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**Table of mathematical symbols
**

Common symbols

This is a listing of common symbols found within all branches of mathematics. Each symbol is listed in both HTML, which depends on appropriate fonts to be installed, and in TeX, as an image. This list is incomplete.

Symbol SymbolName in in HTML TeX

Explanation

Read as Category

Examples

= ≠ < >

equality is equal to; equals everywhere inequality

x = y means x and y do represent the same thing or value.

2 = 2 1 + 1 = 2

x ≠ y means that x and y do not represent the 2 + 2 ≠ 5 same thing or value. is not equal to; does not (The forms !=, /= or <> are generally used in equal programming languages where ease of everywhere typing and use of ASCII text is preferred.) x < y means x is less than y. x > y means x is greater than y. 3 < 4 5 > 4

strict inequality is less than, is greater than order theory proper subgroup is a proper subgroup of group theory

H < G means H is a proper subgroup of G.

5Z < Z A3 < S3

≪ ≫

(very) strict inequality is much less than, is much greater than order theory asymptotic comparison

x ≪ y means x is much less than y. x ≫ y means x is much greater than y.

0.003 ≪ 1000000

of smaller (greater) order than

f ≪ g means the growth of f is x ≪ ex asymptotically bounded by g. (This is I. M. Vinogradov's notation. Another notation is the Big O notation, which looks analytic number theory like f = O(g).) 3 ≤ 4 and 5 ≤ 5 5 ≥ 4 and 5 ≥ 5

≤ ≥

inequality

x ≤ y means x is less than or equal to y. is less than or equal to, is x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y. (The forms <= and >= are generally used in greater than or equal to programming languages where ease of order theory typing and use of ASCII text is preferred.) H ≤ G means H is a subgroup of G.

subgroup is a subgroup of group theory reduction is reducible to computational complexity theory

Z ≤ Z A3 ≤ S3

A ≤ B means the problem A can be reduced to the problem B. Subscripts can be added to the ≤ to indicate what kind of reduction.

If

then

Table of mathematical symbols

2

If L1 ≺ L2 and L2 ∈ P, then L1 ∈ P.

≺

Karp reduction

L1 ≺ L2 means that the problem L1 is Karp [1] is Karp reducible to; is reducible to L2. polynomial-time many-one reducible to computational complexity theory

∝

proportionality is proportional to; varies as everywhere Karp reduction [2]

y ∝ x means that y = kx for some constant k.

if y = 2x, then y ∝ x.

is Karp reducible to; is polynomial-time many-one reducible to computational complexity theory

A ∝ B means the problem A can be polynomially reduced to the problem B.

If L1 ∝ L2 and L2 ∈ P, then L1 ∈ P.

+

addition plus; add arithmetic disjoint union

4 + 6 means the sum of 4 and 6.

2+7=9

A1 + A2 means the disjoint union of sets A1 the disjoint union of ... and and A2. ... set theory

A1 = {3, 4, 5, 6} ∧ A2 = {7, 8, 9, 10} ⇒ A1 + A2 = {(3,1), (4,1), (5,1), (6,1), (7,2), (8,2), (9,2), (10,2)}

−

subtraction minus; take; subtract arithmetic negative sign negative; minus; the opposite of arithmetic set-theoretic complement minus; without

9 − 4 means the subtraction of 4 from 9.

8−3=5

−3 means the negative of the number 3.

−(−5) = 5

A − B means the set that contains all the elements of A that are not in B. (∖ can also be used for set-theoretic set theory complement as described below.) 3 × 4 means the multiplication of 3 by 4.

{1,2,4} − {1,3,4} = {2}

×

multiplication times; multiplied by arithmetic Cartesian product

7 × 8 = 56

X×Y means the set of all ordered pairs with {1,2} × {3,4} = {(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)} the first element of each pair selected from X the Cartesian product of ... and ...; the direct product of and the second element selected from Y. ... and ... set theory

cross product cross linear algebra group of units

u × v means the cross product of vectors u and v

(1,2,5) × (3,4,−1) = (−22, 16, − 2)

R× consists of the set of units of the ring R, the group of units of along with the operation of multiplication. ring theory This may also be written R* as described below, or U(R).

b}. {a. ∓ √ minus-plus minus or plus arithmetic square root the (principal) square root of real numbers complex square root the (complex) square root of complex numbers 6 ± (3 ∓ 5) means both 6 + (3 − 5) and 6 − (3 + 5). b.4. If we define ~ by x ~ y ⇔ x − y ∈ ℤ. . b+a}. x = 7 and x = 3. its subgroup H.2. b+2a}} A/~ means the set of all ~ equivalence classes in A. 10 ± 2 or equivalently 10 ± 20% means the range from 10 − 2 to 10 + 2. 7 · 8 = 56 · multiplication times. b+2a} / {0. over arithmetic quotient group mod group theory quotient set mod set theory 6 ÷ 3 or 6 ⁄ 3 means the division of 6 by 3. then a ≥ 99 mm and a ≤ 101 mm. has two solutions. {2a. The equation x = 5 ± √4.1]} ± plus-minus plus or minus arithmetic plus-minus plus or minus measurement 6 ± 3 means both 6 + 3 and 6 − 3. multiplied by arithmetic dot product dot linear algebra u · v means the dot product of vectors u and v (1. then . means the positive number whose square is . 2a. b} = {{0. then ℝ/~ = {x + n : n ∈ ℤ : x ∈ (0.5 12 ⁄ 4 = 3 G / H means the quotient of group G modulo {0. a.5) · (3. cos(x ± y) = cos(x) cos(y) ∓ sin(x) sin(y). b+a. If a = 100 ± 1 mm.−1) = 6 ÷ ⁄ division (Obelus) divided by. 2 ÷ 4 = . if coordinates with is represented in polar .Table of mathematical symbols 3 3 · 4 means the multiplication of 3 by 4.

