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(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 109 Vol. 2, No.

2, February 2010

Forward Collision and Delay Avoidance Using Energy Efficient Collision Sets in WSN
Bhushan N. Mahajan 1, Dr. R. V. Dharaskar 2 and Dr. V. M. Thakare 3

Computer Science Department GHRCE, Nagpur

HOD , Computer Science Department GHRCE, Nagpur.

HOD , Computer Science Department SGB Amaravati University. transmission of its specific destination, would need to relay its information flow through other mobile nodes. This implies that mobile nodes in Ad Hoc networks bear routing functionality so that they can act both as routers and hosts. These networks provide mobile users with everywhere communication capacity and information access regardless of location. The Ad Hoc networks can be seen in to two categories whether dynamically changing their position or not, once create communication link. These are wireless sensor networks and Mobile Ad Hoc networks (MANETs). Wireless sensor networks’ mobile nodes are deployed in large number on small area. Once the nodes are deployed, they are static. In Mobile Ad Hoc networks the nodes can dynamically change their position . An Ad Hoc network can be used in an area where infrastructures for mobile communication are not available, probably due to high deployment costs or disaster destruction. The typical application of Ad Hoc networks includes battle field communication, emergency relief and extension of the coverage area of cellular networks. Ad-hoc routing algorithms broadly can be categorized into pro-active and on-demand routing . The on-demand routing algorithms initiate to find out the suitable route when a route is requested . The pro-active routing algorithm exchanges routing information periodically and generates the routing table in advance of route request . [3] These protocols select the routes based on the metrics of minimum hop count. Ability to forward packets is depend on Battery power . Overall network lifetime is depend on battery power Design and manufacturing of less energy consume components of mobile nodes such processors, memory and OS power management strategies is used to reduce noncommunication energy consumption. During communication, energy is consumed in either inactive state of communication or active communication states. The energy consumption of active communication is more significant than the others for high traffic environment.

Abstract: This paper present battery-efficient system design, and
outlines collision and delay avoidance using scheduling method. Batteries power electronic systems and maximizing battery life needs understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the batteries. The amount of energy that can be supplied by a given battery varies significantly. It depend on how the energy is drawn. Researchers are attempting to develop new battery driven approaches to system design.

Keywords: Collision , Delay , Energy level , power , Battery power , Sleep mode , Ideal mode.

1. Introduction
Battery powered electronic systems, and the integrated circuits within them, account for a large and rapidly growing revenue segment for the computer, electronics, and semiconductor industries. We know “battery gap”, between trends in processor power consumption , and improvements in battery capacity . Bridging this gap is a challenge that system designers must face for the future. Low power design techniques are successful in reducing the energy that is drawn from the battery, and hence improve battery life to some extent. But, truly maximizing battery life requires an understanding of both the source of energy and the system that consumes it. [1]

2. Related work
This energy efficient routing protocol is modified version of the Ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) protocol by taking into consideration the results of the pre-simulation, the existing feature of AODV for implementation of the design . An Ad Hoc network Networks that do not require a pre-established infrastructure . An Ad Hoc network does not guarantee that a mobile node can directly communicate with destinations all the time. So, there is independence of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. [2]An Ad Hoc network is capable of operating autonomously. It is completely self-organizing and self-configuring. It has multi-hop capability. A mobile node, which lies outside the


(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010

Energy efficient routing protocols can be designed to formulate energy efficient active communications . Energy efficient virtual topology can be designed to formulate energy efficient active communications . Minimum hops , Minimum message exchange , Minimum collision , Minimum retransmission strategies can be designed to formulate energy efficient active communications . Result is Energy efficient active communications. It will prolong the network life time . The network life time is defined as the time when a node runs out of its own battery power for the first time . [4] Active communication energy efficient routing protocols can be categorized into two categories: • Transmission power control approach • Load distribution approach. For protocols that belong to the former category, the active communication energy can be reduced by adjusting each node’s radio power just enough to reach the receiving node but not more than that. This transmission power control approach can be extended to determine the optimal routing path that minimizes the total transmission energy required to deliver data packets to the destination. The specific goal of the load distribution approach is to balance the energy. How active transmission energy can be reduced? . Answer is by adjusting each node’s radio power just enough to reach the receiving node but not more than that , by determining the optimal routing path , by determining the task distribution approach to balance the energy usage of all mobile nodes . by Selecting a route with underutilized nodes rather than the shortest route, by Selecting energy levels to minimizes transmission energy to deliver data packets to the destination. All above approaches prolong the network life time in different ways. [5] Two approaches are mutually contradicting each other with some extent. Advantages• Increased the life time of the node. • Increased packet delivery fraction • Reduced the Variance of the nodes residual battery Energy. • Minimized energy consumed per packet. The purpose of energy-aware routing protocols is to maximize the network lifetime. The energy-efficient routing protocols should consider energy consumption from the viewpoints of both the network and the node level. Why task distribution approach is required from node point of view ? Nodes have limited remaining battery energy. Nodes can perform every kind of task and while working they consume energy. But equal consumption should occur among all nodes. So, work should not be assigned to same set of nodes again and again. It may lead to over consumption of those nodes battery power . Constant amount of power of all nodes should get utilized. It is called as balancing .The way for achieving balancing is – • Equal distribution of work. • Selecting different routing path at different time instance. • Changing routing path frequently. • Same routing path will not be repeatedly used again and again.

