Autodesk Robot

Structural Analysis
VERIFICATION MANUAL
FOR US CODES
March 2010

© 2010 Autodesk, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Except as otherwise permitted by Autodesk, Inc., this
publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose.
Certain materials included in this publication are reprinted with the permission of the copyright
holder.
Disclaimer
THIS PUBLICATION AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS MADE AVAILABLE
BY AUTODESK, INC. “AS IS.” AUTODESK, INC. DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE REGARDING THESE
MATERIALS.
Trademarks
The following are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries:
Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis, Autodesk Concrete Building Structures, Spreadsheet Calculator, ATC,
AutoCAD, Autodesk, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk (logo), Buzzsaw,
Design Web Format, DWF, ViewCube, SteeringWheels, and Autodesk Revit.
All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective holders.
Third Party Software Program Credits
ACIS Copyright© 1989-2001 Spatial Corp. Portions Copyright© 2002 Autodesk, Inc.
Copyright© 1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
International CorrectSpell™ Spelling Correction System© 1995 by Lernout & Hauspie Speech
Products, N.V. All rights reserved.
InstallShield™ 3.0. Copyright© 1997 InstallShield Software Corporation. All rights reserved.
PANTONE® and other Pantone, Inc. trademarks are the property of Pantone, Inc.© Pantone, Inc.,
2002.
Portions Copyright© 1991-1996 Arthur D. Applegate. All rights reserved.
Portions relating to JPEG © Copyright 1991-1998 Thomas G. Lane. All rights reserved. Portions of
this software are based on the work of the Independent JPEG Group.
Portions relating to TIFF © Copyright 1997-1998 Sam Leffler. © Copyright 1991-1997 Silicon
Graphics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Government Use
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
FAR 12.212 (Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights) and DFAR 227.7202 (Rights in
Technical Data and Computer Software), as applicable.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................................................................1 
STEEL ..............................................................................................................................................................................................2 
1. 

ANSI/AISC 360-05 MARCH 9, 2005 .......................................................................................................................................3 

IMPLEMENTED CHAPTERS OF ANSI/AISC 360-05....................................................................................................................4 
GENERAL REMARKS ..................................................................................................................................................................5 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 - DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION ....................................................................................10 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 - LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS ...................................................................................20 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3 - COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING ABOUT BOTH AXES .........................................................29 
2. ASD 1989 ED. 9 TH ...................................................................................................................................................................37 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 4
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 5

- AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS .........................................................................................................38 
- LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS ...................................................................................42 
- COMBINED BENDING AND AXIAL LOAD ...........................................................................................46 
- AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING ABOUT WEAK AXIS..................................................................49 
- FRAME MEMBER UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION / BENDING ...............................................................52 

3. LRFD ..........................................................................................................................................................................................57 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 4
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 5

- AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN ...........................................................................................................58 
- LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS ...................................................................................62 
- COMBINED BENDING AND AXIAL COMPRESSION .............................................................................66 
- AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BIAXIAL BENDING I ................................................................................69 
- AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BIAXIAL BENDING II ...............................................................................74 

CONCRETE ...................................................................................................................................................................................77 
1. ACI 318-02 – RC COLUMNS .....................................................................................................................................................78 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 - COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND UNI-AXIAL BENDING I......................................................79 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 - COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND UNI-AXIAL BENDING II.....................................................83 
VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3 - COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND BIAXIAL BENDING ...........................................................87 
LITERATURE .............................................................................................................................................................................93 

March 2010

page i

March 2010 page 1 / 93 . Benchmark results (signed as “Handbook”) are recalled. Each example contains the following parts: .comparison between Robot results and exact solution .Verification Manual for US codes INTRODUCTION This verification manual contains numerical examples for elements of structures prepared and originally calculated by Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis version 2011.outputs with calculation results and calculation notes . The most of the examples have been taken from handbooks that include benchmark tests covering fundamental types of behaviour encountered in structural analysis. and compared with results of Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis (signed further as “Robot”).specification of the problem .title of the problem .Robot solution of the problem .conclusions.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

