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CONTENT APRIL 2019 / VOL. 57 / NO. 4


This bridge is tipsy

11 LAW
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Old-school concrete 20

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The unmitigated gall

38 42



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Joliet, Ill., battles crumbling bridges, 48 TAKING AGE INTO ACCOUNT
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April 2019 / Vol. 57 / No. 4
847.391.1000 / Fax: 847.390.0408

Bill Wilson / 847.391.1029
Illinois DOT refuses to make quick repairs on I-80 bridge
Brian W. Budzynski THE CELLAR DID NOT EVEN LOOK LIKE The I-35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis / 847.391.1052
IT WAS OPEN FOR BUSINESS. STILL, MANY permanently spans the back of my mind, and the
ASSOCIATE EDITOR similarities with the I-80 bridge will frighten you.
Tim Bruns PEOPLE IN MY POSITION MIGHT HAVE / 847.391.1037 The I-80 bridge is a steel truss bridge that was
built in 1965. Work on the I-35W steel truss arch
Jazmin Huerta I am not a drinker. Never have been, never will bridge began in 1964 and was completed in 1967. / 847.954.7919 be ... not even after a potentially terrifying situation. The I-80 span is non-redundant, as was the I-35W.
In early February I found myself underneath the The average score on the last inspection of the
I-80 bridge in Joliet, Ill., just a couple hundred yards I-35W bridge was 4. Overall, the I-80 bridge was
Ryan Hanson away from The Cellar, a small tavern showing its rated at a 4 when it was last inspected in April / 847.391.1059 age. A media storm has been over this bridge after 2018. The I-35W bridge collapsed on Aug. 7, 2007,
PUBLISHER it was discovered that Illinois DOT crews noted killing 13 and injuring 145.
Brandon Williamson certain sections of the westbound structure were You could throw every gadget and trained eye / 512.739.2102
“structurally intolerable,” were in “critical condition” on a bridge along with a team that has thousands
and “may require closure.” I live about 65 miles of hours of field inspection under their hard hats,
Dara Rubin from Joliet, so I had to see the corrosive outbreak and critical elements could still be missed. They
for myself. I have been around hundreds of bridges were missed on the I-35W bridge.
DEVELOPMENT MANAGER in my 20-year career at ROADS & BRIDGES, so I The traffic volume and the fact it is a major
Matt Ohlson would like to say I have a trained ear around spans freight route makes the I-80 bridge almost impos-
of all ages and in all conditions. Standing below the sible to close, but IDOT should have made the
underbelly of the I-80 bridge, traffic whizzing above necessary repairs as soon as humanly possible.
Christine Book sounded more like fireworks going off in the dis- Instead, everything has been put off until May.
tance. That is not what I am used to hearing. A stiff Lack of funds is just a reckless excuse. The mere
CORPORATE drink afterwards was tempting, but not necessary. mention that a bridge could collapse from a trusted
IDOT has been facing an angry mob the last source like a DOT should move state legislators to
H.S. Gillette
few weeks, most demanding the I-80 bridge be reach their long arms and pull from other resources.
K.A. Gillette
fixed immediately. A local union is even paying for The I-35W bridge collapse killed 13 people;
space on a digital billboard that warns motorists were those people on the minds of IDOT officials? I
E.S. Gillette
of upcoming doom. It screams BRIDGE AHEAD certainly hope the I-80 bridge is still standing while
IN CRITICAL CONDITION. That’s one of two you are reading this column. A collapse would
Rick Schwer
messages. IDOT’s image is being pelted, but the serve as another tragic example, and would have
agency still believes the bridge, which carries a many at IDOT drowning their sorrows. R&B
David Shreiner
combined 84,000 vehicles a day and is the main
carrier through the third-largest city in Illinois, is
Ann Fallon O’Neill
safe to remain operational. Their expertise is all
the validation that is needed.
& MARKETING I’m not here to debate IDOT’s engineering
Diane Vojcanin superpowers, but even Captain Marvel herself Bill Wilson
DIRECTOR OF STRATEGIC can’t predict when bad luck is going to team up Editorial Director
John Atwood

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Formal subcontracts should be an implacable prerequisite
to any and all construction activities
IN THE RUSH TO BEGIN WORK AS SOON AS A Inc. v. Ringco Mfg. Co., Inc., 1995 WL 277101 (Ohio App.,
PUBLIC OWNER ISSUES A NOTICE TO PROCEED, 8th Dist. May 11, 1995), Herschman and Ringco entered
Larry Caudle into discussions regarding an agreement under which
is a principal in
Herschman would provide Ringco with architectural
a law firm in McLean, services in the design of department store display stands.
Va., specializing FORMAL SUBCONTRACTS ARE EXECUTED. Pursuant to their discussions, Herschman faxed to Ringco
in heavy-highway
a proposal, dated June 23, 1992, in which it outlined the
and transportation
construction. Caudle In most instances, the parties subsequently sign a scope of and fees for the project.
can be contacted via subcontract without issue. In other instances, the parties Herschman and Ringco engaged in negotiations of
e-mail at lcaudle@
reach a stalemate, and things go downhill quickly. the June 23 proposal, and on June 29, Herschman sent
Jatsek Constr. Co., Inc. v. Burton Scot Contractors, a revised proposal to Ringco. The parties did not sign the
LLC, 2012 WL 3775989 (Ohio App., 8th revised June 29 proposal. Nevertheless,
Dist., Aug. 30, 2012) involved a lawsuit Herschman began work. When Herschman
a subcontractor filed against a prime for
WHEN A exceeded the number of hours as set forth
unpaid sums in connection with a public CONTRACTOR in the June 29 proposal in performing its
contract for construction of a bike path. COMMENCES duties, the parties attempted to come to
Soon after receiving notice of the lawsuit, an agreement on the reasonable value of
the prime filed a motion with the court cit-
WORK ... IT Herschman’s services. When they were
ing an arbitration clause in the subcon- IS DEEMED unable to do so, Herschman filed suit. The
tract and seeking a postponement of the TO HAVE matter proceeded to trial, and the trial court
case pending arbitration. entered judgment in favor of Herschman.
The subcontractor opposed the motion
CONSENTED On appeal, Ringco argued that the
and argued that no agreement to arbitrate TO THE parties never agreed to Herschman’s June
existed because although it had signed TERMS OF THE 29 proposal and, therefore, no written
the written subcontract, the prime never contract between the parties existed. The
did. The subcontractor thus argued that
AGREEMENT. court disagreed and found that the “terms
the agreement between the parties con- of the final agreement were reflected in the
sisted of nothing more than the written quote it supplied to June 29, 1992 proposal,” reasoning that “conduct sufficient
the prime. The trial court agreed, and the prime appealed. to show agreement, including performance, is a reasonable
The appeals court considered the undisputed mode of acceptance” of an offer.
evidence produced at the trial, which showed that the Applying the facts of Jatsek to the Herschman
prime accepted the subcontractor’s proposal on Aug. 5, case, the appeals court held that by commencing work
2010, and on Sept. 17, 2010, it issued to the subcontractor after having received a copy of the subcontract, the
a written subcontract. The subcontractor began working subcontractor consented to the written subcontract.
on the project on Oct. 18, 2010, and on Oct. 30, submitted Furthermore, since the arbitration provision was not one
its first invoice for work it had performed. Notably, a week of the clauses the subcontractor attempted to modify, the
later, on Nov. 7, the subcontractor executed and returned agreement to arbitrate is enforceable.
the written subcontract. In executing the subcontract, This rationale is consistent with the decisions of other
however, the subcontractor made handwritten modifica- courts. When a contractor commences work after receiving
tions to certain provisions. The prime contended that the a written agreement, it is deemed to have consented to the
modifications were unacceptable, and it never consented terms of the agreement. However, this case would have
to them in writing. The question for the appeals court was been more complicated had the subcontractor objected to
whether the subcontract between the parties was the the subcontract language before beginning work or if the
subcontractor’s proposal or the written subcontract. objections concerned the arbitration provision. The best
In reversing the trial court decision and ruling for practice for both prime and subcontractors is to insist on
the prime contractor, the court followed a similar case fully executed contract documents before either party goes
it had previously decided. In G. Herschman Architects, to work. R&B


ATSSA advocates for a future where

there are no injuries or fatalities on
the nation’s roadways.
he American Traffic Safety Services on keeping our highway workers safe,” said Jason

T Association (ATSSA) is committed to

advancing roadway safety and advocating
at all levels of government for policies that will
Rohrer, ATSSA member and general manager of
J-Tech, Inc., in Chester Springs, Pennsylvania.
ATSSA’s member companies understand the
eliminate deaths and serious injuries on our nation’s importance of implementing roadway safety
roadways. ATSSA played a significant role in the infrastructure projects, and the real-life impact
passage of the Fixing America’s Surface roadway crashes can have on roadway workers,
Transportation (FAST) Act in 2015 and has worked drivers, and their loved ones. To help policy makers
to ensure funds remain in place for crucial roadway understand the various aspects of roadway safety
safety infrastructure projects as part of the Highway and see that real-life impact firsthand, ATSSA’s
Safety Improvement Program (HSIP). government relations team schedules federal
“ATSSA is proud to be a leader and advocate for Legislative Briefing and Fly-In events and state
additional funding for roadway safety infrastructure advocacy days. They can also bring elected officials
at all levels. It is a vital component of our nation’s to member company sites and work zone operations.
surface transportation program that saves countless “Elected officials are often surprised by the return
lives, while creating good-paying jobs nationwide. on investment that these low-cost safety measures
These investments are going to help not only save provide,” said Jay Bruemmer, vice president of K&G
lives, but really help rebuild American communities Striping, Inc., in Riverside, Missouri.
around the country,” said ATSSA Vice President of ATSSA works to honor legislators who understand
Government Relations Nate Smith. the roadway safety industry and how safer roads
ATSSA’s government relations team works to save lives. Each year ATSSA also awards legislators
build relationships with policy makers and serves as with the Roadway Safety Champion Award for their
a key education resource to elected officials and commitment to roadway safety.
ATSSA members on important roadway safety “The impact you can have by giving a little of your
policy areas. Representatives from ATSSA’s almost time to talk with legislators and their staff will pay off
1,500 member companies are committed to in the long run by helping to secure funding that
grassroots advocacy efforts that drive home the makes safety a priority in building and maintaining
importance of investing in our nation’s roadway our nation’s roadways,” said Haley Norman, ATSSA
safety infrastructure and they understand that it is member and CFO for Direct Traffic Control, Inc., in
their actions that effect real change. Muskogee, Oklahoma.
“Through our involvement we were privileged to ATSSA has one united voice and one cause as we
have Congressman Ryan Costello and Speaker of move Toward Zero Deaths on our nation’s roadways.
the House Paul Ryan come to J-Tech and learn
about the importance of highway safety. In addition, Email or call
ATSSA was able to change some critical regulations 202-733-1245 to be put in contact with an ATSSA
with the FHWA. This change had a dramatic impact government relations team member.

