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RURAL IMMERSION AND ENGAGEMENT PROJECT (P1)

MBA - Rural Management and Entrepreneurship Development (RMED)


Semester-II - Field Work Component
Village Adopted – Chhara, Khairna
Block- Betalghat, District – Nainital

INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES


&
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH (IPSDR)
“THE HERMITAGE”, KUMAUN UNIVERSITY, NAINITAL
(UTTARAKHAND)

Submitted by Supervisor

Kanika Nainwal Prof. Atul Joshi


Roll No. 180125680006 (Director)

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PHASE-I
VILLAGE IDENTIFICATION AND PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT
Objective: To acquaint us with the rural settings so that we can develop an understanding of
rural processes, activities, institutions and diverse development parameters. We opting for any
particular village will be considered to have adopted that village and are expected to carry out
follow up projects and studies in the designated area.

Data Collection
Data from secondary sources have been collected in the following fields as per the suggested
guidelines:

(i). Village Description


Village: Chhara, Khairna
District: Nainital
Tehsil : Kosiyakotoli
Block: Betalghat
Geographical Description: Khairna is located on the confluence of kosi and Khairna rivers,
around the Khairna Bridge. It is located at distance of 30 km from Nainital, Almora and
Ranikhet. The Khairna Bridge marks the junction of the NH 109 with the Bhowali Ranikhet
Road. The river at Khairna is abundant in ironstone and quartzite.
Climate Distribution: The climate is warm and temperate in Khairna. In winter, there is much
less rainfall than summer. In Khairna the average annual temperature is 19.2c about 17.88mm of
precipitation falls annually. The driest month is November, with 6mm of rainfall. Most
precipitation falls in July, with an average of 503mm. and the warmest month of the year is June
with an average temperature of 25.4C. In January, the average temperature is 10.9C; it is lowest
average temperature of the whole year

(ii).Village Functionaries
Block Pramukh : Mr. Satish Nainwal
Gram Pradhan : Mrs. Hemanti Devi
Block Development Officer : Mr. Rajan Ran
Village Development Officer: Mr. L.D.Arya
School Teachers: In Chhara, Khairna there is 1 middle school having 22 teachers for 326
students and 3 primary schools having 1 teacher in each.

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Community Health Centre Staff: In CHC there are 5 doctors and there is no single nurse.
1. Dr. Satish Pant (Head)
2. Dr. Lalit
3. Dr. Anjanitte
4. Dr. Deepak Sati (Ayurvedic)
5. Dr. Karanjeet Kaur(Homeopathic)

(iii).Demographic Profile
Population: 1564
Gender Ratio: 882: 1000
Religion: 1509 Hindus and 55 Muslims
Cast: General 1089, OBC 91, SC 265, ST 119
Household in BPL Category: 65
Household in APL Category: 254

(iv). Economic Profile


Occupation: Around 200 families out here having their commercial establishment and out of
which 70 are also involved in cattle farming. And 40 per cent of these people supply their
produce in Anchal dairy.
Seasonal Occupation is available to basket weaver from Lakhnow and adjoining areas. Metal
workers and Pot fabricates also came to the market from Rajasthan.
Profession: 10 per cent of people are in Indian Army and Private Jobs.
Size of Land Holdings: People of APL category holds land from 4 nali to 30 nali and people
under BPL category hold land less than 4 nali.
Entrepreneurial Initiative: One (ANNAPURNA Enterprise)
Manufacturing Activities: Annapurna Enterprise Annapurna Enterprise promote eco-friendly
products with the ban of thermocol items by the government, this enterprise started the
production of bio-degradable paper items.
Village Market: Markets at Chhara, Khairna – no weekly markets are held.
Role of NGO’s: There are two NGO’s who were currently working in the village one is
CHIRAG Foundation and another one is All India Dream Association.

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CHIRAG Foundation encourages and has contributed mainly in plantation activities.
AIDNA works for the free education of children, who were unable to afford it, organises blood
donation camps and awareness rallies to promote human activities.
Role of SHG’s: There are 12 SHG’s enrolled in Government account out of which 2 are
currently working. First one is shilp emporium. Their principal work is packaging of items of
Aganbadi Kendra. And another one is Dairy.