Verification Manual for US codes STEEL March 2010 page 2 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

Verification Manual for US codes 1. 2005 March 2010 page 3 / 93 . ANSI/AISC 360-05 March 9.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

§ F11 Unsymmetrical shapes . Design of members for compression .§ G.§ B.§ E 4.§ F 9.§ F12 10.§ H1 Unsymmetric and other members subject to flexure and axial force .§ F5 I-shaped members and channels bent about their minor axis .§ F9 Single angles . Single-angle compression members .§ G.§ G. shear and/or axial force .§ G.6 Weak axis shear in singly and doubly symmetric shapes .§ G Members with unstiffened or stiffened webs .4.§ F10 Rectangular bars and rounds .§ F8 Tees and double angles loaded in the plane of symmetry .§ f3 Other I-shaped members with compact or noncompact webs bent about their major .1 2.2 Tension field action .§ F6 Square and rectangular hss and box-shaped members .3 Single angles .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .4 and Table B. Design of members for combined forces and torsion . Classification of sections for local buckling .§ D 3.§ E5 7. implemented to Autodesk RSA program: 1.§ G.§ F4 Doubly symmetric and singly symmetric i-shaped members with slender webs bent about their major axis . Design of members for shear .§H3 March 2010 page 4 / 93 .§ E7 8.§ H Doubly and singly symmetric members subject to flexure and axial force .§ E3 5. Doubly symmetric compact I-shaped members and channels bent about their major axis – § F2 Doubly symmetric i-shaped members with compact webs and noncompact or slender flanges bent about their major axis .7 11.§ H2 Members under torsion and combined torsion.5 Round hss . Members with slender elements .§ E4 6.§ F7 Round HSS .Verification Manual for US codes IMPLEMENTED CHAPTERS of ANSI/AISC 360-05 List of Specification for Structural Steel Buildings ANSI/AISC 360-05 chapters. Design of members for tension.§ G. flexure.4 Rectangular hss and box members . Design of members for flexure . Compressive strength for flexural buckling of members without slender elements . Compressive strength for torsional and flexural-torsional buckling of members without slender elements .

March 2010 page 5 / 93 . First of all. make selection of documents and parameters appropriate for USA condition from tabs of the list view in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box.Verification Manual for US codes GENERAL REMARKS A. For example to choose code. Press OK. Job Preferences If you make first step in RSA program Æ specify your job preferences in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box (click Menu/ Tools/ Job Preferences).Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . then select code from Steel/Aluminum structures combo-box or press More codes button which opens Configuration of Code List: Set ANSI/AISC code as the current code. Default JOB PREFERENCES dialog box opens: You can define a new type of Job Preferences to make it easier for future. first click Design codes tab from left list view.

Pick Load combinations from combo box.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Type a new name e.: “usa LRFD” . Press OK button. It opens Save Job Preferences dialog box. press Save Job Preferences icon in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box. After the job preferences decisions are set.g. The new list view appears: Set ASD and LRFD on the right list of the box. March 2010 page 6 / 93 . then select code from Code combinations combo-box or press More codes button which opens Configuration of Code List. The new name appears in the combo-box.g. “ usa LRFD” and save it. If LRFD code is selected as the current code the Job Preferences can be named e.Verification Manual for US codes To choose code combination first click Loads tab from left list view in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box.

In RSA program you must always manually specify: 1. Calculation method American code ANSI /AISC 360-05 gives two verification options: LRFD and ASD. load code combination -> appropriate for calculation method ad. calculation method 2.Verification Manual for US codes You can check load combination regulations by pressing right button next to Code combinations combo-box in Loads tab JOB PREFERENCES dialog box.1 calculation method Calculation method (LRFD or ASD) can be chosen on Steel /Aluminum Design layout. It opens proper Editor of code combination regulations dialog box. B.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . March 2010 page 7 / 93 .