American Traffic Safety Services Association
ATSSA Advocates
One voice. One cause. Toward Zero Deaths.
ATSSA members know that safer roads save lives. For almost 50
years, members have led the roadway safety infrastructure industry
through the design, manufacture, and installation of roadway safety
devices such as pavement markings, signs, barriers, work zone
safety devices, and more. With assistance from the ATSSA
Government Relations team, members passionately advocate for
securing long-term solvency of the Highway Trust Fund, ensuring
funds remain in place for the Highway Safety Improvement
Program, and the enactment of federal and state-level legislative
policies focused on roadway safety. Above all, ATSSA advocates for
a future without any injuries or fatalities on the nation’s roadways.
To learn more about how ATSSA leads the industry through
advocacy, visit

American Traffic Safety Services Association
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TRB’s executive director has no plans to quit now
By Brian W. Budzynski, Managing Editor

OUR “WHEN I WAS ABOUT EIGHT YEARS OLD, THE “When I first started out in the mid 1970s, the approach
MASSACHUSETTS TURNPIKE WAS BEING CON was that planners and engineers would develop what
FIRST they felt were the best plans, and then go and present
INDUSTRY them to the community. And then they’d wonder why the
“I became fascinated with the role new highways were community almost always opposed what they proposed.
ICONS playing in our world. I felt this from a very early age.” We recognized that a new approach was needed. Too
It is wonderful—and wonderfully rare—to see the sort many projects were being held up due to community
For the of fruition of one’s youthful interest that one sees in Neil and political opposition. What we really needed to do
first time, Pedersen. One might suspect such lifelong devotion to was work with the community right from the beginning.
come at a premium, but after speaking with Neil recently, Residents, businesses, the political establishment—the
Roads & I can assure you this is far from the case. larger community, in other words. Basically
Bridges is “Another of my formative experiences anyone affected by the projects. It was really
was learning how the church my mother the beginning of what is now called context-
honoring belonged to in Brooklyn had been dis- sensitive solutions. It has been generally
icons in placed by the approach for the Verrazano- recognized as a necessity, especially in
Narrows Bridge. It split the neighborhood urban and suburban areas, if you’re going
the indus- in half so that people who normally had to get complex, large-scale projects through
try. We only to walk a few blocks to visit friends the planning and approval process.”
now had a 3-mile detour. That really struck Pedersen also has been a multifarious
hope this a nerve with me. As a result, I wrote my committee member; among his appoint-
becomes undergraduate thesis on the socioeco- ments: Chair of the TRB Executive
nomic impacts of highway projects.” Committee in 2011, and five years as Vice
an annual This dual focus—the social and Chair of AASHTO’s Standing Committee
Neil Pedersen
offering, economic drivers and impacts of transpor- Executive Director, on Highways.
tation development—has served Pedersen Transportation “My involvement with TRB and AASHTO
and for well over his more than 40 years in our Research Board allowed me to learn a lot about what was
2020 you, industry. After earning both a B.S. in Civil going on outside of Maryland, and what
Engineering and B.A. in Urban Studies from Bucknell national policy issues were,” Pedersen said, “while also
the reader, University, Pedersen went on to a Master’s in Civil being able to bring that knowledge back to Maryland.”
will be able Engineering from Northwestern, where his concentration After leaving MSHA, he was appointed Deputy Director
was in transportation planning. Thereafter followed seven of Implementation and Communication for SHRP 2. In
to nomi- years in the private sector, working as a transportation 2015, he was appointed Executive Director of TRB, a role
nate who planning consultant. One of his clients during this time he has no plans to relinquish in the near future: “When I
was the Maryland State Highway Administration (MSHA), took on the job, I anticipated staying in it at least seven to
you think is
which in 1982 appointed him deputy planning director. 10 years, which would take me through TRB’s centennial
an industry This would be the beginning of a long tenure with in 2020-2021. My predecessor twice removed, Tom Deen,
the MSHA, during which time Pedersen would hold told me when I first accepted the position, ‘This is the best
icon. Infor- various titles. After 18 months, he was made Planning job in all of transportation. You get to work with the smart-
mation Director, a title he would hold for 16 years. Then it was est people in transportation. You get to really grapple with
on to Deputy Administrator for Planning, Engineering current and future issues. You get to make recommenda-
on how to and Real Estate, and finally State Highway Administrator, tions to state and federal government that really make a
nominate a post he held until his retirement from MSHA in 2011. difference in transportation policy.’ I enjoy going to work
During this time, Pedersen witnessed many changes, every day. Every day is a new issue we’re going to deal
is coming but one in particular stands out—one that fundamentally with. Why would I want to give up a job I am being fulfilled
soon. altered how project planning is done, even today. by, and feel allows me to make a difference?” R&B


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AGC highways director has spent decades influencing transportation policy
By Tim Bruns, Associate Editor

BY THE TIME HE FINISHED HIS FIRST FEW YEARS OF When it comes to impacting law and policy in his career, Deery
COLLEGE, BRIAN DEERY HAD LITTLE DOUBT THAT HE has had a hand in shaping all major transportation legislation that
WANTED TO PLAY A PART IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS. has made its way through Capitol Hill since TEA-21 in the late 1990s.
He also has been instrumental in working with federal agencies to
“As a kid growing up, oddly enough, I was always interested in limit the impact of new regulations on the construction industry. An
what was happening in Washington. I always followed legislation, example of this was when proposals were created to place new
Capitol Hill, what presidents were doing.” He recalled a civics class emission requirements on diesel engines, which fuel many types of
teacher from eighth grade whose lessons contributed to shaping commonly used construction equipment. “They were going to put
his interest in politics. “I remember him writing on the board how all these requirements that really would have required contractors
political parties came up with positions and how they had planks. to get rid of or sell their equipment at no value, and then buy new
And I thought that was really interesting.” equipment,” Deery explained. “And for a lot of our
While he initially began his undergraduate studies contractors, that would have put them out of busi-
at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va., with an ness.” To alleviate those concerns, Deery was able to
undeclared major, Deery decided to chase a career in work with the agencies involved to provide a way for
political science and government by his sophomore contractors to receive grant funding to retrofit their
year. This worked well in his favor as the school’s existing equipment in order to meet the new standards
proximity to Washington, D.C., enabled Deery to obtain for lower emissions.
internships in the nation’s capital. After finishing his time When asked about current challenges that con-
at George Mason, he went on to complete a Master’s in tractors face today, Deery considers the decline in
Public Administration at the American University in D.C. workforce among the greatest concerns. “With the
Currently serving in the role of Senior Director of the low unemployment rate in the country and with the
Highway and Transportation Division, Deery has worked growth in the construction market, contractors all over
for most of his career with the Associated General the country are facing a real shortage of workers,” he
Brian Deery
Contractors (AGC) of America. This began over 40 years Senior Director, said. In addition to this, he recognizes the rise in new
ago when he was hired as the assistant director in the AGC Highway and technology as something the industry has to keep up
Heavy Industrial Division. “When I was looking for a job, Transportation Division with, from the use of drones to the implementation of
there were pretty much three choices,” Deery explained. project management and estimating softwares.
“One, you could work for the federal government. Two, you could work Though he has no specific plans to retire in the near future, Deery
on Capitol Hill in a congressional office. Or three, you could work for an acknowledges that he is likely coming to the end of his career, and
association or one of the other interest groups that represent various he is looking forward to spending some time traveling internationally
industries before Congress and the government. And so I chose the with his wife when that time comes. He also is eager to find ways
latter. And I was fortunate to be hired by AGC.” he can volunteer his time during retirement. “Since I’ve spent all
In his current position, Deery puts his passion for shaping public these years working for companies and people that build things, I’ve
policy to good use. As senior director for Highway and Transporta- thought maybe Habitat for Humanity or something like that would be
tion at AGC, Deery oversees a range of legislative, regulatory and interesting for me to do—the hands-on stuff that I’ve been watching
market issues which affect contractors in the highway, bridge, transit, others do for all these years.”
railroad and airport runway construction sectors. His role demands For Deery, the most rewarding part of working for AGC has been
he maintain an ongoing, collaborative relationship with a variety of getting to see the impact the projects built by the association’s mem-
federal transportation agencies and industry groups. bers have had on the communities they serve. “We’ve had several
For his part, Deery works closely with AGC’s Congressional Relations big projects here in the Washington area that have made some major
Department, which seeks to educate members of Congress on the most changes in congestion and backup,” he said, citing the George Wash-
pressing needs of the construction industry. “When Congress is looking ington Parkway and the Woodrow Wilson Bridge as examples. “And
at different issues, they tend to look at the big picture,” he explained. I think to myself: Wow that’s pretty amazing that you could come up
“And they don’t always see how it’s going to impact different industries. with a solution that really does have an impact on the daily commutes
And so it’s important for us to be up there to explain the impact.” of people and their ability to get around to places.” R&B



Asphalt pavements are 100 percent recyclable — in fact, they’re the most recycled
material in America. Every time an asphalt pavement is recycled, it diverts waste
and other byproducts away from landfills, conserving natural resources. This
means every asphalt pavement contains the seeds of the next generation of roads.



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Former Michigan DOT director continues to embrace new technology
By Brian W. Budzynski, Managing Editor

