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Prof. Javiera Adaros


Before you read:

 What can you tell about someone if you look at the clothes he/she is wearing?
 Have you discriminated against someone because of the way he/she looks?
 Have you been/felt discriminated?

Look at the picture and the clothes these people are wearing.

What can you tell about these people?

Do any of these clothes seem unusual to you? Which one(s)? Why/why not?
Would you wear any of these outfits? Which one? What for?

Now turn to next page and read a text about fashion. First check the vocabulary spot.

Vocabulary Spot

Fitting in: being a member of a group Skirt: Backpack:

Alike: similar
Judge: to make a decision based on evidence
Dress code: a set of rule specifying the type of clothing that a group of people have to wear
Teasing: disturbing

Have you been to a shopping mall and looked at the way teenagers look? Many of them wear
the same clothes. As an adult, you might think, “Why do they want to look identical?”

“Wearing the right clothes is very important for young teenagers, especially girls”, says Kathleen
Jackson from Delmar Hunt School in Lincoln, Nebraska. “Looking right means fitting in. It's a sign of
normal children development because young teenagers are starting to separate from their parents, and
they want to fit in with their friends. Dressing alike is one way to do that.”

Dr. Adams Robb, a psychiatrist at Emory University, calls this peer group identity . Before
forming their own identity, teenagers become part of a group to feel accepted and secure”. He says,
“Teenagers judge each other all the time. In many schools, one of the ways you fit in is to look like
everyone else-- you wear the right skirt or pants or carry the right backpack.”

Fashion can be a lot of fun, but it has another side, too. Sometimes the pressure of dressing in
a certain way creates problems, especially in families with no money for expensive clothes. Some
schools have found a solution to this problem, though: they have a dress code or make students wear
uniforms. “Some students laughed at others if they didn't have the right clothes. That's not a good
atmosphere for learning, so we started a dress code. That ended the fashion race”, Mrs. Jackson says.
“It really stopped the teasing and conflicts.”

1. Who tend to wear similar clothes?

2. Why do they do that?

3. What is the problem with this trend?

4. What are some measures that some schools have implemented?

 Did you experience this problem when you were younger?

 Which measure do you think it's better for students: wearing uniforms/having a dress code or
wearing the clothes students like? Why?
 Does fashion also influence adults? In which ways?
 Is fashion's influence on people mostly positive or negative? Why?

Grammar Spot
Giving opinions
 Expressing likes and dislikes
 Agreeing and disagreeing

When we want to say what we like and/or dislike about something, we have a number of expressions
that we can use:
Likes Dislikes
I really enjoy (+ v-ing/ noun)... I can't stand (+ v-ing/ noun)...
One of the nicest things about ... is... One of my least favorite things is...
I love (+ v-ing/ noun)... I don't particularly like (+ v-ing/ noun)...
I'm very fond of (+ v-ing/ noun)... I'm not really fond of (+ v-ing/ noun)...

And when we give an opinion, we have to use certain expressions such as:
I think/believe/feel... Personally speaking, I think...
Personally, I think... From my perspective, ...
To me, X is... It seems to me that...
I truly believe that... I'm absolutely convinced that....

When we give our opinion about a topic, it is important to use clear ideas to support it and always
emphasize that this is an opinion and not a fact. Look at this example:

I'm not really fond of fashion because I think it's a little shallow and very expensive. Personally, I
believe that people who follow fashion trends care too much about the way people look and tend to
forget about what they feel or think. From my perspective, judging someone based on the way he or
she looks is shallow. Also, you need a lot of money to buy new clothes every season because fashion
changes all the time. To me, these are irrelevant things; I truly believe that we should care about
other subjects such as politics or changes in society that greatly affect people.

When we want to say that we agree or disagree with someone's opinion, we need to use certain
expressions and make sure our answer is polite enough:
Agree Disagree
I (completely) agree with the idea that... I'm not sure I agree with that because...
I couldn't agree more with you... I'm afraid I think...
Yes, I certainly think that... Well, I don't know for sure...
I absolutely agree with you because... I'm afraid I can't agree with you on that because...

Example: I'm afraid I think differently because, to me, some people use fashion to make a statement
more than just as a way of looking good. Although it is true that it looks very shallow when someone
changes outfits depending on the fashion trends, it is also true that you can use a specific fashion trend
to make a statement and express what you feel. Take the case of punk or grunge. Even though fashion
changes, some people continue wearing those kinds of clothes because they believe it shows what they
feel. I think that making a statement by using the clothes you wear can be a way of engaging in politics
and social problems.

*Be careful: we say I agree and not I am agree; I disagree and not I'm disagree.

Discuss these questions with a classmate.

i. Does society put a lot of pressure on young girls to look ―good‖? What about boys?
ii. Why don't magazines use bigger models?
iii. Some people believe that being overweight is a sign of laziness. Do you agree with them? Why?

Peer pressure is pressure put on you by people your own age to do something, or a feeling that you
should do something because a lot of people your age are doing it.

Read this text about a fashion trend and then answer the questions.

Young smokers
Today many teenagers take up smoking because of peer pressure. Most of them start smoking
when they are around 12 years old and by the age of 19, they identify themselves as regular smokers.
This trend has increased over the years despite the efforts of governments and public health services.
What's more, many teenagers don't realize that smoking damages their health because they don't seem
to be able to fully understand what health problems they might face in the future.

Some of the factors that can influence young smokers are:

Parents or siblings are also smokers
They think smoking makes them look cool and mature
Their friends are doing it
Other people their age put pressure on them to smoke
They smoke to deal with the stress of school

What other factors can you think of?

What are some solutions for this problem?

What do you think about this problem? Write a short paragraph giving your opinion. Remember to include
specific expressions for this and arguments to support what you think.

Peer Group Pressure

Pre-reading activity
How important was your friends' opinion when you were younger? Did you try to fit in? How?
Has that changed now that you are a university student?

Read this text about peer group pressure and then answer the questions. Check the words in bold first.

Vocabulary Spot
Grow older: to grow up, become older Along with: together with
Get along with: to have a good relationship with someone Be likely to: tend to
Argue: to have a violent discussion/ an argument Youngsters: young people
Seek: to look for, search Relying: trusting
Willing: in favor of doing something

As children grow older, they become increasingly involved with their peer group, a group whose
members are about the same age and have similar interests. The peer group-- along with the family
and the school-- is one of the three main socializing agents. However, the peer group is very different
from the family and the school. Whereas parents and teachers have more power than children and
students, the peer group is made up of equals.

The adolescent peer group teaches its members several important things. First, it teaches them
to be independent from adult authorities. Sometimes this can mean that a peer group can teach its
members to go against authorities and adults-- to ignore home and school rules and even to break the
law. Most teenagers, though, rebel only by making fun of older people in a harmless way. Second, it
teaches social skills-- how to get along with other people. Third, the peer group teaches its members
the values of friendship among equals.

Peer groups often develop distinctive subcultures with their own values, language, music, dress,
and heroes. Adolescents, in particular, tend to believe in the same things as their friends, talk the same
way, dress the same way, listen to the same music, and like and dislike the same TV stars and other
celebrities. There may be a considerable difference between these interests, behaviors, and values and
those of their parents and teachers.

Adolescent peer groups frequently differ from parents and teachers in what they value. While
parents and teachers tend to place great importance on school achievement, peer groups are likely to
think that popularity, social leadership, and athletic achievement are more important. These differences
do not necessarily mean that parents and teenagers will fight and argue. In fact, most youngsters are
friendly with their mothers and fathers. They simply engage in different types of activities-- work and
task activities with parents but play and recreation with peers. They are inclined to seek advice from
parents on financial, educational, career, and other serious matters. With their peers they are more likely
to discuss social activities such as which boy or girl to date and what clubs to join.

Peer group members look to each other for approval instead of relying on their own personal
beliefs. Doing what everyone else is doing is more important than being independent and individual.
Early adolescents are most willing to accept this conformity and so they are most deeply involved with
peer groups. As young people grow into middle and late adolescence, their involvement with peers
gradually declines because of their growing independence. When they reach the final year of high
school, they tend to adopt adult values, such as wanting to get good grades and good jobs.

1. According to the text, what are the three socializing agents?

2. Name one important thing the adolescent peer group teaches young people.

3. Name three ways in which adolescents show membership of their peer group.

4. The word those in paragraph 3 refers to

a) adolescents
b) parents
c) teachers
d) interests
5. The word They in paragraph 4 refers to
a) youngsters
b) parents
c) teachers
d) activities
6. Name two topics that adolescents are likely to discuss with their parents.

7. Name two things that they are likely to discuss with their peers.

Grammar Spot
Review: Linking Words

Go back to the text and classify the underlined words according to their function in the text.



Reason, result



Linking words join ideas in a sentence or in two different sentences:

Adolescents change their minds when/as soon as they finish high school.
Adolescents continue thinking the same way until they finish high school. Then, their interests change.

They have a specific function so using the correct linking word is very important:
Peer groups are important for teenagers because they treat them as equals.
Peer groups are important for teenagers but they treat them as equals. 

nonsense! These are common linking words:

Function Between sentences Within sentences

Comparing, contrasting, However, nevertheless, on the Although, though, even though,
concession one/other hand, though, while, yet, whereas
alternatively, instead, after all,
in any case, in contrast, by
contrast, otherwise, even so
Causes, reasons, purposes, results Therefore, consequently, hence, Because, since, as, so, in order
as a consequence, in to, so that
consequence, thus, as a result, so
Adding ideas In addition, furthermore, too, as And, as well as
well, likewise, similarly,
moreover, what's more, also
Sequencing events Meanwhile, then, afterwards, After, before, as soon as, since,
after that, before that, soon, at while, as, when, whenever
the same time

*Be careful: some linking words/ phrases have the same function but are used in a different way.

Although, though, and even though take a clause (subject + verb):

Although the weather was nice, we couldn't go to the beach.
(subject) (verb)

In spite of and despite take a noun or noun phrase:

We couldn't go to the beach in spite of the nice weather.
(noun phrase)

The same happens with because and because of/ due to:
We had to stay home because it was raining.

We had to stay home because of/ due to the weather.

(noun phrase)

The only way in which you can use in spite of, despite, because of and due to with a clause is by using
the fact that:
We couldn't go to the beach in spite of the fact that the weather was nice.

Choose the correct ending for each sentence.
1. It was a fantastic evening despite
a) the horrible food. b) we had a great time.

2. I hurt my knee quite badly so

a) I didn't have the right running shoes. b) I had to go to hospital.

3. Humans like to form social groups. Likewise,

a) many other mammals live independently of each other.
b) many other mammals live together in small communities.

4. While many people use e-mails to communicate,

a) some still prefer to write letters.
b) some think it is the fastest way to communicate with others.

5. We had to wait for hours and
a) the service was excellent. b) we didn't have the chance to see Mike.

6. We went to school today even though

a) it was snowing heavily. b) we watched a movie in the evening.

7. Since I was feeling tired,

a) I went to the gym. b) I went home early.

8. I believe traveling can help us to understand other cultures. Furthermore,

a) it can be a lonely experience at times. b) it can help you to become more independent.

9. There are delays in all trains due to the fact that

a) passengers have to wait a lot. b) the drivers are on strike.

10. She worked very hard. Therefore,

a) she deserves the promotion. b) she should be fired.

Peer Group Pressure
Listening Activity

Before you listen:

 Read the following paragraph and answer the questions below.

As individuals in society, each of us belongs to several different groups. For example, we are members
of our own families, we have groups of friends, and we associate with groups at work and school. On a larger
scale, we belong to a nation and maybe a religious group. Each of these groups has its own culture, or set of
rules that governs the behavior of people in that group. For example, it is common for peers—that is, people
of the same age or people in the same situation—to behave in similar ways or to share similar expectations.
The groups we belong to influence our opinions about the world, our interactions with others, and the decisions
we make. We may think that we behave as individuals, but in fact there are always group pressures that are
influencing us to act in certain ways.

1. List six groups that an individual can belong to.

2. In what ways does belonging to a group influence our behavior?
3. Do you belong to any groups other than the ones mentioned in the passage?
4. Can you think of a time when group pressure made you act in a certain way?

Activity #1
 Read the questions about pressure situations below and say what you would do in each situation and
explain why you would do it.
a) You have been invited to the wedding of a family member you don't like. Everyone else in your family
is going. Would you go to the wedding?
b) Your friends are planning to see a popular movie this weekend and have asked you to go with them.
You have read reviews that say it is a really bad movie. Would you go with your friends anyway?
c) All your friends have started to wear a new style of shoes. When you first see the shoes, you think
they look ugly. Would you consider buying them anyway?
d) Your parents have been invited to their friends' house in the country for the weekend. They want you
to go with them but you need to study. Would you go away with your parents for the weekend?

Now listen to two college students, Rebecca and Jim. What do they say they would do in these

 Do Rebecca and/or Jim's answers surprise you? Why why/not?

Activity #2
How much would your peers influence your decisions in these situations?
1. Your friends want to skip classes but attendance is mandatory and your attendance rate is low.
2. You are going to enroll in a class that has a convenient schedule for you but all your friends have enrolled in
a different class whose schedule and teacher you don’t like.
3. Your friends had an argument with a teacher. You enjoy the class and think the teacher does his/her job
well but your friends want him/her fired and are going to send a letter to the dean.
4. There’s a test coming up and your friends want to put it off a couple of weeks. You have already studied for
it and would prefer taking the test on its original date.
5. The student council is calling everyone to vote a strike. You are finishing the major and going on strike now
would mean delaying the deadlines for handing in your thesis and taking your final exam. Also, you want to
apply to a scholarship but need to finish your major in time.
6. One of your teachers is always late for class and doesn’t grade tests in time. Your classmates love this
teacher because they feel the class is fun and relaxing but you feel you’re not learning much.

Activity #3
Imagine you are a parent and have teenage children. What would you let them do? Look at the following
examples and tick the corresponding option. Then explain your choice.

Yes No
Wear revealing clothes
Wear make-up to school
Using their phones during meals
Smoke cigarettes
Take drugs
Drink alcohol
Play video games during the night
Skip classes


Fairy-tale Lessons for Girls

Pre-reading activity
Look at this picture:

 What type of people do you think the characters in the picture are? (e.g. good, bad, weak,
strong, etc)
 Do you remember some typical characteristics that characters in fairy tales used to have? What
were some of them?