that is. size of. 23 || 360.49|| = 3 ∣ ∤ divisor. it is true that 3|15 and 5|15. pa || n means pa exactly divides n (i. The function f : R → R defined by f(x) = x2 is not injective. . || parallel is parallel to geometry incomparability is incomparable to order theory exact divisibility exactly divides number theory x || y means x is parallel to y. ||…|| norm norm of. and y = (4.5). Since 15 = 3×5. if X is a uniformly random day of the year P(X is May 25 | X is in May) = 1/31 conditional probability given probability restriction restriction of … to ….2} || {2. nint(x) or Round(x). so a regular but slightly shorter vertical bar | character can be used. ||3. a∤b means a does not divide b. 7. ⌊x⌉. (This may also be written [x].Table of mathematical symbols 4 |3| = 3 |–5| = |5| = 5 | i | = 1 | 3 + 4i | = 5 |…| absolute value or modulus |x| means the distance along the real line (or absolute value of.1). 9}| = 4.3} under set containment. Euclidean norm of geometry determinant determinant of matrix theory cardinality |x – y| means the Euclidean distance between For x = (1. || x + y || ≤ || x || + || y || ||x|| means the nearest integer to x. |A| means the determinant of the matrix A |X| means the cardinality of the set X. of numbers Euclidean distance Euclidean distance between. ||1. 5. x and y. (This symbol can be difficult to type. ||−2. divides divides a|b means a divides b. pa divides n but pa+1 does not).) P(A|B) means the probability of the event a occurring given that b occurs. order (# may be used instead as described below.e. but f|R+ is injective. and its number theory negation is rare. cardinality of.6|| = 2. x || y means x is incomparable to y. restricted to set theory f|A means the function f restricted to the set A. {1. modulus across the complex plane) between x and zero. If l || m and m ⊥ n then l ⊥ n.) of set theory |{3.4|| = −2. it is the function with domain A ∩ dom(f) that agrees with f.) ||1|| = 1. length of linear algebra nearest integer function nearest integer to numbers || x || means the norm of the element x of a [3] normed vector space.

factorial combinatorics 4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24 ! factorial logical negation not The statement !A is true if and only if A is false. ℝ:ℚ A : B means the Frobenius inner product of the matrices A and B.. which is called aleph-null. knot theory A#B is the connected sum of the manifolds A A#Sm is homeomorphic to A. This may also be written as K ≥ F. ℵ ℶ ᵒ aleph number aleph set theory beth number beth set theory cardinality of the continuum cardinality of the continuum. K : F means the field K extends the field F. the dot product notation. The general inner product is denoted by linear algebra ⟨u. cardinality of. : such that such that. the set-builder notation (described below). 6. × n. ⟨u | v⟩ or (u | v). the knot sum. over field theory inner product of matrices inner product of : means “such that”. and is used in proofs and ∃ n ∈ ℕ: n is even. index of subgroup the number of "copies" (cosets) of H that fill group theory up G n! means the product 1 × 2 × . where the notation ¬A is preferred. and the and B. See also Bra-ket notation. which has a slightly stronger condition. 8} = 3 # cardinality #X means the cardinality of the set X. by the symbol (a lowercase Fraktur letter C). v⟩. where α is an ordinal). A slash placed through another operator is propositional logic the same as "!" placed in front. x·y is common. For spatial vectors. order (|…| may be used instead as described above.. for any manifold A. The cardinality of is denoted by or |ℕ| = ℵ0. the α-th one. ). knot sum of. index of a subgroup The index of a subgroup H in a group G is the "relative size" of H in G: equivalently. but ℶ does not necessarily index all of the numbers indexed by ℵ. knot composition of topology.) !(!A) ⇔ A x ≠ y ⇔ !(x = y) . (The symbol ! is primarily from computer science. then this denotes sphere Sm. ℶα represents an infinite cardinality (similar to ℵ.) of set theory connected sum connected sum of. If A and B are knots. set theory ℵα represents an infinite cardinality (specifically. It is avoided in mathematical texts. so that everywhere field extension extends.Table of mathematical symbols 5 #{4. cardinality of the real numbers. size of. c. as described below.

N ⋊φ H is the semidirect product of N (a normal subgroup) and H (a subgroup). the tuples in R for which there is not a the antijoin of tuple in S that is equal on their common relational algebra attribute names.an(R S) . as ⋉. (and equivalently 1 ~ 5 mod 4 ≈ approximately equal is approximately equal to everywhere isomorphism x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y. normal subgroup is a normal subgroup of group theory ideal is an ideal of ring theory antijoin N ◅ G means that N is a normal subgroup of Z(G) ◅ G group G. ≀ ◅ ▻ wreath product A ≀ H means the wreath product of the group wreath product of … by … A by the group H. X ~ N(0. (2) ◅ Z R ▻ S means the antijoin of the relations R R and S. x ~ x+1 a ~ b means ). This may also be written A wr H. (⋊ may also be written the other way round. π ≈ 3. group theory is isomorphic to the automorphism group of the complete bipartite graph on (n.) Q / {1. −1} ≈ V. S= a 1. Also.n) vertices.) S=R-R S ⋉ ⋊ semidirect product the semidirect product of semijoin R ⋉ S is the semijoin of the relations R and S. (Note that ~ is used for an approximation that is poor. then G is group theory said to split over N. or as ×. if G = N ⋊φ H.. as group theory described below.) 2 ~ 5 8 × 9 ~ 100 but π2 ≈ 10 f ~ g means . (≅ can also be used for isomorphic. means the random variable X has the probability distribution D..Table of mathematical symbols 6 X ~ D. I ◅ R means that I is an ideal of ring R. the standard normal distribution ~ probability distribution has distribution statistics row equivalence is row equivalent to matrix theory same order of magnitude roughly similar..14159 is isomorphic to G ≈ H means that group G is isomorphic (structurally identical) to group H. R the set of all tuples in R for which there is a the semijoin of tuple in S that is equal on their common relational algebra attribute names. or general size. poorly approximates approximation theory asymptotically equivalent is asymptotically equivalent to asymptotic analysis equivalence relation are in the same equivalence class everywhere A~B means that B can be generated by using a series of elementary row operations on A m ~ n means the quantities m and n have the same order of magnitude. with respect to φ. otherwise use ≈ .1). where Q is the quaternion group and V is the Klein four-group.

