Smoke Management Fundamentals
INTRODUCTION This section describes objectives, design considerations, design principles, control applications, and acceptance testing for smoke control systems. A smoke control system modifies the movement of smoke in ways to provide safety for the occupants of a building, aid firefighters, and reduce property damage. References are at the end of this section which include smoke control codes. Smoke is a highly toxic agent. Information from U. S. Fire Administration estimates that in 1989 approximately 6,000 fire fatalities occurred in the United States and 80 percent of these deaths were from inhalation of smoke. Furthermore, an additional 100,000 individuals were injured, and fire damage exceeded $10 billion. Long term effects on humans from repeated exposure to smoke and heat is a major concern. According to the National Institute of Building Sciences, "The significance of time of human exposure is the fact that brief exposure to a highly toxic environment may be survived, while a lengthy exposure to a moderately toxic environment can lead to incapacitation, narcosis, or death."1 The primary toxic agent produced in building fires is carbon monoxide. Other toxic agents include hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, acrolein, aldehydes, carbon dioxide, and a variety of airborne particulates carrying heavy metals (antimony, zinc, chromium, and lead). Early smoke control systems used the concept of passive control to limit the spread of fire and smoke. This method evolved from early fire containment methods used in high rise buildings. With passive control, HVAC fans were shut down and dampers were used to prevent smoke from spreading through ductwork. This application required very-low-leakage dampers. Fire walls or barriers, used to prevent the spread of fire, were enhanced to prevent the spread of smoke. In the late 1960s, the concept of active smoke control was created. With active control, the HVAC fans activate to prevent smoke migration to areas outside of fire zones. This method includes pressurized stairwells and a technique sometimes called the pressure sandwich or zoning in which the floors adjacent to the fire floor are pressurized and the fire floor is exhausted. DEFINITIONS AHJ: Authority Having Jurisdiction. ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atrium: A large volume space within a floor opening or series of floor openings connecting two or more stories, covered at the top of the series of openings, and used for purposes other than an enclosed stairway, elevator hoistway, escalator opening, or utility shaft.
Buoyancy: The tendency of warmer air or smoke to rise when located in cooler surrounding air. Caused by the warmer air being less dense than the cooler air, resulting in pressure differences. Combination fire and smoke damper: A device that resists the passage of air, fire, and smoke and meets the requirements of UL 555, Standard for Fire Dampers, and UL 555S, Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems. Covered mall: A large volume space created by a roofed-over common pedestrian area, in a building, enclosing a number of tenants and occupancies such as retail stores, drinking establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, and offices. Tenant spaces open onto, or directly communicate with, the pedestrian area. Expansion: The increase in the volume of smoke and gas caused by the energy released from a fire. Fire damper: A damper that meets the requirements of UL 555, Standard for Fire Dampers, and resists the passage of air or fire. FSCS: Firefighters' Smoke Control Station. Large volume space: An uncompartmented space, generally two or more stories in height, within which smoke from a fire, either in the space or in a communicating space, can move and accumulate without restriction. Atria and covered malls are examples of large volume spaces. NFPA: National Fire Protection Association. Pressure sandwich: An application where only the zones adjacent to a smoke zone are pressurized and the fire zone is exhausted to limit the spread of smoke. Smoke: The airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases developed when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. Smoke Control System: A system that modifies the movement of smoke in ways to provide safety for the occupants of a building, aid firefighters, and reduce property damage. Smoke Management System, Active: A system that uses fans to produce airflows and pressure differences across smoke barriers to limit and direct smoke movement. Smoke Management System, Passive: A system that shuts down fans and closes dampers to limit the spread of fire and smoke. Smoke Control Zone: An indoor space enclosed by smoke barriers, including the top and bottom, that is part of a zoned smoke control system. Smoke Damper: A device designed to resist the passage of air or smoke that meets the requirements of UL 555S, Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems.
Sensors providing status of operation and building automation controls providing system monitoring and printed records can assist in the testing process.
