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BY Parts of the body 2 HEZY 1h abcomen The main organs ofthe body have ordinary English names and doctors use these words. Buc when an adjective is needed they often use an anatomical word, For example, we n say disease of the liver or hepatic disease. Some abdominal organs, for example the pancreas, have no ordinary name pancreas, duodenum _Atomach gall bladder right kidney “eft kidney When doctors talk about the main parts of the digestive system, they use the words bowel or intestine: the small intestine or the small bowel, the large intestine or the large bowel. When speakit ts, doctors may refer to the anus and rectum as the back passage. HED Tie chest The chest (thorax) contains the orzans of respiration and the heart, The main parts ofthe respiratory system are the airways and the hans, The lic ung is divided into two lobes, | and the right into three. The airways consist ofthe laryne, the trachea (or windpipel, the right and lef bronchus, and the bronchioles. The chest i separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm, MD pois A doctor is explaini the function of the bladder to a patient. (The bladder is situated in the pelvis, as you know, and itis connected to each kidney by a long tube called the ureter - one on cach side. The ureters carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder, where tis stored until you decide to empty your bladder. When thar 4 happens, the urine passes down another tube, called the urethra, to the outside. | 4 Professional Englth in Use Medicine 31 3.2 3.3 Label the diagram using words from the box. Look at B opposite to help you. diaphragm lobes windpipe heart lung hioles Match the conditions (1-8) with the organs affected (ah), using your medical knowledge 1 hepatitis a bladder 2 pneumonia b gall bladder 3 nephritis © heart 4 gastric ulcer 4 kidney 5 cystitis e liver 6 angina pectoris fF long 7 choleeystvis 9 scomach 8 ulcerative colitis fr Large bowel Complete the textbook extract. Look at A and C opposite to help you. Examination of the abdomen To examine the patient for enlerged abdominal (1)... frst feel forthe @)... AN THE Bon nnnnnn ‘an the right side.To do this ask the patient to take a deep breath, while pressing withthe fingers upwards and inwards. Next, feel forthe right (4)... ‘and then coss over tothe other side for the left) Sill onthe left side. palpate for an enlarged (6). Final, moving tothe lower abdomen, feel forthe @). which is only fet if is ull, Over +o you vv Many patients do not know the location or function of the spleen or the pancreas. et en ee a Professional Engish in Use Mere 15 YA The heart and circulation 1 Shortness of breath Shortness of breath, or breathlessness, is dyspnoea. At first this is caused by exertion ~ physical activity such as climbing stairs ~ but in severe cases it may be present even at rest. A patient who is breathless when lying flat (orthopnoea), for example in bed, will tend to sleep raised up on rwo or more pillows. The abbreviation SOBOE stands for shortness of breath on exercise (or on exertion, or on effort) Patients say I get terribly short of breath climbing stairs. Doctors can ask: (How many pillows do you sleep on? HED Heart rhythm The normal resting heat rate is 65-75 beats per minute. In athletes it may be as low as 40 beats per minute. In extreme athletic activity, the heart rate can go as high as 200/min, The heart rhythm may be regular or irregular. In an irregular rhythm (archythmia), there may be early beats which interrupt the regular rhythm (premature beats); or the rythm ‘may vary with respirations or it may be completely irregular, asin fibrillation. When patients are aware of irregularity, they describe the symptom as palpitations. ‘A 22:year-old student was admitted to hospital with a long history of heart problems. ‘She had been increasingly tied. with shortness of breath on exertion, orthopnoea, and palpitations. A mitral valve replacement had been carried out 3 years previously and this had stabilized the symptoms of heart failure but was followed by episedes (attacks) of atrial fibrillation, which had been particularly severe for the 6 months before admission, Heart failure Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to maintain sufficient cardiac output ~ the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute ~ for the body's needs. It may involve the left side of the heart, the right side, or both. In left heart failure the main symptom is breathlessness. The sympcoms of right heart failure include peripheral oedema (swelling) beginning in the feet and ankles. This is known as pitting oedema if, when a finger is prshed into the swelling it causes a small depression or pit. IN tmieuspidvatve FJ || pulmonary artery pulmonary veins mitra vate ——~septum 52 Profesional English in Use Medicine 22.1. Complete the conversation based on the case history in B opposite Doctor: What seems to be the problem? Patient: I've been getting (1) Doctor: How long have you had them? Patient: For about six months, But I've had heart problems for years, with tiredness and 2) of (3) In the end I couldn't walk more than a hundred metres without having to stop. [had to sleep on three 4) Thad a (5) replacement three years ago, and that improved things for a while, 22.2 Make word combinations using a word from each box. Two words can be used twice. Look at Band C opposite to help you. at ‘output atrial re cardiac oedema heart fibrillation on beats pitting effort premature rest 22.3, Write the words a patient would use to describe the symptoms below. Look at A, Band C opposite to help you. 1 dyspnoea 2 arrhythmia 3 orthopnoea 4 oedema 22.4 Complete the case report. Look at A, B and C opposite to help you. ‘A 60-year-old women attended her GP's surgery complaining of breathlessness on (1) = This had been increasing over the previous e'ght months until it was produc ing problems at around 500 metres walking on the level. There was no history of chest pain. She hed had several (2) cen OF FAS (3) which lasted 20-30 minutes ‘and were associated with some (4) (of breath. She had noticed some © ‘of her ankles by the end of the day. This disappeared overnight. rey