(→ may mean the same as ⇒. therefore therefore. (May also be written Q. exterior product exponentiation 2^3 = 23 = 8 … (raised) to the power of … . so.Table of mathematical symbols 7 ⋈ ∴ ∵ ■ □ ∎ ▮ ‣ ⇒ → ⊃ ⇔ ↔ ¬ ˜ natural join the natural join of R ⋈ S is the natural join of the relations R and S. or it may have Heyting algebra the meaning for functions given below. x = 2 ⇒ x2 = 4 is true. propositional logic. For functions A(x) and B(x). else it is false. A(x) ∧ B(x) is and.E. B(x)). but x2 = 4 ⇒ x = 2 is in general if A is false then nothing is said about B.) n < 4 ∧ n >2 ⇔ n = 3 when n is a natural number. x + 5 = y + 2 ⇔ x + 3 = y material equivalence if and only if. not A slash placed through another operator is propositional logic the same as "¬" placed in front. × can also be used.) [4] (⊃ may mean the same as ⇒. Halmos symbol everywhere Sometimes used in proofs before reasoning. or it may have the meaning for superset given below. false (since x could be −2). Used to mark the end of a proof. the set of all combinations of tuples in R and S that are equal on their common relational algebra attribute names. min. ∴ Socrates is mortal. Computer scientists will often use ! but this is avoided in mathematical texts. if … then A ⇒ B means if A is true then B is also true.) a ^ b means a raised to the power of b (a ^ b is more commonly written ab. since everywhere end of proof QED. Socrates is a human. 3331 is prime ∵ it has no positive integer factors other than itself and one. lattice theory wedge product u ∧ v means the wedge product of vectors u and v.) ¬(¬A) ⇔ A x ≠ y ⇔ ¬(x = y) ∧ logical conjunction or meet The statement A ∧ B is true if A and B are in a lattice both true.) material implication implies.D. so ¬ or the slash notation is preferred. This generalizes the cross product to higher dimensions. meet used to mean min(A(x). All humans are mortal. hence everywhere because because. iff propositional logic logical negation The statement ¬A is true if and only if A is false. tombstone. 3 linear algebra (For vectors in R .) A ⇔ B means A is true if B is true and A is false if B is false. (The symbol ~ has many other uses. propositional logic. wedge product. Sometimes used in proofs before logical consequences. The symbol ^ is generally used in programming everywhere languages where ease of typing and use of plain ASCII text is preferred.

is equal by be another name for y. …} . (≈ can also be used for isomorphic. ∀ n ∈ ℕ: n2 ≥ n.. b. and W. if both are false. under certain assumptions taken in context. is used. join For functions A(x) and B(x).) ∀ x: P(x) means P(x) is true for all x. or the coproduct symbol ∐. modulo . everywhere P :⇔ Q means P is defined to be logically equivalent to Q. the statement is false. ℕ = { 1. ∀ ∃ ∃! =: := ≡ :⇔ ≜ ≝ ≐ ≅ universal quantification for all. } congruence relation .c} means the set consisting of a.. x := y. A(x) ∨ B(x) is propositional logic. ⊕ ⊻ exclusive or xor propositional logic.. modular arithmetic set brackets the set of … set theory 5 ≡ 2 (mod 3) {a. 3..b. 2. lattice used to mean max(A(x). is congruent to . congruence is congruent to geometry isomorphic △ABC ≅ △DEF means triangle ABC is congruent to (has the same measurements as) triangle DEF. A ⊕ A is always false.) a ≡ b (mod n) means a − b is divisible by n ≡ { . but not both. there are predicate logic uniqueness quantification there exists exactly one predicate logic definition ∃ x: P(x) means there is at least one x such that P(x) is true. are true. theory The statement A ⊕ B is true when either A or (¬A) ⊕ A is always true.. ∃! x: P(x) means there is exactly one x such that P(x) is true. Boolean algebra direct sum direct sum of The direct sum is a special way of Most commonly. for each predicate logic existential quantification there exists. ∃! n ∈ ℕ: n + 5 = 2n. as abstract algebra described above. max. . the combining several objects into one general following consequence is used: object. and [5] c. ∃ n ∈ ℕ: n is even. is isomorphic to G ≅ H means that group G is isomorphic (structurally identical) to group H. U = V ⊕ W ⇔ (U = V + W) ∧ (V ∩ W = {0}) abstract algebra (The bun symbol ⊕. there is.. both) are true. V. for any. B.Table of mathematical symbols 8 ∨ logical disjunction or join in a lattice The statement A ∨ B is true if A or B (or n ≥ 4 ∨ n ≤ 2 ⇔ n ≠ 3 when n is a natural number. B(x)). for vector spaces U. A ⊻ B means the same. y =: x or x ≡ y means x is defined to is defined as. ⊻ is only for logic. definition to (Some writers use ≡ to mean congruence). or.

