The Feasible Conditions Study of Steamflooding for Heavy Oil Reservoirs In China After Cyclic Steam Injection
Z. He, R.

Zhang , H. Y. Pu, X. Ran, RIPED of CNPC

* SPE Member


1555, Sociify of Pafrofaum En@nmrs,inc. 1S-21 J-l*.

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China is rich in heavy oil reserves. In recent ten years, the production of heavy oil has rapidly grown through application of steam injection and the annual production reached up to 11.9 million tons in 1993. At present, with the increase of cycles of steam injection ~ the effectiveness becomes poorer and the challenge of changing steam stimulation into steamflooding has to be confronted. Because of heavy oil reservoirs in China characterized with complex geological conditions, deeply buried, multi-layers and serious heterogeneity, especially some complicated conditions occurring in steam cycling, the effectiveness of steamflooding pilots has not been ideal commonly. Therefore ~ it is urgent to study and determine the comprehensive conditions at which the reservoirs are feasible to be converted from steam cycling to steeamflooding at the present “technological situation. In this paper, based on three typical types of

heavy oil reservoirs, systematic studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of oil viscosity, oil formation thickness * vertical permeability difference, reproduction ratio of injected water in steam cycling and channeling path etc. on steamflooding effectiveness. Then ~ a practical screening criterion of steamflooding is proposed to provide technical bases for the conversion. INTRODUCTION The commercial thermal recovery for heavy oil in China started in the late of 70’s and the beginning of 80’s. Although the conditions of China heavy oil reservoirs are generally not ideal ~ characterized with many types, most buried deeply (9001, 600m) and complex geology, thermal recovery technology has been developed rapidly in China in the last more than ten years through the advancement of science and technology? and heavy oil production has steadyly increased. As the result, China has became one of the main heavy oil production countries in the world. Now, cyclic steam injection technology has matured and integrated, and been widely applied, as the main

References and illustrations at end of paper

At present.:. cyclic steam injection becomes poor with increase of steam injection cycles (Fig. In some reservoirs.1. have showed no ideal performance. The reservoir conditions greatly affect steamflooding performance.... tili i&X3ilmplemencea eventuuuy IUL UIC IIcuvy voirs temporarily not suitable to steamflooding. the complex problem of low re-production rate of injected steam (or water ) appeared (for example. difficult to be restored.. potential should be analysed and effective measures should be developed and taken to enhance cyclic steaming effectivess. which accounted nearly 1/10 in the national total oil production. steamflooding pilot test and developme~t test have been under way at various typies of heavy oil reservoirs. Four heavy oil production bases have been set up in Liaohe..... at r)resent.--. .. 3 million tons respectively. 49. in some cases. The influencing factors on steamflooding are complexe and various ~ including not only the geoiogciai conditions of the reservoir itseif. Cyclic steam injection has entered into the middle and late stage and faced the challenge of converting to steamflooding. Enhancement of oil recovery must rely on effictive driving process..1 % of the total cycling wells ~ and OSR has been O. —. . resulting poor economic benefit.-.. In i 993. . . The effective period shorted.2 FEASIBLE CONDITIONS STUDY OF STEAMFLOOD FOR HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS IN CHINA SPE30303 method of heavy oil production. --------erwnunts ---------ureat ~---~~f~~- steam injection. . too much lower compared with cyclic .ha-n in. but aiso production technique of cyclic steaming ~ development conditions and the technical management in the process of steamflooding. --— great negarwe effects on the foiiowing sTeamflooding process. -11.. the second ~ for heavy oil reservoirs not suitable or temporarily not suitable to steamflooding. nual heavy oil production in 1993 and 1994 reached 11.000 wells and more than 200 patterns A-.~–-––.-.. . Effective conversion consists of two aspects. more than 9. Meanwhile. for heavy oil reservoirs suitable to steamflooding ~ favorable conditions should be created and cyclic steaming should be timely converted to steamflooding to enhance heavy oil recovery. OSR declined and economic benefit decreased.-4 -. . . cyclic steam injection must be effectively converted to steamflooding in order to greatly enhance the overaH heavy oil development. Only shu 1-7-5 block steamfiooding piiOt has been relatively goods the others. i66. .. t-.. less than 20% in Gao sheng and Du-66) and low activated extent of oil formation commonly existed (generally so% ) ? which not only seriously affect cyclic steam injection eiiectiveness ~ but aiso wiii exert . Oil production rate after converting to steamfldng has been lower level. By Sept. .--.000 cyciic steam injection operations had been conducted in about 6. ct~amflnnflinu G . .. what heavy oil reservoir ._. various conditions should be improved and technology advancement should be forwarded so that economically effective Stearnfiwdiiig can be :—-1-—. .... ... Mtwinwhile.. at the same time. -. Especially in the case of complex geological conditions and strong heterogeneity for China heavy oil reservoirs (most continental deposits ) ~ many new 570 culties. *L. 1). most of steamflooding pilots (totally 11 pilots) didn’t obtain ideal effectiveness. “. OSR has also been lower.. At one hand ~ the challenge of systematic engineering integration must be overcomed ~ at the other hand. .”. prece~~ nf stesmflnnrling. . is suitable to be converted to steamflooding and what are the favorable conditions for the conversion? That should be prerequisitely answered. Therefore. . . ~~~ ~~. Because the main driving force in the process of cyclic steaming is natural pressure energy in ~e~erVQir and it will be exhausted! it is difficult ~ for cyclic steaming to obtain high oil recovery and good ultimate development effectiveness. the cyclic steaming wells above 5 cycles have accounted 36. ... 9 million and 12. with average daily oil production per well only 2.a-vb “k%. 1994 ~ production Weiis of steam flooding in the whoie country numbered 789. According to the statistical data.Xinjiang and ‘Henan oiifieids. –— -... Shengli . .V . In this wav. including the commercial steamflooding development in No 9 area of Karamayi oilfield in Xinjiang. The first is.0 t/d and annual average GSR 0.