WHEN IS RETIREMENT NOT RETIREMENT? WHEN IS IT his belief in its immediate and long-term benefits, his approach was
MORE AKIN TO EVOLUTION? always marked with care and caution, a measuring stick that had
certain immovable thresholds, notably the reduction of risk and the
In the case of Kirk Steudle, it is just so. This past October, after potential for serving as a successful exemplar for other agencies.
retiring from the Michigan DOT after more than three decades of “I’m always reluctant to say, for example, ‘Oh this community tried
service—which culminated in a tenure as DOT director that began this new technology, and it didn’t work,’ and using that as a reason not to
in 2006—Steudle continued to serve the world of transportation as try. At least they were trying to innovate and learn. At the same time, I do
Senior Vice President for ITS for traffic management firm Econolite. think there are instances where technology is not as good or successful
Such an evolution will hardly come as a surprise to those familiar with as it is made out to be, and that ultimately hurts the agency that might
Steudle and his accomplishments. In his exiting statement to MDOT adopt it and it hurts the credibility of new technology in general. To
colleagues, Steudle commented that it had been me, you do your homework, you eliminate as many risks
“especially rewarding … to share my commitment and as possible. This is tough for DOTs, because they can’t
belief in the intrinsic value of public service.” really afford for something to fail. They’re always looking
Kirk Steudle’s interest in the world of transporta- for examples. Show me where this has been applied
tion began not with the technology advancements successfully already. Like e-construction. Paperless
he is today inextricably associated with, but with the documentation. You’d say now well of course you do that.
evergreen stuff: roads and bridges. We all do. But MDOT instituted that back in 2012 when no
“I was born and raised in a small town in one was doing it. There’s always that chance when you do
Michigan,” Steudle recalled. “Back in high school I something new that it isn’t going to work, of course. But
was thinking about architecture, but realized civil we showed how it could be done correctly.”
engineering really fit me better. The chance to be As the years compounded so did his accomplish-
outside, constructing things that impact peoples’ lives ments. He oversaw Michigan’s first “bridge slide,” its first
every single day—that was really appealing to me. I Kirk Steudle P3 for freeway lighting, and, most recently, the opening
wanted to work in the public sector, to be the owner Senior Vice President of MCity, a 32-acre facility dedicated to connected and
of the transportation system I worked on. That really Econolite autonomous vehicle research in 2015, as well as the
propelled me toward the public service side.” 500-acre American Center for Mobility (which he served
After graduating from Lawrence Technological University in South- briefly as interim CEO/president) in 2018. He served on the board of
field, with a degree in construction engineering, and Michigan Techno- AASHTO since 2006, and in 2011-2012 was its president. In 2014, he
logical University, Steudle took a job—“like most seniors, I was happy to was chair of the Transportation Research Board executive committee,
take any job offer”—at the Michigan DOT, as an entry-level engineer. and also chaired the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2)
“I figured, I’ll be here a few years and then I’ll move on to do some- committee. He also served on the ITS America board of directors as
thing else,” Steudle said. “The next thing I knew, it was 31 years later.” chair and participated in the group’s U.S. DOT advisory committee.
Most of Steudle’s career was, in fact, in roads and bridges— At present, Steudle remains not far away from the public sector
construction, contracts, project planning. Then in 2003, he was that defined the lion’s share of his career. “Econolite’s in one-third of
appointed Chief Deputy Director of MDOT, and soon thereafter rose North America’s traffic signals. Talk about impacting peoples’ lives;
to Director. And it was around this time that the advent of connected we do it every day.”
vehicles and the idea of “mobility” began to rear its head in the If one needs further validation for Steudle’s status in the mobility
transportation landscape; Steudle was in the ideal place to take the world, look no further than former Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder, who had
reins and engage these new developments with immediacy. this to say on Steudle’s exit from MDOT: “Kirk has been … a leader in
“It was about how do you take this technology and fuse it into the advanced vehicle technology that has helped make Michigan the mobil-
existing transportation network, how do you make the transportation ity capital of the world. Kirk is known around the world as a mobility rock
network more efficient,” Steudle remarked. “That was the goal, and star—and that’s something all of Michigan should be proud of.” R&B
this ultimately led me to the mobility space. If you’re not trying new
things, you’re destined to stay in the 1970s forever.”
Despite Steudle’s advocacy for applying new technology and For more information about this topic, check out


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Known locally as the High Bridge, this structure was originally erected in 1987, and consists
of a 502-ft full arch span and two half arches, coming in at 282 ft 3 in. and 241 ft 9 in.,
respectively. The Minnesota DOT flagged this bridge for rehabilitation and deck replacement.


Re-decking the multi-span tied steel arch Smith Avenue Bridge in St. Paul
By Soham Mukherjee, Jonathan Eberle, John Milius and Paul Kettleson, Contributing Authors


HIGH BRIDGE, SPANNING THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER IN Due to the availability of feasible detour routes, deck replace-
ST. PAUL, MINN., CONSISTS OF THREE CONTINUOUS ment was planned using a full closure of the structure. With
this in mind, a re-decking sequence that worked in reverse of
the original construction, with modifications for constructability,
GIRDER APPROACH SPANS. was developed. The four tendons comprising each tie were
sequentially stressed during the original construction as the
Originally constructed in 1987, the main spans consist of superstructure steel was constructed and concrete placed
a 502-ft full arch (Span 4) and two half arches (Span 3 and to limit the stresses within the arch rib to the allowable limits.
Span 5) on either side of the full arch, measuring 282 ft 3 in. Accordingly, sequential de-stressing and re-stressing of the
and 241 ft 9 in, respectively. post-tensioned tendons were incorporated in the construc-
Due to deteriorating bridge deck conditions, compre- tion steps. Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
hensive rehabilitation including complete replacement of its involving staged construction analysis was conducted utilizing
original concrete deck was deemed necessary by the Min- provisions of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
nesota DOT (MnDOT), the owner of the bridge. MnDOT tasked (2014) to investigate the stress state of the arch spans through-
AECOM with the rehabilitation design of the bridge, which out all stages of construction.
included the development of a deck replacement sequence For this project, MnDOT elected to use a construction man-
for the arch spans. ager/general contractor (CM/GC) delivery method. This allowed
The arch spans consist of two arch ribs spaced transversely for coordination between the designer and contractor throughout
at 36 ft. The arch ribs are built-up steel box sections, with a larger the design process to ensure that the construction sequence and
box section for the main portion of Spans 3 and 5, and a smaller methods assumed for analysis matched those ultimately used
box section for the remainder of Spans 3 and 5 and all of Span 4. by the contractor in the field. This helped to ensure that the live
The arch spans are tied by prestressing tendons connecting loads assumed for analysis would capture the actual vehicular
the arch at the exterior piers to points near the crown of the loading that would be used in construction.
main span, leaving a short section of arch rib near the main The vehicular construction loading used in the FEA
span crown without a tie present. The tie member is comprised consisted of two vehicles, a tri-axle dump truck (assumed
of a wide flange section on its side in addition to the prestress- as MnDOT’s SU4 Legal Load) and a Cat 335F LCR excavator
ing tendons. One tie member is present for each arch rib and equipped with a slab crab. Shielding load of 5 psf was applied
runs from the exterior pier to the crown, resulting in four tie to all deck sections. Uniform construction load of 20 psf was
members in total. Although structurally connected, the wide applied on all remaining deck areas in a given removal step
flange section served primarily as a means to allow for original per AASHTO Guide Spec for Bridge Temp Works. The load
construction of the bridge, and a support for the prestressing factor for these loads was taken as the construction live load
tendons prior to stressing. Each of the four tendons comprising factor as specified in AASHTO 2014.
each tie consists of 27 0.5-in.-diam. prestressing strands. The The initial concrete deck removal sequence is shown in
tendons are encased in a 4-in.-diam. steel pipe, which was Figure 1, where the deck portions are numbered in the order
grouted following final stressing of the tendons. The tendons of their removal. It would likely be assumed that no overstress
pass through the columns via pipe sleeves allowing the would be anticipated during the proposed sequence, based
tendons to move independent of the columns. on the assumption that no overstress occurred during the


The tie member (highlighted) designed for the Smith Avenue Bridge is comprised of a wide flange section on its side in
addition to prestressed tendons. A tie member is present for each arch rib.

original construction. Initial analysis results, however, showed tendons needed to be replaced, as only two of the four needed to
significant overstress in the arch ribs and spandrel columns sub- be removed for deck replacement. Accordingly, the FEA included
jected to combined axial and bending force effects. The maximum cases for either replacement of only the required two tendons, or all
demand-capacity ratio for the arch ribs was about 1.1 near the crown four tendons. Ultimately, the decision was made to replace all the
under the combined action of axial compression and flexure, and it tendons within each tie.
occurred after removal of the first pair of tendons at the initiation of
the deck removal sequence, when the construction vehicular load- LIMITATIONS ON VEHICLE MOVEMENTS
ing was enveloped for the entire deck, assuming two crews were Limitations were imposed on the location of the construction vehicles
present for the removal of deck areas 1 and 2 in the next step. to prevent overstress in the superstructure primary members. Initial
Accordingly, the construction sequence was modified to prevent analyses allowed all vehicles to be centered over a given arch rib,
overstress in the arch ribs and the spandrel columns. The modi- thus maximizing forces for a given arch rib and spandrel columns.
fied deck removal sequence is shown in Figure 2 where the deck Within subsequent analyses, the movement of the tri-axle dump truck
portions are numbered in the order of their removal. As can be seen was restricted to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge between
from Figures 1 and 2, the deck areas were reconfigured such that the two arch ribs, with a tolerance not exceeding 5 ft on either side
two bays at the crown of the main arch (area 1D) were removed of the centerline of the bridge. This allowed the truck load to be
first after removal of the first pair of tendons, and only one crew of shared between the two arches. Similar to the truck, the movement
construction vehicles was present on the deck to remove this area. of the Cat 335F LCR excavator load was limited to the center of the
This limited the amount of load near the crown of the arch due to bridge for the barrier and the overhang removal, as this removal was
the heavy construction vehicles and thus helped to eliminate the completed by an all-terrain crane with a total weight less than the
overstress in the arch rib. excavator. However, the excavator was located over a given arch
The deck placement sequence generally followed the original rib during the removal of the interior deck portions. At the request
deck construction sequence. The deck removal sequence included of the contractor, a smaller Cat 308 excavator also was included
removal of two pairs of tendons on each side of the bridge. During in subsequent analyses to aid in removal of cut deck sections.
the deck placement sequence, MnDOT wanted to have the oppor- This excavator was centered over the given arch rib to assess the
tunity to inspect the removed pairs of tendons, and decide if all four worst-case loading for the arch. As discussed during the preliminary



uctural plate lar tru

str ve ss

de s ss
precast trian tru

Contech Engineered Solutions
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Figure 1. The initial deck removal sequence.

INCOMPARABLE REPUTA O sequence, the highest demand-capacity

ratio in the arch rib was observed after
removal of the first pair of tendons when
the equipment loads were enveloped
over the entire structure. During the
modified sequence, no construction
vehicular load was allowed on the deck
during the tendon removal operation to
prevent the overstress in the arch ribs
observed from the preliminary sequence.
$1$&(,QVWLWXWHFHUWLƮFDWLRQ During the deck placement sequence,
only the tri-axle truck load was used as a


LQGXVWU\WKHFRQƮGHQFHWKDW,KDYH A demand-capacity ratio exceeding 2.0
was observed in shear for the interior
WKHKLJKHVWOHYHORISURIHVVLRQDOLVP pier bearings (at the bases of the main
arches), after removal of deck area 2D
DQGFRPSHWHQF\ and 3D. This high level of overstress was
determined to be the result of the imbal-
t +)HUQDQGR6LDQLSDU1$&(&HUWLƮHG ance of dead load present on the side
CP Technologist, CP Level 2 & 3 spans without the deck on the majority
student, Corrosion Engineer of the main span. Additionally, once the
at PT Wilson Walton (Indonesia) deck in areas 2D and 3D was removed,
the heavy construction equipment
also moved to the side spans to begin
removal of areas 4D and 5D to further
increase the load imbalance on the side
NACE Career Development, your experts spans. This resulted in a high amount of
shear within the interior pier bearings dur-
ing construction (note that the bearings
Developed by Industry, normally exhibit relatively small amounts
of horizontal shear in the as-constructed
Globally Recognized. condition). The capacity of the bearings
is controlled by the capacity of a steel pin
connecting the arch rib bottom plate to
the sole plate. The pin is internal to the
bearing and is thereby inaccessible. Thus,
a strengthening measure was required which would allow the shear forces
to bypass the bearing altogether. This
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.... ..
.... ..