means the same. then (f∘g)(x) = 2(x + 3).4} ∖ {3. 4} empty set the empty set set theory set membership is an element of. and g(x) := x + 3. (1/2)−1 ∈ ℕ 2−1 ∉ ℕ is a subset of (subset) A ⊆ B means every element of A is [6] also an element of B.) (A ∪ B) ⊇ B ℝ ⊃ ℚ set-theoretic union the union of … or …. f: a ↦ b means the function f maps the element a to the element b. {x | P(x)} is the same as {x : set theory P(x)}. intersect set theory symmetric difference A ∪ B means the set of those elements which A ⊆ B ⇔ (A ∪ B) = B [6] are either in A. 2.2.2. A ∩ B means the set that contains all those [6] elements that A and B have in common. (Some writers use the symbol ⊂ as if it were the same as ⊆. is a superset of A ⊃ B means A ⊇ B but A ≠ B. type theory function arrow maps to set theory function composition composed with set theory f: X → Y means the function f maps the set X Let f: ℤ → ℕ∪{0} be defined by f(x) := x2. [5] a ∉ S means a is not an element of S. ∅ means the set with no elements. {x ∈ ℝ : x2 = 1} ∩ ℕ = {1} symmetric difference A ∆ B means the set of elements in exactly one of A or B.6.2} function arrow from … to set theory. . without elements of A that are not in B. union set theory set-theoretic intersection intersected with.5.6} set-theoretic complement A ∖ B means the set that contains all those [6] minus.) (A ∩ B) ⊆ A ℕ ⊂ ℚ ℚ ⊂ ℝ superset A ⊇ B means every element of B is also an element of A. [5] { } {n ∈ ℕ : n2 < 20} = { 1.8} = {1. 3.) {1. such that (f∘g)(x) = [7] f(g(x)).5.) {1. f∘g is the function. Let f: x ↦ x+1 (the successor function).6} = {1. if f(x) := 2x.8} ∆ {2. set theory (Some writers use the symbol ⊃ as if it were the same as ⊇. or in B. set theory (− can also be used for set-theoretic complement as described above. (Not to be confused with delta. set theory (proper subset) A ⊂ B means A ⊆ B but A ≠ B.Table of mathematical symbols 9 { : } { | } ∅ { } ∈ ∉ ⊆ ⊂ ⊇ ⊃ ∪ ∩ ∆ ∖ → ↦ ∘ set builder notation the set of … such that {x : P(x)} means the set of all x for which [5] P(x) is true. into the set Y. or in both. described set theory below. is not an element of everywhere. Δ.5. set theory subset {n ∈ ℕ : 1 < n2 < 4} = ∅ [5] a ∈ S means a is an element of the set S.3.4.

ℤ≥ means {0. the (set of) natural numbers ℤ Z ℤn ℤp Zn Zp ℙ P integers ℤ means {.. [1]. along with the standard ordering relation ≤.} .[n−1]} with ℤ3 = {[0].} or { 1. P[X] probability theory or Pr[X]. [2]. 3. p-adic integers the (set of) p-adic integers numbers projective space P. −1. The choice depends on the area of mathematics being studied.}.} . occurring. Pr(X). integers mod n ℤn means {[0].. number numbers theorists prefer the latter. 3. the projective space. ℙ(Heads) = ℙ(Tails) = 0. the reals numbers complex numbers C. the rationals numbers real numbers R. 1. use ℤ/pℤ or ℤ/(p) instead.. 3. 2.d ∈ ℝ}. . ∈ ℚ π ∉ ℚ ℚ Q ℝ R ℂ C ℍ H rational numbers Q. such as n or l. [1].14000. q ∈ ℕ}. i = √(−1) ∈ ℂ ℍ means {a + b i + c j + d k : a.c. 3. the (set of) integers Note that any letter may be used instead of n... 2. This may also be written as P(X). −3. To avoid confusion with p-adic numbers numbers...b. −2.5. . the (set of) quaternions numbers ℝ means the set of real numbers. π ∈ ℝ √(−1) ∉ ℝ ℂ means {a + b i : a. 0. the probability of ℙ(X) means the probability of the event X If a fair coin is flipped... Zn.. 1. . ℚ means {p/q : p ∈ ℤ. −p : p ∈ ℕ ∪ {0} } ℕ N natural numbers N.. e. the projective plane topology probability ℙ means a space with a point at infinity.}. 3.. To avoid confusion. 2. always check an author's definition of N.. modulo n such as p.Table of mathematical symbols 10 N means either { 0. 2. ... 2. the projective line.g. the (set of) rational numbers.b ∈ ℝ}. ℤ+ or Z. 1. [2]} addition and multiplication modulo n. . set theorists and computer scientists prefer the former.. . Set theorists often use the notation ω (for least infinite ordinal) to denote the set of natural numbers (including zero).. numbers . ℕ = {|a| : a ∈ ℤ} or ℕ = {|a| > 0: a ∈ ℤ} . the (set of) real numbers. ℤ = {p. the (set of) integers ℤ> means {1. Note that any letter may be used instead of p. the (set of) complex numbers numbers quaternions or Hamiltonian quaternions H. 3. analysts.

when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.e. it often occurs in limits.9⌋ = 2. floor(x) or int(x).e. i. ⌊x⌋ means the floor of x. ⌊2. ⌈−2.1⌉ = 3. (This may also be written ceil(x) or numbers ceiling(x). ⌊2.) ⌊4⌋ = 4.49⌉ = 4 [K : F] means the degree of the extension K : [ℚ(√2) : ℚ] = 2 F. ⌈2.6⌉ = −2 nearest integer function nearest integer to numbers degree of a field extension the degree of field theory ⌊2⌉ = 2. ||x||.) ⌊x⌉ means the nearest integer to x. nint(x) or Round(x). (This may also be written [x]. ⌊4. (This may also be written [x]. ⌊2.6⌉ = 3. ⌊−2.4⌉ = -3.) ⌈4⌉ = 4. ⌊-3. O ∞ ⌊…⌋ ⌈…⌉ ⌊…⌉ [ : ] Big O notation big-oh of Computational complexity theory infinity infinity numbers floor floor. greatest integer. entier numbers ceiling ceiling If f(x) = 6x4 − 2x3 + 5 and g(x) = x4 .9⌉ = 3. i. ⌈2. the smallest integer greater than or equal to x. the largest integer less than or equal to x.1⌋ = 2.Table of mathematical symbols 11 The Big O notation describes the limiting behavior of a function. then ∞ is an element of the extended number line that is greater than all real numbers. [ℂ : ℝ] = 2 [ℝ : ℚ] = ∞ .6⌋ = −3 ⌈x⌉ means the ceiling of x.