(v). Literacy and Education Profile


Literacy Rate: In Chhara, Khairna out of 1564 people 1210 are literate so the literacy rate of the
village is 82.10 per cent.
School Enrolment: 100 per cent
School Dropout: 0 per cent
Avenues for Higher Education: There are no avenues for higher education in the village. For
pursuing higher education students mainly go to Ranikhet, Nainital and Almora which is 30km
away.
Avenues for Technical and Vocational Education: There are 2 it is and Government
Polytechnic in nearby areas. ITIs: ITIs Bumshyu -15 km away and ITI Nainital – 30km away
Government Polytechnic Nainital 33km away.
Opportunities for Skill Enrichment: The State Government with the help of village level
workers conduct skill based opportunity programmes in Computer Application, Beauty Parlour,
Netting and Cloth Stitching.

(vi). Specific Features


Culture and Tradition: Culture and Tradition of the village are mainly Kumauni with a similar
set of pattern and custom as all practiced in Kumaun.
Fairs and Festivals: The main fairs and festivals celebrated in the village are -

 Utrani Mela
 Phool Dei
 Basant Panchami
 Ghee sakranti
 Harela

(vii). Snapshots

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Activity
To comprehend the multidimensional nature of rural development the we will work on creating a
Composite Index of Rural Development pertaining to the village adopted.
For the construction of the composite index of rural development twenty six indicators depicting
all important dimensions of rural development have been identified and grouped into nine
components according to the format given below.
Indicators of Rural Development by Group
Group No. Group Name Indicator Number and Description of
Indicator
I Agricultural Productive (i) Productivity per hectare
efficiency (ii) Productivity per worker

II Workforce (i) Per cent of non-agricultural workforce


diversification

III Rural educational (i) Per cent enrolment at primary and middle stage
Infrastructure (ii) Retention rate
(iii) Density of primary and middle schools in rural areas
(iv) Per capita number of primary and middle school
teachers

IV Rural health (i) Per capita number of Primary Health Centres (PHCs)
infrastructure (ii) Per capita number of rural doctors
(iii) Per capita number of nurses/Asha workers/VLWs
(iv) Rural infant mortality rate
(v) Rural female infant mortality rate

V Rural amenities (i) Per cent of rural households with drinking water
(ii) Per cent of rural households with electricity connection
(iii) Per cent of rural households with toilets
(iv) Per cent of rural pucca houses

VI Transport infrastructure (i) Per cent of village having surfaced roads

VII Human capital content (i) Per cent of educated (primary and middle level) rural
of workforce workforce

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VIII Rural financial (i) No. of Commercial banks
infrastructure (ii) No. of Cooperative banks
(iii) Per capita rural deposits of commercial banks
(iv) Per capita rural deposits of cooperative banks
(v) Rural credit per capita of commercial banks
(vi) Rural credit per capita of cooperative banks

IX Rural Standard (i) Per capita rural consumption expenditure


of living (ii) Per capita rural food consumption expenditure

Description of Rural Development Indicators by Group

1. Agricultural Productive Efficiency


In Chhara, Khairna mainly vegetables are grown. The Amphibian area of the village is
divided into two regions. In one region the productivity is good as an yearly bases people
earn from 80000-100000 in 4-5 nali of land and in another region the productivity is
declining because of wild animals. As those people who used to earn 60000 – 70000 from
their agriculture now earn only 10000-20000.The Agricultural Productive Efficiency has
been analysed with the help of two indicators given below
(i).Productivity per hectare/nali is Rs. 40,000 p.a, per nali
(ii).Productivity per worker is Rs. 70,000 p.a, per worker or Rs. 150-200 per day per
worker .

2. Workforce Diversification
Workforce diversification in Chhara, Khairna is not up to the mark as 10% of people are
involved in pure agricultural activities while 80% of people having both business as well as
cattle farming activities and only 10% of the people are involved in non-agricultural
activities. On the basis of principal of average we observe that 50% of people doing farming
activity.

3. Rural Educational Infrastructure


Rural educational infrastructure in Khairna is quite good at middle level. As there are 22
teachers for 326 students and the retention rate of students is 100% and the school has also
been converted into modern school which results in improving the quality of education. But
at Primary level the education infrastructure is not satisfactory. As there are 3 primary
schools with 11, 4 and 8 students respectively and there is one teacher in each school. After,
visiting the school we came to know that the teachers are over burden with their clerical work
as a result of which they are unable to give enough attention towards students. The Rural
Educational Infrastructure has been analysed with the help of three indicators given below
(i). Per cent enrolment at primary and middle stage is 100 per cent
(ii). Retention rate is 100 per cent
(iii). Per capita number of primary and middle school teachers is 1:15