.Provide safe egress route . 4.Limit spread of smoke away from fire area .Providing static pressure differences across penetrations in smoke barriers.Limit property damage . The smoke management system should be designed independently of the HVAC system and then integrated.Stack Effect: A difference in density caused by temperature-pressure differences between the air inside a building and the air outside a building. Present smoke control systems use active methods and follow two basic design approaches to preventing the movement of smoke from the fire zone: . respectively. and maintainable.Provide safety for the occupants . UL: Underwriter's Laboratories Inc. such as cracks around doors.Extend egress time . 3. The air inside the building moves upwards or downwards depending on whether the air is warmer or colder. simple. The following is a partial list of potential system objectives: . The smoke management system must be designed as a complete mechanical control system that is able to function satisfactorily in the smoke management mode. The smoke management system must be designed to minimize the risks of failure and must be tested periodically.Provide safe zones (tenable environment) . without sacrificing functionality of the smoke control system.Provide elevator usage during fires as an egress route for the handicapped DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS General Four points must be stressed in developing a smoke management system: 1. where feasible.Assist firefighters . The smoke management system must be designed to be reliable. The smoke management system can be properly designed only with agreement on the objectives of the system. than the air outside. 2. UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply Smoke Management Fundamentals OBJECTIVES Designing a smoke management system requires agreement on the system objectives.Clear smoke away for visibility .
If a pull station is activated from a nonfire zone. Smoke vents and smoke shafts are also commonly used as a part of the smoke management system to vent pressures and smoke from fire areas. atria.
. Try to minimize the length of runs for sensors. actuators.Providing adequate velocity of air through large openings in smoke barriers. and exhaust. However. Methods used to activate smoke control systems require careful consideration.
Layout of System Smoke management equipment should be located in a building where it can best facilitate smoke control for various building layouts. Locate the smoke controls near the mechanical equipment used to control the smoke. response time. Designing smoke management systems for sprinklered buildings is quite practical. physical arrangement. The example in NFPA 92A includes location. The FSCS allows firefighters to have control capability over the smoke control equipment within the building. Alternatives for system initiation may not solve the problem. their effectiveness depends on the nearness of the fire. The following guidelines apply:
Follow the drawings and specifications for the job. Any alarm activation of a smoke management system that is common to all strategies in the building. care must be taken in using smoke detectors to initiate a pressurization strategy. it is more practical to use one or the other to design with and measure the results. Smoke management typically includes control of fires by automatic sprinklers. the wrong smoke control strategy will be employed. the wrong smoke control strategy will be employed. power. such as doors in an open position. This example is for information only and is not a requirement. Any penetrations of smoke barriers and walls used for pressurization must be carefully considered in order to maintain the intended smoke control. building leakage must be controlled during and after construction. control capability. and communications wiring in order to reduce the possibility of wiring being exposed to areas where there might be a fire. such as stairwell pressurization. For zoned smoke control. The FSCS must be able to show clearly if the smoke control equipment is in the normal mode or the smoke control mode. Although these two methods are directly related. Complicating the design task are problems with estimating the fire size and dealing with higher static pressures (or airflows). designing smoke management systems for buildings that do not have sprinkler systems is extremely difficult.
Appendix A of NFPA 92A describes an example of a Firefighters' Smoke Control Station (FSCS). however. For a smoke management system to function reliably. If a smoke detector that is not in the smoke zone goes into alarm. and graphic depiction. the buoyancy of the smoke. access. is acceptable. and other forces driving the smoke..