b ∈ R (a ring or commutative algebra).e.6] = 3. (This may also be written ⌊x⌋. ring theory [a. but with R as the abstract algebra equivalence relation.7] = −4 floor [x] means the floor of x. where ~ is an equivalence relation. as described above. c] = [b. ] equivalence class the equivalence class of [a] means the equivalence class of a. group theory. b. c. nint(x) or Round(x).3. C] = A[B. b] = ab − ba. [AB. y] (group theory). the commutator of [a.4}]=1.3. {x : Let a ~ b be true iff a ≡ b (mod 5). Another notation is Im f. image of … under … (This may also be written as f(X) if there is everywhere no risk of confusing the image of f under X with the function application f of X.) . [2.) [x] means the nearest integer to x. 2. [a]R means the same. i. x ~ a}. nearest integer function nearest integer to [2] = 2.5] = 3. b].4}]=0 f[X] means { f(x) : x ∈ X }. i. −8. a] = [c.99] = 3. triple scalar product the triple scalar product of vector calculus [a. Not to be confused with the nearest numbers integer function. [2 ∈ {2. h] = g−1h−1gh (or ghg−1h−1). [3. Not to be confused with the floor numbers function.Table of mathematical symbols 12 [ ] [ . [-3.) [S] maps a true statement S to 1 and a false statement S to 0. greatest integer. the largest integer less than or equal to x.1]. b. (This may also be written ⌊x⌉. …}. [3. [3] = 3. the image of f under its domain. . floor(x) or entier int(x). if a.4] = -3. h ∈ G (a group). c] = a × b · c. −3. 0 and 1/2 are in the interval [0. ] [ . [5 ∈ {2. the image of the function f under the set X ⊆ dom(f). . 7. [−3. a. the scalar product of a × b with c. floor. xy = x[x. Then [2] = {…. 0 otherwise propositional logic image [0=5]=0. [4. as described below. C]B (ring theory). closed interval closed interval order theory commutator [g. if g.49] = 4 Iverson bracket 1 if true. C] + [A. [7>0]=1. ||x||.e.

7] and (−∞. Set sequence theorists and computer scientists often use everywhere angle brackets ⟨ ⟩ instead of parentheses. (8/4)/2 = 2/2 = 1. precedence grouping parentheses everywhere tuple An ordered list (or sequence. gcd number theory (3. (Note that tuple. the image of f under its domain. [ open interval open interval 4 is not in the interval (4. [4. or row vector) of values. row vector.b) is ambiguous: it could be an ordered pair or an open interval.) (a. (Note that the notation (a.b[ can be used instead. +∞) . order theory be an ordered pair or an open interval. +∞) equals the set of . but 8/(4/2) = 8/2 = 4. ] [ . the image of the function f under the set X ⊆ dom(f). [ ( .) function application of set theory image If f(x) := x2. b) means the highest common factor of a and b. 25) = 5. 18). ) ] . 7) = 1 (they are coprime). 18) and [1.b) is ambiguous: it could positive real numbers. (This may also be written hcf(a.) (a. b. The notation ]a. right-open interval order theory . ] ] . left-open interval order theory right-open interval half-open interval.) Perform the operations inside the parentheses first. (0. −1] left-open interval half-open interval. ( . or horizontal vector. then f(3) = 32 = 9. ) [ . the notation (a. b) is an ordered pair (or 2-tuple). (15.) . b). highest common factor highest common factor. greatest common divisor. ( ) is the empty tuple (or 0-tuple). hcf. b) or gcd(a. image of … under … f(X) means { f(x) : x ∈ X }. (−1. ordered pair/triple/etc. n-tuple. (This may also be written as f[X] if there is a everywhere risk of confusing the image of f under X with the function application f of X.Table of mathematical symbols 13 f(x) means the value of the function f at the element x. Another notation is Im f. (a. ( ) (. c) is an ordered triple (or 3-tuple).

a linear functional which maps a ket |ψ⟩ onto the inner product ⟨φ|ψ⟩. or row vector) of values. u2. linear hull of ⟨u1. the colon notation A : B may be used.⟩ inner product inner product of ⟨u.v⟩ means the inner product of u and v. (where S ⊆ G. contain S. ordered pair/triple/etc. the dot product notation. x·y is common. the more “keyboard friendly” forms < and > are sometimes seen. |φ⟩ means the vector with label φ. The span of S may also be written as Sp(S). the vector … Dirac notation bra vector the bra …. A qubit's state can be represented as α|0⟩+ β|1⟩. v⟩ may be ambiguous: it could mean the inner product or the linear span. (The notation (a. 2. such as ⟨u | v⟩ and (u | v). linear algebra Note that the notation ⟨u.t. is the empty tuple (or 0-tuple). is shorthand for . or horizontal vector. for a time series :g(t) (t = 1. …}⟩.. x·y is common. . That is. u2. it is the intersection of all subspaces of V which (linear) span of. Another variant of the notation is ⟨u. y⟩ = 2 × −1 + 3 × 5 = 13 ⟨⟩ ⟨. where u and v are members of an inner product space. There are many variants of the notation.Table of mathematical symbols 14 The standard inner product between two vectors x = (2. where u and v are members of an inner [8] linear algebra product space. 5) is: ⟨x. the dual of … Dirac notation ⟨φ| means the dual of the vector |φ⟩. For spatial vectors. v⟩ may be ambiguous: it could mean the inner product or the linear span.b) is often used as well. the dot product notation. These are avoided in mathematical texts. sequence everywhere is an ordered pair (or 2-tuple). As ⟨ and ⟩ can be hard to type. For matrices. is an ⟨|⟩ (|) inner product inner product of ⟨u | v⟩ means the inner product of u and v.. For spatial vectors. which are described below. row vector. average average of represents the average of all the element in statistics S. where α and β are complex numbers s.) tuple tuple.. An ordered list (or sequence. the more “keyboard friendly” forms < and > are sometimes seen. n-tuple. let S be a subset of N for example. v⟩ which is described above. (u | v) means the same. For matrices. means the smallest subgroup of G In S3. . |⟩ ⟨| ket vector the ket …. 3) and y = (−1. |α|2 + |β|2 = 1.) we can define the structure functions Sq( ): linear span ⟨S⟩ means the span of S ⊆ V. which is in a Hilbert space. These are avoided in mathematical texts. a group) containing every group theory element of S. subgroup generated by a set the subgroup generated by and . linear algebra Note that the notation ⟨u. As ⟨ and ⟩ can be hard to type. the colon notation A : B may be used. ordered triple (or 3-tuple). …⟩is shorthand for ⟨{u1.