2. and the oil formation is too thin. For example ~ if the oil viscosity is too high. Therefore. 000cP. 15-0. if oil formation is too thick. OOOcpand oil formation thickness larger than lorn generally.rtica!permeability heterogeneity of formation. serious steam overide will lead to 571 .SPE30303 Z. ZHANG . 5). Oil Viscosity and Oil Formation In the process of steamflooding for heavy oil thermal recovery. It has been reconginiaed through steamflooding pilots that these factors can greatly influence steamflooding. channeling path. Research results (Fig. three phase. 16). various oil viscosities have been studied. RESERVOIR GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS SUITABLE TO STEAMFLOODING Effects of Thickness. The effects of oil viscosity and formation thickness have been studied at the three typical types of reservoirs as mentioned before. the studied formation thickness include 15m. steamflooding these heavy oil reservoirs will hardly achieve good technical and economic results. The basic geogical parameters and production parameters used in the studies are listed in table 2-3. oil viscosity and oil formation thickness are the very important factors influencing steamflooding performance. 10. X. R. 000cp and 20. multi-layer and single sand body) using thermal recovery numerical simulation to comprehensively determine the screening criterion of steamflooding fittable to the present thermal recovery technical situation. REN 3 problems and reservoir conditions variations occured after long time cyclic steam injection ~ such as low reproduction rate of. for the heavy oil reservoir feasible to steamflooding. Geological cross section schematic of three typical types of reservoirs are shown in fig. for multi-layer reservoir ~ 10m ~ 15m ~ 20 m and 30 m and for single sand body reservoir ~ 5m * 10m ~ 20m. 25m t 45m and 60m. 5. up to 104 or 10s cp. H. For block reservoir. 2 and the studied items listed in table 1. the lower the steamflooding OSR. in the case of multi-layer reservoir. 3-6 ) indicate that the higher the oil viscosity and the smaller the formation thickness. and production conditions include vertical activated extent of formation. The well pattern in the studies is inverted 9-spot pattern with spacing 100m (distance between injector and producer) which is adopted in most of heavy oil reservoirs at present. if oil viscosity is too high ~injected steam can’t effectively heat the oil to decrease its viscosity to the degree that oil can obtain good flow capacity ~ and for thin oil formation ~ the heating efficiency of injected steam is low because of large heat loss to the overburden and underburden. According to the present economical OSR limit (O. re-production rate of injected steam in cyclic steaming. Three dimensional. Simply screening the reservoir geological conditions will not lead to practical criterion of steamflooding. in this paper. a comprehensive research approach has been adopted ~ that is ~ according to the geological conditions and production conditions in cyclic steaming and referencing the status of steamflooding pilots ~ both aspects of geological and production condkions are studied on the basis of three typical types of reservoirs (block. its oil viscosity at reservoir temperature should be less than 10. Y. and before steamflooding ~ the reservoirs had been cyclicly steamed several cycles with oil recovery between 10% to 18%. larger than 15m since heat loss will be greater as the result of injected heat also transferee into the interceded shales (Fig. At different formation thickness. PU . ve. for block reservoir. They are 500cP. HE. In addition. That is because. The studied geological conditions include oil viscosity. OOOcp at reservoir temperature. multi-component thermal recovery simulator was used.injected steam ~large differences of vertical activated extent of “oil formation and serious steam channeling in cyclic steaming etc. fc:matien thickness. OOOCP.