• Same set of nodes will not get over utilized again and again Existing wake-up schemes Nodes have to remain awaken when they are not receiving any data. Nodes have to listen idle channel . Network nodes cannot easily know exactly when events happen. The delay exist between receiving wake up message and actual waking up of node. That delay is called as wake-up latency. Node wakes up itself when it senses an communication from other nodes. Then, it wakes up the MCU and RF transceiver. Time-based wake-up mechanisms It require each node wake up periodically to listen to the radio channel .It is time-based wake-up mechanisms. Low power sleeping nodes wake up at the same time periodically to communicate. Data are transferred from sensor nodes to the sink through a multi-hop communication paradigm [3]. By choosing a good time synchronized sleep and wake-up mechanism the network may save much power consumption. Drawbacks to this mechanism is the high quality clock synchronization requirement. It makes it hard to be implemented in large WSN. [6 , 11] If the packet arrives at node at the end of the listening cycle, then wake up call will be delayed while the node sleeps. It is wake up latency . Asynchronous wake-up mechanisms Each node follows its own wake-up schedule in idle states, as long as the wake-up intervals among neighbors overlap. It do not require time synchronization among the different nodes in the network. Energy harvesting for sensor is still in its early stages, and is gaining momentum in the research community [11]. Drawbacks to this mechanism are this strategy can lead to large packet delays within the network .It cannot achieve the same level of power savings that synchronous approach can. On-demand wake-up mechanism Possible solution is to design an on-demand wake-up In this mechanism , Here out-band signal is used to wake up sleeping nodes in an on-demand manner. For example, a transceiver is woken up by a special wake-up signal from a terminal that wants to communicate with a sleeping transceiver. By this way, a transceiver is woken up on demand instead of periodical wake-up so that the power consumption can be dramatically reduced . Span [11] is a connectivity-driven protocol that adaptively elects “coordinators” of all nodes in the network. Coordinators stay awake continuously and perform multihop routing, while the other nodes stay in sleeping mode and periodically check if there is a need to wake up and become a coordinator. The protocol achieves the following four goals. First, it ensures that there is always a sufficient number of coordinators so that every node is in the transmission range of at least one coordinator. Second, to spread energy consumption as uniformly as possible among network nodes Span rotates the coordinators. Third, it tries to minimize the number of coordinators (to increase the network lifetime) while avoiding a performance degradation in terms of network capacity and message latency. Fourth, it

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 111 Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010

elect coordinators in a decentralized way by using only local information. STEM (Sparse Topology and Energy Management) [11] It uses two different radios for wakeup signals and data packet transmissions, respectively. The wakeup radio is not a low power radio (to avoid problems associated with different transmission ranges). Therefore, an asynchronous duty cycle scheme is used on the wakeup radio as well. Each node periodically turns on its wakeup radio for Tactive every T duration. When a source node (initiator) has to communicate with a neighboring node (target), it sends a stream of periodic beacons on the wakeup channel. As soon as the target node receives a beacon it sends back a wakeup acknowledgement, and turns on its data radio. [7] If we select longer-hop routes, which spend more energy end to end. Minimum total power routing (MTPR): S is the set containing all the possible routes. Rth route is selected . Transmission power for route R is P .

actually leads to in shorter network lifetime because in essence the average energy consumption per delivered packet of user data has been increased. [10] Conditional Max-Min Battery Capacity Routing (CMMBCR): If there are nodes that have more battery power than threshold power, it applies MTPR to the nodes. Otherwise, it mimics MMBCR. When battery power is plentiful, it minimizes the total energy consumption like MTPR, and the other case it considers the nodes with lower energy like MMBCR. When the current drawn is sufficiently large, the rate of diffusion fails to keep up with the rate at which ions are consumed at the cathode. As a result, the concentration of positively charged ions decreases near the cathode and increases near the anode, degrading the battery’s output voltage. However, if the battery is allowed to idle for a period of time, the concentration gradient decreases (due to diffusion), and charge recovery takes place at the cathode. As a result, the capacity and lifetime of the battery increase..