e. the symbol ∮ may be used instead. line integral line/path/curve integral of … along … ∫C f ds means the integral of f along the curve C. i.) means the derivative of x with respect to time. the slope of the tangent to f … prime. = (1+2)(2+2)(3+2)(4+2) = 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 360 means the set of all (n+1)-tuples (y0.) . then f ′(x) = 2x the point x. ′ • derivative f ′(x) means the derivative of the function f at If f(x) := x2. ∫x2 dx = x3/3 + C ∫ab f(x) dx means the signed area between integral from … to … of … the x-axis and the graph of the function f with respect to between x = a and x = b. = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30 means a1a2···an. as described below. calculus (If the curve is closed. and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces. the free product of groups. …. calculus ∫ab x2 dx = b3/3 − a3/3.Table of mathematical symbols 15 ∑ ∏ summation sum over … from … to … of arithmetic product product over … from … to … of arithmetic Cartesian product the Cartesian product of.. That is . category theory The coproduct of a family of objects is essentially the "least specific" object to which each object in the family admits a morphism. at x. derivative … dot. especially in ASCII text. time derivative of calculus ∫ indefinite integral or antiderivative indefinite integral of the antiderivative of calculus definite integral ∫ f(x) dx means a function whose derivative is f. where r is a parametrization of C. If x(t) := t2. derivative of (The single-quote character ' is sometimes calculus used instead. yn). the direct product of set theory means a1 + a2 + … + an. ∐ coproduct coproduct over … from … to … of A general construction which subsumes the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces. then . .

Instances where the latter requires simultaneous double integration. A third related symbol is the closed volume integral. In representations of Gauss's Law. change in even d are used instead. calculus n See also: ∂. then ∇f = (3y. or sometimes dually appropriately. 3x. The contour integral can also frequently be found with a subscript capital letter C. 2z) If . …. divergence of vector calculus curl curl of vector calculus If f (x. then ∂f/∂x = 2xy boundary boundary of topology degree of a polynomial degree of algebra ∂{x : ||x|| ≤ 2} = {x : ||x|| = 2} ∂f means the degree of the polynomial f. If C is a Jordan curve about 0. …. Not to be confused calculus with the symmetric difference. It is sometimes used in physics texts contour integral of involving equations regarding Gauss's Law. above.y) := x2y. . but used to denote a single integration over a closed curve or loop. ∮S. the representations describe only the first integration of the volume over the enclosing surface. d ∂f/∂xi means the partial derivative of f with respect to xi. calculus and while these formulas involve a closed surface integral. denoting that a closed loop integral is. then the Laplacian of ƒ is defined by .y. then If . the symbol ∯ would be more appropriate. (This may also be written deg f.) The Laplace operator is a second order differential operator in n-dimensional Euclidean space is the gradient of a straight line Laplacian Laplace operator vector calculus If ƒ is a twice-differentiable real-valued function. then . xn) is the vector of partial derivatives (∂f / ∂x1.) ∂(x2 − 1) = 2 Δ delta Δx means a (non-infinitesimal) change in x.Table of mathematical symbols 16 ∮ Contour integral or closed line integral Similar to the integral. . ∂f / ∂xn). ∇ gradient del. around a contour C. δ and delta. a subscript capital S. …. a circle C. gradient of vector calculus divergence del dot.z) := 3xy + z². ∇f (x1. nabla. ∂M means the boundary of M If f(x. (If the change becomes infinitesimal. x ). then ∂ partial derivative partial. ∮C. in fact. is used to denote that the integration is over a closed surface. denoted by the symbol ∰. where f is a function on (x1. written ∆.

Hermitian This may also be written A*T. t tr matrix operations This may also be written A or A . † A† means the transpose of the complex [9] conjugate transpose. top type theory ∀x : x ∨ ⊤ = ⊤ ⊤ means the top or universal type. 2. ⊤ means the largest element of a lattice. A*. 8} among the subsets of {1. every type in the type system of interest is a subtype of top.Table of mathematical symbols 17 δ(x) δ Dirac delta function Dirac delta of hyperfunction Kronecker delta Kronecker delta of hyperfunction δij π σ projection Projection of Relational algebra selection Selection of The selection tuples in and the Relational algebra restricts to the attribute set. which holds between the the value . T <: ⊤ . If S <: T and T <: U then S <: U (transitivity). <: <· cover is covered by order theory subtype is a subtype of type theory x <• y means that x is covered by y. T1 <: T2 means that T1 is a subtype of T2. 3. AT. ⊤ top element the top element lattice theory top type the top type. AT or adjoint/conjugate/transpose. AT*. selects all those for which holds between the attribute. ∀ types T. conjugate of A. but with its rows swapped for transpose columns. If A = (aij) then AT = (aji). 8} <• {1. adjoint matrix operations conjugate transpose If A = (aij) then A† = (aji). 10} ordered by containment. T transpose AT means A. …. The selection selects all those tuples in for attribute and {1.