ad.) by clicking its name from combobox. click Menu/ Tools/ Job Preferences. In following dialog box usa ASD job preferences will change to usa LRFD one.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . By pressing OK button you accept chosen job preferences for a current task. Select earlier prepared job preferences (as defined in Section A. JOB PREFERENCES dialog box opens.2a load code combination – basic approach To specify load code combination (LRFD or ASD) appropriate for calculation method.Verification Manual for US codes Press the Configuration button in CALCULATIONS dialog box. Here you can choose only calculation method. March 2010 page 8 / 93 .

you can prepare load combination for both calculation method for further using (for member verification). Create manually LRFD load combination and ASD load combination in Load Types dialog box. you can use in verification.alternative (tricky-easy) approach Start in Loads layout. appropriate load combination corresponding to calculation method: March 2010 page 9 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes ad. In this case. Here.2b load code combination .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

0 AISC Design Examples TITLE: Example E. and is laterally braced about the z-z axis and torsionally braced at the midpoint. Verify the strength of defined compression member. SOLUTION: You must remember to specify appropriate (LRSD or ASD) load code combination in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box (click Menu/Tools/Job Preferences).1d – W-Shape Available Strength Calculation SPECIFICATION: Select an ASTM A992 (Fy = 50 ksi) W14x90 bar to carry an axial dead load of 140 kips and live load of 420 kips. You can choose ASD or LFRD calculation method.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . is pinned top and bottom in both axes. March 2010 page 10 / 93 .Design of members for compression Example taken from AISC Steel Construction Manual v13.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 . Assume the design member is 30 feet long.

Type a new name in the Member type editable field.Verification Manual for US codes In DEFINITIONS dialog box define a new type of member. It can be set in Member type combo-box. Press Buckling length coefficient Z icon which opens BUCKLING DIAGRAMS dialog box. Pre-defined type of member “simple bar” may be initially opened. Click second to last icon.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . laterally braced about the z-z axis and torsionally braced at the midpoint. Change parameters to meet initial data requirements of the structure. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. press the Parameters button on Members tab. March 2010 page 11 / 93 . For choosen member type (here “simple bar”). In this particular compression case define buckling z-z parameters.

Save the newly-created member type.5z”: March 2010 page 12 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes The new dialog box INTERNAL BRACING will appear with active Buckling Z tab: In Buckling Z tab define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0.g.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . e.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. Press OK. “test 0.

The view of the RESULTS windows are presented below. MEMBER VERIFICATION dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. here only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed. here for LRFD design.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . March 2010 page 13 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes Number of the member must be assigned to appropriate name of Member type. only no 3 -> Limit state . here Member Verification. (It is very important when you verify different member types.) In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set: -> Verification option. Pressing the line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. start calculations by pressing Calculations button. -> Loads cases .so switch off Limit stat –Serviceability. Now.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . March 2010 page 14 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes Simplified results tab Detailed results tab Pressing the Calc. The printout note view of Simplified results is presented below. It depends on which tab is active.Note button in “RESULTS –Code” dialog box opens the printout note for the analyzed member. You can obtain Simplified results printout or Detailed results printout.

91 < 1.44 in Sy=142.9 in3 tf=0.5 in3 Sz=49.02 in Ay=20.69 < (K*L/r). March 9.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .max = 200.0 in4 Iz=362.max = 200.2 kip ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SAFETY FACTORS Fic = 0.0 kip Fic*Pn = 927.00 KLy/ry = 58.00 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 14x90 d=14. STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard.20+2*1.00 L = 0.1 in4 tw=0.0 in3 Zz=76.62 < (K*L/r).62 KLz/rz = 48.6 in2 Az=6.0 in4 J=4.00 LRFD (H1-1a) Verified Ky*Ly/ry = 58.00 ksi Fu = 65.60 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50.00 Kz = 1.2 in2 Ax=26.00 ft Ky = 1.2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 Pręt_1 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for LRFD method: a) In the first step W14x90 section was considered.71 in Zy=157.00 Kz*Lz/rz = 48.5 in2 b=14.69 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pr = 840.00 STABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 15 / 93 .00 ft Lz = 15. The results are presented below.90 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pr/(Fic*Pn) = 0.0 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 30.00 ksi E = 29000.00 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 3 KOMB_LRFD 1*1.52 in Iy=999.