These words are frequently found in children's stories:

heroine magician fairy brave hero witch godmother slay handsome beast stepmother
tower prince wicked evil cottage princess forest rescue castle dragon monster cruel

Match these words to the corresponding headings in the columns:

People Words to describe Nonhuman Places Actions

people creatures

Now turn to next page and read a text about fairy tales and their influence on girls. Answer the
questions after you read.
Can you guess how this story ends? Most of us read many stories like the one above when we were
children, and we know how they will end. In these stories, the female heroines are usually very beautiful.
Because the heroines are beautiful, they marry the handsome prince at the end of the story. Their beauty is
presented in a way that links goodness with the way women look. Good girls and good women are beautiful;
bad girls and bad women are ugly, but they are also powerful and strong.

The female characters share other features. The beautiful heroines are also usually very quiet and
passive. They do not say very much. If they do, they usually answer questions. They rarely take action and
make decisions. They spend a lot of their time indoors cooking and cleaning for the males in the story. While
they are doing this, the males are having a very exciting time, such as having great adventures and facing
danger. In one analysis of gender roles in children's books, males outnumbered females by a ratio of 11 to 1.
This study also found that women who were not wives and mothers were imaginary creatures such as witches
or fairy godmothers. No woman in the books analyzed had an occupation outside the home. By contrast, men
were depicted in a large range of roles as fighters, policemen, judges, kings, and so on. Although recent studies
have shown an improvement in this situation, males still appear more frequently in central roles, titles, and

The portrayal of females as quiet and passive reflects the view of “good” women at the time when
many of the stories were written, in the early 19th century. However, many people continue reading these
stories. Many feminists have argued that these fairy-tale stereotypes of women are damaging for the little
girls who read them today. The stories make girls want to be beautiful instead of being strong, powerful,

and clever. Other disagree. They argue that female roles in fairy tales may be viewed in more positive ways.
Cinderella, for example, can be seen as clever. After all, she manages to gain freedom from the kitchen and

Many children's authors today are creating fairy stories in which the heroines are more aggressive
than the stereotypical fairy-tale heroine. For example, in Cinder Edna (1994) by Ellen B. Jackson, Cinderella's
practical neighbor wears comfortable shoes and takes the bus to the ball.

1. According to the text, what are some of the characteristics of ―good‖ girls or women in
traditional fairy tales?

2. What types of roles (or occupations) do women have in children's stories? What are the roles that
men have?

3. Why do some people say that these traditional stereotypes are bad for little girls?

4. What types of heroines have appeared lately?

 Do you believe that images like the stereotypes in fairy tales are harmful for young people?
Why/why not?

Grammar Spot
 Present simple & present continuous
 Present perfect & past simple

Look at these extracts from the text and identify the verb tense they use.
 Most of us read many stories like the one above when we were children
 The female heroines are usually very beautiful
 While they are doing this, the males are having a very exciting time
 Recent studies have shown an improvement in this situation

Keep this in mind:
Present simple

 When do you use present simple?

Present continuous

 When do you use present continuous?

 There are some verbs that we can't use in present continuous:

like love want know understand remember depend prefer hate need mean believe forget

Complete the story with present simple or present continuous depending on the case.

Charlie Foster (work) at a bakery. He (always/get up) very early

because he (start) working at four o'clock every morning. He (have)

a wife and two children. His wife, Sheila, (not work) but she (look

for) a job right now. She (want) to work again because she (be) tired

of being at home all day.

However, Charlie (not want) her to leave home. He (say) women

should raise the children while men work. They (usually/argue) about this. Today they

(argue) again. Sheila (get) tired of this and says she

(leaving) home if Charlie (not change) his mind.

We use present perfect for:
 an action which happened at an unstated time in the past
 an action which started in the past and is still continuing in the present

 Some time expressions that we use with this tense are: for, since, already, just, recently, ever,
yet, lately, so far, today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year/etc.

We use past simple for:

 an action which happened at a stated time in the past
 an action which started and finished in the past


Complete this letter with the verbs in brackets using present perfect or past simple.

Dear Margaret,

Thank you very much for your letter. I (get) it last week. I (be) really happy
to hear from you after all this time. How you (be)?

I have exciting news to tell you about myself. I (get) a new job nine months ago. I work as
a reporter for our local TV station now. I (have) many interesting experiences so far. Last
month, a fire (break out) in a big factory in the area. I (be) the only reporter who
(manage) to talk to the owner! That (make) me feel very proud. She
(be) one of the first women in town who (study) Business and Administration and
(start) her own business.

As you can see, I enjoy my job very much. I (meet) a lot of important people and I
(have) the opportunity to visit many places. I (buy, recently) a new car because my
old one (break down) a couple of weeks ago.

Now I'm working on a new project for the TV station and I have lots of things to do. I (do)
a lot research for this and I feel a bit tired. But I'm positive that it's going to work. The last project, a talk
show, (be) a complete failure. The host (not research) the stories behind the people
he (interview) so he (end up) asking things that everybody (know). He
now works in another area and he won't be given another program in a long time.

I hope everything is great with you. Keep in touch!

Love, Karen.

A Politically Correct Fairy Tale: Cinderella

Political correctness is a term that refers to language, ideas, or policies that focus on perceived or
actual discrimination against politically, socially or economically disadvantaged groups. Though it is a
controversial concept and many have criticized it, it has been used by a number of so-called minority groups.
These groups most prominently include those defined by gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation
and disability.

Do not say: “mentally retarded” Do say: “intellectually disabled”
Do not say: “Black” or “Negro” in the US. Do say: “African American”
Do not say: “Indian” to refer to US' original inhabitants. Do say: “Native American or Indigenous peoples”
Do not say: “Indian” to refer to Canada's original inhabitants. Do say: “First Nations or Indigenous peoples”
Do not say: “fireman” or “firewoman” Do say: “firefighter”
Do not say: “policeman” or “policewoman” Do say: “police officer”

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Tales for Our Life and Times is a book by James Finn
Garner, published in 1994, in which he satirizes the trend toward political correctness and censorship of
children's literature, with an emphasis on humour and parody. The book consists of fairy tales such as Little
Red Riding Hood, the Three Little Pigs and Snow White, rewritten so that they supposedly represent what a
"politically correct" adult would consider a good and moral tale for children.

The revisions include extensive usage of politically correct words, deliberately stiff moralizing
dialogue and narration, inclusion of modern concepts and objects (such as health spas, mineral water, and
automobiles), and often feature a plot twist that reverses the roles of the heroes and villains of the story. For
example, the woodsman in Little Red Riding Hood is seen by Red Riding Hood not as a heroic saviour but as
a "sexist" and "speciesist" intruder.

 What examples of this trend can you find in your own language?
 Brainstorm the main events in the original version of Cinderella. What changes do you think
you’ll find in the corrected version?

Turn to next page to find out.


Once upon a time, there lived a young wommon named Cinderella, whose natural birthmother had died
when Cinderella was a child. A few years after, her father married a widow with two older daughters. Cinderella's
mother-of-step treated her very cruelly, and her sisters-of-step made her work very hard, as if she were their own
personal unpaid laborer.

One day, when she was cooking, an invitation arrived at their house. The prince was celebrating his
exploitation of the dispossessed and marginalized peasantry by throwing a fancy dress ball. Cinderella's sisters-
of-step were very excited to be invited to the palace. They began to plan the expensive clothes they would use to
alter and enslave their natural body images to emulate an unrealistic standard of feminine beauty. (It was
especially unrealistic in their case, as they were differently-visaged enough to stop a clock.) Her mother-of-step
also planned to go to the ball, so Cinderella was working harder than a dog (an appropriate yet unfortunately
speciesist metaphor).

When the day of the ball arrived, Cinderella helped her mother- and sisters-of-step into their ball gowns.
A formidable task: it was like trying to force ten pounds of processed nonhuman animal carcasses into a five-
pound skin. Next came immense cosmetic augmentation, which would be best not to describe at all. As evening
fell, her mother- and sisters-of-step left Cinderella at home to finish her housework. Cinderella was sad but she
contented herself with her Joan Baez records.

Suddenly there was a flash of light, and in front of Cinderella stood a man. He said: "Hello, Cinderella, I
am your fairy godperson, or individual deity proxy, if you prefer. So, you want to go to the ball, eh? And bind
yourself into the male concept of beauty? Squeeze into some tight-fitting dress that will cut off your circulation?
Jam your feet into high-heeled shoes that will ruin your bone structure? Paint your face with chemicals and make-
up that have been tested on nonhuman animals?"

"Oh yes, definitely!," she said in an instant. Her fairy godperson heaved a great sigh and, with his magic,
he enveloped her in a beautiful, bright light and sent her to the palace.

Many, many carriages were lined up outside the palace that night; apparently, no one had ever thought of
carpooling. Soon, in a heavy, luxurious carriage painfully pulled by a team of horse-slaves, Cinderella arrived. She
was dressed in a gown made of silk stolen from distracted silkworms. Her hair was decorated with pearls plundered
from hard-working, defenseless oysters. And on her feet, dangerous though it may seem, she wore slippers made
of finely cut crystal.

Every head in the ballroom turned as Cinderella entered. The men stared at her and immediately lusted
after this wommon who had captured perfectly their Barbie-doll ideas of feminine desirability. The womyn, trained
at an early age to hate their own bodies, looked at Cinderella with envy. Cinderella's own mother- and sisters-of-
step, consumed with jealousy, failed to recognize her.

Cinderella soon caught the eye of the prince, who was busy discussing jousting and bear-baiting with his
cronies. As soon as the prince saw her, he became speechless as well as the majority of the population. "Here," he
thought, "is a wommon that I could make my princess and impregnate with the progeny of our perfect genes, and
thus make myself the envy of every other prince for miles around. And she's blonde too!"
The prince began to cross the ballroom toward his intended prey. His cronies also began to walk toward
Cinderella. So did every other male in the ballroom who was younger than 70 and not serving drinks.

Cinderella was proud of the commotion she was causing. She walked with head high and carried herself
like a wommon of eminent social standing. But soon it became clear that the commotion was turning into
something ugly, or at least socially dysfunctional.

The prince had made it clear to his friends that he wanted to “possess” the young wommon. But the prince’s
resoluteness angered his pals, for they too lusted after her and wanted to own her. The men began to shout out and
push each other. The prince’s best friend, who was a large and not-particularly-smart duke, stopped him halfway
across the dance floor and insisted that he was going to have Cinderella. The prince’s response was a unexpected
kick to the groin, which left the duke temporarily inactive. But the prince was quickly caught by other sex-crazed
males, and he disappeared into a pile of human animals.

The womyn were appalled by this vicious display of testosterone, and though they tried, they were unable
to separate the combatants. To the other womyn, it seemed that Cinderella was the cause of all the trouble, so they
encircled her and began to display very unsisterly hostility. She tried to escape, but her impractical glass slippers
made it nearly impossible. Fortunately for her, none of the other womyn could move any faster since their feet
were also trapped in impractical shoes.

The noise grew so loud that no one heard the clock in the tower at midnight. When the bell rang the twelfth
time, Cinderella’s beautiful gown and slippers disappeared, and she was dressed once again in her peasant’s rags.
Her mother- and sisters-of-step recognized her now, but kept it quiet to avoid embarrassment.

The womyn became speechless at this magical transformation. When Cinderella felt free from the
confinements of her gown and slippers, she sighed and stretched and scratched her ribs. She smiled, closed her
eyes and said: “Kill me now if you want, sisters, but at least I’ll die in comfort.”

The womyn around her again grew envious, but this time they took a different approach: instead of
demanding vengeance, they stripped off their bodices, corsets, shoes, and every other confining garment. They
danced and jumped and sang in absolute joy, comfortable at last in their underwear and bare feet.

The men, who were too busy with their macho dance of destruction, did not realize that there were many
desirable womyn in front of them, but they never ceased pounding, punching, kicking, and clawing each other
until, to the last man, they were dead.

The womyn sighed at the scene but felt no remorse. The palace and realm were theirs now. The first official
act was to dress the men in their discarded dresses and tell the media that the fight started when someone
threatened to expose the cross-dressing tendencies of the prince and his cronies. Their second official act was to
set up a clothing co-op that produced only comfortable, practical clothes for womyn. Then they hung a sign on the
castle advertising CinderWear, and through self-determination and clever marketing, they all-- even the mother-
and sisters-of-step-- lived happily ever after.

Grammar Spot
Narrative tenses:
 Past simple
 Past continuous
 Past perfect

Read the beginning of this story and underline all tenses in it.
Once upon a time, there lived a young wommon named Cinderella, whose natural birthmother had died
when Cinderella was a child. A few years after, her father married a widow with two older daughters.
Cinderella's mother-of-step treated her very cruelly, and her sisters-of-step made her work very hard, as if
she were their own personal unpaid laborer.

One day, when she was cooking, an invitation arrived at their house...

 When do you use past simple?

 When do you use past continuous?
 When do you use past perfect?

We often use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the
middle of something else. The action in past simple is more important than the one in past continuous:

One day, when she was cooking, an invitation arrived.

interrupted action important action

We use past perfect when we talk about two actions that happened in the past, but not at the same
time. One of them started and finished much earlier than the other action:

Her natural birthmother had died when she was a child.

first action second action
All these actions happened in the past (e.g. they started and finished in the past), so you can't use
present perfect.

1. Match column A with column B to make correct sentences. Which is the first action in each pair?

Column A Column B
1) By the time he reached the airport a. his wife had forgotten his birthday.
2) John was angry because b. after we had bought the tickets.
3) The bank robbers had escaped c. the plane had already taken off.
4) We went to the theater d. after she had won the award.
5) The actress gave an interview e. before the police arrived.

2. Complete these sentences using past simple, past continuous, and past perfect.

i. He (watch) TV when he (hear) a noise. Then he

(remember) his children (go) out earlier; they

(arrive) home.

ii. The fairy godmother (appear) when Cinderella _ (cry). She

(want) to go to the party but her step-mother (not

allow) her.

iii. I (finish, already) my homework when the match (begin)

so I could watch it.

 Go back to the story and underline all the verbs in past and identify their tense (past simple,
past continuous, etc.)