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4. Rural Health Infrastructure
Rural Health Infrastructure in Chhara, Khairna is satisfactory as there is 1 CHC (Community
Health Centre) over 1564 people with 5 doctors, 1 Asha worker and 2 ANMs. And the Rural
Infant Mortality Rate and female Infant Moratality Rate is 0 per cent. But the conditions were
much better in past when as CHC was running in Private Public Partnership (PPP) mode with
Gangasheel Nursing Home Bareily. Then there were 10 specialized doctors for their
respective areas along with 12 nurses. And the hospital also had piethora of facilities like
blood test, ultra-sound X-rays etc. This Rural has Infrastructure has also been analysed with
the help of five indicators given below
(i) Per capita number of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) is 1
(ii). Per capita number of rural doctors is 1:313
(iii). Per capita number of nurses/Asha workers/VLWs is 1
(iv). Rural infant mortality rate is 0 per cent
(v). Rural female infant mortality rate is 0 per cent

5. Rural Amenities
Rural Amenities in chhara, Khairna are very satisfactory as there is proper supply of drinking
water and electricity. Every family in the village has their own toilets there and people also
have their own Pucca Houses. This Rural Amenities have been described below with the
given indicators
(i). Per cent of rural households with drinking water is 100 per cent
(ii). Per cent of rural households with electricity connection is 100 per cent
(iii). Per cent of rural households with toilets is 100 per cent
(iv). Per cent of rural pucca houses is 100 per cent

6. Transport Infrastructure
The Transport Infrastructure of village is good enough as the village is fully covered with
surfaced roads. Per cent of village having surfaced roads is 100 per cent.

7. Human Capital Content of Workforce


The literacy rate of the village is 82.10 per cent. Therefore, Human capital content of
workforce seems quite satisfactory. Most of the families have at least one graduated male
member and still they are not migrated to another place. They have chosen Khairna to do a
business or a farming activity on their agricultural land.

8. Rural Financial Infrastructure


The majority of people in rural India have no access to demand oriented banking services but
this seems quite different in Khairna where this village has three commercial bank i.e. State
Bank of India, Bank of Baroda and Central Bank and one cooperative bank i.e. Nainital
District Cooperative Bank. This banks offer demand oriented financial services for self
employed business, smallholder farmers, women and poorer household. When we have

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visited these banks we observe that banks doing a great business with the villagers and we
have collected some data to indicate rural financial infrastructure given below
(i). No. of Commercial banks is three
(ii). No. of Cooperative banks is one
(iii). Per capita rural deposits of commercial banks is Rs, 3,50,000 p.a. per depositor
(iv). Per capita rural deposits of cooperative banks is Rs. 1,20,000 p.a. per depositor
(v). Rural credit per capita of commercial banks is Rs. 3,00,000 p.a. per creditor
(vi). Rural credit per capita of cooperative banks is Rs. 80,000 p.a. per creditor

9. Rural Standard of Living


In Khairna the observation and collected secondary information shows rising of the living
condition of the rural population. In this study the rural standard of living have been
classified by two factors given below
(i). Per capita rural consumption expenditure is Rs. 6,000 approx. per month
(ii). Per capita rural food consumption expenditure is Rs. 2,500 approx. per month

Indicators of Rural Development by Group


(Phase-I)

Group No. Group Name Score of the Indicators

I Agricultural Productive efficiency 6

II Workforce diversification 5

III Rural educational Infrastructure 9

IV Rural health infrastructure 7

V Rural amenities 9

VI Transport infrastructure 9

VII Human capital content of workforce 8

VIII Rural financial infrastructure 7

IX Rural Standard of living 8

Total Score 68

Composite Index of Rural Development Indicator = Total of Rank x 100


90
= 68 x 100
90
= 75.50 per cent

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PHASE-II
RURAL IMMERSION AND ENGAGEMENT COMPONENT
PROJECT WORK (P1)
(Duration June 15 – July 15, 2019)
Segment I (June 15-30, 2019)
We will reassess the development of the village adopted in terms of the Composite Index of
Rural Development which we have undertaken in Phase I: Village Identification and Preliminary
Assessment.

Description of Rural Development Indicators by Group

1. Agricultural Productive Efficiency


(i). Productivity per hectare/nail is Rs. 40,000 approx. p.a. per nali
(ii). Productivity per worker is Rs. 70,000 approx. p.a. per worker or Rs. 150-200 per
day per worker.

2. Workforce Diversification
(i) Per cent of non-agricultural workforce is 10 percent.
While 10% of people are involved in pure agricultural activities while 80% of
people having both business as well as cattle farming activities. On the basis of
principal of average we observe that 50% of people doing farming activity.