e. . 16. The basic parameters are h =45 m and p = 5. K ~=s Where :DK-Permeabilit y difference factor.rw. In Xinjiang oilfield. the earlier the steam breakthrough and the less the sweep efficiency (Fig. K Mxx—The maximum permeability of layers.000 cp for block reservoir. AEOF should be not below 50%. (Fig. t 4 am Uill=. it can greatly affect steamflooding effectiveness in the way of decreasing sweep efficiency and lowering oil recovery. it can be seen that as AEOF lowers. 572 .. h =20 m and PO= 2.000 cp for single-sand-body reservoir. numerical simulation has been carried on in three typical reservoir models. In fact j AEOF indicates the vertical sweeping status of injected steam. tion can iead to steam kij~CtiViti~S A“t$a-a a. . qhere. 15-O. If there are no effective measures to improve AEOF in the process of steamflooding. Ka— The minimum permeability of layers.. the effectiveness of steamf 100ding becomes poor ~ i. 10). PRODUCTION CONDITIONS SUITABLE TO STEAMFLOODING Effects of Activated Extent of Oil Formation Activated extent of oil formation means the ratio of effective producing intervals thickness accounting in the gross thickness put into production. it can be proposed that permeability variation coefficient less than O.eahiiit~ variation coeffient w ~—Permeabilty corresponding to 50 % cumulative frequency. steamflooding OSR will be lower than O. 16). Its effects are particularly evident fm mulit-layer reservoir. ~ oil recovery decreases. 7) K8—Permeability corresponding to 84 % cumulative frequency. Steamflooding at various VPH has been studied for three typical heavy oil reservoirs (as an example ~ VPH for block reservoir shown in table 4). 4 ) because of strong gravity separation of injected steam. According to the statistical data of Liaohe oilfield ~ the average AEOF for its total heavy oil reservoirs is only about 47%. In order to study its effects on steamflooding ~ permeabitily variation coefficient (or difference factor ) has been used in this paper to describe the vertical permeability heterogeneity of oil formation ~ which is defined as VPVC=!$S K The results indicate that the stronger the VPH. . therefore ~ too large thickness will not be appropriat~ and middle thick formation ( <45m) is favorable. for heavy Qil reservoirs suitable to steamflociding. the thickness of main steam absorbing layers only accounts for 40% of gross thickness of oil fQrmation. Effects of Vertical Permeability oil Formation Heterogeneity of Vertical permeabiiitg heterogeneity of od fCiinii. Considering the economical limit of ORS (O. To investigate its effects on $teamflooding. The basic parameters (oil viscosity and oil formation thickness ) of these models are the same as the above. resulting in early steam breakthrough in the high permeable layer. effective steamflooding will be hardly implemented. (Fig. laYer to layer.000 cp for multi-layer reservoir and h= 10 m and PO= 2. 8). VPVC_Perrn. From the simulation results (Table 5). 7) and the definition of permeability difference factor. 6 would be favor~bi~ for stmnflQoding ? the corresponding pemea~iiity difference factor value is less than 10. while AEOF is less than 50%. 9). Through comparison of simulated oil recovery with the estimated economical value (Fig.4 FEASIBLE CONDITIONS STUDY OF STEAMFLOOD FOR HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS IN CHINA SPE30303 poor oil recovery (Fig. As VPH becomes strong ~ oil recovery will be evidently decreased (Fig.