Beyond a Binary: The Lives of Gender-Nonconforming Youth
Extract from a Report by Sue Raking and Genny Beemyn

Pre-reading activity: Vocabulary Spot

 Are you familiar with these concepts?
Binary Non-binary Queer Gender-nonconforming Cross-dresser Cisgender
Trans-masculine Trans-feminine
 Have you met people that match these categories at this university?
 What do most people in your family think about these categories?
 Is this society aware of the existence of people who identify as gender-nonconforming?
 Is this university read to deal with these students?

Now read an extract from a report on the results from the first large-scale study of transgender diversity
in the US. Check the words below in case you need help.

Untapped: not been used before

Leverage: to use something that you already have in order to achieve something new or better
Enhance: to improve the quality of something
Overt: done or shown publicly or in an obvious way and not secret

To what extent do the experiences narrated in paragraph 1 similar to what we can encounter here?

Look at the table below with a summary of milestones (= an important event in the development of sth
or sb) for 4 gender groups. If you identify as cisgender male or female, how similar or different are these
experiences from yours?

 According to you, what do Chilean universities need to do in order to offer these people the same
opportunities and services offered to cisgender men and women? List 5 steps to reach that goal.
 What about schools?
 Considering the changes we have experienced in this regard in Chile, do you think they have been
effective in addressing this issue? Why?


Deviance and Crime

Before you read: Vocabulary

Match the crimes on the left with the definitions on the right.

1 Homicide a Spying

2 Burglary b Sexual attack on a person

3 Robbery c Murder or killing

4 Hijacking d A violent attack

5 Espionage e The deliberate burning of property

6 Assault f Breaking into a building to steal

7 Arson g Dealing in or selling drugs

8 Prostitution h Using force to steal

9 Drug trafficking i Forcing someone to give you control of a vehicle

10 Rape j Having sexual relations in exchange for money

Now read a text about this topic. First check the words in bold in the vocabulary spot.
Vocabulary Spot
Minor: someone too young to be legally considered an adult; punishments for minors are usually different than those for
Rates: a measurement of the number of times something happens or exists during a particular period
Carried out: did or completed a task
Rage: a feeling of violent anger that is difficult to control

Have you ever...

crossed the street against the traffic light?
driven through a stop sign without stopping?
drunk or bought alcohol as a minor?
cheated on a test?

If so, you have broken a socially accepted norm or practice, and you could therefore be
considered deviant. Deviant behavior is behavior that is considered to be unacceptable, or outside
the norms for that society.

There are, of course, degrees of deviance and not every member of a society will agree on
what is deviant behavior and what is normal behavior. For example, while many people believe that
prostitution is deviant, others see it as a legitimate way for people to earn a living. Also, what is
seen as deviant behavior will change over time and vary from place to place. Drinking alcohol,
for example, has been regarded as deviant or as acceptable in the United States at different times
in the past. In fact, in the 1920s, alcohol was considered to be so unacceptable in the U.S. that it
was illegal to sell, buy, or consume it. Now drinking in moderation is accepted by the majority of
the population as normal social behavior for adults.

What is considered to be deviant may also vary from culture to culture. In most cultures, but
certainly not in all, it is regarded as deviant for a man to have more than a wife at the same time.
However, there are some religious groups and cultures where polygamy is an accepted practice.

Some acts of deviance may simply result in a person being regarded as odd or unusual, while
other deviant behaviors actually break the law. These behaviors are seen as crimes. Crimes can be
grouped into different categories. One category is violent crime. This includes murder, rape,
robbery, and assault. Another is property crime, such as theft, arson, or burglary. There is also a
category of victimless crime, which are crimes that do not involve harm to people other than the
criminals themselves. Examples of victimless crimes include gambling, prostitution, and drug abuse.
Another category is white-collar crime, which includes tax evasion and embezzlement.

In 2000, there were 11.6 million reported crimes (excluding traffic offenses) in the United
States. According to a report by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), in 2000 the following
crimes occurred at the rates shown:

Robbery: 46.5 per hour

Burglary: 234 per hour
Violent crime: 163 per hour
Rape: 10.3 per hour
Murder: 1.8 per hour
Vehicle theft: 133 per hour

It should be noted, however, that these figures are based only on crimes that are reported.
Actual crime rates may be two or three times higher than the official figures.

Murder, or homicide, is the most serious crime, and reports on the crime show that it is also
mostly a personal crime. That is, homicide is far more likely to be committed against acquaintances,
friends, or relatives than against strangers. It also occurs most frequently during weekend evenings,
particularly Saturday night. As a crime of passion, homicide is usually carried out under
overwhelming pressure and uncontrollable rage.

While the public perception may be that the crime rate, especially for violent crime, is
continuing to rise, there has in fact been a decline over the past decade. In 1991, there were 1.9
million violent crimes reported in the United States. By 1998, this figure had dropped to 1.5 million.
Murder rates in the same period dropped from 24,700 to 16,914.

1. What influences the categorization of deviant behavior?

a) people
b) cultures
c) people and cultures

2. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to
a) people
b) prostitution
c) deviant behavior

3. The word regarded in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

a) seen
b) hidden
c) greeted

4. Why is alcohol mentioned in the text?

a) To illustrate how people's perceptions about deviant behavior change over time.
b) To illustrate people's perceptions about deviant behavior.
c) To illustrate people's attitudes in the United States.

5. According to the text, what is the difference between deviant behavior and crime?
a) Crimes are more dangerous than deviant behavior.
b) Deviant behavior breaks the law.
c) Deviant behavior becomes crime when it breaks the law.

6. Based on the text, why is white-collar crime called that way?

 How safe do you feel in your city/country?

 Have you ever been victim of a crime?
 What is the most frequent type of crime in your city/country?

Grammar Spot

 Subject pronouns
 Object pronouns
 Reflexive pronoun

Subject pronouns identify who or what is the focus of the sentence.

Object pronouns identify who or what is affected by the action done by the subject.
Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject does an action that goes back to it.

Subject and object pronouns

Object pronouns are also used after a preposition (for/about/after/by):

“This letter is not for me. It's for her.” “I can't find my glasses. Please, help me look for them.”

Reflexive pronouns
We also use reflexive pronouns when we want to emphasize
that we did the action alone or without help:
“Who repaired your bicycle for you?” “Nobody. I did it
“I live by myself.”

* Be careful: we do not use reflexive pronouns after concentrate, feel, relax, and meet.
we normally use wash, shave, and dress without reflexive pronouns.
I. Complete the sentences with subject or object pronouns depending on the context.

II. Complete the sentences with subject or object pronouns depending on the context.

1. A: I haven't met Mark yet. Is here?

B: That's over there.

2. A: I've had enough of this party.

B: too.

3. A: Languages are very interesting for .

B: Really? I thought you hated .

4. A: I tried to contact Julie and Paul but I couldn't reach .

B: Don't know? are on vacation.

III. Complete the sentences with a verb and a reflexive pronoun.

blame burn cut enjoy express hurt put

i. George while he was shaving this morning.

ii. Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn't badly.

iii. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't .

iv. Please try and understand how I feel. in my position.

v. They had a great time. They really .

vi. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don't .

vii. Sometimes I can't say exactly what I mean. I wish I could better.

Crime in Society Today

Before you listen:

Look at the two pie charts below that classify arrests in the United States today. The chart on the left
classifies arrests by age group. The chart on the right classifies arrests by gender. Work with a partner and
fill in the chart legends with your guesses about the age and gender of people arrested.

After checking the correct answers with the class, does any of the information surprise you? How can
these pie charts compare to what happens in your country?

Now you are going to listen to an interview with two people, Evelina and Arpad. Read the statements
first and check the vocabulary spot. Then, as you listen, decide if they are true (T) or false(F).

Vocabulary Spot
Bothered: disturbed, troubled, worried
Availability: access to something
Shot: injured or killed with a bullet*
Blames: thinks or says that somebody/something is responsible for something bad
*Bullet: small metal object fired from a gun

1. Evelina is concerned about the crime news that she sees on TV.

2. Arpad is not bothered by loud groups of teenagers on the street.

3. Evelina is not worried about the availability of guns.

4. Arpad says that someone was recently shot in a local restaurant.

5. Evelina says that parents need to have more contact with their children.

6. Arpad blames the high levels of crimes on the availability of guns.

7. Arpad thinks that teachers have the main responsibility for teaching values to children.

8. Arpad supports gun control by the government.

Now you are going to listen to two other people, Gail and Tom, talk about their experiences. First check
the words below to have a better understanding of what you are going to hear.

Vocabulary Spot
Mugged: attacked and robbed
Prosecuting: being charged with a crime and taken to court
Ransacked: broken into, searched, and left in a messy condition
Violation: invasion
Pickpockets: thieves who steal things out of pockets or bags, especially in crowds

Gail: she often works late at night. Once she was robbed by some young men.

1. What happened to Gail?

2. Where was she?

3. What was stolen?

4. How did she feel about being victim of a crime?

5. Did she report the incident? Why?

Tom: he talks about being the victim of burglars and pickpockets.

6. What was stolen from Tom?

7. Where was he?

8. How did the events take place?

9. How did he feel about being victim of a crime?

10. Did he report the incident? Why?

Now imagine that you are in situations similar to those of the people you listened to. What would you
do? Circle the options that could apply to you and then compare them with your classmates' answers.

1. You are alone in a city and it is late. You need to get home. Would you...
a) take the bus or train, even if you have to wait a long time?
b) walk home quickly but without being very concerned?
c) decide not to go home, but to stay with some friends nearby?

2. If a stranger approached you, would you...

a) act calmly and talk to the stranger?
b) run away as fast as you could?
c) ignore the person and keep on walking?

3. If someone told you to hand over your money, would you...

a) agree to give the person your money?
b) say nothing and pretend not to hear?
c) refuse to give them the money?

4. If a person stole a small amount of money from you, would you...

a) be very hurt and afraid?
b) feel sorry for the criminal?
c) feel angry about what happened?

5. If your apartment were broken into, would you...

a) expect the police to help?
b) expect the police to do nothing?
c) feel very violated.

Juvenile Crime

Before you read

Look at the cartoon below. What does it refer to?

With the rate of crime by juveniles on the rise, people have been forced to take a careful look at the
causes and to try to create effective ways to stop this trend. Below you will read about three solutions
some cities have tried in order to control juvenile delinquency. What do you think about them?

 Teen Court
At most teen courts, teenagers who have been accused of minor crimes, ranging from traffic violations to
attempted burglary, agree to admit to the crime. A jury made up of their peers—that is, other people their
age—decides on the penalty or punishment.

 Curfews
Curfews are time limits that require a certain population of people to be off the streets by a specific time.
For example, in some cities, anyone under 18 years of age mus be indoors by 8 p.m. on school nights and
11 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays.

 Parental Punishment
Some towns have put a law into effect that makes parents responsible for the behavior of their teenage
children. When teens commit a minor crime, the law allows judges to make parents pay up to $1,000 and
take ―parent effectiveness‖ classes.

Now you're going to read about these three methods and their results. First check the vocabulary spot.

Vocabulary Spot
Defendant: a person in a law case who is accused of having done something illegal
Offenders: lawbreakers
Penalties: punishments
Plead guilty: admit to the crime
Hand down: give
To fine: to punish financially
Law-abiding: non-criminal
Overzealous verdicts: severe judgements

What method of punishment works better? Cities and towns across the United states have
come up with some unusual solutions to juvenile crime. Here's your chance to pass judgment on
three of them.

Teen Court
The 16-year-old defendant has already admitted shoplifting a tube of lipstick from a
department-store counter. Slouching in the witness stand, absent-mindedly twirling her hair, she
looks as if her day in court is boring her. And in teen court—where the judge, lawyers, and jury are
all teenagers—bad attitude is a serious offense.

“She didn't show the court any respect,” says Philip Dela Rosa, the director of the Family
YMCA Teen Court in Houston, Texas. “Here, dissing the jury is a very big mistake.”

Nationally, however, teen courts are gaining respect and attention, with at least 185
operating in 24 states. At most of these courts, teens charged with misdemeanors—minor crimes
ranging from traffic violations to attempted burglary—plead guilty in exchange for having their
penalty set by a jury of their peers.

Although teen juries usually cannot order fines or jail time, they can sentence offenders to
perform community service, offer apologies, write essays, and return to teen courts as jurors. Once
the sentence is completed the teen's record is wiped clean, as though he or she never committed a

This is not a mock trial—these are no Mickey Mouse courts,” says Dela Rosa, who has helped
create more than 50 teen courts around the country. “The teens take this court very seriously. And
if they don't, they learn their lesson the hard way.”

In fact, many teen juries hand down harsher penalties than the standard courts do. The
lipstick thief had to perform 48 hours of community service, attend an anti-theft class, write a
1,000-word essay, and serve on a teen-court jury.

But do teen courts really help keep kids out of trouble? Supporters say the courts are an
effective way to reach delinquent teens before they become serious criminals. The courts help ease
the burden on the already overloaded juvenile justice system. And they have a track record of
success. Nationally, 40 to 50 percent of teen offenders commit crimes again. But of those who go
through teen courts, less than 10 percent get arrested again.

Critics say such numbers are deceiving. Since most defendants are first-time offenders
charged with minor crimes, few are likely to become repeat offenders anyway. “For the young people
involved, teen court in an invaluable learning experience,” says Hunter Hurst, director of the
National Center for Juvenile Justice in Pittsburgh. “But as for changing behavior, the evidence is not
there at all.”

Legal experts also question whether teen courts are really fair to defendants. Having to face
a teen jury instead of an adult one may pressure teenagers to plead guilty, even if they're not. And
while teen-court jurors receive weeks of training and must pass a law test, critics say even the most
highly trained teen is not mature enough for jury duty. Sometimes inexperience leads to
overzealous verdicts. And some teen courts have seen their proceedings disrupted by
participants who have dozed off, broken into laughter, or arrived unprepared to try a case.

“If young people are sufficiently different from adults to warrant a different legal process,
are they capable of running a court?” asks Hurst. “Is that what we want?”

The Law Says: Be Home by 8:00

As one of the nation's most violent cities, New Orleans has had its share of youth crime. So
last year, the city adopted a curfew to get teenagers off the street. Today, anyone under 18 must
be indoors by 8 p.m. on school nights and 11 p.m. Friday and Saturday.

New Orleans police say the curfew has produced dramatic results. In the past year, police
have rounded up 3,900 kids for violating the curfew. Juvenile murders have fallen by 33 percent,
rape by 67 percent, armed robbery by 33 percent, and car theft by 42 percent.