3. Rural Educational Infrastructure


(i). Per cent enrolment at primary and middle stage is 100 per cent
(ii). Retention rate is 100 per cent
(iii). Per capita number of primary and middle school teachers is 1:15

4. Rural Health Infrastructure


(i). Per capita number of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) is 1
(ii). Per capita number of rural doctors is 1:313
(iii). Per capita number of nurses/Asha workers/VLWs is 1
(iv). Rural infant mortality rate is 0 per cent
(v). Rural female infant mortality rate is 0 per cent

5. Rural Amenities
(i). Per cent of rural households with drinking water is 100 per cent
(ii). Per cent of rural households with electricity connection is 100 per cent
(iii). Per cent of rural households with toilets is 100 per cent

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(iv). Per cent of rural pucca houses is 100 per cent

6. Transport Infrastructure
(i). Per cent of village having surfaced roads is 100 per cent.

7. Human Capital Content of Workforce


(i) Per cent of educated (primary and middle level) rural workforce village is 82.10
percent.

8. Rural Financial Infrastructure


(i). No. of Commercial banks is three
(ii). No. of Cooperative banks is one
(iii). Per capita rural deposits of commercial banks is Rs, 3,80,000 p.a. per depositor
(iv). Per capita rural deposits of cooperative banks is Rs. 1,40,000 p.a. per depositor
(v). Rural credit per capita of commercial banks is Rs. 3,20,000 p.a. per depositor
(vi). Rural credit per capita of cooperative banks is Rs. 90,000 p.a. per depositor

9. Rural Standard of Living


(i). Per capita rural consumption expenditure is Rs. 6,500 approx. per month
(ii). Per capita rural food consumption expenditure is Rs. 2,800 approx. per month

Indicators of Rural Development by Group


(Phase-II)
Group No. Group Name Score of the Indicators
I Agricultural Productive efficiency 6

II Workforce diversification 5

III Rural educational Infrastructure 9

IV Rural health infrastructure 7

V Rural amenities 9

VI Transport infrastructure 9

VII Human capital content of workforce 8

VIII Rural financial infrastructure 8

IX Rural Standard of living 9

Total Score 70

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Composite Index of Rural Development Indicator = Total of Rank x 100
90
= 70 x 100
90
= 77.78 per cent

Assessment of Extent of Changes in the Intervening Period


Score in Score in Changes /Per
Group No. Group Name Impact
the Phase I the Phase II cent of Change
I Agricultural Productive efficiency 6 6 0 No Change

II Workforce diversification 5 5 0 No Change

III Rural educational Infrastructure 9 9 0 No Change

IV Rural health infrastructure 7 7 0 No Change

V Rural amenities 9 9 0 No Change

VI Transport infrastructure 9 9 0 No Change

VII Human capital content of workforce 8 8 0 No Change

VIII Rural financial infrastructure 7 8 +1 (14 per cent) Increased

IX Rural Standard of living 8 9 +1 (12 per cent) Increased

Total Score 68 70 +2 (3 per cent) Increased

Changes in Composite Index of Rural Development Indicator = 77.78 - 75.55 x 100


75.55
= 2.95 per cent

The composite Index of Rural Development Indicators has changed by 2.95 per cent in phase II
from phase I. The main reason of this low per cent of change is that the very short span of time is
not sufficient to have a very high degree of change to these indicators.

Statistically Evaluation of the Rural Development Indicator

Arithmetic Mean for Phase I Indicators = 7.56

Arithmetic Mean for Phase II Indicators = 7.78

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The arithmetic mean for phase I and Phase II has a very small difference because only two
indicators (i.e. VIII and IX) have changed in phase II and other indicator contained the same
position in both the phases. Still, on an average it shows a good position of the all the indicators
in Chhara, Khairna village

Correlation between Phase I and Phase II = +0.95

There is a high degree of positive correlation between Phase I and Phase II indicators. This
means the second phase of the study is totally depended on the first phase.

Figure 1- Graph showing the Indicators position in Phase I and Phase II with the
Extent of Changes

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9 9 9 9 9

8 8 8 8

7 7 7

6 6

Phase I
5 5
Phase II
Extent of Changes
4

1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX

The figure 1 shows that indicators from I to VII have the same position in both phases but it start
changing with the indicators VIII and IX. Also it shows all the indicators lying nearest to the
average value of the indicators.

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Figure 2- Graph showing the Linear/Exponential Trend of Indicators

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9
8
7
6 VIII

5 IX

4 Linear (VIII)

3 Linear (IX)
2
1
0
1 2

We cannot create a linear/exponential trend line if our data contains zero values. Therefore, in
the figure 2 we can see that only two indicators have been drawn with the help of bar graph and
on the basis of change we have drawn a trend line for these two indicators (i.e. VIII and IX)
which shows the increasing score or upward movement of the indicators.