Calculations (and results) are refreshed instantly. type W 14x82 in the editable field below drawing of section and press ENTER.Verification Manual for US codes b) From economical reason try to check the next lighter W section. Being still in RESULTS. The results for new selected section are presented below.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . March 2010 page 16 / 93 .CODE dialog box.

Simplified results tab Detailed results tab The printout note view of Simplified results for ASD is presented below.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for ASD method: W14x90 was considered.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . March 2010 page 17 / 93 . The results are presented below.

2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 Pręt_1 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0.00 KLy/ry = 58.9 kip ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RESISTANCE FACTORS Omc = 1.00 ft Ky = 1.52 in Iy=999.91 < 1.0 in4 Iz=362.5 in2 b=14.max = 200.max = 200.02 in Ay=20.00 L = 0.0 in4 J=4.6 in2 Az=6.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard. March 9.9 in3 tf=0.2 in2 Ax=26.69 < (K*L/r).0 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 30.00 ksi Fu = 65.00 STABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 18 / 93 .62 KLz/rz = 48.00 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50.44 in Sy=142.69 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pr = 560.5 in3 Sz=49.0 in3 Zz=76.00 Kz = 1.71 in Zy=157.00 ASD (H1-1a) Verified Ky*Ly/ry = 58.00 ksi E = 29000.67 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pr/(Pn/Omc) = 0.62 < (K*L/r).00 Kz*Lz/rz = 48.0 kip Pn/Omc = 616.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .1 in4 tw=0.00 ft Lz = 15.00 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 14x90 d=14.00 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 4 KOMB_ASD (1+2)*1.

Design compressive strength [kips] Pr < (Pn/Omc)) RSA Handbook 840.Verification Manual for US codes COMPARISON: Resistance. March 2010 page 19 / 93 .Design compressive strength [kips] Pr < (Fic*Pn) For W14x90.9 * 1030 = 927.Required compressive strength [kips] 2.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .2 840 1030 840 < 927. LRFD Fic=0.67 1.2 840< 928 560.8 not 618 . Pr . from handbook. Pn .0 1030.0 not 928 Pn/Omc =1030 / 1. Pn .67 = 616. interaction expression For W14x90.90 1.2 560 1030 560 < 616. Pr .Required compressive strength [kips] 2. are wrong (Fic*Pn) = 0.9 560 < 618 CONCLUSIONS: Underline value. ASD Omc =1.0 1030. The small differences are caused by different accuracy of parameters in calculations.

Lateral-torsional buckling of beams Example taken from AISC Steel Construction Manual v13.1-3b -.45 kip/ft and a uniform live load of 0. March 2010 page 20 / 93 . The nominal loads are a uniform dead load of 0.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 . The beam is braced at the ends and center point.0 AISC Design Examples TITLE: Example F. SOLUTION: You must remember to specify appropriate (LRSD or ASD) load code combination in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box (click Menu/Tools/Job Preferences). You can choose ASD or LFRD calculation method.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .75 kip/ft.W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending. Braced at Midspan SPECIFICATION: Verify the strength of the ASTM A992 W18×50 beam with a simple span of 35 feet.

Type a new name in the Member type editable field. ƒ define bracings for Lateral buckling and Buckling Z. Then change parameters to meet initial data requirements of the structure.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . ƒ define appropriate value of Cb by manually entering in editable field or pressing Cb icone which opens PARAMETER Cb dialog box: Here. press the Parameters button on Members tab. In this particular bending case set the following lateral-buckling parameters: ƒ switch on Lateral buckling. March 2010 page 21 / 93 . Pre-defined type of member “simple bar” may be initially opened. It can be set in Member type combo-box. It opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box.Verification Manual for US codes In DEFINITIONS dialog box define a new type of member. For choosen member type. laterally braced about the z-z axis and torsionally braced at the midpoint. the second icon Cb=f(Mi) was selected.