Seeing these results, local governments across the nation have found youth curfews hard to
resist. Of the 77 largest American cities, 59 now have curfews. The laws vary from place to place.
Most allow police to round up teens at night, while others also cover school hours. In some cases,
offenders are taken to detention centers; in others, they are handed a citation, like a parking ticket,
and then escorted home.

Despite their apparent success, curfews have drawn a chorus of criticism from teens, parents,
and civil liberties advocates. Many law-abiding teens find the restrictions unfair. “It is totally and
completely wrong to punish all of the teenagers when only a small percentage is the really guilty,”
says Jessica Levi, 15, of Washington, D.C., where a curfew was adopted this summer. Another
disadvantage for some parents and their kids is that curfews get in the way of after-school jobs,
social activities, and athletics. And civil liberties groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union
charge that curfews violate the First Amendment right to peaceful assembly. Courts have overturned
many curfew laws on these grounds.

Punish the Parents

When 15-year-old Jeremiah Beck was caught shoplifting, he didn't face any charge—but his
mother did. Though she hadn't set foot near the scene of the crime, Anita Beck went to court for
Jeremiah's mistake. The charge? Failing to supervise her son.

Because of all the growth in the number of minor crimes committed by juveniles, the town
of Silverton, Oregon, where the Becks live, passed a law holding parents responsible for their kids'
wrongdoings. The law allows judges to fine parents up to $1,000 and require them to take “parent
effectiveness” classes if their kids commit a minor crime.

The law was recently adopted statewide and may become a model for communities around
the nation. The reason: It seems to be working. Since the law took effect in January, Silverton's
juvenile crime rate has declined by 55 percent, Police Chief Randy Lunsford claims. Before, minor
offenders often went unpunished and felt free to try more serious crimes, he says. Now, parents
are forced to step in and police their kids before they graduate from petty thievery to armed robbery.

Not everyone considers the law such a shining model. Many parents claim it's
unconstitutional to charge one person for someone else's crime. “This law smacks of

totalitarianism,” says attorney Josi Davidson, who represents a group of parents challenging the
law. “It's too much government intrusion into families' lives. It absolutely violates due process,
under which you can't be punished unless you've done something wrong.”

Anita Beck was found innocent, but Silvia Whitney was cited when her 17-year-old son, Scott,
got caught with a beer. While Scott takes a court-ordered alcohol awareness course, his mom is
fighting the charge. Scott takes her side. “It should be my fault,” he says. “I got in trouble; she
didn't. The government's trying to be my dad, and it's not right.”

Put the following main ideas in the order they appear in the article. Number them from 1 to 7.

a. Last year, New Orleans adopted a curfew to get teenagers off the street.

b. Supporters say the courts are an effective way to reach delinquent teens before they become

serious criminals.

c. Not everyone considers the parental law a great model.

d. Curfews have drawn a chorus of criticism from teens, parents, and civil liberties advocates.

e. Silverton, Oregon, passed a law holding parents responsible for their kids' wrongdoing.

f. Cities and towns across the United States have come up with some unusual solutions to teen


g. Teen courts are becoming more and more popular every year.

Now complete the chart with the information from the text.

Arguments in favor of the

Type of program Arguments against the program

Teen Court

Teen Curfew

Parental Laws

Grammar Spot
 Some and any
 Another and other

A. Some and any

In general, we use some (also somebody, something, someone) in positive sentences, and any (also
anybody, anyone, anything) in negative sentences:
Some cities have come up with some creative solutions to fight juvenile crime.
Some cities haven't come up with any solution to fight juvenile crime.

We also use any for questions except for offers/requests:

Do you have any questions? Would you like some tea? / Can I have some coffee?

B. Another, other and others

Another is used before a singular noun: We look at curfews as another tool to keep kids safe.
Another can be used as a pronoun too. In this case, make sure you don't include a noun: One teen had to
write a 1,000-word essay; another had to do community service.
Other is used before a plural noun: Meanwhile, other parents are still stuck in court.
Others is a pronoun and it is used without nouns: In others, they are handed a citation.


1. Complete the sentences with any, some, another, other or others.

i. This evening I'm going out with friends of mine.

ii. There is way of dealing with this: it's called curfew.

iii. I didn't have money, so I had to borrow .

iv. Can I have milk in my coffee, please?

v. You can't exchange money at this bank but you can go to .

vi. This tea is delicious. Can I have cup?

vii. Have you read good books lately?

Controlling Crime

Before you listen:

Violent crime has dropped in the United States in recent years, but overall crime rate is still
alarmingly high. Crime control is one of the most difficult and controversial subjects in sociology. People
have very different beliefs about the best way to lower the crime rate.

Many people believe that the best way to control crime is to stop it from happening in the first
place. This might mean developing educational and social programs to discourage young people from
becoming involved in criminal activity, or having more police officers on the streets. Other people think
that the best way to control crime is to have tougher punishments. This might include having stricter
laws, more arrests, and longer prison terms.

 What are two different approaches to controlling crime?

 How could educational and social programs help lower the crime rate?

Which of the two different approaches to controlling crime do you think is more effective? Why?
Do you think your community has a high crime rate or a low crime rate? Explain

Now read the technical terms and definitions for various types of crime in the left column of the chart
below. Read the examples of each type of crime in the right column.

Type of crime Example

1. Assault and robbery (attacking someone and A group of teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17
stealing their possessions) attack an old man as he walks home. They steal his
wallet and beat him with a baseball bat, leaving him
unconscious on the sidewalk.
2. Abduction (taking a person against his or her A woman who is divorced from her husband secretly
will) takes the couple's 13-year-old son and runs off with
him to another country. The father and mother share
custody of the son.
3. Vandalism (destroying property) Some teenagers break into a school cafeteria and
smash all the plates. Then they spray paint the
4. Delinquent payment (not paying money that you Two people who are renting an apartment have not
owe) paid their rent for the last three months.
5. Impersonation/Breaking and entering A man knocks on the door of an elderly woman's
(pretending to be someone else and entering house, pretending to be a TV repairman. Once
somewhere illegally) inside, he asks to use the bathroom, but, instead,
he goes into the bedroom and steals money and
6. False ID (having identification papers that An 18-year-old makes a copy of his friend's college
identify you as someone else) ID. He uses it to pretend that he is 21.

Listen to people express their opinions about the crimes listed above. Listen carefully to what they say
and the degree of certainty with which they express their opinions. Circle the degree of certainty that the
speaker expresses.

1 Sure Not Sure

2 Sure Not Sure

3 Sure Not Sure

4 Sure Not Sure

5 Sure Not Sure

6 Sure Not Sure

Do you agree with these people's opinions? Why/why not?

Grammar Spot
Subject-Verb Agreement

 Singular subjects
I. When the following words are used as subjects, they are always singular. Some of these words are plural
in meaning, but they always require a singular verb.

everyone everybody everything someone somebody something anyone anybody anything

no one nobody nothing each either neither

Example: Everyone is here. Neither of these books is new.


II. When each or every comes before singular subjects joined by and, a singular verb is required.
Example: Each student and teacher has a locker.

III. Introductory it is singular and always followed by a singular verb.

Example: It is his grades that worry him.

 Plural subjects
I. Subjects joined by and or both... and... take a plural verb.
Example: The teacher and the students are attending the lecture.
II. Several, many, both, few are plural words and always take a plural verb.
Example: Only a few have passed the exam.

III. Some nouns are always plural in form and always take plural verbs.
Clothes: trousers, pants, jeans, sunglasses
Tools: scissors, pliers, tweezers
Abstract: thanks, means
However, some of them can take a singular verb when they are used in expressions such as a pair of..., a
word of...
His pants are still at the cleaners. That pair of pants is dirty.

Your thanks are enough for me. A word of thanks is enough.


 Alternatives
I. When subjects are joined by the following structures, the verb must agree with the closest subject.
Neither the students nor the teacher is allowed to smoke.
Either the teacher or students have your books.
Not only the students but also the teacher is coming soon.

II. Many words can be singular or plural depending on what they refer to: none, all, some, any, majority,
most, half, etc. When these words are used with a singular noun, then the verb is singular; when they are
used with a plural noun, then the verb is plural.
Examples: All of the book has been destroyed. All of the books have been destroyed.

III. The expression a number of is plural, and the expression the number of is singular.
A number of students were missing from class.
The number of students in class is small.

Complete these sentences with is or are depending on the subject.

1. Either his children or his wife arriving today.

2. Both the chair and the sofa on sale.

3. It the bicyclists who endanger the joggers.

4. Everyone in the class working hard.

5. All of the water contaminated.

6. Every dog and cat vaccinated against rabies.

7. A number of doctors working in this hospital.

8. All of the rooms clean.

9. The number of female doctors growing.

10. Not only men but also women eligible to vote.

11. It the exam that worries me.

12. Each boy and girl doing the test.

Techniques for Solving Crimes

Before you read:

 Have you ever seen TV series or movies about detectives solving crime? Make a list.
 What are the techniques you have seen? How effective are they?
 In your opinion, what is the most effective technique for solving a crime?

Now read a text about this topic. First look up the words in bold in a dictionary.

There are many methods of crime detection. Detection methods include the study of
handwriting to find out who was the author of an incriminating document and the use of a lie
detector test that indicates whether suspects are telling the truth by measuring their breathing and
pulse and skin movements. Detectives can even use insects to help solve a murder case! By knowing
how long it would take certain insects to break down the body tissue, scientists can estimate the
time of death. Insects can also be used to solve drug crimes. Insects are often found in illegal
shipments of drugs. Detectives can use knowledge about where the insects come from to trace the
drugs back to a particular location in the world.

One of the most important and reliable kinds of evidence that can be used in solving crimes
is still the fingerprint. A person's fingerprints are the swirled patterns of ridges and valleys in the
skin on the tips of the fingers. These patterns are unique, that is, no two people have identical
patterns, and the patterns do not change over time. Criminal investigation agencies all over the
world have large collections of fingerprints to use in crime detection and these are now computerized
to make it easier to search for matching prints. If fingerprints are found at a crime scene, officers
may enter them into a computer bank to search for a match with the prints of a suspected criminal.

Fingerprints form when someone touches a surface. Sweat and amino acids from the body
transfer to the surface and leave an impression. Sometimes it is only a partial impression, but that
can be sufficient. Many prints are invisible under normal circumstances, but they can be made visible
using a variety of techniques, such as dusting powders and chemicals. The prints are then
photographed and lifted with a tape. Today, prints are often examined in darkness using high-
powered lasers, and they can be retrieved from almost any surface—even plastic bags or human

Of course, some crime scenes may contain no fingerprints. When the New York City police
arrested a murder suspect in June 1998, they had no physical evidence tying him to the killing. Only
days later they were able to link him to that homicide, plus two other homicides—and it all came
down to a cup of coffee. The detectives who had arrested the man on a petty theft charge, gave
him coffee while they were questioning him. After the suspect left the room, detectives used the
saliva he left on the cup to obtain his DNA. Testing then showed that his DNA matched not only the
DNA found at the crime scene, but DNA associated with other crimes as well. Another case involved
a DNA sample from a popsicle. Detectives who had been following the suspect picked up the
popsicle from a trash bin. In this case, however, the suspect was found not to be connected to the

DNA analysis is based on the fact that every person (except an identical twin) has certain
elements in his or her DNA that are unique. A sample of DNA can be taken from a person and

matched to a sample of DNA taken from a crime scene—from a drop of blood or a strand of hair, for
example. New methods of DNA testing mean that it is now a much faster and cheaper process, and
large banks of DNA test results can be stored in computers, just as fingerprints are. When DNA is
collected from a crime scene, the computers can search for a test result that matches the sample.
Now, in New York City, detectives are being instructed to pick up such discarded items as gum,
tissues, Band-Aids, and, in some cases, the spit of suspects, in order to get samples of their DNA.
If detectives can match the DNA to DNA recovered from the crime scene, chances for a guilty plea
or conviction are higher. If there is no match, suspects can be eliminated.

The analysis of DNA is another example of how science and technology are transforming
crime fighting. However, there are some difficulties with this method. While some see it as a positive
technological advancement—a tool that helps police to find and charge the guilty and to free the
innocent—others see it as a serious invasion of privacy, suggesting it is like a police search of a
person or place without permission. United States law regards DNA like other “property” that
someone has abandoned. If a suspect leaves saliva on a glass in a restaurant, or a cigarette butt
on a sidewalk, or in some other public place, this is abandoned property. If someone drinks from a
glass in a restaurant and then leaves the restaurant, he or she is, in legal terms, “abandoning” the
DNA left on the glass.

There is also the issue that DNA can be used to reveal much information about a person's
genetic code. It can show, for example, whether the person has genes that relate to particular
illnesses or to particular kinds of behavior. For reasons of privacy, therefore, it is important that
DNA testing be strictly limited to simply identifying the person, and not used for other purposes
without the person's permission. Special legislation may be needed to protect this genetic

Now answer the questions below.

1. In which ways can insects help solve crimes?

2. What is the main characteristic of a fingerprint?

3. How can detectives ―see‖ fingerprints?

4. Why is DNA more useful than fingerprints?

5. What do some people say against the use of DNA?

Complete the following sentences using information from Table 7.2.

1. The most useful source of DNA is .

2. Saliva on or is more useful than

that found on or .

3. The least useful source of DNA is .

4. Mucus on used tissue paper is not a useful as, for example, .

Imagine you are a detective. You have been involved in solving a crime using DNA. Now you must write
your report. Tell the story of how you collected the DNA and how it helped you find the criminal. Use
the guide questions below to help you get started.

1. What was the crime?

2. Who was the suspect?
3. How did you collect the DNA?
4. What happened then?

Grammar Spot

Referents are words in a passage that other words refer to. Usually, they are mentioned before the
pronoun in the passage—often immediately before it; this is called anaphora. However, sometimes the
referent appears after the pronoun (cataphora). The referent may be in the same sentence as the pronoun
or it may be in another sentence.
The meaning of the sentence (context) can help you identify the referents. The function of the
pronoun or referring word—for example, whether it is a subject or object—can help you find the correct
referent. Grammatical structures are often clues that point to the identity of referents. Sentence
structure, logic, and common sense can help you locate referents.