Interpretation of Change or No Change in Indicators of Rural Development

1. Agricultural Productive efficiency


Agricultural productivity of the village has not been changed due to less interest of villagers
in farming activities because in the village people have their own business/shops etc. to earn
smart amount of earnings. Also, farmers incurred high losses because of the wild animals
like monkeys and wild pigs etc. farmers of Khairna want to do agricultural activity if they
will have solution to this problem because no one want to bear losses after spending a very
hard time in the agricultural land.

2. Workforce diversification
The time leg between phase I and phase II is only about six months. It is not possible to have
changes in villagers’ occupation within this very short span of time.

3. Rural educational Infrastructure


Due to a short leg of time no changes have seen in new appointments in the primary or
middle school and same situation happens with enrolments of new students in this schools.

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4. Rural health infrastructure
No new appointments have been made in the CHC in this phase. Therefore, this study shows
same figures as phase I.

5. Rural amenities
Rural Amenities in Chhara, Khairna is same in this phase also as there is proper supply of
drinking water and electricity. Every family in the village has their own toilets there and
people also have their own Pucca Houses.

6. Transport infrastructure
The Transport Infrastructure of village is good enough as the village is fully covered with
surfaced roads and it is not need to be changed.

7. Human capital content of workforce


The literacy rate cannot change within six month only and due to that reason this indicator
also show same figure as phase I.

8. Rural financial infrastructure


Rural financial infrastructure in Chhara, Khairna have raised for both kind of banks. In this
phase we have observed that people of Khairna village shows interest in taking loans from
bank and this is resulting in increased credit per capita for both kinds of banks.

9. Rural Standard of living


The standard of living in Khairna has increased slightly where we have observe that now
people spend more money on different heads and the reason is their earning also shift
slightly upward when we compare to phase I study.

Suggestions to Improvise Indicators Position in Khairna

1. Agricultural Productive efficiency

Wild animals are becoming a big challenge for farmers throughout the Khairna village.
Animals such as monkeys, wild boars, rabbits and many others may cause serious damage to
crops. We believe that farmers always seek to determine the satisfactory level of wild animal
crop protection. We suggest that farmers of Khairna can use any of the following
technologies available in present scenario:

Agricultural fences like Wire fences constructed of metal wires woven together forming a
physical barrier. The fences are effective, long lasting, and require relatively little
maintenance but it recommendable for very valuable crops because it is relatively expensive
to install. Some other fences are like plastic fences and electric fences can be used where
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plastic/polypropylene fences are generally less expensive and easier to install and repair than
other types and electric fences are constructed to inflict an electric shock to animals that
come in contact with the fence, thus preventing animals from crossing the fence but it should
be marked with warning sign for human being safety.

Farmers can also use natural repellent using natural protection measures instead of
mechanical or chemical protective practices to protect crops from wild animals by smoke,
fish or garlic natural emulsion, chilli peppers, castor oils etc.

2. Workforce diversification
In past about 80-90% population were engaged in farming activities but due to bad
experiences of crop damages by wild animals and opportunity to diversify business (i.e.
Restaurant, general stores, workshops and transportation etc.) in order to be on a safer side
most of people have joined aforementioned non-agricultural activities/business. This non-
agricultural activities/business can be improvised if farmers can avail bank loans easily and
at a reasonable rate of interest but government policies also has to take into account.

3. Rural educational Infrastructure


In Khairna the rural educational infrastructure is quite satisfactory because the enrolment and
retention ratio is already 100 per cent. However, if we still want to identify area of
improvement in this indicator then government should merge those government schools into
one school where no. of students is below 10 and only one teacher is appointed for whole
school also school infrastructure needs to be upgraded to have the steps to be a modern
school so that all the student who commute from Khairna to Ranikhet or Khairna to Bhowali
would be stop and these student can able to have similar education in their own village.

4. Rural health infrastructure


The low level of health facility of Khairna is one of the major problems in area. Only one
Community Health Centre (CHC) is available in the name of Health Care Centre which is
shared by almost 11-12 villages and having low number of doctors, Asha worker and ANM
is appointed for whole population for these villages. Government should again adopt earlier
model where CHC was running in Private Public Partnership (PPP) mode with Gangasheel
Nursing Home Bareily. Then there were 10 specialized doctors for their respective areas
along with 12 nurses. And the hospital also had piethora of facilities like blood test, ultra-
sound X-rays etc.

5. Rural amenities
Rural amenities of Khairna are already in the perfect position where Per cent of rural
households with drinking water, electricity connection, households with toilets rural pucca
houses is 100 per cent. So, no need to be improvisation in this indicator while other
indicators need to have some concerned by government.