.b”. HE.-A UUUY this matter. PU. {fantiv@ LA GA G . ZHANG. 13) ~ and the peak production appearance in steamflooding is defered and low production period prolonged (Fig. . . resulting in steam front forwarding slowly (Fig. k 1 !kn ~ with 2m shales interspersed in sand body. What this paper is investigating is just its effects on steamflooding. sweep &Mency decreased because of higher reservoir pressure. Therefore. oii production decreases sharply and steam~looding is very poor. according to the analysis. Y.SPE30303 Z. Effects of Re-Production Rate of Injected Steam The problem of low re-production rate of injected steam occured in some of heavy oil reservoirs in 573 China in the process of cyclic steam injection. Ligtid piOdWtiGil {Fig. the results indicate that the oil recovery and OSR of steamflooding are decreased 51% and 39% respectively by the channeling path existing in reservoir. For the mechanisms. “‘” – ‘-1mc~ness of ~allU I. REN 5 Effects of ChannelIing Steaming Path Formed In Cyclic At Karamayi oilfield in Xinjiang. Shajiashi oilfield in Shengli and some areas in Liaohe. 11). for example. many aspect and not totally known. controlling measure. Deepening discussion of the reasons does not belong to the scope of this paper. shortly increasing. Channeling path is represented by a regional very thin layer in the middlle of oil formation. .40V higher than that of no-channelling path. *C hmvI?N??S sit= uation ~ after converting to steamflooding. 9 district ~ steam channeling is also prominent. 17). serious steam channeling occured generally in cyclic steam injection.A. The block reservoir and multi-layer reservoir models have been used for this study and the parameters of oil viscosity and formation thickness are also as the same as before. in the case of strong channeling path . 15 ~ O. especially the new minerals generated at high temperature (mainly smectite ). Gaosheng oilfield and Du-66 block demonstrate RPRIS only 15% (RPRIS means the ratio of quantity of produced water to that of injected cold water-equivalent steam). 14). the possible reasons may include the following aspects: more water-wettability of rock at high temperature condition. !m!ing to both oil and water production being low level. greatly declining and hardly to be restored (Fig. oil emulsion and blocking. production problems.. X. In view of economical limit of OSR O. Low RPRIS indicates poor flowing ability of the liquid in reservoir.a. By far. Channeling path formed in cyclic steaming greatly affects steamflooding performance? displaying as low oil production of 1 z 2 months. also the steam saturation field iii the ------pru~~s~ of stearnfkmding (I@. If RPRIS is too much low 9 steamflooding will be at long-time low production and lost the peak production. In the process of enlarged steamflooding at Karamayi No. The reasons of this problem are complex. =i~tiilg in reserwm LWU la +$awm pa~ e. moreover ~ because of much injected water existing in formation. Although liquid production increases greatly. only the oil in and near the path be brought along steam. steamflooding will not be feasible to that reservoir. It is analysed that the existing channeling path leads steam ‘channeling in the path. RPRIS can exert great influence on water saturation and reservoir pressure distributions at the end of cyclic steaming. The studied results indicate that as RPRIS decreases ~ both oil recovery and OSR go down (H-g. In that way ~ how does channeling path affect steamflooding if it has been formed in the reservoir through several steaming cycles? Single sand body model has been used to study . swelling of clay minerals. some amount of heat of injected steam is exhausted to heat the existing water. As shown in table 6.. R. the swept regions by injected steam are limited.. 30. resulting in great amount of steam be produced. 12! greatly inCreases in short time and wellhead temperature rapidly goes up. 15-=1?).. 16 in steamflooding ~ RPRIS should be not below 35 s 40% for the . H.-A :t .