- ""
. '60' -20
10 30 70
• ==
=� '-

200·-o· I 1200'·0" I 120·-o· I 80'·0" I 120·-o· I 160'-o· I 160'·0"

Pier 2 Pier 3 Pier 4 Pier 5

Figure 2. The modified deck removal

sequence. Note how the deck areas were
reconfigured so that two bays at the crown of
the main arch were removed first after removal
of the first pair of tendons.

was done by means of a steel system

anchored to the concrete pedestal.
The strengthening measure consisted
of wide flange beams circumscribing the

arch rib bottom plate, and anchored to
the concrete pedestal in the longitudinal
direction of the bridge. This strengthen­
ing measure was pre-tensioned using
threaded bars and shimmed to bear
against the bottom plate of the arch rib. CRACK PRO MELTER/APPLICATORS HAVE
This ensured that any shear force from REVOLUTIONIZED THE CRACK FILLING INDUSTRY
the arch rib would be transferred to the
pedestal without any displacement occur­
• The Industry's Fastest Material Heating Time
ring within the existing bearing. This also
led to the strengthening being designed • State-of-the-Art Safety Innovations Including the Industry's
for the full applied load, conservatively Lowest Profile Design - Provides Maximum Operator Safety
assuming no sharing of load between
the strengthening and existing bearing. ZERO DOWN FINANCING FOR QUALIFIED BUYERS
Following construction, the strengthening
measures were adjusted to leave a small
gap between the arch base plate and
the strengthening, and left in place in the
final condition to serve as a catch system
should the existing pin ever fail.
At the location of the de-tensioning
device, the grout was exposed 8 ft
from the face of each adjacent column
face to inspect its quality and then the
tendon was jacked up (or down for the
lower tendons) to make room for the
de-tensioning clamp to be attached
to the tendon. A jacking force of
approximately 50 kips was required to
lift the tendon by about 10 in. Finally, Backed by the Industry's Largest Dealer Network
a hydraulic jack was used to release LOCATIONS NATIONWIDE (800) 395-7325
the force in the tendons which was View the full line of SealMaster equipment at

visually confirmed by displacement of

the strands. Once the strands were
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been placed on the structure. Moreover, the displacement and

strain measurements at different stages of construction matched
well with the FEA results, verifying the accuracy of the FE model.


As the results of the construction analyses showed, rehabilitation
can present a critical loading case for complex superstructures such
as the High Bridge. Detailed sequential analyses offer a means to
assess construction conditions and develop construction methods
to ensure that overstresses within the superstructure do not occur
during the construction process. The use of the CM/GC process
facilitated an effective and efficient means to develop a detailed
construction procedure for incorporating into the final plans and
match the sequence during construction. This process also greatly
simplified construction submission review processes from what
The tendons are encased in a 4-in.-diam. steel pipe grouted following final would normally be encountered for a project of this complexity. The
stressing of the tendons—which pass through the columns via pipe sleeves. bridge is now successfully open to traffic. R&B

displaced, indicating complete de-tensioning, the strands were cut Kettleson is with the Minnesota DOT.
and the tendon removed.
To date, the bridge deck has been replaced along with all For more information about this topic, check out the Bridges Channel at
prestressed tendons. The concrete barrier and overlay also has

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Joliet, Ill., battles JOLIET, ILL., WAS AT ONE TIME IDOT identified some additional loca-
A TRUE BLUECOLLAR CITY. tions of section loss and also identified
crumbling bridges, STEEL FABRICATION ECHOED some other areas where the bearings
had some issues. After the inspection
the I-80 span has been checked every
RIVER DWELLING … A CON three months.
By Bill Wilson, Editorial Director STANT BUZZ WAS IN THE AIR. “We had been working on repair
plans to this bridge,” Wilson told ROADS
Today that collar is badly faded and & BRIDGES. “Every three months we will
has a couple of noticeable stains on it, come out and take a look at the areas of
one being the I-80 bridge over the Des concern. Not the entire bridge, but the
Plaines River, specifically its westbound areas of concern.”
portion which received a bridge inspec- IDOT is planning on spending over
tion report full of engineering expletives $5 million in repairs on the westbound
a year ago, and still remains open to structure, where section loss can be
traffic today with a promise of repair seen on at least 10 sections of the steel
work in May. truss bridge, which was built in 1965.
Joliet has a total of five bridges At press time the agency was sending
crossing the Des Plaines River, and all the job out to bid. Repair work will entail
of them have lost significant strength replacing all of the bearings on the
over the years. The Ruby Street Bridge, approach spans as well as plating any
which carries S.R. 53, West Bridge areas of significant loss.
Street Bridge, Cass Street Bridge, “This did set off a lot of alarm bells
Jefferson Street Bridge, and the I-80 in Joliet from the people who travel
westbound and eastbound structures that bridge, and we have people
are all structurally deficient. Four of them living underneath it,” Joliet Mayor Bob
received a rating of 2 out of 9 in at least O’Dekirk told ROADS & BRIDGES. “This
one bridge inspection category over is a major bridge over the Des Plaines
the last year. The Ruby Street Bridge River, and we do know the road needs
received a 2 in the Deck Geometry serious improvement and the bridge
category, with inspectors tagging it needs serious improvement.”
“structurally intolerable” and a “high “[The spring fix] is fine, but what
priority for replacement.” The West Street does that do?” John Greuling, president
Bridge received identical marks, as did and CEO of the Will County Center for
the Jefferson Street Bridge, which also Economic Development, told ROADS &
received a 3 rating in the Structural BRIDGES. “Does it take it from a 2 to a 5,
Evaluation category marked “structurally or does it take it from a 2 to a 2.5? We are
intolerable.” But the most critical span is not getting that information [from IDOT].
the I-80 bridge, which is made up of two “We need [IDOT] to be responsive,”
spans that carry over 84,000 cars every Greuling continued. “We need them
day. The I-80 westbound bridge received to be telling us they got things under
a rating of 2 in the Superstructure and control, and to date we haven’t heard a
Structural Evaluation categories, with lot of that.”
the superstructure flagged in critical When asked about IDOT’s com-
condition which “may require closure.” munication strategy for the I-80 bridge,
The eastbound portion is in only slightly IDOT spokesman Guy Tridgell said
better health, receiving a 3 rating in the the agency has had “many individual
Structural Evaluation category. discussions with elected officials, local
According to Sarah Wilson, bureau media, and residents about the bridge
chief for bridge maintenance for the and our plans.”
Illinois DOT, District 1, the last full The weather also has been a serious
bridge inspection on the I-80 bridge factor this winter. The Chicagoland area
was conducted in April 2018, where experienced one of its coldest days on


often it stirs the wrong reaction. IDOT insists

that despite the critical condition of the I-80
bridge, the span is ultimately safe to cross.
“The in-depth, detailed inspection
performed by IDOT last year identified less
than a dozen such locations out of more
than 1,000 on the bridge that warranted
the rating,” Tridgell said in an email. “Our
experienced staff determined that, with a
special three-month follow-up inspection
that reviewed those particular locations,
combined with a plan for repairs in 2019,
the bridge could safely remain in place.”
Revamping the I-80 corridor, or parts
of it, in Illinois has been talked about for
years. Greuling said as far as the I-80 bridge
goes, the focus was on safety, not structural
integrity. Poor merging areas and the amount
of truck traffic makes traveling over the span
an everyday hazard. IDOT is proposing a $1
billion I-80 fix, which covers a stretch in Will
County and includes a total replacement
of the I-80 bridge, and will contain enough
money to rebuild interchanges, bridges,
replace some pavement, and in some cases
add capacity in the form of acceleration and
deceleration lanes. A much bigger proposal
that would extend the project further east to
I-294 near the Indiana border also has been
floated, but would require buy-in from the
Illinois Tollway or a public-private partnership.
Funding for road and bridge improve-
The I-80 bridge crossing the Des Plaines River in Joliet, Ill., carries over 84,000 vehicles every day. The I-80 westbound
structure received a rating of 2 in the Superstructure and Structural Evaluation categories, with the superstructure flagged in ments continues to be at a low point in
critical condition. The eastbound portion is in “better” health, receiving a 3 rating in the Structural Evaluation category. the state of Illinois. There has not been a
major capital bill in a decade, and the gas
tax has not been increased in more than a
record on Jan. 30 when the temperature bearings aren’t free to move, it puts stress decade. Legislators introduced a bill that
dropped to -23°F and wind chill values more on the bridge.” would fund a pilot project for a mileage-
than doubled that number. Bitter cold days based charging system, but it never got
have been followed up by mild days where ADVERTISING IT TO EVERYBODY off the ground in Springfield. At press time
it has reached the low 50s. Putting stress on IDOT are a number of the Illinois Senate added an amendment to
Officials believe weather might have community groups, including the I-80 Senate Bill 103 that would double the state
played a role in a structural failure on a Coalition, which Greuling helped form, and gas tax to 38 cents a gallon.
bridge on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago just Local 150, which bought ad space on an “If the governor came to me today and
12 days after the polar vortex struck the electronic billboard near the I-80 bridge said we can’t give you the billion right now,
area. Crews spotted at least two cracked warning drivers they were about to cross a but I could come up with $300 million—
steel beams, and the city closed the bridge dangerous bridge. where do you want to spend it, I would say
for repairs. “It looks like an actual warning,” said do the [I-80] bridges and the interchanges
“I don’t think there is any one cause Greuling. “If you are Joe Sunday driving his on each end. If we are going to do it in
for what happened out there but certainly family east to west through Joliet and see pieces that has to be the next piece,”
the temperature swing was part of it,” said that, maybe you are thinking you should noted Greuling. R&B
Wilson, who oversees all state-owned turn around. It certainly makes my life miser-
bridges in Cook County, including Chicago. able trying to recruit business here.”
“It puts stress on the bridge to have to However, when language like “structur- For more information about this topic, check out
expand and contract that much, and if the ally intolerable” is leaked to the public, the Bridges Channel at


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A unique solution to a common pothole problem could be a real game-changer

By Ben C. Cox, Webster C. Floyd, John F. Rushing and Craig A. Rutland, Contributing Authors