In INTERNAL BRACINGS dialog box there are possibilities of defining independent bracings for buckling and lateral buckling of the marked member type. March 2010 page 22 / 93 .5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. Click the last icon Intermediate bracings. press Upper flange icon. . It opens LATERAL BUCKLING LENGTH COEFFICIENTS dialog box. The new dialog box INTERNAL BRACINGS will appear with automatically active Lateral buckling Upper flange tab.lower flange tab and Buckling Z tab define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0.Verification Manual for US codes To define Lateral buckling length coefficient for this structure case.upper flange tab.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Press OK. In Lateral buckling.

-> Loads cases . Now.) In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set: -> Verification options .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .so switch off Limit stat –Serviceability. start verifications by pressing Calculations button. MEMBER VERIFICATION dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. here Member Verification. here for LRFD design only no 3 -> Limit state . March 2010 page 23 / 93 . (very importent when you verify different member types.Verification Manual for US codes Save the newly-created member type: Number of the member must be assigned to appropriate name of Member type. here only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed.

It depends on which tab is active. Simplified results tab Detailed results tab Pressing the Calc. March 2010 page 24 / 93 .Note button in “RESULTS –Code” dialog box opens the printout note for the analyzed member.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . The view of the RESULTS windows are presented below.Verification Manual for US codes Pressing the line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. You can obtain Simplified results printout or Detailed results printout. The printout note view of Simplified results is presented below.

10 in4 J=1.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .00 ksi Fu = 65.50 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 3 KOMB_LRFD 1*1.39 in2 Ax=14.94 in3 Sz=10.93 < 1.24 in4 tw=0.57 in Zy=101.93 KLz/rz = 127.60 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50. March 9.70 in2 b=7.70 in3 tf=0.50 L = 17.00 ksi E = 29000.2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 bar POINT: 2 COORDINATE: x = 0.30 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Mry = 266.00 Lb = 17.50 in Iy=800.50 ft KLy/ry = 56.00 ft Lz = 17.00 in4 Iz=40.00 Kz = 1.00 LRFD (H1-1b) Verified ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 25 / 93 .50 ft Ky = 1.15 Cb = 1.97 kip*ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SAFETY FACTORS Fib = 0.20+2*1.99 in Ay=8.35 in Sy=88.00 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 35.54 in2 Az=6.44 kip*ft Fib*Mny = 287.90 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Mry/(Fib*Mny) = 0.00 in3 Zz=17.00 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W18X50 d=17.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for LRFD method: STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard.

It depends on which tab is active.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for ASD method: Simplified results tab Detailed results tab Pressing the Calc.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . You can obtain Simplified results printout or Detailed results printout. The printout note view of Simplified results for ASD is presented below.Note button in “RESULTS – Code” dialog box opens the printout note for the analyzed member. March 2010 page 26 / 93 .

50 in Iy=800.00 Kz = 1.00 ksi Fu = 65.00 in3 Zz=17.67 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Mry/(Mny/Omb) = 0.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard.35 in Sy=88.50 ft KLy/ry = 56.94 in3 Sz=10.96 < 1.24 in4 tw=0.93 KLz/rz = 127.30 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Mry = 183.54 in2 Az=6.75 kip*ft Mny/Omb = 191.70 in2 b=7.00 Lb = 17.10 in4 J=1.99 in Ay=8.50 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 4 KOMB_ASD (1+2)*1.00 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 35.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .70 in3 tf=0.60 kip*ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RESISTANCE FACTORS Omb = 1.00 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50.2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 bar POINT: 2 COORDINATE: x = 0.15 Cb = 1.39 in2 Ax=14.00 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W18X50 d=17.00 in4 Iz=40.50 ft Ky = 1.00 ASD (H1-1b) Verified ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 27 / 93 .00 ksi E = 29000.57 in Zy=101.50 L = 17. March 9.00 ft Lz = 17.