design criteria should include a procedure for acceptance testing. the system should respond to the first set of alarm conditions unless manually overridden. According to NFPA 92A.Annunciation of any failure to confirm equipment operation . (SBCCI) .Model Building Codes: . . owner. Local building codes are established using several reference standards or codes including the following: . Standby power and electrical supervision items listed in UL864 are optional for smoke control systems.Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA). Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems. installers.End-of-process verification of each control sequence . Examples of these functions are duct-static high pressure limit control and shutdown of the supply fan on detection of smoke in a supply air duct. All related energy management functions should be overridden when any smoke control mode is activated by an actual alarm or during the testing process.Codes and Standards The integration of fire alarm and smoke control is covered in UL 864. and Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)-have a clear understanding of the system objectives and the testing procedure.International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) ."2
Legal authority for approval of smoke control systems is from the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). "Contract documents should include operational and acceptance testing procedures so that all parties-designer.Western Fire Chiefs Association (WFCA)
.Compliance with NFPA 92A.Southern Building Code Congress. NFPA 92A states that. however. Inc. Manual override of automatic smoke control systems should be permitted. Compliance with this UL standard for engineered smoke control systems requires the following: . Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems .Automatic testing of dedicated smoke control systems Controls that meet UL Standard 864 are listed under UL Category UUKL. The AHJ uses local building codes as its primary standard. During the planning stage of a project. In the event of multiple alarm signals. Inc. some control functions should not be overridden. control sequences should allow smoke control modes to have the highest priority.
expansion. Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems . and Large Areas .American with Disabilities Act (ADA) .UL 864. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls..
.UL 555. Atria. Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems (UL Category UUKL) Go back to top Smoke Management Fundamentals DESIGN PRINCIPLES Causes of Smoke Movement The movement or flow of smoke in a building is caused by a combination of stack effect. These items basically cause pressure differences resulting in movement of the air and smoke in a building.UL 555S. buoyancy.NFPA 92B.Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards: . Standard for Fire Dampers and Ceiling Dampers .NFPA 90A. and the HVAC system.National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards: .National Mechanincal Code (NMC) . See Figure 1. wind velocity.NFPA 92A. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems . Installation of Air Conditioning Systems .
With normal stack effect. mechanical shafts.
. This phenomenon is called stack effect. 1. and other vertical openings. This is called normal stack effect. This creates a pressure difference which can cause a vertical movement of the air within the building. Air neither enters nor exits at the neutral plane. approximately midheight. The temperature difference causes a difference in the density of the air inside and outside of the building. however. When it is colder outside than inside.
Stack Effect Stack effect is caused by the indoor and outdoor air temperature differences. air enters the building below the neutral plane. Stack effect is greater for a tall building than for a low building. For further information of stack effect refer to the Buiding Airflow Systems Control Applications section. and exits above the neutral plane. there is a movement of air upward within the building. Before controls can be applied. The air can move through elevator shafts.Fig. See Figure 2. it is necessary to first understand the overall movement of smoke. a level where the pressures are equal inside and outside the building. stairwells. The temperature-pressure difference is greater for fire-heated air which may contain smoke than it is for normal conditioned air. Factors Affecting the Movement of Smoke. stack effect can exist in a one-story building.
Note: Arrows Indicate Direction of Air Movement Fig. This is called reverse stack effect. Rankine (R) h = Distance above the neutral plane. therefore. the effect of buoyancy decreases with distance from the fire. The pressure difference between a fire zone and the zone above can be expressed as:3
. Large pressure differences are possible in tall fire compartments. wc Ks = Coefficient. Buoyancy occurs because the warmer air is less dense than the cooler air. Rankine (R) Ti = Absolute temperature of air inside the shaft. Smoke Movement Caused by Normal or Reverse Stack Effect. However. its temperature is lowered due to heat transfer and dilution. air enters the building above the neutral plane and exits below the neutral plane. 2. When it is colder inside than outside. ft
Buoyancy Buoyancy is the tendency of warm air or smoke to rise when located in cool surrounding air. With reverse stack effect.64 To = Absolute temperature of outdoor air. The pressure difference across the building's exterior wall caused by temperature differences (normal or reverse stack effect) according to Design of Smoke Management Systems published by ASHRAE is expressed as:3
Where: = Pressure difference in. The buoyancy effect can cause smoke movement through barriers above the fire and through leakage paths in walls. there is a movement of air downward within the building. 7. as smoke moves away from the fire. resulting in pressure differences.