Some words and pronouns that have referents are:

Subject Pronouns he she it they

Object Pronouns him her it them
Possessive Adjectives his her its their
Demonstrative Pronouns this that these those
Relative Pronoun who which
Other Pronouns all another any both each a few many most none
one others several some the first the last the other


Read an extract and underline the referents and the words/phrases that refer to them.

The analysis of DNA is another example of how science and technology are transforming
crime fighting. However, there are some difficulties with this method. While some see it as a positive
technological advancement—a tool that helps police to find and charge the guilty and to free the
innocent—others see it as a serious invasion of privacy, suggesting it is like a police search of a
person or place without permission. United States law regards DNA like other “property” that
someone has abandoned. If a suspect leaves saliva on a glass in a restaurant, or a cigarette butt
on a sidewalk, or in some other public place, this is abandoned property. If someone drinks from a
glass in a restaurant and then leaves the restaurant, he or she is, in legal terms, “abandoning” the
DNA left on the glass.


Before you read:

Think about your own use of the mass media. Then complete this chart with your own information and
compare it with your classmates.

Provide a short description for each type of television program and give some examples.
 Talk shows
 News
 Prime-time movies
 Soap operas
 Cartoons
 Sitcoms
 Documentaries

Now read a text about the roles of mass media.

The term mass media refers to the channels of communication (media) that exist to reach a
large public audience (the mass of the population). Mass media includes newspapers, magazines,
television, radio, and more recently, the Internet. It informs people about events that they would
otherwise know little about. Mass media communication is usually fast, because the media will
report an important event as quickly as possible after it happens. In fact, some television reporting
is live; that is, the viewers can see the events as they happen. It is also transient; that is, the focus
on one event doesn't last long. This is captured in the expression “there is nothing as old as
yesterday's news.”

The mass media is an important part of life in many countries such as the United States.
Over 55 million newspapers are circulated each day. There are over five radios per household, and
it is estimated that radio reaches 77% of people over the age of 12 every day. The radio listening
time for those over 12 is more than three hours each day. Most households also have two or more
television sets, with a total viewing time of about seven hours per day. The amount of time that
people spend in front of their television sets varies with age, gender, and education, but on average
it amounts to three to four hours a day.

While most of us make use of some form of the media on a daily basis, we may not think
about the functions or purposes the media serves in our society. One important function is
entertainment. On television, in particular, the variety of entertainment programs is extensive,
ranging from soap operas, to comedy, to talk shows, to sports. Even advertising, where the main
purpose is to sell things to the public, may sometimes be seen as entertainment.

Another function is education. A quick look through a television or radio guide will reveal
many programs with an educational focus. These include documentaries on a wide range of topics
such as animal behavior, geography, history or art. They also include a wide variety of instructional
programs such as cooking, home decorating, or investing. Some children's programs are also
educational, teaching children to count or recognize words, or introducing them to different societies
and cultures.

The media can provide important community information in the form of warnings. For
example, the media can warn of the danger of an approaching hurricane or tornado. These warnings
provide up-to-the-minute information on the location of the bad weather and alert people to take
the necessary precautions. Without such warnings there would be a greater danger of loss of life
and property. Warnings may also be given for other hazards such as air or water pollution.
Periodically, the media raises questions about water quality, suggesting that the water we drink is
not safe. How much these water scares are motivated by commercial interests is unknown. However,
bottled water is a 2-billion-dollar business and growing.

In addition to these functions, the media has an important role in shaping our beliefs.
Sometimes information contained in the media is deliberately presented in such way that it
encourages us to believe certain things or to form certain opinions. This practice is referred to as
propaganda. When we think of propaganda, we usually think of political forces, but commercial
interests may also use the media to propagandize. Advertisements, for example, encourage us to
believe that certain products will change our lives in amazing ways. The media can also influence
what we believe is possible. For example, 43% of adults in the US believe that UFOs (Unidentified
Flying Objects) may be space vehicles from another planet, and most people think that alien visitors
would be like E.T. from the movie by Steven Spielberg. TV and movies are likely to be responsible
for these views (Miller 1978).

A further function of the mass media is that of socialization. This is the process by which a
society transmits cultural values about what is appropriate behavior to its members. People may be
socialized into behaving in certain ways in response to a personal problem, because they have
frequently seen others on the news or in soap operas behaving that way in similar circumstances.
Finally, for some people the media offers companionship. Television celebrities and talk show hosts
may be seen as “friends” by their viewers, particularly if those viewers are socially isolated, aged
or invalid, and in need of companionship.

The range of functions or purposes of the media in society are many and varied, and the
influence on our lives is considerable. The media influences how we spend our time and our money,
what we get to see and hear about, and the way we understand those events. It helps to shape our
beliefs, our opinions and our behaviors.

Vocabulary in context

In the text there are many words that have been highlighted. It is very common to use the context
in order to guess the meaning of unknown words. The context is the setting—the sentence and paragraph—
in which a word or phrase appears. The meaning of a word or phrase in context is its meaning in the
particular sentence and paragraph in which it is used. A single English word can have many different
meanings so its precise meaning always depends on the context in which it is used.

To understand the meaning of a word in context, you can use different types of context clues: your
knowledge of structure, punctuation, and the meaning of other words in the same sentence or paragraph.
Also, you can use your common sense and knowledge of the world.

Structural clues

Clue: BE
Example: ―A supernova is a massive star that Explanation: the meaning of supernova is given by
undergoes a gravitational collapse, then a gigantic the information after the verb is. A supernova is a
explosion, blasting away the outer layers into massive star that collapses and then explodes.

Clue: OR
Example: ―The inclination or tilt of the earth's axis Explanation: the meaning of inclination is given by
with respect to the sun determines the seasons. the information after the conjunction or. Inclination
means tilt.

Example: ―Thermal power stations are designed to Explanation: the meaning of turbines is given by the
pass as much energy as possible from the fuel to the appositive, the noun phrase after the comma.
turbines, machines whose blades are turned by the Turbines are machines with blades that are turned
movement of the steam.‖ by the movement of the steam.


Example: ―Because of their similar teeth, seals and Explanation: Items in a list or series are related in
walruses are believed to have evolved from the same some way. The meaning of mustelids is suggested by
ancestral groups as the weasels, badgers, and other the other words in the list: weasels, badgers, and
mustelids.‖ other. Mustelids are animals like weasels and


Function: Illustration (for example, for instance, like, such as)
Example: ―Several personnel managers complain Explanation: the meaning of obsolete is given by the
about the lag of business colleges in eliminating information after for instance. Shorthand is an
obsolete skills. For instance, shorthand is still taught example of an obsolete skill. Obsolete describes
in many secretarial programs although it is rarely something that is no longer useful.

Function: Contrast and concession (but, conversely, despite, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead,
nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, unlike, whereas, while)

Example: ―Twilight rays are nearly parallel, but Explanation: The meaning of diverge is given by but
because of the observer's perspective, they appear and parallel. From this, you know that diverge is
to diverge.‖. different from parallel.

Punctuation clues
comma , parentheses ()
dash — quotation marks ― ―
colon : brackets []
Example: ―Virtually every community college now Explanation: the meaning of contract education is
offers contract education: short-term programs, given by the information after the colon. Contract
ranging from a few hours to several days, from education is short-term programs for employees of
employees of specific companies, which pay a share specific companies.
of the cost.‖

Word Parts
Prefix Stem Suffix Word
con feder ate confederate
intro duc tion introduction
syn chron ize synchronize

Now guess the meaning of all the highlighted words in the reading passage.

Reporting the facts

Before you read:

In the examples below, the words in bold contain the prefix ―mis‖:
 The article misreports the facts. The thief stole $1,000, not $10,000.
 I misheard you. I thought you said you came from Austria, not Australia.
 The governor was misquoted. She didn't say, “I will resign.” She said, “I may resign.”

How does adding the prefix ―mis‖ to the beginning of a word change the
meaning? How can this prefix relate to the topic, ―Reporting the facts‖?

Now read a text about this topic.

Should you believe what you read or hear in the media? What is presented as fact is not
always so. Sometimes errors occur because the reporters and editors did not check the facts
properly. Sometimes new reporters misreport or misrepresent information in an effort to make a
story more newsworthy. Changing the facts a little can make the story either more serious or more

There have been some embarrassing examples where major newspapers and TV networks
have published false information because reporters have not checked it for accuracy. One such
example was the publication of a report of the death of the elderly comedian, Bob Hope. A U.S.
Congressman apparently misheard someone talking about Bob Hope. He stood up in Congress and
announced the death of the comedian. This was then picked up and published widely in the media.
When reporters called Mr. Hope's home to follow up the story, his daughter was very surprised and
assured them that he was happily eating his breakfast at that moment.

Research into the accuracy of media reporting has revealed some interesting findings. One
media researcher collected and studied newspaper articles about climate change. His study revealed
a number of examples of errors in the media. In one article about the rise in sea level, it was
reported that the sea level was rising at 1 to 2 centimeters per year, when the interviewee had
(correctly) said millimeters. Another story predicted that the annual rainfall would increase 8
centimeters rather than millimeters. The researcher argued that these mistakes did not occur at
random because this could help others to manipulate information and thus, influence people's

Misquotation of sources is a common complaint about news stories. In the study mentioned
above, 34 percent of sources believed that they had been misquoted, that is, the sources did not
really say what was reported in the news story. When you read a direct quotation in the a news
story, you probably think you are reading someone's exact words. But often the part of the text in
quotation marks is actually a summary of what was said, put together by the reporter. In some
cases, sources that are quoted in media stories have never even spoken to the reporters.

A well-known case of misquotation occurred in the U.S. media in 1999. Al Gore, the U.S.
vice president at the time, was speaking to a group of secondary school students about efforts to
clean up toxic waste. He was referring to a community where the issue had been taken up by local
residents and said, “...that was the one that started it all.” One prominent newspaper reported his
words as “I was the one that started it all.” As this misquotation was re-reported by other
newspapers around the country, Al Gore faced enormous criticism for trying to claim credit for things
he had not done.

Misquotation is also possible in broadcasting (radio and television). Technology makes it

possible to edit what someone says so that it sounds like continuous speech, when in fact some
phrases or sentences have been removed. Broadcasters argue that this is sometimes necessary.
They say that if they are quoting someone who is not a very skilled speaker, they have to edit the
talk. Another issue is the rearranging of questions and answers, so that a question receives an
answer that was originally given to another, though similar, question.

The Internet is the source of many rumors, or unverified stories. Rumors are generally spread
from one person to another by word of mouth, and the story evolves or changes in the process. But
the Internet has allowed rumors to spread much further and faster than ever before. In fact the
Internet has begun to be used as a deliberate strategy to circulate rumors, often for political
purposes and often with a serious impact. In 1998, false reports of riots in Malaysia sparked panic
that prompted people to stock up on food and lock themselves indoors.

 There are 4 sections in this text. Match the titles i-vi to their corresponding sections. Note that
there are more titles than sections.
i. Rumors on the Internet
ii. The Internet as a powerful tool
iii. Failing to check the facts
iv. Misquoting
v. Reporting statistics
vi. Misreporting

 Scan the text and find the following information:

The name of a famous person from the U.S.
Two different numbers
A unit of measurement
A percentage
A year

1. The word newsworthy in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

a) meaningful
b) insignificant
c) late
d) fresh

2. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to
a) accuracy
b) reporters
c) information
d) examples

3. The word random in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

a) essential
b) unpremeditated
c) particular
d) definite

4. The phrase the issue in paragraph 5 refers to

a) community
b) Al Gore
c) efforts to clean toxic waste
d) local residents

5. The word argue in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to

a) concur
b) contend
c) contempt
d) condescension

6. The word sparked in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to

a) ceased
b) started
c) deadened
d) muffled

7. The word prompted in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to

a) urged
b) halted
c) hindered
d) hidden


A paraphrase is a restatement of another sentence that gives the same information as the original
sentence but in a different way. Paraphrases or restatements may have different sentence structure or use
different words. They often use synonyms, words that have the same meaning, or nearly the same meaning,
as the words in the original sentence. In order to identify the paraphrase of a sentence, focus on the
essential information in the original sentence, which includes the ideas that are basic to the sentence's

Original sentence Paraphrase
If we factor in the inequality of life, then the carrying Earth can support fewer people if the quality of
capacity of Earth will be much smaller than if we life is considered more significant than just
simply estimate how much food it takes to avoid avoiding starvation.

Drawing inferences and determining purpose

An inference is a conclusion you can make from the information given in a passage. An inference
is an idea that you can reasonably take to be true, based on what the author says. Some inferences can
be made from a single sentence, but others are based on a whole paragraph or on the entire passage.
When you make inferences, use key words and ideas in the passage and your overall understanding on the
author's message, as well as reason, logic, and common sense.

The purpose of a passage is the reason the author wrote it. The author wants you to understand
the topic in a certain way, and its purpose may be to inform, define, explain, illustrate, compare, criticize,
etc. The author's purpose is closely related to the main points made about the topic.


Researchers have confirmed the link between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and rising
temperatures. Global warming is a serious threat to entire ecosystems, the global atmosphere, and the oceans.
While we are already seeing its effect on wildlife and habitat, we know that reducing carbon dioxide emissions
from human activities―such as burning fossil fuels in power plants and automobiles―will help slow global
warming and minimize negative effects.

What can be inferred from this paragraph about carbon dioxide?

a) It burns at a very high temperature.
b) It is the main atmospheric gas.
c) It is a cause of global warming.
d) It is used as a fuel for automobiles.

Why is burning fossil fuels mentioned?

a) To explain what carbon dioxide is.
b) To illustrate an action that produces carbon dioxide.
c) To illustrate a cause of global warming.
d) To describe the effects of global warming.
Read this text about ―Prestige‖ and answer the questions below.

Prestige refers to a person's social standing—the level of respect that other people are willing to show. A
person with high prestige is honored or esteemed by other people, while a person with low prestige is disrespected
or marginalized. Prestige is a valued resource for people at all levels of a society, and this can be seen among inner-
city youth, where to disrespect or “diss” someone has negative consequences. Exactly what qualities are respected
will vary from one society to another.

In the United States, the top-status occupations are the professions—physicians, lawyers, professors, and
clergy—requiring many years of education and training. At the other end of the hierarchy, the lowest prestige is
associated with occupations requiring little formal education—for example, bus drivers, sanitation works, and
janitors. Prestige is linked to income, but there are exceptions, such as college professors, who have high prestige
but relatively low salaries compared to physicians and lawyers. Conversely, some low-prestige workers receive
high union wages and benefits. Criminals are often well rewarded with income and respect in their communities,
while politicians—many of whom are wealthy—are frequently less respected than occupations such as secretary
and bank teller.

1. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in
paragraph 1?
a) The most valuable resource in any society is prestige, but young people who disrespect others
reject this.
b) People at all social levels value prestige, and to disrespect another is punished, for example,
among urban youth.
c) The disrespectful behavior of some young people shows that prestige is not valued equally
throughout a society.
d) There are serious consequences when teenagers from the inner city do not show respect for other

2. Why are inner-city youngsters mentioned?

a) To describe the ways in which respect is valued in a society.
b) To compare how different people value respect in a society.
c) To illustrate the qualities that are taken into account when people value respect.
d) To illustrate that to some extent, all people in a society value respect.

3. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in
paragraph 2?
a) If an occupation has high prestige, then it usually has a high income; college professors,
physicians, and lawyers are good examples.
b) Occupational status depends on income, although there is a wide range of income levels in
occupations such as college professor.
c) The fact that college professors have high prestige but relatively low incomes is an exception to
the rule that prestige and income are related.
d) It is unfair for college professors to have low salaries compared to other high-prestige professions
that have high salaries.

Privacy and the Media

Before you read:

Who are these people? What do you already know about them?

What do these people have to do with privacy and the media?

Work in pairs. Imagine that you are members of the editorial board of a newspaper. You have
photographs of the following events:

 A politician passionately kissing someone other than his or her spouse

 A person threatening to commit suicide by jumping off a building
 A movie star punching a news reporter in the street
 A celebrity being attacked by a wild dog
 A teenager being arrested for shoplifting
 A movie star sunbathing in a bikini in the backyard of her private residence.

Discuss and decide which of these photographs, if any, you will publish in your newspaper. What factors
did you consider in making your decision?

Now read a text about this topic.

Journalists are often faced with difficult decisions about whether or not to print a story or a
photograph. There are a number of ethical issues they need to consider. Is the material too violent?
Will it upset people because it tells about acts or events that are against their moral values? Does
it represent an invasion of someone's privacy, that is, does it present to the public something that
should remain private? Journalists must decide what responsibility, if any, they have to society and
if that responsibility is best fulfilled by publishing or not publishing.

An interesting question related to invasion of privacy is whether or not the public has the
right to know about the private lives of people who are public figures. In 1987, one U.S. presidential
candidate, Gary Hart, was forced to drop out ( ) before the election because of press stories about
his affair with a woman. Now, all candidates for the office of president can expect to

have their lives watched closely and with interest by the media. In 1998, the story of the relationship
between President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky dominated ( ) the media for many months. The
public was presented with very personal details of the relationship, and the scandal ( ) almost
forced the president to resign. A basic question for the media is whether a politician's personal life
is relevant to his or her performance in the job. One point of view suggests that if a person is not
honest and faithful to his or her spouse, that person is not honest and faithful to his or her country.
Another view says that if you get rid of everyone who has broken a moral law, there will be no one
left to serve in public office.

Politicians are not the only ones whose private lives are of interest to the media. Famous
people of various kinds, including movie stars and royalty, are often closely followed by the press.
There have been stories of journalists digging through garbage bins to find little bits of information
on the private lives of the rich and famous. Some press photographers try to take photographs of
famous people in their most private moments to sell them to the world's media. They often use very
powerful long lenses so that they can take photos from a distance and spy into people's home, for
example. These photographers are called paparazzi.

Paparazzi have been around for decades, but their business has grown in recent years as
there are now more magazines that focus on the lives of famous people. New technology such as
digital videos and cameras also allows them to send the photographs much more quickly to one
publisher or to many publishers around the world. There is a lot of money to be made and this
means that some of the paparazzi are becoming even more aggressive in their efforts to get a
“good” photo. Some paparazzi have been accused of deliberately starting fights with movie stars in
order to shoot them in embarrassing situations.

In 1997, when Princess Diana died in a car accident in Paris, her car was being chased by
paparazzi. This started a big public debate about the behavior of paparazzi and the issues of privacy
and the media. There was much public criticism of the paparazzi and of the newspapers and
magazines that published paparazzi photos. One member of the paparazzi argued, “I feel no
responsibility, legal or moral. Of course I'm sad, because someone we all adore is dead. But when
you become Princess Di, you are a public person.” Many magazine editors say that when they are
deciding whether or not to use paparazzi photos, they consider each case separately. They decide
whether the news value of a picture is more important than the person's right to peace and privacy.

Some critics have called for laws to limit the actions of paparazzi. However, the campaign
against the paparazzi has its dangers. Journalism necessarily involves some degree of unwelcome
( ) observation, that is, the journalist's job is to investigate ( ) matters that some people would
not like to have publicized. Moreover, famous people often use the paparazzi for their own purposes.
They look for as much media coverage ( ) as possible to keep them in the news, in order to
maintain their fame and popularity.

I. Answer these questions.

1. What are some ethical issues that journalists need to consider before publishing a news story?

2. Who was Gary Hart and why was he mentioned?

3. The word ones in paragraph 3 refers to

a) politicians
b) famous people
c) royals
d) people whose lives are the media's target

4. The word them in paragraph 3 refers to

a) press photographers
b) photographs
c) world's media
d) none of the above

5. What are paparazzi?

6. The word them in paragraph 4 refers to

a) digital videos and cameras
b) photographs
c) publishers
d) paparazzi

7. The word this in paragraph 4 refers to

a) money
b) paparazzi
c) ―good‖ photo
d) none of the above

8. What happened after Princess Diana died?

9. Why do some people favor paparazzi?

10. The word them in paragraph 6 refers to

a) media coverage
b) famous people
c) journalists
d) news

II. Look at the words in bold in paragraphs 2 and 6. Match them to their synonyms and/or
definitions. Note that there are more definitions/synonyms than words in bold.

a) causing shame and discomfort d) not wanted g) quit

b) using strong, forceful methods e) a shocking event h) attention
c) was most important f) on purpose i) examine

Grammar Spot
The Passive Voice (present simple)

Read at the following sentences.

i. Journalists must decide what responsibility they have to society.
ii. Famous people of various kinds are often closely followed by the press.

In which sentence is the subject the one that does the action?
In which sentence is the subject ―affected‖ by the action?
How many verbs do the sentences use? Are there any auxiliaries? If so, which one(s)?

We use active voice to say what the subject does:

Journalists investigate matters that are controversial.

We use a passive voice to say what happens to the subject:

Controversial matters are investigated by journalists.

When we use the passive voice, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:
These photographers are called paparazzi.  Someone gave them that name but we don't know
his/her identity.
Magazines about famous people are printed everyday.  Someone prints them but his/her identity is

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by:
These pictures are taken by paparazzi.

Rewrite these sentences using passive voice.

1. Somebody cleans the room every day.

2. People don't use this road very often.

3. How do people learn languages?

4. The doctors operate 50 patients in this hospital every day.

Internet Issues

Before you read: Internet Quiz

Answer these questions about the Internet.
 What is the Internet?
 How did it begin?
 Why do people use the Internet today?

What do you use the Internet for?

How many hours do you spend on the Internet?
Is your use of, and attitude about, computers different from that of your parents?

Now read a text about the topic.

The Internet is an amazing information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it
as an investigative tool. Journalists use it to find information for stories. Doctors use it to learn more
about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical developments. Ordinary people use it for shopping,
banking, bill-paying, and communication with family and friends. People all over the world use it to
connect with individuals from other countries and cultures. However, while there are many positive
developments associated with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns.

One concern relates to a lack of censorship or control over what appears on the Internet.
Anyone can put information on the Internet that can be then read by anyone else, at any time. This
makes it very different from television or radio. With television and radio there are editors to check
the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are
restrictions on what kinds of programs can be broadcast and at what times of the day. With the
Internet, parents cannot check a published guide to determine what is suitable for their children to
see. While software can be used to block access to certain websites, such as those displaying
pornography, this can never be completely effective.

There are also concerns about privacy and control of communication on the Internet. For
example, when you use e-mail communication or participate in chat groups, it is possible that your
private messages may be read by others without your knowing. If you buy things online or simply
browse the Internet, it is possible to trace all the websites that you visit. Someone may be looking
over your shoulder “electronically”. Such information can be used to build up a profile of your
interests and habits. One purpose for such a profile is to provide information to companies that sell
online advertising space. If they know your habits and interests, they can select particular
advertisements to send you when you are online. The advertisements are chosen to match your
profile. One potential danger is that the information could be used by others to your disadvantage.
For example, an employer could use such information to decide that you are not a suitable applicant
for a job.

A further issue relates to the misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Many companies are now
finding that they need to establish policies to control when employees use the Internet and for what
purposes. Recent surveys undertaken in the United States have revealed, for example, that:

 47% of employees send up to five personal e-mails per day, 32% send up to ten personal
e-mails daily, and 28% receive up to twenty personal e-mails per day.
 Online industry analysts predict that Internet misuse will cost companies an estimated 1
billion dollars in lost productivity.
 In companies that use software to monitor employee use of the Internet, 60% of the
managers said they had disciplined employees for online misuse, and 30% had fired people
for such behavior, which included shopping or gambling online and downloading

A fourth and growing area of concern is that of Internet addiction. An Internet addict is
someone who is unable to control his or her own use of the Internet and whose behavior threatens
to overwhelm his or her normal life. Internet addiction can result in many problems including a lack
of sleep, lateness for appointments, neglect of work responsibilities, and the disintegration of
marriages and families. Internet addiction is not just a matter of how much time a person spends
online. It is more a matter of how much damage Internet can cause in a person's life.

1. Name two ways in which people use the Internet.


2. What are the four concerns that are mentioned in the text?

3. What is the difference between Internet and television and radio?

4. Why is it dangerous to shop online?

5. What are some examples of Internet misuse at work?

6. What are some problems associated to Internet addiction?

Now take the Internet addiction test, and calculate your score. Then read the ―Analysis of results‖ section
and discuss your results with your classmates.

To assess your level of addiction, answer the questions below. Consider only the time you spend online for
non-study and non-job-related purposes. For each question, give yourself a score using the following scale:

0 = Never 1 = Rarely 2 = Occasionally 3 = Often 4 = Always

How often do...

1. you find that you stay online longer that you intended?
2. you neglect household chores to spend more time online?
3. you form new relationships with fellow online users?
4. others in your life complain to you about the amount of time you spend online?
5. you spend so much time online that your study or work is affected?
6. you check your e-mail before something else that you need to do?
7. you feel that life on the Internet is more interesting than offline life?
8. you lose sleep due to late-night use of the Internet?
9. you try to cut down the amount of time you spend online and fail?
10. you choose to spend more time online rather than going out with others?

Your total score:

Analysis of results
The higher you score, the greater your level of addiction. Here's a general scale to help measure your

10-19 points: You are an average online user. At times you may spend a bit too much time on the
Internet, but you have control over your usage.

20-29 points: You are experiencing occasional or frequent problems because of the Internet. You should
consider the Internet's full impact on your life.

30-40 points: Your Internet usage is causing significant problems in your life. You should evaluate the
impact of the Internet on your life and address the problems caused by your Internet usage.

Grammar Spot
The Passive Voice (past simple)

The passive voice can be used with all tenses in English. The rules for the use of past simple are the same
as the ones for present simple. The only change is the auxiliary verb ―be‖: now you need to use was or
were instead of am/are/is.

In the past, letters and postcards were used to communicate. Now the Internet is used by many people
in the world to communicate.

I. Complete the sentences below with a suitable verb in past simple using passive voice or active

sell follow arrest destroy wear develop prevent decrease

1. A number of priceless works of art in the earthquake last year.

2. Kathy left the room and everyone her.
3. A new drug to combat asthma in small children last month.
4. There's an exhibition of the clothes that Queen Victoria .
5. The economic situation in the region quite sharply during the last year.
6. People who didn't have a valid visa from entering the country.
7. More than 100,000 smartphones last month.
8. A man for smuggling stolen goods into the country.

II. Rewrite the following active voice sentences using passive voice. Note that not all of them can
be used in this way.

1. The students finished the tests on time.

2. We walk to work every morning.

3. The staff arranged the seats so that everyone could have a place to sit.

4. The storm killed four people and left 50 others without a home.

5. The chapter about color was very difficult.


Before you read:

Can you change the meaning of a message by the way you use your voice and gestures?
Say the phrase ―It's time to go‖ in different ways. What are those meanings?

Now read a text about this topic.

(1) Those characteristics that may be found in all forms of nonverbal communication are called “universals”,
and they provide a framework within which the specifics of nonverbal communication may be viewed.


Like verbal communication, nonverbal communication exists in a context, and that context determines
to a large extent the meanings of any nonverbal behaviors. The same nonverbal behavior may have a totally
different meaning when it occurs in another context. A wink of the eye to an attractive person on a bus means
something completely different from a wink of the eye to signify a lie. Similarly, the meaning of a given bit of a
nonverbal behavior depends on the verbal behavior it accompanies or is close to in time. Of course, even if we
know the context in detail, we still might not be able to decipher the meaning of nonverbal behavior. In
attempting to understand and analyze non-verbal communication, however, it is essential to recognize the
context in a complete way.


Nonverbal behaviors, whether they involve the hands, the eyes, or the muscle tone of the body, usually
occur in packages or clusters in which the various verbal and nonverbal behaviors reinforce each other, an
occurrence referred to as congruence. We do not express fear with our eyes while the rest of our body relaxes as
if sleeping; rather, the entire body expresses the emotion. We may, for the purposes of analysis, focus primarily
on the eyes, the facial muscles, or the hand movement, but in everyday communication, these do not occur in
isolation from other non-verbal behaviors. In fact, it is physically difficult to express an intense emotion with
only one part of the body. Try to express an emotion with the face only. You will find the rest of our body takes
on the qualities of that emotion as well.


The observation that all behavior communicates is particularly important in regard to nonverbal
communication. It is impossible not to behave; consequently, it is impossible not to communicate. Regardless of
what one does or does not do, one's nonverbal behavior communicates something to someone (assuming that it
occurs in an interactional setting).