FEW THINGS FRUSTRATE THE standpoint, potholes tend to appear more U.S. Air Force (USAF) has developed iHMA,
AVERAGE MOTORIST MORE THAN frequently during cold weather seasons a new inductive hot-mix asphalt material
UNREPAIRED POTHOLES. when hot-mix asphalt (HMA) cannot be that can be rapidly heated on-site and on
easily obtained because asphalt plants are demand. This technology offers agencies
They often require drivers to slow down shut down. Instead, repair crews typically the ability to easily perform hot-mix repairs
and steer around them or risk damage to turn to cold-mix asphalt (CMA) for pothole even during the construction off-season
the driver’s vehicle; even mild potholes still patching. While there are many types of when plants are not running.
remain a nuisance to drivers (think spilled CMA patching materials, ranging from plant-
coffee on the morning commute). Potholes produced cold mix that is stockpiled until DEFINING THE PROBLEM
certainly affect public perception of the needed to small buckets of proprietary cold Considering iHMA was developed to meet
state of an agency’s road network. This is mixes, CMA simply does not compare to a need for the USAF, it is beneficial to
reflected by the fact that potholes have the hot mix that was used to pave the road describe the scenarios and problems the
increasingly received coverage in the local in the first place. CMA repairs are generally USAF faces that are relevant to asphalt
news—even one of the nation’s major pizza viewed as temporary, and unfortunately, it patching. Air superiority is a foundation of
chains is devoting media time to the issue is usually only a matter of time before the the U.S. military’s concept of operations;
(we’ve all seen the commercials, right?). pothole returns. thus, airfield pavements are a critical
Because of these vehicle damage and Now, CMA does not have to be the only asset in this strategy. If damaged, quickly
nuisance factors, many agencies constantly answer for winter pothole repairs. Work per- restoring the airfield to an operational
field complaints regarding potholes. formed at the U.S. Army Engineer Research state is of paramount importance, meaning
Unfortunately from an asphalt materials and Development Center (ERDC) for the quality repairs must be performed rapidly,


often on demand with little notice, and it is available. Because HMA is not avail-
often in remote locations where HMA is able in the construction off-season, CMA
not available. is most commonly used. While it is broadly
Additionally, USAF airfield pavements accepted that CMA patching is normally
are subjected to the extreme loading only a temporary solution, it meets the
conditions of military aircraft including objective of maintaining safety and reason-
heavy cargo aircraft and fighter jets. For able ride quality, even if only for a short sea-
example, the F-15 Eagle fighter jet has a son. This approach accepts that potholes
single wheel load over 35,000 lb, but, at will most likely need to be re-repaired with
325 psi, its extremely high tire pressure is HMA once the weather warms.
even more notable. This combination yields The additional cost of repeat repair activi-
a significant contact pressure, and as a ties has meaningful economic implications. A number of potholes were produced in an existing
result, the F-15E is particularly damaging to For example, materials costs are typically pavement test section at the outdoor pavements test
asphalt pavements. low relative to other patching-related costs facility at ERDC; these were saw-cut to approximately
2 ft square and were about 4 in. deep. Patch repairs
Because these airfield patches must be such as labor, equipment and traffic control. were performed with iHMA, an HMA control and a CMA
ready for traffic soon after placement and Agency surveys and other control (three replicates for each material).
capable of withstanding punishing loads, research have shown that
there are challenges with CMA materials. investing in higher-quality
Most CMA materials utilize cutback asphalt materials (like HMA if it is avail-
binders to provide workability at ambient able) on the front end makes
temperatures; however, this in turn requires economic sense if repeat
time for solvents to evaporate for the mix repairs can be reduced.
to cure and gain stability. Unfortunately for In both cases, for either
CMA, the tempo of USAF repairs typically military airfields or civilian
does not permit lengthy cure times. In addi- road networks, HMA is the
tion to curing issues, CMA gradations are ultimate answer for long-
typically not densely graded and are geared lasting patches. The final
towards promoting workability during place- obstacle standing in the way
ment. This factor becomes important under of widespread HMA use for
aircraft load. patching is the inability to
Over the last decade or so, over 20 obtain it during cold seasons
different CMA materials, mostly proprietary or remote locations. Heating
formulations, have been tested at ERDC for metal buckets of pre-
the USAF. The target criteria for an accept- packaged plant mix asphalt
able patching material is to begin trafficking in convection ovens is an
two hours after placement and withstand 100 option, though not a practical
passes of an F-15E (typically applied using one considering several hours
a full-scale vehicle load simulator) with 25 are required to heat it to
mm (1 in.) or less of total rutting. Under these compaction temperatures. To
conditions, a typical proprietary cutback be useful in these situations,
CMA only survives one pass, while newer the ability to heat asphalt-mix
water-activated proprietary CMAs have sur- to hot-mix temperatures very
vived two to eight passes. In contrast to most quickly is needed.
reasonable HMA mixes which will meet the
rutting criteria, all CMAs evaluated previously INNOVATING
fall well short of the 100-pass requirement. A SOLUTION
But what about highways and roads To answer the call for a
that will never face the extreme load of an rapid-heating HMA material,
aircraft? Even for these more conventional researchers at ERDC set out
pavements, research studies and practice to develop a mix that could
manuals contend that HMA is preferable be heated through induction
over CMA in most every scenario, assuming heating instead of standard


conduction heating. The objective was to Market research into suitable conductive dense gradation using 15% steel aggregate
design a material such that a 5-gal bucket materials led to the use of different types and other typical aggregates (e.g., crushed
could be heated to 300+°F in about five of steel shot blasting abrasives. These gravel, limestone, coarse sand). A standard
minutes. This material also must satisfy the materials were conductive, available in bulk Superpave design process was followed
F-15E rutting requirements used previously. in typical aggregate sizes and shapes, and that resulted in a 5.0% asphalt content
The end result of this research effort is iHMA, could be used as a substitute for a portion using PG 67-22 binder. For full-scale
a patent-pending inductive HMA material. of mineral aggregate in an asphalt mix. testing, 5-gal batches were mixed in the
Induction heating technology is used Based on a laboratory evaluation of various laboratory and placed in containers; these
in many applications (an induction stove steel aggregate materials in the No. 4 to No. prepackaged containers were then ready
cooktop is likely a familiar example to most 200 fine aggregate size range, two steel for full-scale field use.
individuals). A typical induction system aggregate materials were ultimately selected While material development was taking
works by alternating current flowing through based on their cubical or angular shape. place, the team also began prototyping an
an induction coil, which creates an elec- Varying steel aggregate contents induction heater system for field use. This
tromagnetic field. This field then induces were explored, but a 15% steel content system consisted of an air cargo logistics
electrical current in any conductive materi- was ultimately used in order to obtain the container that met transportation require-
als located within the coil, generating heat. desired rapid-heating characteristics. In ments for the USAF and housed all the
In order to make use of this technology laboratory-scale testing of 1-gal batches, the required components. The container could
for asphalt, conductive materials must be target temperature of 300°F was achieved be loaded into a cargo aircraft for long-dis-
incorporated into the asphalt mix, effectively with just 3.5 minutes of heating time, and tance transport or simply placed on a trailer
enabling the mix to heat from the “inside temperatures over 450°F were reached for for moving between repair locations. The
out” rather than the “outside in” like most some steel aggregate combinations. This container housed an induction heater and
conduction heating. provided assurance that the iHMA concept coil in which a 5-gal bucket of iHMA could be
The goal for incorporating a conductive could be successful at full scale. inserted, and it also contained a generator
material was to substitute steel particles for Aside from the ability to rapidly heat as a power source and a water-cooled heat
mineral aggregates for heating purposes iHMA, it was necessary to ensure an integ- exchanger to prevent the coil from overheat-
without negatively impacting the stability that rity mix could be designed including the ing. The induction coil was entirely enclosed,
typical crushed aggregates provide a mix. steel aggregate. iHMA was designed with a minimizing safety risks to the operator.


The ultimate test for the iHMA
concept, both the iHMA mix and
the prototype field induction
heater, was to validate it at full
scale in the field. This was of key
importance for the USAF because
pavement patching materials must
demonstrate the ability to pass
the full-scale F-15E load simulator
before being certified for live flight
operations given the high stakes
associated with risking damage
to a multimillion-dollar aircraft, not
to mention pilot safety concerns.
In addition, field testing was
conducted in January when air
temperatures ranged from 12°F to
32°F (a very cold day for Missis-
sippi). This aspect provided validity
to the idea that iHMA could be
used in winter when conventional
HMA would not be available.
When damaged, quickly restoring airfield pavements to an operational state is of paramount importance, meaning quality repairs must A number of potholes were
be performed rapidly, often on demand with little notice, and often in remote locations where HMA is not available. produced in an existing pavement



test section at the outdoor pavements test buckets heated with this protocol generally Overall, the concept of iHMA appears
facility at ERDC; these were saw-cut to reached around 320°F, demonstrating that promising. It demonstrated the ability to
approximately 2 ft square and were about 4 the iHMA mixture successfully scaled up withstand USAF traffic requirements and
in. deep. Repairs were made in two lifts, with from the smaller laboratory tests to reason- has potential for use in other more conven-
each lift being compacted by a vibratory plate able 5-gal batch sizes. iHMA also remained tional patching applications such as pothole
compactor. Patch repairs were performed sufficiently hot for some time (e.g., more patching. Relative to CMA or conventional
with iHMA, an HMA control and a CMA than 15 minutes) which provides flexibility HMA, positive attributes of iHMA in this
control (three replicates for each material). to the repair crew and also allows multiple case include:
The HMA control material was typical containers to be heated and used for a
plant-mixed asphalt used in Mississippi and single repair if needed. • iHMA is pre-packaged and stored in
heated to 300°F in metal buckets before Two hours after the repairs were com- any location for on-demand use;
use. The CMA control material was a water- pleted, they were trafficked with a full-scale • iHMA has nearly unlimited shelf life
activated proprietary cold-mix product. It F-15E load vehicle for 100 passes, and rut unlike most CMAs;
was placed following manufacturer direc- depths were monitored throughout the • iHMA does not need to cure like
tions, which included pouring water over process. Results showed that iHMA and conventional CMA;
the patch to activate the curing reaction. conventional HMA exhibited comparable • iHMA can be designed like a con-
The iHMA material was heated one rutting resistance with both accumulating ventional HMA (e.g., binder grade,
bucket at a time in the field induction heater approximately 1 in. of rutting after 100 gradation, etc.); and
as follows. First, each iHMA bucket was passes. Both hot mixes significantly outlasted • iHMA is not limited by ambient
lowered into the induction coil. With every- the proprietary cold mix, which exceeded 1 temperature or season like conven-
thing powered on, the operator selects the in. of rutting after only eight passes. This trial tional HMA.
duration of heating (five minutes was used was considered successful at demonstrating
in this case) and simply presses the start that the iHMA mix could be designed with With proof that this methodology is
button. Similar to a household microwave, unconventional steel aggregates while effective, work is ongoing to continue
the heater runs for the set time then turns maintaining stability comparable to other investigating different mix design possibili-
off, and the bucket is ready for use. iHMA conventional HMA mixes. ties. Efforts also are underway to further
evaluate iHMA performance,
particularly long-term perfor-
mance over time. While more
sophisticated than the common
“throw-and-roll” approach to
patching potholes with cold mix,
iHMA potentially has application in
pavement maintenance organiza-
tions, enabling the “fix it right the
first time” mentality to be applied
in practice. R&B

Cox, Floyd, and Rushing are research

civil engineers at the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers Engineer Research and
Development Center in Vicksburg, Miss.
Rutland is a pavements engineer at the
U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center at
Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. Permission
to publish was granted by the Director,
Geotechnical and Structures Labora-
tory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and
Development Center.