Mry .0 43. Mry . Omc =1.3 5.2 266.Required flexural strength [kip*ft] 2.60 184<192 LRFD .torsional buckling [ ft ] FcrLtb . Fib=0.75< 191.Required flexural strength [kip*ft] 2.67 1.90 1.97 266< 288 183.Critical stress (lateral-torsional buckling) [ksi] RSA Handbook 1.75 319.97 266 320 266. Mny .44< 287. Mny .97 184 320 183.Limiting laterally unbraced length for the limit state of yielding [ ft ] Lry . March 2010 page 28 / 93 .83 1.96 43.44 319.17 17.Allowable flexural strength Mry < (Mny /Omc)) [kip*ft] CONCLUSIONS: The small differences are caused by different accuracy of parameters in calculations.Design compressive strength [kip*ft] Mry < (Fib* Mny) ASD.Verification Manual for US codes COMPARISON: verifications parameters.83 16.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Lateral-torsional buckling modification factor Lpy . interaction expression Cb .Literally unbraced length for the limit state of inelastic lateral.3 5.

0 AISC Design Examples TITLE: Example H. obtained from a second order analysis that includes second-order effects.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3 .3 kip-ft Material Properties: ASTM A992 Fy = 50 ksi Fu = 65 ksi page 29 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .0 kip-ft March 2010 ASD Pa = 267 kips Max = 167 kip-ft May = 53. KLx = KLy = Lb = 14.W-shape Subjected to Combined Compression and Bending About Both Axes (braced frame). SPECIFICATION: Verify if an ASTM A992 W14×99 has sufficient available strength to support the axial forces and moments listed below. The unbraced length is 14 ft and the member has pinned ends.0 ft LRFD Pu = 400 kips Mux = 250 kip-ft Muy = 80.1 -.Combined compression and bending about both axes Example taken from AISC Steel Construction Manual v13.

MEMBER DEFINITION–PARAMETERS dialog box defined for verifications looks like: March 2010 page 30 / 93 . For choosen member type. In this particular load case switch off Flexural-torsional buckling of monosymetric sections. Pre-defined type of member “simple bar” may be initially opened. It can be set in Member type combo-box. It opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. press the Parameters button on Members tab. change parameters to meet initial data requirements of the structure.Verification Manual for US codes SOLUTION: You must remember to specify appropriate (LRSD or ASD) load code combination in JOB PREFERENCES dialog box (click Menu/Tools/Job Preferences). In DEFINITIONS dialog box define a new type of member. Then. Type a new name in the Member type editable field.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

here for LRFD design only no 3 -> Limit state . MEMBER VERIFICATION dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. March 2010 page 31 / 93 . Number of the member must be assigned to appropriate name of Member type (very importent when you verify different member types. start verifications by pressing Calculations button.) In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set: -> Verification options .so switch off Limit stat –Serviceability. The view of the RESULTS windows are presented below. here Member Verification.Verification Manual for US codes Save the newly-created member type “bar 1”.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . here only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed. Pressing the line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. -> Loads cases . Now.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . You can obtain Simplified results printout or Detailed results printout. It depends on which tab is active.Note button in “RESULTS –Code” dialog box opens the printout note for the analyzed member. The printout note view of Simplified results is presented below. March 2010 page 32 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes Simplified results tab Detailed results tab Pressing the Calc.

000 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 14.000 LRFD (H1-1a) Verified Vry/(Fiv*Vny) = 0.00 ft Lz = 14.16 in Ay=22.780 in3 Sz=55.009 < 1.0 kip*ft Vrz = -17.0 kip*ft Vry = 5.5 kip Mry = -250.0 kip Fic*Pn = 1127.868 in2 Ax=29.00 ft KLy/ry = 27.900 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Non-compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pr/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*(Mry/(Fib*Mny) + Mrz/(Fib*Mnz)) = 0.193 < (K*L/r).9 kip*ft Fiv*Vnz = 185.193 Cb = 1.928 < 1.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for LRFD method: STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard.0 ksi Fu = 65.900 Fic = 0.48 in Sy=156.201 in3 tf=0.721 in2 Az=6.000 LRFD (G2-1) Verified Ky*Ly/ry = 27.087 < 1.000 in3 Zz=84.78 in Zy=173.7 kip Fib*Mny = 642.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .9 kip Fib*Mnz = 312.900 Fiv = 0.000 STABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 33 / 93 .4 kip ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SAFETY FACTORS Fib = 0.370 in4 tw=0.197 KLz/rz = 45.3 kip*ft Fiv*Vny = 613.max = 200. March 9.00 L = 14.0 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W14X99 d=14.2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 bar POINT: 11 COORDINATE: x = 1.000 in4 J=5.000 Kz*Lz/rz = 45.197 < (K*L/r).max = 200.00 ft Ky = 1.000 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pr = 400.000 in4 Iz=402.090 in2 b=14.5 kip Mrz = -80.000 LRFD (G2-1) Verified Vrz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.00 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 LRFD ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50.0 ksi E = 29000.000 Lb = 14.000 Kz = 1.57 in Iy=1110.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . It depends on which tab is active. You can obtain Simplified results printout or Detailed results printout. March 2010 page 34 / 93 . The printout note view of Simplified results for ASD is presented below.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS for ASD method: Simplified results tab Detailed results tab Pressing the Calc.Note button in “RESULTS –Code” dialog box opens the printout note for the analyzed member.

