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Name: Muhammad Usman

Reg. No: Fa17-BSE-093

Pakistan Studies
Assignment NO 4

Ethnic diversity in Pakistan

There is hardly any state in the world, which is not ethnically plural. Pakistan is also no exception
in this regard. Pakistan Is a country with unique ethnic diversity. This current study Focuses on
the concept of ethnicity and various variables such as religion, language, region and caste, which
is Ability to give rise to violent conflict between different ethnicities identity of Pakistan. National
integration process can happen secure only when ethnic identity is given adequate form
representation according to the constitution for their decision. The future itself and their unique
opportunities to thrive cultural identity.

Ethnic Minorities
An ethnic minority is a group of people who differ in race or color or in national, religious, or
cultural origin from the dominant group. The different identity of an ethnic minority may be
displayed in any number of ways, ranging from distinctive customs, lifestyles, language or accent,
dress, and food preferences to particular attitudes, moral values, and economic or political beliefs
espoused by members of the group.
In Pakistan ethnic minorities are Muhajirs, Balochis, Kalash People, Kashmiris, Yusufzai,
Ahmadis. All of these are discussed below

The Urdu word Muhajir comes from the Arabic Muhajir, meaning "immigrant", and the term is
associated with migration throughout the history of early Islam. Muslims. After the independence
of Pakistan, a large number of Muslims migrated or moved out of the region living far away from
India. After partition, a huge population exchange took place between the two newly formed states.
In the riots, which preceded partition in the Punjab region, between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people
were killed in retaliatory massacres. UNHCR estimates that 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims
were displaced during Partition; It was the largest mass migration in human history.

Baloch, also spelled Baluch or Beluch, group of tribes speaking the Balochi language and
estimated at about five million inhabitants in the province of Baluchistan in Pakistan and also
neighboring areas of Iran and Afghanistan. In Pakistan the Baloch people are divided into two
groups, the Sulaimani and the Makrani, separated from each other by a compact block of Brahui
tribes. The original Baloch homeland probably lay on the Iranian plateau. The Baloch were
mentioned in Arabic chronicles of the 10th century CE. The old tribal organization is best
preserved among those inhabiting the Sulaimān Mountains.

Kalash People
The Kalasha or Kalash, also called Waigali or Wai, are a Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people
residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the
Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch. They are considered unique
among the people of Pakistan. They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious
group practicing a religion which many authors characterize as a form of animism and others

regard it as a derivative of the pre-Vedic ancient Indo-Aryan religion which in turn is described by
some as "a form of ancient Hinduism".
The term is used to refer to many distinct people including the (Väi, the Čima-nišei, the Vântä)
plus the Ashkun- and Tregami-speakers. The Kalash are considered to be an indigenous people of
Asia, with their ancestors migrating to Chitral valley from another location possibly further south
which the Kalash call "Tsiyam" in their folk songs and epics. Some of the Kalash traditions
consider the various Kalash people to have been migrants or refugees.

The Kashmiris are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian union territory of
Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language. The bulk of Kashmiri
people predominantly live in the Kashmir Valley–which is the 'actual' Kashmir and does not
include the other territories of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (i.e. Jammu, Gilgit-
Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and Ladakh). Other ethnic groups living in the former Jammu and
Kashmir state include Gujjars, Dogras, Paharis, Baltis and Ladakhis.
While Kashmiris are native to the Kashmir Valley, smaller populations of Kashmiris also live in
the remaining districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Ethnic Kashmiris can be found in the Chenab
region's Doda, Ramban, Reasi and Kishtwar districts and in the Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley
of northern Azad Kashmir. Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris are also found in Pakistan. Many
ethnic Kashmiris from the Kashmir Valley migrated to the Punjab region during the Dogra, Sikh
and Afghan rule of Kashmir. Most Kashmiris today are Sunni Muslim but a sizeable Hindu
community also exists. Most ethnic Kashmiri Muslims are descended from Kashmiri Hindu
Pandits and Buddhists some also use the prefix 'Sheikh'. Common surnames among these people
include Bhat/Butt, Dar, Lone, Malik etc.

Pakistan is the home to the largest population of Ahmadis in the world. The city of Rabwah in
Punjab, Pakistan used to be the global headquarters of the Ahmadi Community before they were
moved to England. The Ahmadi population in Pakistan has often come under persecution and
discrimination by the Sunni majority. According to a Pew research report, only 7% of Pakistanis
considered Ahmadis as Muslims.
The Ahmadi movement has its origins in the Punjab region, in the city of Qadian (now India).
Following the independence of Pakistan, as a separate nation for Muslims in the Indian
subcontinent. There have been a number of notable Pakistani people who have belonged to the
Ahmadi Community, including the country's first Nobel Prize laureate, Abdus Salam and
Pakistan's first foreign minister Muhammad Zafar Ullah Khan.

The Yūsufzai or Yousafzai (literally "the descendants of Yusuf") is a tribe of Pashtun people found
in Pakistan, and in some eastern parts of Afghanistan, as well as in northern India.
Yusufzai tribes rose against Mughal rule during the Yusufzai Revolt of 1667, and engaged in
pitched-battles with Mughal battalions near Attock.
In 1849, the Yousafzai established their own Yusafzai State of Swat under the leadership of
Akhund Abdul Ghaffir, who appointed Sayyad Akbar Shah, a descendant of Pir Baba, as the first
emir. After Akbar Shah's death in 1857, Akhund Abdul Ghaffir assumed control of the state
himself. The state existed until 1969, when it was integrated into Pakistan