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# FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULICS

## Density for gas Compressibility Pressure Atmospheric Pressure Pressure head

𝑝
𝑀
ρ = 𝑅𝑇
𝑝 𝛥𝑉
p=𝐴
𝐹 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 2166 𝑙𝑏⁄𝑓𝑡2 h=
ρ= −
𝑉 1 𝛾
𝑉 β= =𝐸 = 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝛥𝑝 𝐵 = 29.9 𝑖𝑛 𝐻𝑔
Specific Volume = 760 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔
1 Bulk Modulus Pressure Disturbances = 101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎
Vs = 𝜌 of Elasticity
𝐸𝐵 Absolute Pressure Pressure below layers of Different Liquids
𝛥𝑝 𝑐=√
Unit Weight 𝐸𝐵 =
𝛥𝑉 𝛽𝜌 𝑝𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑝𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 + 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑝𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = ∑γℎ + 𝑝 = 𝛾1 ℎ1 + 𝛾2 ℎ2 + 𝛾𝑛 ℎ𝑛 + 𝑝𝐴
𝑊 𝑉
γ= Changes in Ideal Gas Variations in Pressure Convert Pressure head
𝑉

## Specific Gravity of liquid A to liquid B

for gas 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑝2 − 𝑝1 = γℎ 𝑝2 = 𝑝1 + γℎ
= 𝑠 𝜌
𝜌𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝜌𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑇1 𝑇2 ℎ𝐵 = ℎ𝐴 𝑠𝐴 or ℎ𝐵 = ℎ𝐴 𝜌𝐴
s=𝜌 s= 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝐵 𝐵
𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑝 = γℎ 𝑝1 = 𝑝2 ; ℎ = 0
Charle’s Law
Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity 𝑉1 𝑉2 Boyle’s Law
= Total Hydrostatic Force on Plane Surfaces
𝜏 µ 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2
µ= 𝑑𝑉 ⁄𝑑𝑦
v=𝜌 𝐹 = 𝑝𝐴 𝐹 = 𝛾ℎ̅𝐴 𝐹 = 𝑝𝑐𝑔 𝐴
Location of F Eccentricity
Surface Tension Capillarity
𝑉1 𝑘 𝑝2 𝑇2
𝑘−1
𝑝2 𝑘
𝑝𝑑 4𝜎𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛳 ( ) = =( ) 𝐼𝑠 𝐼𝑔 𝐼𝑔
𝜎= 4
h= 𝛾𝑑
𝑉2 𝑝1 𝑇1 𝑝1 𝑦𝑝 =
𝐴𝛾̅
𝑦𝑝 = 𝛾̅ +
𝐴𝛾̅
𝑒=
𝐴𝛾̅
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULICS
Total Hydrostatic Force on Curve Surfaces Dams Foundation Pressure
Case 1: Fluid is above the curved surface

## Case 2: Fluid is below the curved surface

Total Hydrostatic Force
𝑅𝑦 6𝑒 2𝑅𝑦
𝑞= (1 + ) 𝑞𝑒 =
Location of Ry (from the toe) 𝐵 𝐵 3𝑥̅
𝐹 = √𝐹𝐻 2 + 𝐹𝑉 2
; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑒 ≤ 𝐵⁄6 ; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑒 > 𝐵⁄6
𝑅𝑀 − 𝑂𝑀
𝑥̅ =
Direction 𝑅𝑦
𝐹𝑉
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛳 = Factor of Safety (sliding) Factor of Safety (overturning)
𝐹𝐻

## Horizontal Component µ𝑅𝑦 𝑅𝑀

Vertical Component 𝐹𝑆𝑠 = > 1.0 𝐹𝑆𝑜 = > 1.0
𝑅𝑥 𝑂𝑀
𝐹𝐻 = 𝑝𝑐𝑔 𝐴 or 𝐹𝐻 = 𝛾ħ𝐴 𝐹𝑉 = 𝛾𝑉
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULICS
Buoyancy Stress on Thin-walled Pressure Vessels
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝛾𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 Tangential Stress Longitudinal Stress
𝐵𝐹 = 𝛾𝑉𝐷 𝑉𝐷 = 𝑉 𝑉𝐷 = 𝑉
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝛾𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑝𝐷 𝑝𝐷
𝜎𝑡 = ; 𝜎 = 2𝜎𝑙 𝜎𝑙 =
2𝑡 𝑡 4𝑡
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝛾𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝐷= 𝐻 𝐷= 𝐻
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝛾𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 Spherical Shell
Wall Stress Spacing of hoops
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝛾𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴 𝑝𝐷 2𝜎𝑡 𝐴ℎ
𝑠𝑝. 𝑔𝑟. 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝛾𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑠=
𝜎𝑙 =
4𝑡 𝑝𝐷
Statical Stability of Floating Bodies

## 𝑅𝑀 𝑜𝑟 𝑂𝑀 = 𝑊(𝑥) 𝑀𝐺 = 𝑀𝐵𝑜 ± 𝐺𝐵𝑜

(-) if G is above 𝐵𝑜
𝑅𝑀 𝑜𝑟 𝑂𝑀 = 𝑊(𝑀𝐺𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛳) (+) if G is below 𝐵𝑜

𝜐𝑠 𝐼
𝑀𝐵𝑜 = 𝑀𝐵𝑜 =
𝑉𝐷 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛳 𝑉𝐷

𝐵2 𝑡𝑎𝑛 2 𝛳
𝑀𝐵𝑜 = (1 + )
12𝐷 2