Z. The fittable re-production rate of injected steam in cyclic steaming should be no less than 35-40%. AS ment of production technique and adjustment of development system. Oct. Lower oil formation activated extent corresponds to reduction of flooded thickness by steam ! resulting in steamflooding effectiveness becoming poor. 3 ) * this papar proposes a comprehensive steamflooding screening criterion. 2. Bang. SPE 11733. If no effective controlling measures to be taken. 1993 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Some related technical works from Qinsan Yue and Peigong Shie. 5. correspondent vertical permeablit y difference factor less than 10.. Chu Chieh : “State-of-the Art Review of Steamflood Field Projects”. 000cp. Oil &Gas Journal. and Zhai. The authors also wish to thank the helps of other colleagues in RIPED.nmci_ U(JJ1U1 L1lUILD G A GLmts W. that is . 9 CULU qL*. For the reservoirs feasible to steamflooding at present * the main points can be suninmrized as: 1. 574 Low re-production rate of injected steam results in abundance of water existing near the well and in turn lowers heating efficiency in the driving process ~ and the performance would be poor after converting to steamflooding. steamflooding oil recovery and OSR may be greatly decreased.-. 1C)QA A. REFERENCES 1. Presented at the first China-Canada Heavy Oil Technology Symposium. it is also not suitable for formation thickness to be too thick and middle thickness less than 45m would be favorable. : “Standard For Heavy Oil Classification. : “Simulation Study Show Hysteresis Effect on Oil Recovery during a Cyclic Steam Injection”. W.. Generally. senior engineers in thermal recovery dept.ra JA w . some modifications might be necessary. CONCLUSIONS Based on the above studies and referencing present steamflooding screening standard (table 7.. The stronger it is .. The favorable vertical permeability variation coefficient should be no more than O. Within the thickness limit ~ oil formation activated extent should be higher than SO%. Feb.6 FEASIBLE CONDITIONS STUDY OF STEAMFLOOD FOR HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS IN CHINA SPE30303 reservoirs suitable to steamflooding. Liu. the largerly the oil recovery decreases..sbQ– . they are also general ~ for particular reservoirs. Vertical permeability heterogeneity of oil formation may greatly influence steamflooding effectiveness. 60. Re-production rate of injected steam in cyclic steaming can obviously affect steamflooding. steamflooding is not suitable. The above conclusions are just based on present production technique and development . Oil viscosity and oil formation thickness are important factors for steamflooding. 1987. The existing channeling path formed in cyclic steaming can exert harmful effets on steamflooding-. Zhuo Zhou. 27. the scope of heavy oil reservoirs feasible to steamflooding will be enlarged. 6. and this screening criterion can be further revised for more perfection.l:+::a. 3. J.GA LAKY mAw. and Thermal Recovery Sieving”. Y. 4. H.--. In addition. H. which has taken the present production technique and development conditions as evaluation bases (table 8).. of RIPED is gratefully acknowl-. meanwhile. W. edged. oil formation thickness should be greater than 10m ~ specificly for multi-layer reservoirs greater than 15. 26 x30.J”-c. 3. OiI viscosity should be less than 10. 4. Cheng. ref. etc: “Effects of Oil Viscosity on the Steam Recovery Efficien- .* & -a --1.