(5) Even small movements are extremely important in interpersonal relationships. We can tell, for example,
when two people genuinely like each other and when they are merely being polite. If we had to state how we
know this, we would probably have considerable difficulty. These inferences, many of which are correct, are
based primarily on these small nonverbal behaviors of the participants―the muscles around the eyes, the degree
of eye contact, the way in which the individuals face each other, and so on. All nonverbal behavior, however
small or transitory, is significant; all of it communicates.


Nonverbal communication is rule-governed; it is regulated by a system of rules and norms that state
what is and what is not appropriate, expected, and permissible in specific social situations. We learn both the
ways to communicate nonverbally and the rules of appropriateness at the same time from observing the
behaviors of the adult community. For example, we learn that touch is permissible under certain circumstances
but not others, and we learn which type of touching is permissible and which is not; in short, we learn the rules
governing touching behavior. We learn that women may touch each other in public; for example, they may hold
hands, walk arm in arm, engage in prolonged hugging, and even dance together. We also learn that men may not
do this, at least not with social criticism. Furthermore, we learn that there are certain parts of the body that may
not be touched and certain parts that may. As a relationship changes, so do the rules for touching. As we become
more intimate, the rules for touching become less restrictive.

(7) In the United States, direct eye contact signals openness and honesty. But among Native Americans,
direct eye contact between, say, a teacher and a student, would be considered inappropriate, perhaps aggressive;
appropriate student behavior would be to avoid eye contact with the teacher. From this simple example, it is easy
to see how miscommunication can easily take place. To a teacher in the United States, avoidance of eye contact by
a Native American could easily be taken to mean guilt, disinterest, or disrespect, when in fact the child was
following his or her own culturally established rules of eye contact. Like the nonverbal behaviors themselves,
these rules are learned without conscious awareness. We learn them largely from observing others. The rules are
brought to our attention only in formal discussions of nonverbal communication, such as this one, or when rules
are violated and the violations are called to our attention―either directly by some tactless snob or indirectly
through the examples of others. While linguists are attempting to formulate the rules for verbal messages,
nonverbal researchers are attempting to formulate the rules for nonverbal messages―rules that native
communicators know and use every day, but cannot necessarily verbalize.

I. Read the following statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. If we know the full context for a piece of nonverbal behavior, we can always understand its
2. It is not easy to express an emotion with just one part of your body; the rest of the body
will move automatically.
3. Tiny body movements do not play a significant part in communicating a message.
4. We are usually taught the rules for appropriate nonverbal behavior in school.
5. Nonverbal communication can change depending on the culture where it is used.
6. Observation plays an important role in learning the rules for nonverbal communication.

II. Choose the correct letter a), b), c), or d)

What is the best title for the text?

a) Body Language
b) Universals of Body Language
c) Universals of Nonverbal Communication
d) Universals of Communication

III. Go back to paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, and classify the underlined words and phrases according to
their function in the text.

Function Linking word/phrase

 Name some examples of nonverbal communication that are used in Chile.

 Is there any difference among them? (register, age, etc.)

Grammar Spot
Passive voice: Progressive and perfect tenses


Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the previous sentence to help you understand the

1. There's somebody behind us. (I think / we / follow) .

2. This room looks different. (you / paint?) .

3. My car has disappeared. (it / steal!) .

4. Tom gets a higher salary now. (he / promote) .

5. Ann can't use her office at the moment. (it / redecorate)

6. The man next door disappeared six months ago. (he / see / since then)

Facial Communication

Before you read:

According to a key hypothesis presented in the text below, facial expressions are largely universal. If this
is so, all the students in your class should choose the same answers in the following activity, regardless
of their age, sex, or cultural background.

Find the face that best expresses each emotion and write the letter of that face in the blank. Compare
answers with your classmates.

Now read a text about Facial Expression.

Throughout our interpersonal interactions, our faces communicate, especially our emotions. Paul
Elkman, Wallace V. Friesen, and Phoebe Ellsworth (1972) claim that facial messages may communicate at least
the following eight emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest. Dale
Leathers (1990) has proposed that in addition to these, facial movements may also communicate bewilderment
and determination.

Try to communicate surprise using only facial movements. Do this in front of a mirror and attempt to
describe in as much detail as possible the specific movements of the face that make up surprise. If you signal
surprise like most people, you probably employ raised and curved eyebrows, long horizontal forehead wrinkles,
wide-open eyes, a dropped-open mouth, and lips parted with no tension. Even if there were differences―and
clearly there would be from one person to another―you could probably recognize the movements listed here as
indicative of surprise. In FAST (Facial Affect Scoring Technique), the face is broken up into three main parts:
eyebrows and forehead, eyes and eyelids, and the lower face from the bridge of the nose down. Judges then try to
identify various emotions by observing the different parts of the face and writing descriptions similar to the one
just given for surprise. In this way we can study more effectively just how the face communicates the various


The accuracy with which people express emotions facially and the accuracy with which receivers decode
the expressions have been the objects of considerable research. One problem confronting this research is that it
is difficult to separate the ability of the encoder from the ability of the decoder. Thus a person may be quite adept
at communicating emotions, but the receiver may prove to be insensitive. On the other hand, the receiver may
be quite good at deciphering emotions, but the sender may be inept. And, of course, there are tremendous
differences from one person to another and with the same person at different times.

A second problem is that accuracy seems to vary with the method of the research. In some cases still
photographs are used and people are asked to judge the emotions the people are experiencing. Some research
uses live models or actors and actresses who have been trained to communicate the different emotions. Still
others use more spontaneous methods. For example, an individual judge views a person who is herself or himself
viewing and reacting to a film. The judge, without seeing the film, has to decode the emotion the viewer is
experiencing. As it can be appreciated, each method yields somewhat different results. Accuracy also varies with
emotions themselves, because some emotions are easier to communicate and decode than others.

It appears from cross-cultural research that facial expressions have a somewhat universal nature. For
example, people in Borneo and New Guinea who have had little contact with Western cultures were able to match
accurately emotions with pictures of facial expressions of Westeners. Furthermore, their own facial expressions,
posed to communicate different emotions, were accurately decoded by people in the USA. Similarly, in studies
conducted with children who were born blind and who, therefore, could not see how others facially expressed
the various emotions, the children seem to use the same facial expressions as their sighted peers. Studies such as
these point to a universality among facial gestures. The wide variations in facial communication that we do
observe in different cultures seem to reflect what is permissible and not permissible to communicate, rather
than a difference in the way in which emotions are expressed facially. For example, in some cultures it is to show
contempt or disgust openly and publicly, but in others people are taught to hide such emotions in public and to
display them only privately.

There are two blanks to write the title of those sections. Choose from the list below and write your

i. Accuracy
ii. Universal or Relative?
iii. Universal Facial Communication
iv. Communication Accuracy
v. Mainstream Accuracy

Choose the correct letter a), b), c) or d)

1. What are some of the eight emotions that facial messages can communicate?
a) anger, fear, determination, and happiness
b) happiness, surprise, sadness, and disgust
c) happiness, fear, bewilderment, and surprise
d) contempt, interest, fear, and excitement

2. Why is FAST used?
a) To describe the eight basic emotions that facial messages can communicate.
b) To study the eight emotions that facial messages can communicate.
c) To study how emotions are communicated by the face.
d) To study how the face can communicate the same message in different cultures.

3. The word adept in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

a) skillful
b) awkward
c) clumsy
d) adapted

4. The word yields in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

a) holds
b) refuses
c) produces
d) abandons

5. What can be inferred from paragraph 5?

a) Cultural conventions do not change facial expressions.
b) Facial expressions can vary depending on the culture.
c) The public display of facial expressions may change depending on the country where it is used.
d) Blind people can show similar facial expressions as those shown by their sighted peers.

III. Drawing.

1. Draw the following details onto the face in the figure:

 raised and curved eyebrows
 long horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
 wide-open eyes
 a dropped-open mouth
2. Now draw two lines across the face to show the three parts of the face used in FAST.

Grammar Spot
Passive Voice: Summary

To turn a sentence from the active into the passive voice:

a) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
b) The active verb changes into a passive form.
c) The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent.

Active voice: Kim showed no surprise. Passive voice: No surprise was shown by Kim.

Active Passive
Present Simple She says hurtful words. Hurtful words are said by her.
Present Continuous She is saying hurtful words. Hurtful words are being said by
Past Simple She said hurtful words. Hurtful words were said by her.
Past Continuous She was saying hurtful words. Hurtful words were beings said by
Present Perfect Simple She has said hurtful words. Hurtful words have been said by
Past Perfect Simple She had said hurtful words. Hurtful words had been said by
Future Simple She will say hurtful words. Hurtful words will be said by her.
Modals (will, should, must, etc.) She may say hurtful words. Hurtful words may be said by her.

 Only the verbs that take object (transitive verbs) can be turned into the passive.
Example: The ball hit the wall.  The wall was hit by the ball.

 When the subject of the active sentence is one of the following: people, one,
someone/somebody, they, he, etc., the agent is often omitted in the passive sentence.
Example: People watch TV all over the world.  TV is watched all over the world.

 Object pronouns become subject pronouns in passive sentences.

Example: He gave these books to me.  I was given these books.

 When the verb of the active sentence is followed by a preposition, the preposition is kept in the
passive sentence as well.
Example: Burglars broke into our house last night.  Our house was broken into last night.

Rewrite the following sentence using passive voice.

They won't take him home after the party.

Someone left the front door open.

Before you read: Getting to know new people

I. There is a proverb in English that reads: ―First impressions are the most lasting‖. Do you agree
with it? Why/why not?

II. How should you behave the first time you meet someone whom you would like to get to know
better? What should you talk about? Imagine you are meeting someone for the first time. Decide
which of the following topics would be good to talk about (check Yes), and which would not (check
No). When you finish, decide which topic would be the best choice, and which the worst. Give

III. What are some positive and negative aspects of starting a conversation with a stranger in the
following places?
A library A party A museum or art gallery A classroom
A disco A bar A train station A bus stop

IV. An opening line is the first thing you say when you approach a stranger and try to start a
conversation. What would be a good opening line in each of the places mentioned above?

Now read a text about initiating relationships.

Perhaps the most difficult and yet the most important aspect of relationship development is the
process of initiating relationships—meeting the person and presenting yourself. Murray Davis, in “Intimate
Relations” (1973), notes that the first encounter consists of six steps, similar to those represented in Figure
1, “The process of asking for a date.”


The first step is to examine the qualifiers, those qualities that make the individual you wish to
encounter an appropriate choice. Some qualifiers are manifest or open to easy inspection, such as beauty,
style of clothes, jewelry, and the like. Other qualifiers are latent or hidden from easy inspection, such as
personality, health, wealth, talent, intelligence, and the like. Qualifiers can tell us something about who the
person is and help us to decide if we wish to pursue this initial encounter.

Try to determine if this person is available for an encounter. Is the person wearing a wedding ring?
Does the person seem to be waiting for someone else?
Open the encounter, both nonverbally and verbally. Davis suggests that we look for two things: (1) a
topic that will interest the other person (and you) and that could be drawn out of the opener and (2) indications
by the other person of a readiness to engage in a more protracted encounter. If yes/no answers are given to
your questions or if eye contact is not maintained, then you have some pretty good indication that this person
is not open to an extended encounter with you at this time. If, on the other hand, the person responds at length
or asks you questions in return, then you have some feedback that says “Continue!”


An integrating topic is one that will interest the other person and you, and will serve to integrate or
unite the two of you. Generally, such topics are found through an analysis of free information—information
about the person that you can see or that is dropped into the conversation. For example, a band T-shirt or a
uniform will tell you something about the person and will suggest a possible topic of conversation. Similarly,
a casual remark may include the person's occupation or area of study or sports interest—all of which can be
used as take-off points for further interaction. Look and listen, therefore, for the free information that will
enable you to continue the interaction and that will suggest additional communication topics. Further, ask
questions (none that are too prying, of course) to discover more about this person and to communicate you


Display what is called a come-on self, a part of you that is inviting, engaging, and otherwise interesting
to another person. Display a part of you that will make the other person want to continue the encounter.


If you and your new partner seem to be getting along, then a second meeting should be established.
This may vary from a very general type of meeting (“Do you always eat here on Fridays?”) to a very specific
type of meeting (“How about going to the movies next Saturday?”)

Figure 1

I. Organize these behaviors according to the step in which they should occur. Number them 1-6.

A. You smile a lot and try to be charming.

B. You try to keep the conversation about the other person.
C. You look to see if the other person is waiting for someone else.
D. You take a closer look at the other person's clothes and style.
E. You turn the conversation to talk about the future.
F. You listen to see if the other person answers you at length.

II. Choose the correct letter a), b), or c)

1. The word pursue in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to

a) engage in
b) flee
c) shun

2. The word protracted in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

a) short
b) extended
c) fast

3. The word remark in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to

a) comment
b) offer
c) compliment

Grammar Spot
Relative clauses

Read the following sentences:

Display a part of you that will make the other person want to continue the encounter.
I prefer meeting people who are friends of my friends than meeting strangers.
I think meeting people for the first time is challenging, which is why I keep doing it.
I know a person whose best friend is someone she met at a museum.

What do the words in bold refer to?

Relative pronouns (who, which, whose, that) introduce relative clauses. We use relative clauses to
identify the noun in the main clause.
Example: I prefer meeting people who are friends of my friends.

We use who or that instead of subject pronouns to refer to people.

We use which or that instead of subject pronouns to refer to objects or animals.
We use whose instead of possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc) with people, objects and animals in
order to show possession.
We do not omit the relative pronoun when it is the subject of the relative clause, that is, when there is
not a noun or subject pronoun between the relative clause and the verb.
Example: I met two people yesterday. They are from Belgium.  I met two people who/that are
from Belgium yesterday.

We can omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause, that is, when there is a
noun or a subject pronoun between the relative pronoun and the verb.
Example: They are from Belgium. I met them yesterday.  They are the people from
Belgium (who/that) I met yesterday.


Match column A with column B to make correct sentences.


1. The girl which I like most is Austria.

2. Is this the puppy whose wife had an accident lives next door.
3. The doctors whose husband is a banker?
4. The man who lives next door is called Helen.
5. The country which I was riding belongs to my brother.
6. The bicycle which you bought from the pet shop?
7. Is this the woman who work in this hospital are very good.