Expansion The energy released by fire can move smoke by expansion of hot gas caused by the fire. such as cracks. sq ft
. cfm Qin = Volumetric flow rate of air into the fire compartment. A fire increases the volume of the heated gas and smoke and causes pressure in the fire compartment. The relationship between volumetric airflow (smoke) and pressure through small openings. cfm Kf = Coefficient. 7. Rankine (R) Tf = Absolute temperature of the fire compartment. The volumetric flow of smoke out of a fire zone is greater than the airflow into the fire zone. Rankine(R) Tin = Absolute temperature of air into the fire compartment.64 To = Absolute temperature of surrounding air. 2610 A = Flow area.Where: = Pressure difference in. If there are several openings. wc Ks = Coefficient. Rankine (R) For tightly sealed fire zones. the pressure differences are small. is as:3
Where: = Pressure difference across the flow p in. Rankine (R) h = Distance above the neutral plane. This situation is expressed as:3
Where: Qout = Volumetric flow rate of smoke out of the fire compartment. cfm Tout = Absolute temperature of smoke leaving the fire compartment. Venting is often accomplished with smoke vents and smoke shafts. Venting or relieving of pressures created by expansion is critical to smoke control. wc Q = Volumetric flow rate. the pressure differences across the barrier caused by expansion can be extremely important.
8. If a window breaks on the windward side of a building because of a fire. Positive pressures on the windward side cause infiltration. Cw.82 x 10-4 V = Wind velocity. are discussed in the following. the wind can help to vent the smoke from the fire compartment to the outside. Utilizing the HVAC system in smoke control strategies can offer an economic means of control and even meet the need for zone pressurization (e. The effects of wind on a tightly constructed building can be negligible. If a window breaks on the leeward side. The higher the wind velocity.g. the pressure difference across the barrier can be used to control the smoke.Wind Velocity Wind velocity can have a significant effect on the movement of smoke within a building. In general. Values range from 0. with positive values for windward walls and negative values for leeward walls. varies greatly depending on the geometry of the building and can vary over the surface of the wall. Where the barriers have large penetrations. mph The pressure coefficient.
Control of Smoke Smoke control uses barriers within the building along with airflow produced by mechanical fans to contain the smoke. wc CW = Dimensionless pressure coefficient KW = Coefficient.g. it is easier to design and measure the control system results by using airflow methods.. However. 4. smoke can be forced from the fire compartment to other areas of the building. the effects can be significant for loosely constructed buildings or buildings with open doors or windows. P W = CW x K W x V 2 The pressure caused by wind on a building surface is expressed as:3 Where: PW = Wind pressure. HVAC HVAC systems can provide a means for smoke transport even when the system is shut down (e.8 to 0. pressurization and airflow. a bypass damper venting smoke).
. For some areas. wind velocity increases with the height from the ground. pressurizing areas adjacent to a fire compartment). The infiltration and exfiltration of outdoor air caused by wind can cause the smoke to move to areas other than the fire compartment. such as door openings. negative pressures on the leeward side cause exfiltration. the greater the pressure on the side of the building. Both methods.. endangering lives and dominating air movement. in.
Guidelines for pressurization values are found in NFPA 92A. from the suggested minimum design pressure differences in Table 1. Figure 3 illustrates such an arrangement with a door in a wall. The high pressure side can act as a refuge or an escape route. The high pressure prevents any of the smoke from infiltrating into the high pressure area. To calculate pressure differences for gas temperatures other than 1700F. Barriers are required between the nonsmoke areas and the area(s) containing the smoke and fire. This table is for gas temperatures of 1700F adjacent to the barrier. smoke control systems should be designed to provide a path to exhaust the smoke to the outdoors. thereby relieving the building of some of the heat of the fire and the pressure of the gas expansion. Suggested Minimum Design Pressure Differences Across Smoke Barriers. 3. a static pressure difference is required across any penetrations or cracks to prevent the movement of smoke.
Pressurization Pressurization of nonsmoke areas can be used to contain smoke in a fire or smoke zone. There is no actual definitive value for short-term variances. The smoke control system should be able to maintain these minimum pressure differences while the building is under typical conditions of stack effect and wind.