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6. Transport Infrastructure
Khairna is like a junction place for Garhwal and Kumaun or we can say for nearest station
like Ranikhet, Almora and Nainital. The Transport Infrastructure of village is good enough
as the village is fully covered with surfaced roads. Per cent of village having surfaced roads
is 100 per cent. One area of improvement in the village is still need to have attention is
having a proper Bus Station and a separate space for making Taxi-Stand so that people can
easily use public transportation facility.

7. Human capital content of workforce

Human capital content of workforce seems quite satisfactory as the literacy rate of the
village is 82.10 per cent but government should conduct farming and non-farming
education/awareness campaign in the village so that people can have knowledge of new
technologies/transformation to improve farm efficiency and in modernizing agriculture. the
effects of human capital are weak on agricultural wages; productivity of non-farm
enterprises rises with education levels of family workers involved; and the effects of primary
education on crop productivity are positive and stronger at the farm level than at the
individual crop level, but with no additional gain from higher education. These results imply
that more educated household members have comparative advantages in non-farming, which
is consistent with our observations on labour allocation in the field.

8. Rural financial infrastructure


The financial infrastructure of Khairna in terms of banking is good but there is a scope of
having private financial institution so that villagers can have some more financial assistance
and these institutions can promote saving and investment habits amongst the villagers. Non-
banking financial institution/corporation can also be started in the village because most of
the people of Khairna still believe in banks to invest their money in form of FDs and RDs
but they should aware about other investment avenues (like shares, bonds, mutual funds and
insurance etc.) so that they can earn a different forms of return by making investment in the
financial market and can build up risk tolerance capacity to earn high return.

9. Rural Standard of living


The standard of living shows increments in terms of expenditure. In Khairna most of the
people are either self employed or a farmer, only 10 per cent people are belongs to service
class. But, government should put some efforts to empower those farmers who involved
solely in the agricultural farming or cattle farming and has no other source of income and
their whole family survival is totally depend on this low amount of earnings.

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Segment II (July 1-15, 2019)
In this we study and analyse the mode of operation of Entrepreneurial Enterprise/
Industry/NGO/SHG in the area. An attempt will also be made to explore entrepreneurial
opportunities and presented in a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Challenges (SWOC)
format. Managerial aspects pertaining to finance, production, marketing and human resource
should also be included.

Entrepreneurial Enterprise: ANNAPURNA Enterprise Annapurna Enterprise promote eco-


friendly products with the ban of thermocol items by the government, this enterprise started the
production of bio-degradable paper items. The uses of biodegradable plates and Cups are many
i.e. cheap, easy to use, easy to dispose, hygienic and easily available.

Disposable cups made from bio plastics or other such materials are predicted to garner surplus
demand in the years to come. Growth will be driven by the increased options and convenience of
meals prepared or consumed away from home. Demand will also be supported by a shift toward
the use of higher value products featuring durable plastic or compostable materials.
More than ever, consumers are demanding flexibility in their meal options. Generally, they are
looking for speed and convenience. The availability of online ordering and delivery services
allows the enjoyment of eating out while still tending to their busy lives. Today, the market is
growing a conscience. With plastic bans in various cities and an increase in awareness of the
dangers of plastic, people are more accepting of biodegradable materials.

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There are five manufacturing stages involved:

1. Pulping: Soaping the pulp paper board and put in to hydraulic pulper. After pulping, pulp
will go into mixture tank and add water and oil additive, then goes to pulp supply tub for
forming machine, vacuumed watering and forming.

2. Forming: Forming is the key process in production line. The process is quantitative pulp
supply, back flushing power supply, vacuumed watering and forming. With advance
technology to eliminate holes, uneven thickness during production, so as to reduce
defective goods. The semi-finished product will be moved into drying mould for solidity.

3. Shaping and drying: At this process, steam is used for heat drying. Compare to
electrical heating, 70% energy will be saved, meeting hygiene requirements of food
packaging, enhance resource utilization. Qualified production rate is up to 99%.

4. Edge cutting and sterilization: The product taken out from the shaper will be moved
into edge cutting machine, where the extra edge will be trimmed. UV sterilization is
applied to make sure production meeting with hygiene requirement.

5. Packaging: Final production is packed and stored.

Managerial Aspects
There is not much required to open a paper plate manufacturing business what we need is some
basic requirements which are mentioned below.

Land: Land was needed to set up manufacturing plant. The land must be at a place which has
basic amenities so that they do not find much trouble. The size of the land is not the big issue
because a 100 sq. feet land can also work.