For more information about this topic,

An inductive hot-mix asphalt (iHMA) material turned out to be the solution for a rapid-heating HMA material ERDC researchers set out check out the Roads Channel at
to develop in order to create long-lasting patches on airfield pavements.



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A design-build solution replaces an 82-year-
old bridge in the rugged Cascade Mountains
of Washington—in just 17 days

By Richard Patterson, Contributing Author


THE CASCADE MOUNTAIN RANGE RUNS FROM the fabricator’s plant, before construction began. This allowed
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA INTO BRITISH COLUMBIA, demolition of the bridge and installation of the arch structure
CANADA, DIVIDING THE STATE OF WASHINGTON in just 17 days. What’s more, the new design shaved approxi-
mately $4 million off the project’s $12 million budget.
From the beginning, this project focused on minimizing
Western Washington is home to the lush greenery and impacts to the public and the environment. To make the most
moody skies of Puget Sound, including the surging Seattle of the time savings allowed by the precast culvert solution,
metropolitan area—mocha lattes and Microsoft; shipyards and the team decided to forego WSDOT’s planned temporary
757s. Beyond that lie Washington’s picturesque coastline and bridge in favor of a full road closure, eliminating the time and
barrier islands. expense of detour bridge construction. To determine just how
Eastern Washington’s landscape could not be more differ- long the road would need to be closed, the team built a highly
ent—from high desert hydropower along the Columbia River detailed, hour-by-hour schedule that penciled out to 17 days of
to the rolling hills of the region’s renowned vineyards. Much round-the-clock construction.
drier, the state’s interior enjoys endless days of sunshine. The
climates of these two areas are certainly distinct. But Wash-
ingtonians on both sides of the divide have many key things in
common. Among them, love of the outdoors and appreciation
for the Evergreen State’s diverse natural beauty—and a need
to get from one side of the state to the other. Because there
are only three major routes that cross the Cascades, this can
be a challenge, particularly in winter.
U.S. Highway 12 is the southernmost route across the
mountains via White Pass. The route connects I-5 to Yakima,
the largest city in central Washington. Known also as the
White Pass Scenic Byway, U.S. 12 and its adjacent public lands
provide access to world-class recreation at Mount Rainer
National Park, Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument,
and the White Pass Ski Area. And, unlike I-90’s Snoqualmie
Pass, White Pass rarely closes for heavy snow, which makes
the route popular with truckers.
After 80 years in service, Wildcat Creek Bridge, a critical
piece of infrastructure on U.S. 12, had begun to show its age.
Originally constructed in 1936, the bridge services an average
volume of 2,100 vehicles per day. Following repeated repairs,
including patching holes as large as 3 ft by 3 ft that penetrated
the bridge’s 6-in.-thick deck, the Washington State DOT
(WSDOT) prioritized the bridge for replacement by the end
of 2018 with a design and construction budget of $12 million.
WSDOT’s preliminary design entailed four to five months of
construction and required construction of a temporary bridge.


WSDOT selected the design-build team of Graham Contracting
and Stantec to deliver this high-priority, fast-tracked project,
challenging the team to devise a solution to accelerate
construction in order to minimize traffic, community, and envi-
ronmental impacts on this critical route. The team developed
an innovative approach to quickly replace the 150-ft span.
The new design centered around a 54-ft precast arch culvert
structure rather than the standard WSDOT girder bridge.
Fabricated off-site and trucked in, this solution eliminated
the need for custom forms and additional cast-in-place
elements, including foundations, retaining walls, and traffic The arch structure eliminates the need for expansion joints and costly associated
maintenance. Arch structures are far more durable than traditional girder bridges,
barriers—all of which require weeks for concrete to cure providing longevity with low life-cycle costs, and off-site fabrication allows for better
on-site. With the precast culvert, the curing time occurred at quality control and tighter adherence to specifications.


Although the design required complete closure of U.S. 12, elements than hauling in the materials required to perform cast-in-
WSDOT and stakeholders, including the trucking association, place construction, reducing the carbon footprint of the project.
residents and local businesses, environmental regulatory agen- In addition, with smaller footings than a conventional bridge,
cies, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and Yakima temporary creek bypass time was decreased, reducing settlement,
County, gladly traded months of construction impacts for this brief contamination and impacts to Wildcat Creek, and by eliminating
closure. The new, 17-day construc- the temporary bridge, the team
tion window cut inconvenience to minimized in-water work and spared
the traveling public and residents “THE EFFECTS OF BOTTLENECKS many of the trees and vegetation
by 80% and eliminated the safety ON ONE OF OUR STATE’S MAJOR slated for removal during construc-
concerns and expense associated tion. The large concrete culvert also
with managing live traffic adjacent TRANSIT ROUTES CAN’T BE continues to provide passage for fish
to the project. QUANTIFIED. THAT’S THE VALUE OF and wildlife in this remote location.
FUNCTIONAL TRANSPORTATION While the immediate economic
BENEFITS APLENTY and environmental benefits of
To further ease the burden, the team AND INFRASTRUCTURE.” eliminating the detour bridge and
worked with Yakima County officials  KEVIN MCCARTHY, shortening construction time are
and other stakeholders to develop WHITE PASS SKI AREA obvious, there also are long-term
a detour based on a route that was economic advantages to the precast
successfully used on a WSDOT culvert design. Arch structures are
project during the summer of 2017 and familiar to the public. far more durable than traditional girder bridges, providing longevity
By drastically reducing the construction timeframe and eliminat- with low life-cycle costs, and off-site fabrication allows for better
ing the temporary detour bridge structure, the new design also quality control and tighter adherence to specifications.
reduced impacts to the environment, including an adjacent spotted The arch structure eliminates the need for expansion joints and
owl habitat. Further, off-site fabrication used fewer materials and costly associated maintenance. It also eliminates the maintenance
produced less waste than on-site construction techniques. It also of exposed bridge decks and bridge deck deicing due to the
required far fewer trucks to transport the precast arch and other continuity of pavement over the buried arch structure. The new


The new design for the Wildcat
Creek Bridge centered around
a 54-ft precast arch culvert
structure rather than the
standard WSDOT girder bridge.
Demolition of the old bridge
and installation of the arch
structure took just 17 days.
The new design shaved off
$4 million from the project’s
$12 million budget. The
new structure adds stability,
maintains natural hydrology,
and complements local and
regional aesthetics.

Wildcat Creek Bridge will require

fewer inspections, significantly reduc-
ing operations and maintenance costs
over the life of the structure.
species, while improving the aesthetics of the crossing. Kevin McCarthy,
SEQUENCING general manager of White Pass Ski Area, spoke at the grand opening
While Stantec’s design solution was simple and elegant, the logistics ceremony for the new bridge, thanking WSDOT and the design-build
of installation in a remote location on a tight time frame were quite team for their efforts to maintain a reliable route across the pass.
complex. Sequencing was perhaps the biggest project risk. It took “The effects of bottlenecks on one of our state’s major transit
careful planning to bring all the parts and pieces together in the routes can’t be quantified. That’s the value of functional transporta-
correct progression—any variation in the progression could have tion and infrastructure,” McCarthy said. “In Washington, cross-state
thrown the entire schedule offtrack. travel depends on our mountain passes. I used to say my job is
This detailed preparation paid off. U.S. 12 reopened to traffic on easy—just add snow. But, I’ve come to realize there is one other
Oct. 8, 2018—four hours ahead of schedule and well before the first critical component—access. All the snow in the world doesn’t do me
snowfall, restoring a safe, reliable winter route across the Cascades a bit of good if people can’t access the resort.”
and meeting WSDOT’s project goals. The new arch structure adds stability, maintains natural hydrology
“WSDOT is pleased with the results of this bridge replacement and fish habitat, and complements local and regional aesthetics. It
project,” said WSDOT Project Engineer Scott Golbek. “This is the also brings value to the engineering profession by adding a new tool
first design-build administered project for the South-Central Region. to the toolbox—a design solution that can be replicated for future
The goals established for this project, including minimizing impacts, projects, including fish barrier replacement projects. R&B
collaboration and environmental compliance, have all been success-
fully met. We look forward to future design-build project partnerships
in Washington.” Patterson is a senior associate in Stantec’s Bellevue, Wash., office.
The project has received praise from stakeholders and the com-
munity alike, who have publicly commended the team for installing the For more information about this topic, check out the Bridges Channel at
new structure quickly and with minimal impacts to traffic and protected


Implementing UAV
applications at the
Michigan DOT


By Colin Brooks, Richard Dobson and David Banach, Contributing Authors



One agency of interest was the

Michigan DOT (MDOT). MDOT began to
use UAS for bridge inspections, confined
space inspections and traffic monitoring.
Steve Cook, P.E., engineer of opera-
tions and maintenance at MDOT, had
been working with Colin Brooks of the
Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI)
to determine how these tools could
most effectively be used. With the rapid
advancements in UAS rules, technology
and sensors, MDOT and MTRI have The Michigan DOT has been using UAS for bridge inspections, confined space inspections and traffic monitoring. Due to the
widespread interest in using UAS for both commercial and recreational purposes, the FAA has been updating regulations.
continued to investigate even further how
these platforms and sensors can be imple-
mented into department procedures.
Due to the widespread interest in using investigating how UAS could be imple- the high-resolution optical imagery was
UAS for both commercial and recreational mented within the agency. A request for processed into a 3-D digital elevation
purposes, the Federal Aviation Administra- proposal for a two-year Phase Two research model. A custom-made spall detection algo-
tion (FAA) has been updating regulations. At project on how UAS could be implemented rithm was created for MDOT that used the
the time of the aforementioned September into infrastructure assessments was 3-D model and user input to automatically
2015 article, the FAA required all commer- released, with MTRI’s bid being selected detect and quantify spalls on the bridge
cial UAS operators to obtain a Section 333 again. By the end of the second phase, deck. Likewise, for delamination detection a
exemption and/or a certificate of autho- five bridges, three road corridors, and one custom-made algorithm was created, using
rization (COA). Since then, the FAA has construction site all had been imaged using the merged thermal imagery of the bridge
adopted the Part 107 Remote Pilot License UAS with optical and thermal technolo- deck to detect and quantify delaminations.
certification. Now, any individual who gies. Additionally, various-sized platforms, A comparison between traditional manual
wishes to pilot a UAS is required to take such as smaller-sized DJI Mavic Pro and (hammer sounding and chain dragging) and
the Remote Pilot Knowledge Test to gain DJI Phantom 3 Advanced, and larger- automatic UAS delamination detection also
a Remote Pilot License, permitting flights sized Bergen Hexacopters and a Bergen was conducted. Traditional manual methods
in certain airspaces. The September 2015 Quad-8 UAS, were used to make multiple detected delaminations at a coarser scale,
coverage also mentioned concern of public flights over the transportation assets. The whereas UAS were able to detect the
perception of UAS, but since then many smaller-sized platforms typically flew for a distresses at a finer scale, often outlining
agencies and businesses have incorporated maximum of 20 minutes and provided quick the exact boundaries of the features.
UAS into their programs. Additionally, to overviews—notably in hard-to-access areas. During Phase One, a traffic monitoring
assist in minimizing traffic disruptions due to The larger-sized platforms typically flew for blimp was flown along a highway corridor
roadside drone use, some DOTs have even 15 minutes, but were able to carry heavier to live-stream video imagery of traffic.
started using notification signs indicating payloads up to 10 lb. However, further testing indicated that the
such operations. As with the first phase, UAS-based blimp was not properly suited for high wind
bridge deck assessments proved success- events. Therefore, for Phase Two the DJI
PLANNING THE NEXT FLIGHT ful, as both optical and thermal imagery Mavic Pro with onboard optical camera
With the success of the initial UAS were able to detect spalls and delamina- was used to monitor traffic. Using the UAS
project, MDOT was interested in further tions, respectively. For spall detection, proved more useful than the blimp due to


