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# Electronics

Lab Report

Dated: 05 - 12 - 2019

Experiment # 8
Study of Logic Gates.

Submitted by

## Muhammad Farooq Roll no. 23

Taha Saeed Malik Roll no. 43
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment is to study the logic gates which are the basic building block of
any digital system. We applied voltage at the input of gates and then we have found the output
results using LED i.e. whether on or off.

Introduction
Logic gates are the basic building blocks of any digital system. It is an electronic circuit having
one or more than one input and only one output. The relationship between the input and the
output is based on a certain logic. Based on this, logic gates are named as AND gate, OR gate,
NOT gate etc.
 AND Gate

A circuit which performs an AND operation is shown in figure. It has n input (n >= 2) and one
output.
Q=A.B

 OR Gate

A circuit which performs an OR operation is shown in figure. It has n input (n >= 2) and one
output.
Q=A+B

 NOT Gate
NOT gate is also known as Inverter. It has one input A and one output Y.

Q=
 NAND Gate
A NOT-AND operation is known as NAND operation. It has n input (n >= 2) and one output.

Q=

 NOR Gate
A NOT-OR operation is known as NOR operation. It has n input (n >= 2) and one output.

Q=
Apparatus
7408, 7432, 7404, 7400, 7402 IC’s, Logic Trainer and connecting wires.

Procedure
1. We applied Vcc=+5 volts.
2. Applied an input of 8 bits at the input junctions of the IC and put the output at an LED.
3. Checked every gate on the IC and wrote the results on the tables.

## 4. First we checked the Gates of NOT gate IC as shown in the figure.

5. Then one by one we checked, AND, NOR, OR, NAND Gates.
Observations and calculations
NOT GATE
Inputs Outputs
A G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
AND GATE
Inputs Outputs
A B G1 G2 G3 G4
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1
NOR GATE
Inputs Outputs
A B G1 G2 G3 G4
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
OR GATE
Inputs Outputs
A B G1 G2 G3 G4
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1

NAND GATE
Inputs Outputs
A B G1 G2 G3 G4
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 0 0

Conclusion
The result shown in table 1 are according to our expectations and verified from theory. However,
in some logic gates there is no output shown on LED as they are damaged.

Discussion
Our experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical one which shows that our
experiment is acceptable. We applied voltage at the input of gates and then we have found the
output results using LED i.e. whether on or off.
The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are high.
The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of its inputs are
high.
The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output.
The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low.
The outputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high.

## The main sources of error are following.

 Damaged gates
 Loose connections
 Human error
 Random error