3. Algorithm
This approach may select the route that includes one or more mobile node with least energy level or min-hop routing . it makes no effort to use energy evenly among the nodes . This leads to “die” of the first node sooner and it causes partition of the network early. Power aware localized routing: It is assumed that the power needed for transmission and α reception is a linear function of d where d is distance between the two neighboring nodes and α a parameter that depends on the physical environment. [8] The authors make use of GPS position information to transmit packets with the minimum required transmit energy. Two drawbacks are,GPS cannot provide useful information about the physical environment and the second is that the power dissipation overhead of the GPS device is an additional power draw on the battery source of the mobile node. Minimum Battery Cost Routing (MBCR): It tries to use battery power evenly by using a cost function which is inversely proportional to residual battery power. One possible choice for the cost function of a node i is given as bi is the residual battery energy of node i. the total cost of the route is defined as the sum of costs of nodes that are the components of the route, and MBCR selects a route with minimum total cost. [9] The Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR): Nodelist={all nodes as per pre-defined index}; Hierarchy _ I = {set of nodes in level I} ; Hierarchy _II = {set of nodes in level II} ; Hierarchy _III = {set of nodes in level III} ; Hierarchy _IV = {set of nodes in level IV} ; Threshold = x ; // pre-set Send_Nodelist = nodelist; Rev_Nodelist = nodelist; SendDoneNodelist={set all zero} ; RecvDoneNodelist={set all zero} ; do { slot = new Slot(); // set flags here . // flag may be Fwd or Rev check_direction (node); Fwd_send_collision_set = null; Fwd_recv_collision_set = null; Rev_send_collision_set = null; Rev_recv_collision_set = null; for each node in nodelist { node->u = check_ Hierarchy (node) ; node->v = check_ Hierarchy _Energy_Level (node) ; node->w = check_incoming_packet_seq_no (node) ; node->x = check_rec_slots(node) ; node->y = check_send_slots(node) ; node->z = check_traffic_over (node) ; if ( (node not in Fwd_send_collision_set)

It selects the route with the minimum path cost among possible routes. Because this metric takes into account the remaining energy level of individual nodes instead of the total energy, the energy of each node can be evenly used. The limitation of this algorithm is that since there is no guarantee that paths with the minimum hop-count or with the minimum total power are selected. It can select paths that results in much higher power dissipation in order to send traffic from a source to destination nodes. This feature

112 & & (node->dest not in Fwd_recv_collision_set) & & ( node->z not “over crowding” ) & & ( node->y not “0” ) & & ( node->x == “0” ) & & ( node->w == “No duplication” ) & & ( node->w == “Above_threshold” ) ) { // 7à 6 . 7=send , 6 =Recv slot[node] = ‘‘SEND’’; slot[node?dest] = ‘‘RECV’’; // Nodes those will cause collision Fwd_send_collision_set.add( node->dest->neighbors.flag Fwd ); Fwd_send_collision_set.add( node->dest.flag.Fwd); // Nodes those will face collision Fwd_recv_collision_set.add( Node.flag Fwd); Fwd_recv_collision_set.add( node->neighbors.flag Fwd); // Nodes those will cause collision Rev_send_collision_set.add( node->dest->neighbors.flag Rev ); Rev_send_collision_set.add( node->dest.flag.Rev); // Nodes those will face collision Rev_recv_collision_set.add( node->neighbors.flag Rev); change_priority_algo(node->dest->recv); SendDoneNodelist.addtoLastPos(node); RecvDoneNodelist.addtoLastPos(node?Dest); Send_Nodelist.Remove(node); Recv_Nodelist.Remove(node?Dest); If ( decide_(collision , threshold ) > 1 ) { Node_List = Recv_Nodelist. } else { Node_List = Send_Nodelist. } } // if } // for frame.add(slot);

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010

} while (slot.length > 0) // do We will see why task distribution approach from network point of view. The best route in network is that one which require minimum total transmission power . The network lifetime is the time when a node runs out of its own battery power for the first time. If a node stops its operation, it can result in network partitioning and interrupt communication. We will see why transmission power control approach from node point of view .The nodes with lower power should avoid transmission up to large distance. The node should balance the energy usage among the neighbor nodes . It minimizes the total transmission energy required to deliver data packet to the destination .[15] We will see why transmission power control approach at network level . The best route in network is that one which require minimum total transmission power . The network lifetime is the time when a node runs out of its own battery power for the first time. [16] If a node stops its operation, it can result in network partitioning and interrupt communication. Minimizing the total energy consumption tends to favor the route that consumes minimum energy .