Table 1. the low pressure side as a containment area.In addition to life safety requirements. wind. Pressure differences can vary because of fan pulsations. and doors opening and closing. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems. For the barrier to perform correctly in a smoke control system. Short-term variances. Table 1 indicates minimum design pressure differences across smoke barriers.
Fig. refer to data in NFPA 92A. Pressurization Used to Prevent Smoke Infiltration. do not seem to have significant effects on the protection furnished by a smoke control system. The value depends on the
. The design pressure difference listed is the pressure difference between the smoke zone and adjacent spaces while the affected areas are in the smoke control mode.
the toxicity of the smoke. Table 2 lists values for the maximum pressure differences across doors. The fact that doors are sometimes left open during evacuation of a building. Figure 5 illustrates a system with relatively low velocity which allows backflow of smoke. door sizes. These values should not be exceeded so that the doors can be used when the pressurization system is in operation. Occasional variances of up to 50 percent of the maximum design pressure difference can be allowed in most cases. should be taken into account in designing the smoke control system. Many door closers require less force when the door is initially opened than the force required to open the door fully. The magnitude of the velocity of the airflow required to prevent backflow depends on the energy release rate of the fire..
Airflow Airflow is most commonly used to stop smoke movement through open doorways and corridors. This is done by designing and testing the system with one or more doors open. Door height is 2. The distance from the doorknob to the knob side of the door is 0.076m.13m.g. Table 2. Maximum Pressure Difference Across Doors in In. panic hardware). and the volume of the protected space. Figure 4 illustrates a system with relatively high velocity to prevent backflow of smoke through an open doorway. the airflow rates. The sum of the door closer forcE and the pressure imposed on the door by the pressurization system combine only until the door is opened sufficiently to allow air to move easily through the door. refer to calculation procedures furnished in Design of Smoke Control Systems for Buildings published by ASHRAE3. allowing smoke to flow through. The force imposed by a door closing device on closing a door is often different from that imposed on opening a door. or for hardware other than knobs (e. For other arrangements. The door widths in Table 2 apply only for doors that are hinged at one side.tightness of the construction and the doors. Since this can vary.
Note: Total door opening force is 133N. wc (NFPA 92/92A).
. the velocity should be regulated to prevent oxygen from being fed to the fire.
purging cannot ensure breathable air in a space while a fire is in progress. After a fire. Low Air Velocity Allowing Backflow of Smoke through an Open Doorway. High Air Velocity Preventing Backflow of Smoke Through an Open Doorway.
Fig. Purging dilutes the contaminated air and can continue until the level of obscuration is reduced and the space is reasonably safe to enter.Fig. the HVAC system can be designed to have a purge mode. 4. The principle of dilution can be applied to zones where smoke has entered and is being purged.
Purging Because fires produce large quantities of smoke. Traditionally. purging is necessary to allow firefighters to verify that the fire is totally extinguished. 5. firefighters have opened doors and windows to purge an area. The following equation allows determining a concentration of contaminant in a compartment after purging for a given length of time3: C = C0 x eat
. Where this is not possible.
and a communications bus to an alarm processor and remote control panels in appropriate areas of the building. depending on the requirements of the various areas in the building. The remote control panels position dampers and operate fans to contain or exhaust smoke. t i C0 = initial concentration of contaminant a = purging rate in number of air changes per minute t = time after doors close in minutes e = constant. A configuration similar to this will meet the requirements of UL 864. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is optional but recommended. an initiating panel. for each control sequence. The system can have an operator's control console for the building personnel and an FSCS from which to view the status of and override the smoke control system. The system requires a means of verifying operation.
Fig. approximately 2. Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems.Where: C = concentration of contaminant at time. Typical Smoke Control System Meeting the Requirements of UL Standard 864 and NFPA 92A. such as differential pressure or airflow proving devices. CONTROL APPLICATIONS Figure 6 illustrates a smoke control system with detectors. 6. Buoyancy is likely to cause greater concentration of smoke near the ceiling.718 Care must be taken in the use of this equation because of the nonuniformity of the smoke. and comply with NFPA 92A recommended practice for smoke control systems. Therefore. consideration of the locations of supply and exhaust registers is important to effective purging.