a. ⊥ means the smallest element of a lattice.Table of mathematical symbols 18 x ⊥ y means x is perpendicular to y. 4} ⊗ {1. 1. predicate logic tensor product. 3. B is also true. coprime is coprime to number theory independent is independent of probability bottom element the bottom element lattice theory bottom type the bottom type. the set of all vectors in V linear algebra orthogonal to every vector in W. . perp W⊥ means the orthogonal complement of W (where W is a subspace of the inner product space V). Within . . A → B ⊢ ¬B → ¬A. the zero type ∀ types T. 2. ⊥ <: T or empty type). ∀x : x ∧ ⊥ = ⊥ ⊥ means the bottom type (a. e. bot type theory comparability is comparable to order theory 34 ⊥ 55. 2. If l ⊥ m and m ⊥ n in the plane then l || n. x ⊥ y means that x is comparable to y. A ⊥ B means A is an event whose propability If A ⊥ B. {e. or more generally x is orthogonal to y. x ⊥ y means x has no factor in common with y. π} ⊥ {1. tensor product of modules tensor product of linear algebra A ⊧ B means the sentence A entails the A ⊧ A ∨ ¬A sentence B. 2} = of modules V and U over the ring R. 3.k. that is in every model in which A is true. x ⊢ y means y is derivable from x. bottom is the subtype of every type in the type system. is derived from propositional logic. U. ⊧ ⊢ ⊗ entailment entails model theory inference infers. π} under set containment. then P(A|B) = P(A). ⊥ perpendicular is perpendicular to geometry orthogonal complement orthogonal/perpendicular complement of. [10] means the tensor product of V and means the tensor product {1. is independent of event B.

or U(R). as described above. If v is If a k-vector within an n-dimensional oriented Hodge dual. … bar statistics complex conjugate conjugate complex numbers algebraic closure algebraic closure of field theory topological closure (topological) closure of topology . (z* can also be used for the conjugate of z. The field of algebraic numbers is sometimes denoted as because it is the algebraic closure of the rational numbers .Table of mathematical symbols 19 f * g means the convolution of f and g. (the rational is the topological closure of the set S. along with the operation of multiplication. the group of units of R* consists of the set of units of the ring R. are the standard basis vectors of . and engineering ISO 31-11 List of mathematical abbreviations Mathematical alphanumeric symbols Mathematical notation Notation in probability and statistics Physical constants Roman letters used in mathematics Table of logic symbols Unicode mathematical operators . See also • • • • • • • • • • • Table of mathematical symbols by introduction date Greek letters used in mathematics. hyperreal numbers the (set of) hyperreals non-standard analysis Hodge dual *v means the Hodge dual of a vector v. means the complex conjugate of z. numbers are dense in the real numbers). This may also be denoted as cl(S) or Cl(S). x mean overbar. * convolution convolution. ( can also be used for the conjugate of z. as described below. (often read as “x bar”) is the mean (average value of ). In the space of the real numbers. × ring theory This may also be written R as described above. z* means the complex conjugate of z. then *v is an linear algebra (n−k)-vector. . science. Other sets can be used in place of R. convolved with functional analysis complex conjugate conjugate complex numbers group of units . Hodge star inner product space. *R means the set of hyperreal numbers.) . *N is the hypernatural numbers.) is the algebraic closure of the field F.

unicode. pp. [11] References [1] Rónyai. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Derek (1996).html) — doodle a symbol in the box.tcaep. Derek (1996). Michael A.sorts out Unicode. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. (2005).unicode.com/Wiki/index. 3. Michael A.org/symbols/symbols. Lajos (1998). ISBN 0-412-60610-0 [7] Goldrei. and Distributed. OCLC 43641333 [9] Nielsen.html) . Derek (1996). and the program will tell you what its name is Some Unicode charts of mathematical operators: • • • • Index of Unicode symbols (http://www. Boston: Course Technology. ISBN 0-521-63503-9. ISBN 963-9132-16-0 [2] Berman. Michael A. Chuang. ISBN 0-412-60610-0 [6] Goldrei. 2005. New York: Cambridge University Press.Institute of Physics (http://www. Carl (1990) [1953]. ISBN 0-534-42057-5 [3] Nielsen.3: Conditional Statements and Material Implication". Parallel. " Arabic mathematical symbols in Unicode (http:/ / www. 69–70. ac. some symbols may be reversed to make right-to-left reading easier. 268–269.php) Jeff Miller: Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols (http://jeff560.co. ISBN 0-521-63503-9. Paul. 822.edu/ctan/info/ symbols/comprehensive/) • MathML Characters (http://www.robinlionheart.org/charts/PDF/U2190.com/stds/html4/entities-mathml) . p.harvard.com/answer/symbol. p.htm) GIF and PNG Images for Math Symbols (http://us.med.html) . p.Table of mathematical symbols 20 Variations In mathematics written in Arabic. Classic Set Theory. HTML and MathML/TeX names on one page • Unicode values and MathML names (http://www. London: Chapman and Hall. A. Isaac L (2000).org/charts/#symbols) Range 2100 – 214F: Letterlike Symbols (http://www. Chuang. 71–72.tripod. New York: Macmillan. Isaac L (2000).html) Mathematical Symbols in Unicode (http://tlt. Algoritmusok(Algorithms). 5. ucam. 27th Internationalization and Unicode Conference. TYPOTEX. London: Chapman and Hall.numericana. London: Chapman and Hall.org/charts/PDF/U2100. New York: Cambridge University Press.net/demos/symbol. Isaac L (2000). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. 62.uk/science/symbols/maths.unicode.org/classify.. Jerome L. Algorithms: Sequential.php/ LaTeX:Symbols) and Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List (http://mirrors. Lazrik. html#browsers) • Using Greek and special characters from Symbol font in HTML (http://www.). ISBN 0-521-63503-9. html) • Unicode Math Symbols (http://www.pdf) Some Unicode cross-references: • Short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols (http://www. Chuang. Michael A.artofproblemsolving. "Chapter 8. Irving M.htm) TCAEP .html) Numericana: Scientific Symbols and Icons (http://www.org/charts/PDF/U2200. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp.pdf) Range 2190 – 21FF: Arrows (http://www. ma/ fssm/ rydarab/ doc/ expose/ unicodeme.pdf) Range 2200 – 22FF: Unicode Mathematical Operators (http://www. New York: Cambridge University Press. Isaac L (2000).vex. p.w3. ISBN 0-412-60610-0 [8] Nielsen.com/en/characters_math. Introduction to Logic (8th ed. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information.net/~trebla/symbols/select.psu. LCCN 89-37742. OCLC 43641333 [4] Copi. pp.unicode.edu/suggestions/international/bylanguage/math. 66. OCLC 43641333 [10] Nielsen.kirelabs. Sami. ISBN 0-521-63503-9.alanwood. pdf)".org/TR/REC-MathML/chap6/bycodes. Benatia. Cohen.metamath. 4. OCLC 43641333 [11] M. p. and K. Classic Set Theory. • DeTeXify handwritten symbol recognition (http://detexify. p. ISBN 0023250356 [5] Goldrei.com/mathsym. Kenneth A. External links • • • • • • Mathematics characters and HTML entities (http://usefulwebtool. Chuang. Classic Set Theory.a quick form for using unicode math symbols.

