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Unit 3 Exam Essay Questions

1. Describe in detail, using Making America and/or primary sources, which

program was more successful in meeting its goals: Eisenhower’s Dynamic
Conservatism or Kennedy’s New Frontier.

Eisenhower’s Dynamic Conservatism

● combined religious based concern with a political orientation
● Allowed for Government Spending & a Free Market
● “Inspired by his faith, Eisenhower promoted a “dynamic conservatism” that
promoted voluntary organizations to fight economic and social problems
and used the power of the federal government to fix it when their resources
were insufficient. Eisenhower’s quest to achieve peace and his effort to
ensure civil rights illustrate how his religious convictions influenced his
● He was "conservative
when it comes to money, liberal
when it comes to human beings"
● increased Social Security - helped farmers and included more workers
● appealed to voluntary organizations - hunger, under education, under-
● Overall, he just wanted to help those in need and fix the bottom tiered
people of the nation

Eisenhower seemed to have achieved his proposition more because Kennedy was
shut down by the government on a lot of his proposals, and LBJ had to take over
to do the things he wanted to.

Kennedy’s New Frontier

● He hoped to increase aid to education, provide health insurance to the
elderly, create a Department of Urban Affairs, and help migrant workers.
● Helped with the goal of Landing on the MOON
● Raised the Minimum Wage and increased Social Security
● Although all of these things stated were ideas of Kennedy, Medicare,
federal support for education, and wilderness protection all
became part of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society.
● Establish the Peace Corps and aided money for the moon landing
● "Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do
for your country." - Kennedy’s Campaign Slogan & his

1a. Compare and contrast the positions of Malcolm X and Martin Luther
King Jr regarding civil rights in America. Argue, based on evidence given
from Making America and/or primary sources, which figure you found
more effective within the Civil Rights Movement.
2. Select three (3) key events and/or people you feel were most
important to the Civil Rights Movement. Argue, based on evidence given
from Making America and/or primary sources, which of those events /
people had the greatest impact on the movement at that time.
- Very popular across the US in the civil rights movement
- used peaceful tactic in trying to win his freedom
- “Letters from a birmingham jail”
- MLK’s main purpose for writing this letter was to let all of
the people involved that this movement can not lead to
violence. A reason for this being so powerful is the fact
that MLK was in jail and was disappointed in those that
were using violence to further this movement. He
acknowledges that having a peaceful nonviolent
movement was a difficult feat but that is what God would
- After reading “Letters from a Birmingham Jail” I can see
how inspirational Martin Luther King Jr really was. MLK jr
held his beliefs in a peaceful movement even as he was in
jail. His ability to hold his beliefs even in these
circumstances show how powerful of a leader he really
was in fighting for the rights that African Americans
- Malcom X
- not as popular as MLK but still had a heavy influence on the civil
rights movement
- used violence against the segregation
- “Prospects for Freedom in 1965”
- After reading Malcom X’s speech it shows that he truly
cared for the things that he was advocating for. He was a
well educated man, as he always supported his evidence
with examples from other countries. It is really shown in
this speech how much he cared about making a change in
- The biggest similarity between Martin Luther King Jr and
Malcom X is that the were both leaders in the civil rights
movement that advocated for a peaceful nonviolent
movement. They both believed that a nonviolent
movement would allow people of other races to join the
movement. One thing that Malcom X did that MLK Jr did
not is that Malcom X used examples from other countries
to show that their movement could have results. Martin
Luther King Jr focused more on how this non-violent
movement will help the lives of all Americans.
- Montgomery bus boycott
- yearlong boycott of montgomery's segregated bus system in
1955-1956 by the cities AA population. The boycott brought MLK
to national prominence and ended in victory when the Supreme
Court declared segregated transportation illegal

3. Argue, based on evidence given from Making America and/or primary

sources, the policy of containment was a success against the spread of
- Proposed by George Kennan, Foreign Service officer in 1947.
- Americans were weary of war and didn’t want to send troops into
Europe to fight.
- Definition: a United States policy using numerous strategies to
prevent the spread of communism abroad.
- The policy became known as the Truman Doctrine: Foreign policy to
counter Soviet expansion.
- WW2 left Europe wrecked, and so to create good ties with Western
Europe and not antagonize them, they gave them financial aid,
known as the Marshall plan.
- During the times after the war, Americans were very suspicious of
Communism and the HUAC (House Un-American Activities) was
formed, which investigated communist activities.
- Espionage: American spying as an outside source for Soviets.
- Hollywood Ten: Ten famous celebrities tried for espionage.
- Couple killed for espionage conspiracy.
- McCarthyism: the practice of making accusations of subversion or
treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S.
senator Joseph McCarthy