Exhausting the smoke zone (also aids stairwell pressurization systems by minimizing buoyancy and expansion effects) . Zone pressurization can be accomplished by: . In Figure 7E. The plus signs indicate pressurized nonsmoke zones. the doors are closed to the fire or smoke control zone and the adjacent zones are pressurized. The application in Figure 7B is called a pressure sandwich.Shutting off all returns or exhausts to floors other than the fire floor . providing supply air to. or leaving under temperature control all supplies other than those adjacent to the fire floor A smoke control zone can consist of one or more floors or a portion of a floor.
. the smoke zone is only a part of a floor and all the rest of the building areas are pressurized. stairwells. the floors above and below the smoke zone are pressurized. Figure 7 illustrates typical arrangements of smoke control zones.Shutting off.The following discussions cover smoke control applications for building zones. In Figures 7C and 7D. and large areas including malls and atria. Smoke zones should be kept as small as reasonable so control response can be readily achieved and quantities of air delivered to the nonsmoke zones can be held to manageable levels. In the example in Figures 7A and 7B.
Zone Pressurization The objective of zone pressurization is to limit the movement of smoke outside the fire or the smoke control zone by providing higher pressure areas adjacent to the smoke zone. In the event of a fire. Each of these discussions conclude with a typical operational sequence complying with UL Standard 864 for the smoke control system illustrated in Figure 6. the smoke zone consists of more than one floor.Providing supply air to adjacent zones . The minus sign indicates the smoke zone.
. 3. action of differential pressure switch). System allows pressurization fans to continue running if supply duct smoke detector is not in alarm or manual override is not activated. System enables damper operation as appropriate for smoke control mode. such as excessive door pull in a stairwell pressurization system.Fig. Typical Operation for Zone Pressurization System (See Fig. 6): 1. 7.g. 7.
The practice of exhausting air as a means of providing higher pressure areas adjacent to the smoke zone should be examined carefully. 4. Exhausting air from the fire floor may tend to pull the fire along and cause flames to spread before they can be extinguished. such as providing emergency preheat and minimizing the quantity of outdoor air used. Typical Zone Pressurization Arrangements for Smoke Control Zones. Operator verifies operation as appropriate (e. 5. Another consideration in zone pressurization is that bringing in outdoor air at low temperatures can cause serious freeze damage. 2. System turns on pressurization fans if not already on. Provision should be made to prevent damage when using outdoor air. Operator cancels smoke control mode as long as initiating panel is not in alarm and FSCS is not in manual override.
. Testing of smoke control strategies should include not only verification of acceptable pressures but also confirmation that interaction with other systems creates no problems. Smoke detector(s) initiate alarm in specific zone. System switches to smoke control mode as determined in remote control panel. 6.
the intake of supply air should be isolated from smoke shafts. Also. 9) in response to differential pressure measurements at these points. Stairwell Pressurization with Barometric Pressure Damper to Vent to the Outside. a pressure difference must be maintained across the closed stair tower door to ensure that smoke infiltration is limited. Open-loop control of pressurization is seldom acceptable because of significant pressure differences caused by door openings. To ensure proper stairwell pressurization system design. 8) to relieve pressure at the top of a stairwell or a more complex system to modulate dampers or fans at multiple injection points (Fig.
Fig. a means should be included to provide multiple supply injection points at a minimum of every three floors (unless design analysis can justify a greater spacing) to provide uniform pressurization. roof smoke and heat vents. and other building openings that might expel smoke from the building in a fire. in the event of a fire. Wind shields should be considered at fan intakes.