090 in2 b=14.0 ksi Fu = 65.78 in Zy=173.16 in Ay=22.370 in4 tw=0.00 ft Lz = 14.000 Lb = 14.00 ft Ky = 1.087 < 1.max = 200.8 kip Mny/Omb = 427.3 kip*ft Vrz = -11.2 kip Mrz = -53.721 in2 Az=6.000 in4 J=5.868 in2 Ax=29.max = 200.0 kip*ft Vry = 3.000 ASD (G2-1) Verified Ky*Ly/ry = 27.197 KLz/rz = 45.000 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pr = 267.1 kip Mry = -167.193 < (K*L/r).670 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Non-compact STI = Compact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pr/(Pn/Omc) + 8/9*(Mry/(Mny/Omb) + Mrz/(Mnz/Omb)) = 0.00 L = 14.0 kip Pn/Omc = 750.000 in3 Zz=84.000 Kz = 1.0 ksi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W14X99 d=14.000 ASD (G2-1) Verified Vrz/(Vnz/Omv) = 0.4 kip ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RESISTANCE FACTORS Omb = 1.670 Omv = 1.197 < (K*L/r).000 Kz*Lz/rz = 45.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .000 STABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 35 / 93 .000 in4 Iz=402.931 < 1.00 ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 2 ASD ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A992-50 Fy = 50.57 in Iy=1110.000 in3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 14.201 in3 tf=0.48 in Sy=156.670 Omc = 1.2 kip*ft Vnz/Omv = 123.000 ASD (H1-1a) Verified Vry/(Vny/Omv) = 0.4 kip*ft Vny/Omv = 408.9 kip Mnz/Omb = 208.2005 ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 bar POINT: 11 COORDINATE: x = 1.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: ANSI/AISC 360-05 An American National Standard.00 ft KLy/ry = 27.193 Cb = 1.0 ksi E = 29000.780 in3 Sz=55.009 < 1. March 9.

0 ASD Pr .8 .2 Mry / (Fib*Mny) Mrz / (Fib*Mnz) Pr/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*(Mry/(Fib*Mny) + Mrz/(Fib*Mnz)) = < 1.6 400< 1130 250 .7 . Mrz .4 167 < 428 Mrz < Mnz /Omc 53.931 0. March 2010 page 36 / 93 .2 0. Mnz .3 167 .3 < 207 Pr / (Pn/Omc) > 0.7 713. 345. 80 713.Required flexural strength [kip*ft] Mny .7 267 1254.390 Mrz /( Mnz /Omc) 0. Mrz .Design compressive strength [kip*ft] Pr/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*(Mry/(Fib*Mny) + Mrz/(Fib*Mnz)) = < 1.0 (H1-1a) CONCLUSIONS: The small differences are caused by different accuracy of parameters in calculations.928 267 1252.Design compressive strength [kip*ft] Pr / (Fic*Pn) > 0.356 0. 347. 80 250 .356 Mry / (Mny /Omc) 0.Required compressive strength [kips] Pn .354 0. 347.Design compressive strength [kips] Fib=0.67 Pr < Pn/Omc Mry .931 LRFD Pr .2 267 < 750.256 0.2 167 .257 0.928 0.2 53.6 Mry < Fib* Mny 250 < 642.1 267 < 1254. 53.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .3 .389 0.391 0.Verification Manual for US codes COMPARISON: verifications parameters.3 250 < 642 Mrz < Fib* Mnz 80 < 312.90 Pr < Fic*Pn Mry .Design compressive strength [kips] (H1-1a) Omc =1.3 < 208.7 400< 1127.256 0.Required flexural strength [kip*ft] Mny .7 Mry < Mny /Omc 167 < 427.7 .9 80 < 311 0. 53.3 713. 345.Required compressive strength [kips] Pn . Mnz .389 0.4 400 1255.355 0.7 714.257 0. interaction expression RSA Handbook 400 1252.