20. Zhuo Zhou. . Presented at the first China-Canada Heavy Oil Technology Symposium. Geologlcsl 011Formalion Thiokness. Table 2 The Basic Reservoir Parameters *--. C. . 3 0. .75. 5.1 4 d High. L. etc: “ Enhancing Steamflooding Effectiveness Study for Three Types of Heavy Oil Reservoirs”.m. *q Zhuo Zhou . 6. REN 7 cy “. Y.5 800 26. etc. and Bao.0 65. 26z30. . ZHANG . 011 visoosity is at reservoir tamparatwa. . ~~. % tnitlal Reservoir Pressure.. May. 1993. and Yang.1/2. RIPED Report. H. 1993. R. Q Is r)..v. .0 2000 25. . A Aca vy M. 1987. . sent at China Heavy Oil Thermal Symposium. Presented at the first China-Canada Heavy Oil Technology Symposium.-. ANGUJV Cwmnn. H. ~. a+ ab Pk:ma wnaua . P. MPa Reservoir Temperature. Low # means the Items were studied.4 Single and body 400 0.20000 5.*-J . E. U. : “Characteristics and Recovery Methods of Heavy Oil Reservoirs in Liaohe Oilfield”.**p””*u..... op. “. ---C . md Porosity .9 575 ..ml A LLGL A8AaA Re.0 50. . He. T. .25.. Zhang .85 E o Vertloel Activated xtent f 011 Fomatiorl Production Ohannatllng Path In Resarvoir Ra-Production Rate of Injeoted Steam in OyotIc steaming Note. Sept.10. : “Steamfl .0 55.. 1987. ~~.0 12. May.* Table 1 The Studied Items and Contenta Oorlditiom I!Block TyBa Reservoirs of Multl+eyer d 4 ~ Single Send Bady d 4 ~ OQ@ents 011 Vlsooslty. “Xia.L. L..2000.8 2500 32. 4 d 4 4 1/4. Present at China Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery Symposium. 1991. X. ~~ No 9 District Area in Karamayi Oilfield”. R. 1993. Oct.0 12.0 4.SPE30303 Z. May.-~.SteamflnnAinu --------------~ Recovery P~rfnrmsnm= . . : “Influence Analysis of Vertical Activated Extent of Oil Formation in Steam Injection”. : ‘. PU . P. 26~30. X. Y. Middte. nurwxvcnrs Iypuw m----.60 vpv~EQ.-i-Blook Burled Da@h. Present at China Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery Symposium. Oct. m Ratio of Net/Gross Thlclmess Permeability. HE.-.~.15. % Oil Betwation.1 /3. Zhang.istn.0.-: -. .0 Multi-Layer 1200 0.-: -0.5000. m V@i@l Permeet)!l!iy He@fQganetty d 4 g 500. .i**m “. 9.0 65.--l:–– 13-_t ------“ xmucnng rerlurmanm in Shu 1-7-5 Pilot “ t D-.0 65. ~~! 1 QQ2 * “ ““. . C 1200 1.. etc.0 24. .. R.45. Z. l%am. and Zhang.0. .65.. 10.am+ L A cacmc nrw b.

0 40.0 70. 65 (D.0 340 40.0 IaJectlng Pres&re qt Wetlbore.0 4ecting Rste. (MPa) Wellbore Temperature. 3 (DK=2. 47) VPVC=O. (t/d) 160 16.0 270 60. (t/m) 80 200 16. (%) At SteamfloodIng IaJectlag Rate.0 340 40. (%) Table 4 Vertiul Permeability Dtstributton for Block Tyw of Heavy Oil Reservoir Verticst Permesbillty Dlstrlbutlon. 8) 2000 3400 2400 1650 1200 VPVC= 0. 5) VPVC= 0. (C) Wellbore Steam Quslity.0 60 6. (t/d) Wellbore Pressure.0 80 200 16.0 40.0) 1 VPVC=O. md VPVC= o (DK=l.0 140 16. =14.45 (DK=4.8 FEASIBLE CONDITIONS STUDY OF STEAMFLOOD FOR HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS IN CHINA SPE30303 Table 3 ProductIon Pmsmeters of Steam Injection Production Parameters Block At cyclic Steam 4ection Types of Reservoirs Multl-Lsyer Single Sand Body InJecUng Intensity.85 (DK~122) 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 4200 2750 1500 940 2000 7350 3500 1200 525 2000 22000 5500 730 180 2 3 4 5 576 .0 80 50-100 6. MPa Wellbore Stesm Qa81ity.