Nonverbal and Verbal First Encounter

Before you read:

The text below offers suggestions for how to act during a first encounter with a stranger. Predict
whether the author will recommend (write R) or not recommend (write NR) the following behaviors:

1. Keep your arms crossed over your chest.

2. Get as close to the other person as possible.
3. Give all your attention to the other person.
4. Try not to look into the other person's eyes.
5. When the other person gives you a positive sign, you should also give a positive sign back,
like a smile.
6. After you have made contact nonverbally, it is best not to wait too long before you start
7. Introduce yourself simply by saying, ―Hi, my name is …‖
8. Try to keep the conversation mostly about you, so the other person can learn as much
about you as possible.
9. If you see something you like in the other person, give a compliment. For example, you
can say, ―I really like your shoes.‖
10. Quickly start talking about your deepest feelings.
11. Talk about people, places, leisure activities that you both know about.
12. Ask many questions that begin, ―Are you …?‖, ―Do you …?‖, ―Have you …?‖, and so on.

Now read the text below and when you finish, check if your predictions were correct.


Nonverbal communication concerns every aspect of yourself that sends messages to another person.
On the basis of these messages, the other person forms an impression of you—an impression that will be
quickly and firmly established.

1. Establish eye contact. Eye contact is the first nonverbal signal to send. The eyes communicate an
awareness of and interest in the other person.
2. While maintaining eye contact, smile and further signal your interest in and your positive response to
this other person.
3. Concentrate your focus. The rest of the room should be nonverbally shut off from awareness. Be
careful, however, that you do not focus so directly as to make the person uncomfortable.
4. Establish physical closeness, or at least lessen the physical distance between the two of you.
Approach, but not to the point of discomfort, so that your interest of making contact is obvious.
5. Throughout this nonverbal encounter, maintain a posture that communicates an openness, a
willingness to enter into interaction with the other person. Hands crossed over the chest or clutched
around your stomach are exactly the kind of postures that you want to avoid. These are often
interpreted to signal an unwillingness to let others enter your space.
6. Respond visibly. Assuming that your nonverbal communication is returned, respond to it visibly with
a smile, a head nod, a wink.
7. Reinforce positive behaviors. Reinforce those behaviors of the other person that signal interest and a
reciprocal willingness to make contact. Reinforce these by responding positively to them; again, nod
or smile or somehow indicate your favorable reaction.
8. Avoid overexposure. Nonverbal communication works to make contact or to signal interest, but it can
cause problems if it is excessive or of it is not followed by more direct communication. Consequently,
if you intend to make verbal contact, do so after a relatively short time or wait until another time.


1. Introduce yourself. Try to avoid trite and clichéd opening lines. Do not become identified with, “Haven't
I seen you here before?” Actually, these openers are legitimate and would be more than appropriate
if others understood that opening lines are merely ways of saying “Hello.” But many do not; many
think that these lines are a measure of your intelligence and wit. Given that sorry state of affairs, it is
probably best to simply say, “Hi, my name is Pam.”
2. Focus the conversation on the other person. Get the other person involved in talking about himself or
herself: No one enjoys talking about anything more. Also, it will provide you with an opportunity to
learn something about the person you want to get to know.
3. Compliment the other person; be sincere but complimentary and positive. If you cannot find anything
to compliment the person about, then it is probably wise to reassess your interest in this person and
perhaps move on.
4. Be energetic. No one likes a lethargic, slow-moving, non-dynamic partner. Demonstrate your high
energy level by responding facially with appropriate effect, smiling, talking in a varied manner, being
flexible with your body posture and gestures, asking questions as appropriate, and otherwise
demonstrating that you are really here.
5. Stress the positives. In the discussion of interpersonal effectiveness, it was noted that positiveness
was one of the major qualities of effectiveness. It also contributes to a positive first impression simply
because we like and are attracted to a positive more than a negative person.
6. Avoid negative and too intimate self-disclosures. Enter a relationship gradually and gracefully.
Disclosures should come gradually and along with reciprocal disclosures. Anything too intimate or too
negative early in the relationship will create a negative image. If you cannot resist self- disclosing,
then try to stick to the positives and to those matters that would not be considered overly intimate.
7. Establish commonalities. Seek to discover in your interaction those things you have in common with
the other person—attitudes, interests, personal qualities, third parties, places, and so on.
8. Avoid yes/no questions, yes/no answers, and rapid-fire questions. Ask questions that are open-
ended, questions that the receiver may answer at some length. Similarly, respond with answers more
complete than simply yes or no. Be careful, too, that your questions do not appear to be an

Answer the questions below.

I. The Nonverbal Encounter

1. The word awareness in point 1 is closest in meaning to

a) unconsciousness
b) understanding
c) unfamiliarity

2. The phrase shut off in point 3 is closest in meaning to
a) exclude
b) welcome
c) silence

3. What should you respond to the other person?

a) Keeping a certain distance
b) Clutching your arms around your stomach.
c) Nodding

4. The word them in point 7 refers to

a) the other person's positive behaviors
b) your positive behaviors
c) your responses

II. The Verbal Encounter

1. The word trite in point 1 is closest in meaning to

a) commonplace
b) pertinent
c) uncommon

2. What is important about openers?

3. The word overly in point 6 is closest in meaning to

a) inadequately
b) too much
c) fairly

4. What type of questions should you ask?

Grammar Spot
Relative Clauses
When, Where, Why

Read the following sentences:

1999 was the year when they met.
Joe's bar is the place where they usually hang out.
They have the same sense of humor, that's why they have remained friends for so long.

Which ones do you use to:

refer to a place
give a reason
refer to time

Fill in the gaps with who, why, where, when, which or whose.

Dear Aunt Joan,

How are you? My new address, (1) I was supposed to give you a long time ago, is at
the top of this page. Sorry!

The village (2) I live now is very quiet and peaceful. In fact, that is the reason (3)
I decided to rent a house here. The people (4) live next door to me are very
friendly. The day (5) I moved in, they invited me for tea. The woman (6) house I've
rented lives in the same street as you. Her name is Mrs. Fitzgerald. Do you know her? I must go now,
the telephone is ringing.

Write to me soon.

Friendship Values

Before you read:

 How would you define ―a friend‖?
 Make a list of the different activities that you have done with friends in the past week.
 How many close friends do you have? Do you have a close friend of the opposite sex?

Now read a text about this topic.

Friendships develop and are maintained to satisfy our needs. Selecting friends on the basis of need
satisfaction is similar to choosing a marriage partner, an employee, or any person who may be in a position
to satisfy our needs. Thus, for example, if we have the need to be the center of attention or to be popular, we
choose friends who fulfill these needs—that is, people who allow us, and even encourage us, to be the center
of attention or who tell us, verbally and nonverbally, that we are popular. As we grow older or develop in
different ways, our needs change, and in many instances old friends are dropped from our close circle to be
replaced by new friends who better serve our new needs.


Interpersonal researcher Paul H. Wright (1978, 1984) has identified more specifically the needs that
we seek to have satisfied through friendships. We establish and maintain friendships, Wright observes,
because they provide us with certain “direct rewards.”

1. Friends have a utility value. A friend may have special talents, skills, or resources that may prove
useful to us in achieving our specific goals and needs. We may, for example, become friends with
someone who is particularly bright because such a person might assist us in getting better grades, in
solving our personal problems, or in getting a better job.
2. Friends have an affirmation value. The behavior of a friend toward us acts as a mirror that serves to
affirm our personal value and enables us to recognize our attributes. A friend may, for example, help
us to recognize more clearly our leadership abilities, our athletic prowess, or our sense of humor.
3. Friends have an ego-support value. By behaving in a supportive, encouraging, and helpful manner,
friends enable us more easily to view ourselves as worthy and competent individuals.
4. Friends have a stimulation value. A friend introduces us to new ideas and new ways of seeing the
world and helps us to expand world view. A friend enables us to come into contact with issues and
concepts with which we were not previously familiar—modern art, foreign cultures, new foods, and
hundreds of other new, different, and stimulating things.
5. Friends have a security value. A friend does nothing to hurt the other person or to emphasize or call
attention to the other person's inadequacies or weaknesses. Because of this security value, friends
can interact freely and openly without having to worry about betrayal or negative responses.


The other function of friendship is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. This is actually a special
case of the need-satisfaction function.

If you were to ask people to complete the statement “I most need a friend when...,” they would
probably answer in one of two ways. One would be to say, “I most need a friend when I'm down.” Such
statement exemplifies the function that a friendship can serve when it helps us to avoid or lessen the pain.

We want a friend to be around when we are feeling down so that he or she will make us feel a little better, lift
our spirits, or in some way alleviate the pain we are feeling.

The other way to complete the statement would be to say, “I most need a friend when I'm happy,”
because this type of statement typifies the general function friendships serve to augment one's pleasure. A
great part of the pleasure in winning a game, or in experiencing good fortune is in telling someone else about
it and in many cases sharing it with them.

Look at the box and fill in the blanks with words that appear in the text. Use the similar expressions that
appear on the right side of the box.

 To what extent do your personal experiences support the ideas expressed in this text? Choose one
of the five friendship values and talk about one personal example to illustrate that value.

Grammar Spot
Prepositions of time





1. Write in/on/at or no preposition to complete these sentences.

a) Where were you February 28?

b) I got up 7 o'clock this morning.

c) I don't like getting up early the morning.

d) Did you go out Tuesday?

e) Did you go out last Tuesday?

f) I often go away the weekend.

g) Do you work Saturdays?

h) I like to look at the stars night.

i) Julia's birthday is May.

j) Are you coming to the party next Friday?

2. Read the information about these people and complete the sentences using from... to/ until/ since.

i. (Alex/Canada/1982-1990) Alex lived in Canada 1982 1990.

ii. (Alex/Canada/―> 1990) Alex lived in Canada 1990.

iii. (Alex/England/1990 ―>) Alex has lived in England 1990.

iv. (Alice/France/―> 1991) Alice lived in France .

v. (Alice/Switzerland/1991 ―>) Alice has lived in Switzerland .

vi. (Carol/a hotel/1990-1993) .

vii. (Carol/a restaurant/1993 ―>) .

viii.(Gerry/a teacher/1983-1989) .

ix. (Gerry/a salesman/1989 ―>) .

Now use the same information to write sentences using for.

i. (Alex/Canada) Alex lived in Canada eight years.

ii. (Alex/England) .

iii. (Alice/Switzerland) .

iv. (Carol/restaurant) .

v. (Gerry/a salesman) .

3. Complete the sentences using before/after/during/while and the information from the box.

the concert the course the end lunch the exam class

they went to Australia you are waiting

i. Everybody was nervous .

ii. I usually work four hours in the morning, and another two hours .

iii. The film was very boring. We left .

iv. Ann went to evening classes to learn German. She learned a lot .

v. My aunt and uncle lived in London .

vi. We're going to the movies . Would like to join us?

vii. Would you like to sit down .

viii.―Are you going home ?‖ ―No, we're going to a restaurant.‖

4. Complete the sentences using a verb in -ing.

i. I felt sick after too much chocolate.

ii. I'm going to ask you a question. Think carefully before it.

iii. After the exam, we went to a bar.

iv. Before to a foreign country, it's a good idea to learn a few words of the


Friendship Rules

Before you read:

Think about intercultural friendships.
 Do you have any friends from other cultures? If yes, how did you meet them and get to know
 What could you do to increase your chances of meeting and making friends with someone from a
different culture?
 Why might it be difficult to make friends with someone from another culture?
 Do you think that the same rules you have with your friends can be applied to intercultural
friendship? Why/why not?

Now read a text about this topic.

Recently, interpersonal researchers have sought to conceptualize friendship as rule-governed

behavior and have attempted to identify the rules that friends consider important in maintaining their

The most important friendship rules identified by interpersonal researchers Michael Argyle and
Monika Henderson (1984) are presented in Figure 9.2. When these rules are followed, the friendship is
strong and mutually satisfying. In examining these rules, try to identify additional rules that you consider
important in your friendship.

Figure 9.3 represents the abuses that are most significant in breaking up a friendship, also
identified by Argyle and Henderson. Note that some of the rules for maintaining a friendship directly
correspond to the abuses that break up friendships. For example, it is important to “show emotional
support” to maintain a friendship, but when this doesn't happen, the friendship will prove less
satisfying and may well break up. The general assumption here is that friendships break down when a
significant friendship rule is violated.

Discovering the rules of friendship will serve a number of useful functions. Ideally, it will enable
us to identify successful versus destructive friendship behavior. Thus, we will better be able to teach the
social skills involved in friendship development and maintenance. Furthermore, these rules will help us
to pinpoint in relatively specific terms what went wrong when a friendship breaks up and enable us
possibly to repair the relationship. Finally, since the rules of friendship vary somewhat from one culture
to another, it is helpful to identify the rules that are unique for each culture so that intercultural friendships
may be more effectively developed and maintained.

1. Which sentence below best expresses the information in paragraph 1?

a) Friends follow each others' rules and try to satisfy each others' needs.
b) Friendship is a behavior that needs rules to exist.
c) Friends create rules to guide their relationships and what they consider important.
d) It may be said that there are certain guidelines that friends follow in order to have and keep
successful relationships.

2. The word this in paragraph 3 refers to

a) maintaining a friendship
b) showing emotional support
c) ways of breaking up friendships
d) violations of friendship rules

3. The word pinpoint in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

a) identify
b) overlook
c) lose
d) explain

4. The word somewhat in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

a) to a large extent
b) to some extent
c) significantly
d) wildly

Grammar Spot
Prepositions of place




A. Look at the pictures and answer the questions below using in/on/at.


1. Where is he?
2. Where are the shoes?
3. Where is the pen?
4. Where is the clock?
5. Where is the bus?
6. Where are the horses?
7. Where are they?
8. Where is she?
9. Where is she?
10. Where is he?
11. Where are they?
12. Where are they?

B. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. The cat is the table. 5. The cinema is the right.

2. There is a big tree the house. 6. She's sitting the phone.

3. The plane is flying the clouds. 7. The switch is the window.
4. She is standing the piano. 8. The cupboard is the sink.
9. There are some shoes the bed.
10. The plant is the piano.
11. Paul is sitting Fiona.
12. In Britain people drive the left.

C. Write sentences about the picture using the words in brackets.

1. (next to) The bank is

2. (in front of) The fountain is
3. (opposite) Paul's office is
4. (next to) The supermarket is
5. (above) Paul's office is
6. (between) The bookshop is


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