its stability and ability to be flown along STORING AND VIEWING DATA
the corridor as compared to a stationary Several different types of data transfer
blimp. Michigan Tech developed a custom sites were investigated and tested during
program for MDOT that automatically the course of the project to find a solution
quantified the traffic count, traffic flow and to quickly upload, provide access for,
speed of the vehicles. and distribute the UAS-collected data to
Michigan Tech also used UAS to image multiple MDOT users. A final cloud-storage
an active construction site, collecting software setup was selected to allow
optical imagery of an aggregate pile. A Michigan Tech and MDOT to collaborate
different company also imaged the site and transfer files easily. The system also
using a high-resolution light detection allowed MDOT to directly upload the data
and ranging (LiDAR) system. The optical from the cloud into its own databases.
imagery of the pile was reconstructed as The advantages of this solution included a
a 3-D model in which volumetric measure- unique credential (ID/password) for each
ments were made and compared to the user, a full audit trail and a data backup
LiDAR measurements. Results showed that mechanism stored within the secure cloud.
The Michigan Tech team recommended that MDOT use data the optical imagery quantification was com- System managers also could quickly
captured by UAS to ingest into element-level data models
of bridge surface damage elements. The purpose of these parable to the LiDAR measurements. This identify any changes to the files or the
cost-benefit models was to attach data structures that shows that high-resolution optical imagery cloud performed by the users.
reflect the age of the bridge surface, the point in time the could potentially be used by MDOT in the To ensure that the cost of using UAS
element is captured and its progression through the bridge
life cycle. This process can help optimize the cost of bridge future to measure the change in volume at to assess bridge deck conditions did not
maintenance and rehabilitation. active construction sites. outweigh the benefits, a cost-benefit model



June 10-12

Returning to the
Nation’s Capital Region

Since 1984, sponsored by the Engineers’ Society of Western Pennsylvania

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was developed to compare the overall elements. The purpose of these cost-benefit of the assessed bridge condition. In turn,
economies of the two comparable tradi- models was to attach data structures that this can help optimize the cost of bridge
tional manual techniques to UAS. While the reflect the age of the bridge surface, the maintenance and rehabilitation.
traditional methods are simple to use, eco- point in time the element is captured, and
nomical, and hence a widely adopted NDT its progression through the bridge life cycle. FUTURE FLIGHTS
This applied research project enabled
the continued testing and demonstration
of multiple UAS platforms and sensors for
WITH THE RAPID ADVANCEMENTS IN UAS RULES, infrastructure needs. UAS-based sens-
TECHNOLOGY AND SENSORS, MDOT AND MTRI ing has become more practical with the
release of the updated FAA regulations.
HAVE CONTINUED TO INVESTIGATE EVEN FURTHER The resulting data products showed the
HOW THESE PLATFORMS AND SENSORS CAN BE ability to rapidly and accurately detect
IMPLEMENTED INTO DEPARTMENT PROCEDURES. bridge deck surface and subsurface condi-
tion issues using UAV-collected imagery,
how a construction site could be quickly
imaged to include aggregate quantities,
technique for inspection of bridge decks, This can be very useful in further improving and how small UAVs can be used to
distress data from these methods can be bridge deterioration models as a function evaluate traffic conditions. Improvements
subjective and variable. The Michigan Tech of how individual distresses behave over to the collection, processing and visualiza-
team recommended that MDOT use data time, providing a baseline for assessing the tion of data originally developed under the
captured by UAS to ingest into element- quality of data captured in NDT techniques, first phase of this project were enabled
level data models of bridge surface damage and improving the accuracy and precision throughout the secondary phase, including

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improved spall detection and delamination U.S. 31 bridge deck time comparison
detection software tools.
UAS-based bridge deck assessments proved successful as both
UAS have the potential to collect critical optical and thermal imagery were able to detect spalls and
data inexpensively and accurately. As delaminations, respectively.
compared to the first phase of this project,
the number, types, and resolutions of
platforms and sensors available for practical
deployment have changed dramatically, as
well has the number of people using UAS
for research and operational purposes.
Future flights are needed to make these
applications and workflows part of day-
to-day usage for MDOT, especially under
developing federal rules that are increasing
the practical deployment of UAS. R&B

Brooks and Dobson are with Michigan Technologi-

cal University. Banach is with the Michigan Tech
Research Institute.

For more information about this topic, visit

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Field study watches how asphalt ages in southern U.S. climate
By Isaac L. Howard and Rabeea Bazuhair, Contributing Authors

THIS ARTICLE SUMMARIZES KEY FINDINGS FROM A Laboratory’s SERRI program. The purpose of originally building the full-
LONGERTERM AGING EXPERIMENT IN MISSISSIPPI THAT scale test sections was to prove the concept that asphalt paving could
IS A PARTNERSHIP OF APACMISSISSIPPI, ERGON be more effectively used in response to disasters such as hurricanes
where power and infrastructure are often lost for a period of days to
weeks over a widespread area. The original study utilized warm-mix
MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY CONSTRUCTION MATERI technology (WMT) to show that haul distances easily exceeding six
ALS RESEARCH CENTER CMRC. hours could facilitate producing asphalt far from the disaster where
power and infrastructure were not damaged, and effectively using
Experiments began in November 2011 and are expected to that material for paving the way into the disaster zone so that all other
continue until at least November 2021. Figure 1 provides several essential functions that make use of a functional path into the area can
photographs of the outdoor aging site, which is located in Columbus, be less affected than in previous disasters. Once the emergency paving
Miss. The overall goal of this partnership is to better understand how research and demonstration had successfully completed, the Figure
modern asphalt mixtures age in the southeastern U.S. climate and 1 parking lot had been paved with 12 strips of asphalt with different
to develop laboratory conditioning methods and tools to reasonably WMTs, different haul times, and compacted to different air void levels.
replicate a few years of aging in this climate. To date, over 5,000 Within days of completing the emergency paving demonstration,
mixture specimens have been tested alongside hundreds of measure- some participants began discussing the value of this as a longer-term
ments on recovered asphalt binder; multiple mixtures, binder sources aging site, especially since raw materials such as binder had been
and binder grades have been included in the study. individually sampled during paving. These plans materialized quickly,
and specimens began to be extracted from the parking lot (cores and
EMERGENCY RESPONSE? slabs) for unaged assessments (November 2011). These unaged speci-
Plans for this test section began well before 2011, and the site was mens have been evaluated relative to specimens aged over time at
originally used as part of an emergency paving demonstration for the test section, with most assessments being on specimens extracted
the Department of Homeland Security through Oak Ridge National from the section on a yearly recurring basis so they have received full



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Figure 1. Photographs of field aging experiments. yearly weather cycles (e.g., three years, four years; not 3.5 years or 4.6 years).
Beginning in November 2012, gyratory-compacted specimens of a variety of
additional mixtures began to be placed onto the test section in plastic sleeves.


One of the major findings to date is the need to use combined effects damage
mechanisms during laboratory conditioning to simulate longer-term aging in Mis-
sissippi. Table 1 shows several attempts to replicate the aging experienced in the
field with laboratory protocols, and that the only manner that could consistently
replicate longer lives was the one where oxidation (oven), moisture (64°C water)
and expansion (freeze-thaw) mechanisms were present. Note that the first row of
Table 1 is AASHTO R30, which is a current national standard method that did not
simulate the duration of time claimed in the method (seven to 10 years).
Another major finding to date is that pressure-aging vessel (PAV) conditioning
of binders via AASHTO R28 has used 20 hours of PAV time for several years
under the premise that this would simulate five to 10 years of binder aging. Five
combinations were evaluated in the field where corresponding raw binders were
PAV-aged in the lab for up to 80 hours. The main finding was that only one of
these five cases showed PAV conditioning for 20 hours actually simulating five
years of field aging (less than five years was simulated in the remaining cases).
When this finding is combined with Table 1, the overall assessment of the Colum-
bus, Miss., experiment to date is that national laboratory conditioning protocols
are not simulating as much field aging as one might expect at this location.