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Investment: Most of the people open their plant in their own land or house instead of buying a
separate land because it is quite costly. Building up that place will at least required few lakhs of
rupees. Other than that the basic investment will be in machine. This will cost around Rs 75,000
to Rs 500,000. Raw material, power supply, water, taxation, labour will cost around Rs 10 lakhs
a minimum. It may go up to Rs 15 lakh which must try to minimize as much as possible.

Water: Water is an important part in paper plate manufacturing business because while doing so
one needs a constant water supply. This can also be seen as disadvantage because the water
requirement here is quite huge.

Electricity: Electricity is something as essential as water. Workshop needs proper power supply
to run paper machine along with water pump and other electronics. The power supply should be
constant and proper with required standard voltage so that machine works well.

Raw Material: It would be better that workshop get the raw material directly as papers or paper
rolls. Because manufacturing paper requires lots of resources, money and time. Workshop can
get lots of paper from local scrap shops which may sell those papers at a very minimal rate per
kg. A quintal or 1000 kg of paper can easily be brought at Rs 5000 to 7000.

Manufacturing Machine: A manufacturing machines varies with price. Most common variation
comes in number of generation of paper plates per hour. Some machine generates 1000-2000
pieces per hour while some do 4000-7000 pieces per hour. Also the design, quality and type of
machines vary. One normal machine will cost around Rs 75, 000 to Rs 500, 000.

Labour: Workshop may need at least three to four people in manufacturing. This may not be
much costly but they need to have proper training in initial days.

SWOC Analysis for ANNAPURNA

STRENGTH WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES


 Eco friendly  Awareness among  Growing consumer  Seasonal effect on
 Biodegradable peoples demand for eco raw material to get
after use  New entrants friendly cutlery confined
 Availability of raw and plates  Improper cold
material  Replacing plastic digestion may
use affect production.

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NGO’s: There are two NGO’s who were currently working in the village one is CHIRAG
Foundation and another one is All India National Dream Association.

CHIRAG is a rural development organisation based in the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand since
1986. They work closely with communities to improve their quality of life. In the past year it has
aggressively worked in education, health, livelihood and natural resource management through
its forestry and spring recharge programs. Innovative livelihood activities are generating
employment and building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture and
animal husbandry sector. CHIRAG works in four major field i.e. education, health, livelihood
and natural resource management.

Under the Bal Shikshakhs programme CHIRAG’s flagship initiative to enhance quality of
primary education in the hilly region of Kumaon in Uttarakhand, primary education in schools
under project areas have shown considerable improvement in school attendance. Through E-
WaSH, an awareness programme on hygiene and positive health behaviour. Besides these, it has
catered the schools with the para-teachers /Bal-Shikshaks.

Through timely management, health camps and low cost follow–up programmes, we strive to
reach out to the local population.

The dairy federations in Nainital, Bageshwar and Almora districts provided the producer
members with raw and final products and in turn the producer company helped in milk trading
and input services which included supply of cattle feed, fodder, clean milk production, milk
products such as khoya, paneer and veterinary first aids.

Initiatives in natural resource management include.


 Conservation, development and management of common lands.
 Recharge of Springs using the principles of hydro-geology.
 Water distribution schemes for the need based community.
 Support and strengthening of village-level institutions for sustainable management of
efforts.

All India National Dream Association (AINDA): AINDA works for the free education of
children, who were unable to afford it, organises blood donation camps and awareness rallies to
promote human activities.

Self Help Group (SHG’s): There are 12 SHG’s enrolled in Government account out of which 2
are currently working. First one is shilp emporium. Their principal work is packaging of items of
Aganbadi Kendra. And another one is Dairy.

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Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Khairna
The Khairna Bridge marks the junction of the NH 109 with the Bhowali, Ranikhet and Almora
Road. The river at Khairna is abundant in ironstone and quartzite. In this kind of village people
can engage their selves in farming and cattle farming activities which they are already doing
apart from that because usually junction place need to have restaurant, dhaba, general stores,
medicals and cloth kind of stores which is already exist in Khairna. If we consider the river of
Khairna is already abundant in ironstone and quartzite and people doing business of it and the
water level is not that so good so we can plan to install river rafting kind adventure site.