4. Experiment
Now we will concentrate on delay avoidance and collision avoidance . Here is a topology and related routing table . Node 0 is a cluster head .Routing table contain list of all neighbors and their send slot and receive slots . we will define a schedule for each node so that path wake up timing will get decided [11].
5 6 4 2 8 0 3 1 10 9 11 7

13 14 15 16


Figure 1 Node Neighbors

6 7 8 9

2, 5, 7, 8 6, 9 0, 6, 10 7, 11

Our aim is to reach up to node 0 .
Node 1-hop Neighbors Dest Hops upto node O

6 7 8

2, 5, 7, 8 6, 9 0, 6, 10

8 6 0

2 3 1

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 113 Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010


7, 11









6 7 8 9

2, 5, 7, 8 6, 9 0, 6, 10 7, 11

8 6 0 11

2 3 1 3

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1

Now algorithm will decide slots for receive and send . Node/ slot 6 7 1 R S 2 3 S Figure 3. Five levels of power should be decided at each node. Level 1 = sleep mode Level 2 = forward data Level 3 = receive data Level 4 = send data to neighbor. Level 5 = send data up to cluster head . Level 6 = send busy tone . Three types of sleep periods should be created Level 1 = data to be send after x unit of time . Level 2 = data to be stored after x unit of time . Level 3 = data to be forwarded after x unit of time . Node list = { 17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28, 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40 } Start from 17 . 17->41 , [ 17,1] = ”S” [ 41,1] = ”R” Node 16 17 One hop neighbors 0.7,15,17,18,19,20 41,42,16 Hops Send Recv 4 5 6 7

The more improved topology construction is suggested below . It will include delay avoidance strategy . Few other strategies that can be adopted are also suggested below . Three levels of power should be decided at each node. Level 1 = Nodes those are at one hop . Level 2 = Nodes those are at two hop . Level 3 = Nodes those are at three hop . As shown in figure 2, we can create topology. Node 0 is currently acting as cluster head . Its task can be handed over to any other node which is at one hop distance from node 0 . Node in square boundary can act as cluster heads of their own clusters. They can communicate to other cluster head by using node 0 using two hops . Node 3,5,1,16 are still available for forming new cluster .

Node Choose Dest 16 17 0 16 1 4 4 2 4 4

Figure 2. Cluster head can communicate with node 0 in two hops. Scheduling information can be stored at node 0. Task of node is to dispatch packet up to cluster head in two hops. It is now node0 task to forward packet up to destination in two hops only . Hierarchical addressing can be also used . Probability of send , probability of receive , probability of idle , probability of Sleep are depend on four important factors .Data forward rate , data arrival rate , delay or waiting time , time spend in wake up . Division of task can be designed at different level Level 0 = Scheduling information Level 1 = Routing information . Level 3= Energy, collision set information

Divide transmission of 17 in two plus two slots by blocking alternate reverse paths . Fwd_send_collision_set = { 16, 0.7,15 } // new nodes // They cause collision // 16 and its neighbor Fwd_recv_collision_set = { 17,41,42,16 } // existing nodes // They face collision // 17 and its neighbor Rev_send_collision_set = { 17,18,19,20 } // new nodes

114 // They cause collision // 16 and its neighbor Rev_recv_collision_set = { 17,41,42,16 // existing nodes // They face collision // 17 and its neighbor }

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010

n node listens

= the number of timeslots the sensor

Now we will assign a last priority to 7 in SendDoneNodelist . we will assign a last priority to 6 in RecvDoneNodelist. So , the collisions those were likely to occur will get avoided .and superior priority will be given to rest of the nodes of Fwd_send_collision set nodes.

Tf = the length of the total period Tslot = the length of each TDMA timeslot. n * (Tslot/Tf) = The time a sensor node spends in periodical wakeups . LWait. = The average of waiting time Based on the calculation , the balance energy level is calculated . The balance energy is calculated and it is used to decide the remaining lifetime of battery of node .