R. ZHANG.3 6.6 5.196 20.210 0.204 0.08 2.14 0. % Cbannelling Path 1200 No Cbxnnelling Path 980 3. REN 9 ~ii ~:ex=f!di~ Table 5 Effects Types of Reservoim of Vertlcd Activated Extent of (Xi Time. H.7 10. % Dxily Oil Production of Single Well.91 577 .8 7.9 10.0 4.217 0. Y.196 0. t/d ON-wan! Ratio Oil Recovery.2 3.3 21.3 17.156 17. d ib~~ii~ii VAEOF .5 15.5 11. X.9 3. 198 0.188 Table 6 Effects of Clmnaelling Path Formed In Cyclic Stexming on Stexmflooding Indexes Driving time.198 0.2 7. % 100 Block 50 33 2s 2760 2960 3124 3260 1243 1078 765 760 1579 1726 1765 ~?g~ 12.252 20.6 17.6 9.1 18.234 0.9 1800 17.9 O.167 0.4 100 Multl-Layer 50 33 2s 100 0.SPE30303 Z. t/d OSR Oil Recovery.5 Single Sxnd Body 50 33 25 0.8 0.4 0. Day Dally Oil Production of Single Well. HE.4 9.6 10. PU .5 17.120 9.

95 <1600 >10 >0.10 >7. Formation depth.50 >0.0 5. Re-Production Rate of Injeccted Steam (Water) No or Little Function >35-40% 2. Permulbility (red) >250 >250 >200 2200 Table 8 Feasible Steamflooding Screening Criterion Based on Present Thermal Recovery Technical Situation Group I Geological Conditions 1.40 >0.0 >0. Oil FormatIon Thickness.08 >7.98 <1800 >5 >0.6 578 .0 >0.50 <0. m 3. Channeling Path In Reservoir 3.1 5.40 >0.20 >0.10 FEASIBLE CONDITIONS STUDY OF STEAMFLOOD FOR HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS IN CHINA SPE30305 Table 7 Steam Flooding Sieving Criterion and Heavy 011 Reserve Ciasslficallon Criterion Second class on technology Improvement in recent period Third class Fourth CISSS Parameter group First ChSS on available technology waiting for technology development not suitable for steam-injection recovery 1. Permeability.2 >C.5 for multiLayer Reservoir) >0. Cp Gravity. Crude viscosity (at reaervolr T) >50– 10000 <50000 <50000 Gravtty 2.50 <0.0 >0. Activated Extent Parameters >50% Vtscaky. g/cm’ <10000 <0. on 3. m Net/Gross Thickness Ratio >1O(>15 <45 >0.50 >0.50 >5.5 4. md Vertical Permeability Variation Coefficient >250 <0. 1) >0. 5 >0. Net thickness of Pay Net/Total thickness ratio <0. Formation Depth.20 >0.10 >10. m Parameters Group I Production Conditions 1.08 >7.20 >0.20 >0.@ sol @xSol Rasarve factor IOMT/kmk* q m >0.95 <1400 >10 >0.95 <1400 of Oil Formation 2.

.”. . ... ... . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a ”.... ””!. .. .:. “. . . . . ~ . . . . . . 0 ... .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .:%”: :. .. . . .... .. .”.*” “.$ia&@g+ ::”:: .. .. .1 -L ~ Average OilProduction Per cycle of One Well Oil-Steam Ratio L_ ~ 86 87 88 89 Time. . .. . .. . ...”.* ”. ...- .. ~. . . ... .. . . . . . ... .. .. . .”. . ”. “+:. . ..”. “’ ~“ ... .. . -Ywzzzz .. . . . .. . . .. ..... .. w“: .“ .’. .‘. .. . . . . ~ Year ~ 92 93 Figure f OSR and Oil-Production Declining Curve from 1986 to 1993 . . . . . . . ..’. . . .. . .”. . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. Block Mdti-Layer Single-Sand-Body Figure 2 Schematic of Three Typical Heavy Oil Reservoir in China 579 ... . . I . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. ....*. ~. ... .. . . . . . . .. . ‘.... ...~.. . . . . .. .... . .””*. . .. . ”. . .. . . .. .. .. . .“. .”. . ... . . .. . . ..... . . ..... .. ”.. .*.. .*. . . .. . . . ... ..:* . . ~ .. .. . . . . .. . .... %..