. 8. According to NFPA 92A. adequate purging must be provided to limit smoke density caused by temporary door openings on the fire floor. Also. a means should be included to modulate either the supply or the exhaust/relief dampers. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems. On the fire floor. Closed loop or modulation provides the ability to control pressurization within acceptable limits. Closed loop control can be as simple as a barometric pressure damper (Fig. to furnish an egress route for occupants and a staging area for firefighters.Stairwell Pressurization The objective of stairwell pressurization is to provide an acceptable environment within a stairwell.
Atria and Large Areas The objective of malls. Operator verifies operation as appropriate (e. Any fire alarm initiates smoke control mode.Maximum door pull force allowed Typical Operation for Stairwell Pressurization (See Fig. 9. Purging is used as the means to dilute and remove smoke.Fig. 3. Operator cancels smoke control mode as long as initiating panel is not in alarm and FSCS is not in manual override.g. 6): 1.
Control of Malls. Stairwell Pressurization with Modulating Dampers and Multiple Injection Points to Regulate Pressure..Outside pressure conditions known . 2. 10).
Testing of stairwell pressurization systems should be conducted with agreed on conditions including: . 4. System allows pressurization fans to continue running if supply duct smoke detector is not in alarm or manual override is not activated. atria. System enables damper operation as appropriate for smoke control mode. In large areas (Fig. 5. 6. action of differential pressure switch). The smoke layer then tends to descend
. the smoke produced is buoyant and rises in a plume until it strikes the ceiling or stratifies because of temperature inversion. System turns on pressurization fans.Number and location of doors held open . and other large area smoke control systems is to prevent the area from filling with smoke as a result of fire in the area or an adjoining area.
Control of Smoke in Malls.
Fig. ASHRAE Guideline 5-1994 should be followed. and Other Large Areas. Also. The system should be activated by an appropriate sensor within the zone (if applicable) and the results should be monitored and recorded. Smoke can be exhausted to delay the rate of descent of the smoke layer. Additional information can be found in NFPA 92B. testing should be conducted with both normal power and standby power. Operator verifies operation as appropriate (e. and Large Areas. Typical Operation for Malls. System turns on exhaust fans. Any fire alarm initiates smoke control mode. Where standby power is used. sprinklers can reduce the heat release rate and the smoke entering the plume. 4. Adjacent spaces to the mall or atrium can be protected from the smoke by barriers or opposed airflow.as the plume continues to supply smoke.
.. 6): 1. Atria.g. action of airflow-proving sail switch). and Large Area Smoke Control System (See Fig. 10. All measurements should be recorded and saved. Operator cancels smoke control mode as long as initiating panel is not in alarm and FSCS is not in manual override ACCEPTANCE TESTING Smoke control systems must be tested carefully and thoroughly. 2. 5. System enables damper operation as appropriate for smoke control mode. 3. Atria. Guide for Smoke Management in Malls. Atria.
National Institute of Building Sciences. 4. C. NFPA 101. and Large Areas Smoke Management Fundamentals BIBLIOGRAPHY Referenced Publications 1. Atria. 2. 6. 1989. May 16.The use of smoke bombs or tracer gas to test smoke control systems is discouraged because they cannot accurately simulate fire conditions. 1994 Edition. Eighth Edition. Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. 3. ASHRAE. Toxicity Effects Resulting from Fires in Buildings. N. 1992 Edition.. ASHRAE. NFPA 92A. 5. UL 555S. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls. Inc. 1996 Revision. Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems (UL Category UUKL). Code 88146. 1996 Edition. NFPA 90A. Atria. Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design. 1996 Revision. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls. J. Butcher and A. G. NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code.H. and Large Areas. 10. Smoke Management. UL 864. Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems . Inc. Smoke bombs and tracer gas lack the buoyant forces caused by heat generated in a fire. 1979. however. Life Safety Code. A.. 1995 Edition. Periodic testing should be conducted in accordance with the following: . ASHRAE 1995 HVAC Applications Handbook. Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems.NFPA 92A. These items can be used. 7. 9. Additional Related Publications 1. Chapter 48. Design of Smoke Management Systems. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems. Fifth Edition. 2. 1995 Revision. 11 New Fetter Lane. 3. Smoke Control Technology. for identifying leakage paths and leakage areas. 1983.