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EVERYTHING COMBINED Table 1. Simulation of Field Aging With Laboratory Protocols
Future efforts are planned to look more into combined effects labora-
tory conditioning and actual field temperature/moisture conditions. LABORATORY CONDITIONING YEARS OF FIELD AGING SIMULATED
Examples could include other combinations to complement Table 1 Oven 64°C Water Freeze-Thaw WMT Mixes AFB Mixes Cores
(perhaps more expedient combinations) that include oxidative, moisture 5 days at 85°C - - 1 to 2 3 0 to 2
and freezing mechanisms to replicate a few years of service in the
28 days at 60°C - - 0 to 2 2 0 to 2
Mississippi climate. Also, work is ongoing to improve understanding of
- 14 days - 3 to 5 No Data 2 to 3
the combined effects mechanisms actually occurring at the test section.
Figure 1 shows a core drilled absent water (a moisture gradient is easily - 14 days 1 cycle 1 to 3 4 3
visible) and probes measuring temperature as a function of pavement - 14 days 2 cycles 2 to 3 5 2 to 4
depth in the laboratory compacted specimens and test strips. Plans - 28 days - 1 to 3 4 3 to 5
are ongoing to measure temperature and moisture properties over an
5 days at 85°C 14 days 1 cycle 4 to 6 7 4 to 5
approximately one-year period and interpret this data to shed more
light on improved manners to simulate combined effects in the labora-
tory. Data collected to date already has shown moisture contents in the Hansen, Michael Hemsley, Trey Jordan, Alex Middleton, Drew
parking lot test strips varying from 1.1% to 4.8%, and when combined Moore, Brent Payne, Carl Pittman and Braden Smith.
with daily or seasonal temperature changes the impact of these values
on time-dependent property changes is not fully understood. R&B
Howard is Materials and Construction Industries Chair at Mississippi State
Acknowledgements: This study would not be possible without the University. Bazuhair is a Ph.D. candidate at Mississippi State University.
support of the aforementioned partners and direct assistance of the
following individuals: Gaylon Baumgardner, Michael Bogue, Dwayne For more information about this topic, check out the Roads Channel at
Boyd, Ben Cox, Codrin Daranga, Scott Glusenkamp, Bradley

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4/EU Stage IV machine brackets and mounts, and universal jumpers to integrate any industry solution into
John Deere 9.0-liter engine with 265 hp. Contractors will each dozer. This allows Case dozers to be deployed, straight from the dealer, into any fleet-
quickly realize that the efficiently designed hydrostatic wide precision or machine-control solution an owner/operator/contractor may deploy on their
powertrain will get approximately 15% more power to worksites. It also helps improve retained and resale value, as that Case dozer will be compat-
the ground versus a conventional torque-converter pow- ible with any solution during resale into its second or third operational lifespan. It also provides
ertrain. Available in standard and low ground pressure customers the peace of mind and flexibility to prepare their dozer for retrofit of precision
configurations, this dual-path hydrostatic transmission solutions after the purchase, without having to change mounting points or wiring harnesses on
allows an operator to push a full load through turns with- the dozer depending on the system provider of their choice. Write in 901
out losing material, unlike conventional torque-converter
transmissions on competitor machines. Equipped with
standard electro-hydraulic controls, the 950K is grade- UPDATED TECHNOLOGY
control ready, making adding a grade-control system The Caterpillar D6 dozer delivers new levels of efficiency and performance with a
as easy as plugging in the components, calibrating choice of electric drive or fully automatic power train. A redesigned purpose-built
and going to work. John Deere’s “open-architecture” VPAT dozer includes updated technology features to help operators be more
design lets customers easily employ their favorite productive from first pass to finish grade. Customer profitability is enhanced with up to
brand of grade-control system. A hydraulic power-pitch 35% better fuel efficiency and reduced service and maintenance costs. An all-new cab
option allows the operator to control blade pitch from sets the standard in comfort, while a range of configuration choices help customers
the cab. The blade pitch also is adjustable to three optimize machine performance for business needs. At 215-hp and an operating
mount locations for superior performance in a variety of weight range of 47,949 to 53,126 lb, the new D6 replaces the versatile D6T dozer.
applications and materials. The programmable return- This next-generation dozer offers a choice of advanced power train: the D6 XE with
to-pitch setting allows the operator to preset blade-pitch electric drive, or the D6 with a fully automatic four-speed power-shift transmission. The
positions. The 950K features Eco mode, which optimizes D6 XE is the world’s first high-drive electric drive
fuel economy while maintaining ground speed by dozer, offering up to 35% better fuel efficiency
automatically adjusting engine speed and transmission and increased agility compared to the previous
settings based on load. This has the potential to reduce three-speed model D6T. Constant power to the
fuel consumption up to 20% with no loss in productivity ground, continuous push and greater maneuver-
in many applications. Write in 900 ability mean faster cycle times, making electric
drive a top choice to achieve the highest level of
productivity and fuel efficiency. Write in 902

Komatsu America’s D61PXi-24 intelligent machine-control crawler dozer features a 6.8-liter, 168-hp, SAA6D107E-3,
EPA Tier 4 Final emissions-certified engine. The D61PXi-24 is environmentally friendly and provides high levels of
performance, while reducing fuel consumption and operating costs. The D61PXi-24 intelligent machine-control
system allows automated operation from heavy dozing to fine grading, achieving up to 8% greater efficiency in
moving material, based on start-to-finish grade testing of typical aftermarket machine-control systems. The lack
of blade-mounted sensors and components means there is no need for operators to climb on the blade to install/
remove GNSS antennas, no coiled cables to snag, and no electrical connections to slow the start and end of every
shift. Other noteworthy features of the D61PXi-24 crawler dozer include: A choice between quick-shift, three-speed mode and a variable, 20-speed customizable
transmission mode to suit personal preferences; proprietary engine and hydrostatic transmission technology that improves machine efficiency and cuts fuel consump-
tion; new auto-idle shutdown and economy modes that help reduce idle time and save fuel; pioneering Komtrax telematics system that provides key machine metrics,
including KDPF status, DEF consumption, fuel level, operating hours, location, cautions and maintenance alerts (operator ID also makes it possible to view Komtrax
data by job, application or operator); Komtrax included with the D61PXi-24 at no charge; a large, multilingual, 7-in., high-resolution LCD monitor with Ecology Guidance
that helps operators observe machine performance for maximum fuel efficiency and follow real-time integrated diagnostics for troubleshooting without a laptop; and
standard rear-view monitoring system that promotes increased operator awareness of potential worksite hazards. Write in 903
—edited by Tim Bruns




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paving train. For more info, go to
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April 2019 / Vol. 57 / No. 4
All Erection & Crane Rental........................................ 10...........................756 Hill & Smith Inc. .............................................................27...........................765
Brandon Williamson / 512.739.2102 American Highway Products .................................... 50........................... 773 Hyundai Construction Equipment USA.....................8...........................755
Fax: 847.390.0408
Asphalt Pavement Alliance .........................................17...........................759 IBC/International Bridge Conference ......................45...........................769
ATSSA........................................................................ 12, 13........................... 757 John Deere Construction Equipment..................... C2............................751
John Rogier / 630.240.1011 *Bobcat Co. .....................................................................31...........................766 MAPEI ..............................................................................47............................ 771

ADVERTISING COORDINATOR ConExpo-Con/Agg ...................................................... C3........................... 775 NACE International.......................................................24...........................762

Lyn Hennessey / 847.954.7968
Contech Engineered Solutions .................................23............................761 Navistar ........................................................................ 4, 5...........................753
Fax: 847.298.1233 Crafco Inc. ..................................................................... 26...........................764 QUIKRETE Cos., The.................................................... 19...........................760

CLASSIFIED SALES MANAGER Crafco Inc. ..................................................................... C4........................... 776 Schwarze Industries.....................................................46........................... 770
David Rairigh / 847.306.3029 *Doosan Infracore Co. Ltd. .........................................35........................... 767 SealMaster Inc. ............................................................ 25...........................763
Fax: 847.390.0408
Gradall ...............................................................................6...........................754 Team Laboratory Chemical Corp. ............................. 51........................... 774
Gregory Highway Products.......................................... 3...........................752 Trinity Industries ............................................................ 15...........................758
Adrienne Miller / 847.391.1036 High Steel Structures...................................................37...........................768 * Regional/demographic ad
Fax: 847.390.0408


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Nothing ruins a day like thoughtless, rude or pantless motorists
LIGHTNING BOLTS, CAMOUFLAGE AND ANIMAL Dennis Butler kicked off his big day in February by
STRIPES? THOSE CAR GRAPHICS ARE SO 2018. playing chicken with trucks on a country road in central
THE COOL NEW EXTERIOR EMBELLISHMENT FOR Utah. Three different trucks had to swerve off the road to
David Matthews avoid being hit by Butler’s car.
has been chronicling 2019 IS BLOOD SPLATTERS.
Witnesses told police that Butler then stole a sign
the unexpectedly
humorous side of Applied as a vinyl vehicle wrap, these realistic graph- for a nearby pheasant hunting lodge and began moon-
transportation news ics create the impression that a violent collision left blood ing passersby.
since 2000. The
stains all over your car. A deputy reported that while speaking to witnesses,
stories are all true.
If your automotive choices say a lot about you, what Butler began speeding toward his patrol car, forcing
does this gruesome adornment convey? That you enjoy the officer to pull off the road to avoid being hit. The
killing people? That you know a shortcut through a deputy’s report noted that “The driver sped past me
slaughterhouse? That your car is having holding up a middle finger on one hand
a nosebleed? toward me (commonly known as flipping
More importantly, what message are WHILE 46% OF someone off ).”
you sending to police? DRIVERS ARE The deputy then began chasing
A German motorist recently found out Butler, who fled at speeds near 100 mph.
when police pulled him over after report- COMFORTABLE Eventually Butler pulled into a residence
edly mistaking the blood splatters on his USING THEIR and hid in a nearby shed.
car wrap for the real thing. Ultimately the HORN TO Police were eventually able to lure
officers let him go, deciding that “awful Butler out and take him into custody
taste is not a crime.” EXPRESS THEIR by legal authority (commonly known as
DISAPPROVAL, arresting someone).
You know that driver who lays on their BRIDGE TO NOWHERE
horn if you don’t hit the gas within a SEEMS TO COME Hosting the Super Bowl isn’t cheap.
millisecond of a red light turning green? WITH AGE. In addition to the $46 million that the
A new study by the insurance website city of Atlanta spent to meet all of the revealed that driver is prob- NFL’s requirements for February’s Super
ably a man around 30 years old. Bowl 53, they also allocated $13 million for a pedestrian
Researchers found that while 46% of drivers are bridge to help fans safely cross a busy street between
comfortable using their horn to express their disapproval, a transit center and the Mercedes-Benz Stadium where
patience seems to come with age. the game took place.
Millennials (59%) are the most likely to honk at other Unfortunately, no one ran the bridge plans by Homeland
drivers, followed by Generation X (41%), Baby Boomers Security, which declared the Super Bowl a “National
(41%) and the Silent Generation (38%). Special Security Event” and placed the Secret Service in
Gender didn’t make a big difference, with 48% of men charge of security.
admitting to being horn happy vs. 45% of women. The Secret Service decided that the new bridge was
And just what is all this horn honking about? Almost close enough to the stadium to fall within their security
half (46%) of drivers say they’ll lay on the horn when perimeter, so only authorized staff and media were allowed
another driver is doing, or about to do, something to use the bridge before the game. Fans were forced to
dangerous, like cut them off. cross the busy street that the bridge was built to avoid.
Almost one in five (17%) admit to being that driver in This was an especially painful fumble since the Atlanta
the intersection who honks when the light turns green. City Council had approved an additional $14 million in
And rounding out the list are the lowlifes who honk at bridge funding, largely to ensure that the walkway would
cyclists (7%), pedestrians (6%) and children playing (5%). be finished in time for the Super Bowl.
In the end, you could say the $27 million neon-lit
CRASHING THE PARTY serpentine structure was more useless on Game Day
A Utah man deserved a few honks on his 66th birthday. than the Los Angeles Rams offense. R&B


Write in 775
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