ghostscript.com/ghostscript/branches/gs-db/Resource/ Decoding/Unicode) from the source code for Ghostscript 21 .Table of mathematical symbols • Unicode values and Postscript names (http://svn.

Josh Parris. ShelfSkewed. Patrick. Eclecticology. Heresiarch. Tumble. Letdinosaursdie. Decltype. Jadony. Mets501. Quief.Article Sources and Contributors 22 Article Sources and Contributors Table of mathematical symbols Source: http://en. NJA. AndrewHowse. Jaranda. IdLoveOne. LutzL. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Jokes Free4Me. Fredrik. Redacteur. PrimeHunter. Belovedfreak. Ancheta Wis. Michael miceli. G716. Paolo. Tekhnofiend. Avraham. Acroterion. Ybenharim. Greswik. Corti. Kevinb. Gremagor. Jbalint. Sverdrup. Momojeng.. CanisRufus. Itub. Gowdasathish. Thr4wn. Mikez. Ashleycocks. SMP. Knowandgive. Nerd42. Ryulong. Deagle AP. Strange but untrue. Michiel Helvensteijn. Karol Langner. 367 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Alex43223. OlEnglish. CBM. PaulTanenbaum. Monedula. Qmark42. Erik Postma. Joshdick. Maxcyber10. Stevertigo. Nosferatütr. Camembert. Kgasso. Voyajer. BenFrantzDale. Secretlondon. Lambiam. Ulf Karlsson. WillowW. Hekerui. Justin W Smith. Charles Matthews. Teo64x. Tom Lougheed. Epbr123. Makeemlighter. Jezmck. Zundark. Berteun. RNLion. Noisy.org/w/index. Wikipelli. OliverTwist. Trovatore. Agent Foxtrot. Hbent. Pizza1512. MFNickster. Tkuvho. Mindmatrix. Sl. TedPavlic. ColinHelvensteijn. Tanthanyes. Mckee. Vanish2. AugPi. Rade Kutil. Hult041956. Mygerardromance. Gurch. Michael Hardy. DonkeyKong64. Dominus. Wavelength. Alison22. Alksentrs. David Shay. Church of emacs. Thehotelambush. Nutiketaiel. Myncknm. Loren. N3rd4i. Wile E. DA3N.b. Mikay. ABCD. Estel. MagicalPhats. Boud. Writer on wiki. Nima Baghaei. Dysprosia. Kraftlos. EagleFan. Pschemp. Truthkeeper88. Furrykef. Psiphiorg. Xantolus. HumbleGod. DavidHouse. Bonus Onus.wilton. Mfhall. Pfoifry. Tim Starling. Tyomitch. Giftlite. RobHar. Thezulu. Anonymous Dissident. Qwertyus. Mysdaao. Computer97. Tauwasser. MZMcBride. Rich Farmbrough. Simonleyton. Pak21. Iceera88. Tresiden. DRLB.wikipedia. R. Zero0000. JanGB. Orz. H2g2bob. Mathaxiom. Bryan Derksen. Salix alba. Navigatr85. AxelBoldt. Capitalist. Bkell. Bkkbrad. Imaginationac. Renata3. Paul August. Timothy Clemans. Smmurphy. Alan Liefting. Sam Korn. Julian Mendez. Markus Kuhn. ArnoldReinhold. Elano. Maurice Carbonaro. BAxelrod. Yonideworst. Efnar. Tom harrison. Linas. Kuru. Thallinger. Pooryorick. AK Auto. Makuabob. Wigie. Mmortal03. Sango123. Mikael Häggström. BenKovitz. Oleg Alexandrov. Puellanivis. Lfiguero. Dicklyon. Hoot. Alpharigel. Calréfa Wéná. QoppaGamma. Ronhjones. Anomalocaris. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Psy guy. Blokkendoos. CRGreathouse.php?oldid=390064626 Contributors: 12jbooher. Sunborn. Tizio. KlaudiuMihaila. Srleffler.e.dL. 0/ . Ideyal. Bwholm. JohnyDog. Jrw@pobox. YahoKa. Bart133. LittleDan. IMacWin95. MovGP0.com. Melchoir. Skal.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Lagelspeil. Nikola Smolenski. Sligocki. WhisperToMe. Jshadias. Gregbard. Btipling. LakeHMM. Triwbe. Robinh. MathMartin. Psource. Flinx. MiNombreDeGuerra. Toby Bartels. Daniel Brockman. Phil Boswell. Pasixxxx. Jbergquist. David spector. Spoon!. ChrisDHDR. Rjwilmsi.

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