.NFPA 90A.NFPA 92B. and Society of Fire Protection Engineers. Parnell. NFPA 92B. E. Klote and James A. 1996 Edition. Standard for Fire Dampers and Ceiling Dampers. Milke. Spon Ltd. London EC4P 4EE. UL 555. 8. 1996 Edition. Third Edition. & F. State-of-the Art Report. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems .
NFPA 90A. London EC4P 4EE. 7. 1989. 17th Edition. Atria. UL 864. ASHRAE 1995 HVAC Applications Handbook.11. Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems. 1991. 11. Klote and James A.E. A. NFPA Fire Protection Handbook. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems. Commissioning Smoke Management Systems. and Society of Fire Protection Engineers. December 1994. ASHRAE. 4. 1995 Edition. & F. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls. 2. 1996 Edition. Milke. 3. 9. Quincy Massachusetts. Inc. State-of-the Art Report. 10. NFPA Fire Protection Handbook. P. Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. Smoke Control Technology. 6. Fifth Edition. UL 555S. 1991. George T.. 1983. 1996 Edition. 8. Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems (UL Category UUKL). 13. 1994 Edition. 1996 Edition. 12. National Institute of Building Sciences.
. 1996 Revision. May 16. NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code. Standard for Fire Dampers and Ceiling Dampers. Commissioning Smoke Management Systems. Design of Smoke Management Systems. N. Referenced Publications 1. ASHRAE Guidelines 5-1994. ISSN 1049 894X. ASHRAE. 3. E. Eighth Edition. 2. NFPA. 17th Edition.H. NFPA 101. Parnell. 1995 Revision. Library of Congress 94-069542. NFPA 92A. NFPA 92B. UL 555. ISSN 1049 894X. 11 New Fetter Lane.. Smoke Management. Inc. Spon Ltd. 1996 Revision. Third Edition. 5. Tamura. 12. 1979. Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design. ASHRAE Guidelines 5-1994. ISB: 0-87765-401-8. Additional Related Publications 1. G. J. Life Safety Code. and Large Areas. Chapter 48. Toxicity Effects Resulting from Fires in Buildings. 1992 Edition.. Smoke Movement and Control in High-Rise Buildings. NFPA SCHR-94. Code 88146. Butcher and A. C.
9. ISSN 1049 894X. Commissioning Smoke Management Systems. Fifth Edition. Code 88146. 7. N. NFPA 101. 1996 Revision. Tamura. UL 864. Butcher and A. ASHRAE. & F. 11. NFPA SCHR-94. George T. December 1994. Smoke Management. 1994 Edition. London EC4P 4EE. Smoke Movement and Control in High-Rise Buildings. ISB: 0-87765-401-8.13. Parnell.. Smoke Movement and Control in High-Rise Buildings. E. 17th Edition. Life Safety Code. NFPA. 1989. Chapter 48. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls. NFPA 92B. Third Edition. 1995 Edition. C. 8. 1995 Revision. Atria. Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design. 4. 1979. Quincy Massachusetts.. A. 1996 Edition. Standard for Control Units for Fire-Protective Signaling Systems (UL Category UUKL). NFPA. 1996 Revision. Spon Ltd.
. Eighth Edition.E. ISB: 0-87765-401-8. Additional Related Publications 1. Tamura. NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code. NFPA SCHR-94. 13. Library of Congress 94-069542. Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. and Large Areas. NFPA 90A. NFPA Fire Protection Handbook. Standard for Fire Dampers and Ceiling Dampers.. P. 1991. Standard for Leakage Rated Dampers for Use In Smoke Control Systems. 6. 11 New Fetter Lane. George T. Quincy Massachusetts. ASHRAE 1995 HVAC Applications Handbook. Library of Congress 94-069542. UL 555S. December 1994. 2. 1996 Edition. 3. 5. Smoke Control Technology. P. UL 555. 10. G.E. ASHRAE Guidelines 5-1994. 12.