22 0. Oii Viscosity and Oil for Biock Type Heavy Oii Reservoir OSR vs.1 0.12 0.24 0.2 ~ 0.14 0.1 20000 25000 o \ ~ l+=lOm 5000 lL1100 154mm z~ - Oil Viscosity.05 0 5000 1O(D(MI 15000 Oil Viscosity.2 1$ 0 0. OIi Viscosity and Oii Formation Thickness for Singie-Sand-Body Type Heavy 011 Reservoir .3 9< 0. C)ii Viscosity and Oil Formation Thickness for Biock Type Heavy Oii Reservoir Steamflooding OSR vs.16 0. Figure 6 Steamflooding Steamflooding Formation Thickness Oii Recovery vs.15 0.25 ?! 02 0.18 ~ 0.23 \ 0.15 0. Figure 4 Oil Viscosity. Figure cp Figure 5 0.4 0.05 o 5000 llmO 15(HIO cp 2(KKm 25000 o 5000 lam 15000 cp 20000 25000 Oil Viscosity. Cp 3 Steamflooding OSR vs. Oii Viscosity and Oii Formation for Muiti-Layer Type Heavy Oii Reservoir Thickness 0.35 0.0.1 0.

.1 0. 2(M 0.400 0.9 0.8 1 Permeabifi& Variation Coefficient Figure 10 Effects of Vertical Permeability Varation Coefficient on Steamflt>oding 011 Recovery Figure 8 .300 0.000 —~ ml Wc=o 86 Steam Saturation Field at Different PVC in Steamflooding for Block Multi-Layer Heay Oil Resewoir (T=1400Days) 0.6 ~ 0.5 o 0.8 1 Permeabifib’ Variation Coefficient Figure 9 Figure 7 Permeability Lognormal Cumulative Frequency Plot Permeability Varation Effects of Vertical Coefficient on Steamfloo’ting 011 Recovery 2.7 0.6 \ BOdYTYVB * $0.3 0.100 0. 500 0.5 —~ Block TYIM Multl. (%) r~. Permeability Cmulative Frequent.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.250 0.1 o \ l—~~~ 0. m 0.8 s $ a + ~— ~— ~— ~— Block TYIXB Multi-1aw Tyw Shrgle4and- 0.450 0.lbpr ().4 0.150 0.050 0.4 0.

00 .Liquid Production Curve 2aJ.000 ao.20.mo 0.1 Oil Producticm CUN’e for Influence of Channeling Figure 12 Liquid Production Cuwe for [Influence of Channeling . moo alm aulo 2700 200a 0.100 a400 2700 30CIII Tlmle.0 200 @JIJ 900 1200 1S00 1200 2.00 160. Days NOChamme~hg No Uhannelling Elquid Reduction Cunve ____l13 0. Days Existing CIhannelling Time.0 200 600 9m 1- EMm 1200 2m0 2400 2700 30al 0. mO . s 120.000 12000 .:0 o.0 200 600 900 x600 Ima mm :urn 2400 27m mm DaY’ ~lme.0 -mO 40. Days — Existing Channeling Figure 1. c2uJ am - 1- mm Time. m i! fi $ s i “3 .00 40. :00. m 00.

o 0 u i \ 583 .

30 Figure 15 Water Saturation Distribution at End of Cyclic Steaming at Different Re-Production Rate of Injected Steam- m hml m mm ~ m bd RPRIS=SS% Producer 3.48 0.57 0.Sn Injutor Injector Sw 0.495 0.33 0.000 bml Fiaure 17 Staam Saturation Field at Different Re-Production Rate .440 0.45 0.“u--- -- of [njected Steam in Steamflooding ( T=l 120 Days ) Injutor Producer i P ItPa I m bm 1 RPRls-31% 15000 13750 12500 11250 10000 8750 7500 6250 5000 3750 2500 mU RPRIS=7Z% 4 Rmls=ss% 4 RPRW=lS% Figure 16 Pressure Field at End of Cyclic Steaming at Different Re-l%oduction Rate of Injected Steam .330 02’?5 0.220 0.39 h.055 0.42 0.36 0.550 3.110 0.165 1 RPRIS=72% + 08385 J RPRIS=31% 4 RPRIS=IS% I RPRIS=31% 1} RIPRIS=18% (1.60 0.54 0’51 0.

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