If we consider some other aspect of Khairna there is a need of Higher Education College in
Khairna and still no one has yet work on it. Majority of those who live in rural areas like Khairna
have traditional courses like B.A. graduated and hardly undergo any technical, professional and
vocational training. In fact, for most of such people, quality in terms of career options, such
lesser educated and not so fortunate people tend to work in low paid unorganized sector or they
join their family business like restaurant, dhaba, general store etc. Per person productivity of
such persons works out to be a small fraction of productivity of those who work in organized
sector of Indian economy. In an increasingly competitive economic environment, the
unorganized sector, which is so important, needs to increase the productivity of its manpower for
its survival and growth. There is, therefore, an urgent need to train village children every year
through a technical education. There is various private professional institutes established in plain
area like Haldwani and Rudrapur where these institutes attract students from all hill area of
Kumaun region but no effort has been made by government to have similar kind of educational
institution in hill area where all the technical or professional programmes can be available for
these students at one place. So, our finding for Khairna is we should plan a professional studies
campus under PPP model so that quality of education can be provided to student from Kumaun
region in Khairna and might help to this village for development through campus establishment.
It can enlarge our market share/size, helps local people to provide them room on rent so they can
generate other source of income also, it promote tourism if people presence increased in Khairna
and many other benefits can be derived like Bhimtal have changed in last 10-15 years.

The Present Situation of Higher Education in Khairna

The literacy rate of Khairna is quite satisfactory but the problem is most of them does not have
any technical or professional education. Its plentiful human resources have great potential for
boosting Khairna's economic growth, but challenges remain in turning the young and growing
population into a skilled and productive workforce and financing of the same. Every year, more
than 100 students from Khairna itself pass 10+2 and if they planning to do any technical or
professional education they has to leave his/her village and have to go some other place,

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The Role of Higher Education as a Driver for Rural Development
The strengthening of higher education is required for enhancing the overall development of
young people of all areas near to Khairna. It must focus on providing access to high-quality
education services to strategically important target groups, and to ensure inclusiveness, equality,
and the nurturing of talent and entrepreneurship.

The key challenges of the higher education system are training the young generation for the
emerging new economy, and improving access and quality of outputs. However, the government
attached higher priority to primary education, followed by secondary education.

One of the primary roles of the professional education college is creation of new knowledge
through conducting research, in addition to the function of teaching. R&D, without much
attention to downstream activities that involve commercialization, limits the relevance of
research.

Public–Private Partnerships in Response to Challenges in Higher Education


Acknowledging the fact that neither public nor private actors in the higher education sector have
been able to meet the demand and quality expectations on their own, public–private partnership
(PPP) solutions for development of the higher education sector in village like Khairna have
advantages worth exploring. The current challenges and higher education’s role in transforming
into a competitive knowledge economy in the global market call for new and innovative
solutions to secure quality service delivery, outreach, and access to public service and higher
education. Hence, this focuses on how best to use public funds invested in partnerships with
private partners, rather than on whether private partners shall be involved (focus on how and not
if). PPPs can ease some of the government’s financial constraints on infrastructure and
educational service delivery, subject to a number of assumptions that are discussed below. Apart
from being a mechanism to expand the higher education infrastructure, PPPs can also address
some aspects of the challenges related to low and imbalanced enrolment rates, educational
quality, quality assurance, service delivery, and enhancement of teachers’ qualifications.

Financing of Public-Private Partnership Higher Education

The choice of channels or mechanisms of funding can make a great deal of difference in
efficiency, effectiveness, and equity. Efficiency varies between channels in terms of leakage or
the time it takes for funds to pass; equity in allocation may depend on who manages the flows of
funds; and the willingness of enterprises to pay may relate to transparency and the effectiveness
of oversight. Which channel is most appropriate depends on where funds originate, how they
flow, what they will pay for, and how flows are best managed between source and destination.

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In order to attract private investors, the government must coherently and convincingly sell its
PPP strategy. Only if private partners can envision the success of the project will they risk
investing. Thus, attention should be paid to several preconditions before launching a PPP
college.

Management and Human Resource

Finding an adequate number of qualified teachers is a serious challenge for the college through
proper channel through like UKPSC or other government body. There is an acute shortage of
experienced and qualified faculty in professional disciplines and subjects. Above all, teachers
have to be committed to their job of teaching and research. System of benefits, responsibility,
and accountability among teachers should have duly established.

The college should be under the control of management where everything has to be appraising
with some defined criteria and it has to be applied on each and every aspect of the college.

SWOC Analysis
STRENGTH WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
 New professional  Awareness among  Providing market  Limited access
college will offer peoples for the oriented despite the recent
professional professional programme so that expansion,
program at one education student from all  Regional
place  New entrants over hill area of imbalance,
 Location- Khairna Kumaun region  Questionable
is a junction of can be attracted quality and
Kumaun which can  It can enlarge relevance to the
be easily reachable market size by job market and
making presence national
of new people in development
Khairna priorities,
 Inadequate
financing and
governance
arrangements.

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