schmidt, L. C. (1997). “Complex fractional-spectral fractional functions are an interpolation between the

method for space curved struts: theory and application”, integer values.

100

3. d1/dx1 [ f (x)] =5x4

80 (3)

4. d1.5/dx1.5 [ f (x)] =10.3166 x3.5

f (x) 60

(2)

40

(1)

20

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

x

Figure A-1. Fractional operators of the function f(x) verses variable x

A. M. Horr, M. Safi and N. Asadpour

Symbol Description k̂ Spectral dynamic stiffness member

A Cross sectional area of member L Length of the element

a First modulus parameter [M] Mass matrix

b second modulus parameter r Density

[C] Viscous damping matrix w Natural frequency

c Fifth modulus parameter z Damping ratio

D[ ] Fractional operator k Wave number

E Young’s modulus h Loss factor

Ê Longitudinal complex module s Stress

e0 Third modulus parameter sy yield stress

F< > Fourier transform function e Strain

f Fourth modulus parameter

G Shear modulus

Ĝ Shear complex module

Amir Masoud Horr has got his M.Sc from University of New South Wales at 1992,

Sydney, Australia. He has got his PhD from Wollongong Univ., Sydney, Australia at 1995.

He has also got a post doctorate degree from Wollongong Univ., Sydney-Australia at

1996 and is currently an Associate Professor of computational mechanics at the

IK International University, Iran, and a researcher at the Space Structure Center of the

University of Surrey at UK.

Tel: +44 1483 686612 / Fax: +44 1483 450984

PO Box 19395-4691, Tehran, Iran

Email: a.horr@Surrey.ac.uk

Mohammad Safi has got his M.Sc. from Tehran University at 1997, Tehran, Iran.

He is a PhD student at the Amir Kabir University of Technology at Tehran since 1998.

He is also currently a senior lecturer at the Power & Water Institute of Technology at

Tehran, Iran.

Tel: +98 21 731 3062 / Fax: +98 21 879 4671

PO Box 19395-6869, Tehran, Iran

Email: msafi@pwit.ac.ir

Naser Asadpour has got his M.Sc from Sharif University of Technology in 2000. He is

now a senior Structural Engineer at technical Department of Yademan Sazeh Co.,

Tehran, Iran, and is working on the analysis and design of Milad 435 meter tower (fourth

tallest structure in the world) in Tehran, Iran.

Tel: +98 21 8885951/Fax: +98 21 8794671

PO Box 19395-4691, Tehran, Iran

Email: n-asadpour@yahoo.com

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