5. Power related parameters
We can use multi channel sender initiated random access mac layer protocols - Divide available bandwidth into multiple channel .Instead of switch off mode , use low power switch mode . They can be turned on using timer Or using wake-up packets. Mac layer can decide turn off/on of module. [12] Various advantages of using this scheme are – • Minimum delay • Energy level selection • Schedule distribution • Collision level • Selection of bandwidth and speed. • Fast input and fast output • Allocate function to individual nodes • Achieve division of work. When a new packet is generated, the sensor node must wait until the next TDMA frame. [13] It transmits the Path-WU message to wake-up all the nodes. Since the packet is generated randomly, the average time until the next frame is Tf/2. [11]

6. Delay related parameter
The end-to-end delay, is the sum of the transmission delay, the access delay, the queuing delay , the propagation delay. The delay is proportional to the number of hops N. Delay is affected by number of hops times the period Tf. The transmission at each hop is delayed until the next receiving sensor node wakes up. [14 ]Small distance between the wireless sensor nodes makes the propagation delay small. Large distance between the wireless sensor nodes makes the propagation delay large. Say (N - 1)intermediate forwarders are there between sender node and receiver node .[11] Average delay

The delay in the S-MAC protocol

The delay in the adaptive listening

The delay in TDMA tcs = Access time ttx = Transmission delay. N = No. of nodes. Tf = No. of hops times. Tf/2. = Average time until the next frame is generated. When Tf increase , end to end delay increase . When Tf decrease , nodes must become active more often . It result in increased power consumption. End to end delay is affected by term which is proportional to Tf . This is because, transmission at each hop is delayed until the next receiving sensor node wakes up . Transmission must wait until the next wake up time . [11]

Here , Power as a function of the arrival rate for the same delay. Delay as a function of the arrival rate, for the same power consumption. The minimum values for Ti and Tslot are limited by the available hardware and by the reception sensing time. we consider Ti = Tslot. [11]

L . .

= average size of packets . = data packet arrival rate. = data packet forward rate.

7 . Conclusion The study of scheduling algorithm helps to achieve the balance between energy saving and delay. By sensing energy

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 115 Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2010

from the radio signals, the node provides a interrupt to the MCU. The MCU detects the preamble and wakes up RF transceiver when wake-up signal is indeed to wake itself up. The analysis results show that, based on the scheduling, nodes can be woken up timely when it is necessary to wake up with the aid of extremely low power.

Authors Profile
N. Mahajan received Diploma in Mechanical Engineering [DME] in 1999 , A.M.I.E. [CSE] Engineering degree in 2007 , BCA degree in 2007 , qualified GATE 2008 and MCA degree in 2009 . He is perusing Master of Engineering degree [M.E.] in WCC in Computer Science department at GHRCE , Nagpur university , India . He is a professional software developer . He is now working on energy and power management topics and various schedule development strategies in WSN . He has a special interest in topology modeling of ad-hoc network i.e. wireless sensor network , wireless mesh network and MANET . He has simulated various network scenario using ns2 network simulator software and other programming languages . Dr. Rajiv Dharaskar is presently working
as Professor at PG Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur. He is Ph.D. in Computer Science & Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering & Technology, M.Tech. in Computers, P.G. Dip., M.Phil., and M.Sc. He is having 24 years of teaching and 18 years of R&D experience in the field of Computers & IT. He is approved PhD guide for Computer Engineering and Science for Nagpur and Amravati University and 22 research scholars are perusing Ph.D. degree under his guidance. He is an author of number books on Programming Languages..


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[11] Energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks using sleep mode TDMA scheduling Nikolaos A. Pantazis , Dimitrios J. Vergados , Dimitrios D. Vergados , Christos Douligeris .

[12] Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, D. Estrin, “Geography-informed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc”, Proc. ACM MobiCom 2001, pp. 70 – 84. Rome, 2001. [13] P. Santi, “Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, ACM Computing Survey, Vol. 37, n. 2, p. 164-194, June 2005. [14] A. Cerpa, D. Estrin, “Ascent: Adaptive SelfConfiguring Sensor Network Topologies, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002.
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Dr V M Thakare is Professor and Head of PG department of computer Science and Engg in SGB Amravati University Amravati, Maharastra (India) and has completed ME in Advance Electronics and Ph.D. In computer Science/Engg. His Area of Research are Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology. He is Recognized Giude for computer science and computer engineering in this University and In other universities also. He has also received received national level Award for excellent paper award. More than 10 candidates are working for Ph D Under his supervision. He has Published and presented more than 115 papers at National and international level. He has worked on various national level bodies like AICTE/UGC and also worked on various bodies of other universities. He is presently member of BOS, RRC, BUTR of this university and also chairman and Member of various committees of this university .

[16] F. Koushanfar, N. Taft and M. Potkonjak, “Sleeping Coordination for Comprehensive Sensing Using Isotonic Regression and Domatic Partitions”, Proc. of Infocom 2006, Barcelona, Spain, April 2006.