ASD 1989 ed. 9 th March 2010 page 37 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Verification Manual for US codes 2.

as shown aside. Johnson TITLE: Axially loaded columns (Example 6. Define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0. The new dialog box Internal bracing will appear. The member is assumed pinned at top and bottom and in addition has weak direction support at mid high. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 .1) SPECIFICATION: Select the lightest W section of A36 steel to serve as a main member 30 ft long to carry an axial compression load of 50 kips dead load and 110 kips live load in a braced structure. Type a new name Column 1 in the Member Type editable field. Salmon and John E.Axially loaded columns Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . It can be set in Member type combo-box.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G.11. March 2010 page 38 / 93 . Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab. Then. Use Allowable Stress Design.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . For analyzed member pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. SOLUTION: Define a new type of member. press Buckling Length coefficient Z icon and select the last icon. Save the newly-created type of member.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 1 and switch off Code
requirements – Deformation (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). Now, start the calculations by
pressing Calculation button.

Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. Pressing the
line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the
analyzed member.

The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Moreover, the printout note containing the
same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.
RESULTS:
a) In the first step W10x45 was considered. The results for the shape are presented below.

March 2010

page 39 / 93

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

STEEL DESIGN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design - Ninth Edition
ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP:
MEMBER: 1
POINT: 1
COORDINATE: x = 0.00 L = 0.00 ft
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS:
Governing Load Case: 3 Combination 1 (1+2)*1.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL:
STEEL
Fy = 36.00 ksi
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 10x45
d=10.10 in
b=8.02 in
Ay=9.945 in2
Az=3.535 in2
Ax=13.300 in2
tw=0.35 in
Iy=248.000 in4
Iz=53.400 in4
J=1.510 in4
tf=0.62 in
Wely=49.109 in3
Welz=13.317 in3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS:
Ly = 30.00 ft
Ky = 1.00
KL/ry = 83.37
Lb = 30.00 ft
UNS = Compact
Lz = 15.00 ft
Kz = 1.00
KL/rz = 89.83
Cb = 1.00
STI = Noncompact
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES:
Fx = 160.00 kip
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES:
ALLOWABLE STRESSES:
fa = 12.03 ksi
Fa = 14.22 ksi
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS:
fa/Fa = 12.03/14.22 = 0.85 < 1.00
ASD (H1-1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section OK !!!

March 2010

page 40 / 93

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

b) From economical reason try to check the next lighter W section. Being still in Detailed results dialog
box, type W 10x39 in the editable field below drawing of shape and press ENTER. The results for
selected section are presented below.

STEEL DESIGN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design - Ninth Edition
ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP:
MEMBER: 1
POINT: 1
COORDINATE: x = 0.00 L = 0.00 ft
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS:
Governing Load Case: 3 Combination 1 (1+2)*1.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL:
STEEL
Fy = 36.00 ksi
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 10x39
d=9.92 in
b=7.99 in
Ay=8.464 in2
Az=3.125 in2
Ax=11.500 in2
tw=0.32 in
Iy=209.000 in4
Iz=45.000 in4
J=0.980 in4
tf=0.53 in
Wely=42.137 in3
Welz=11.271 in3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS:
Ly = 30.00 ft
Ky = 1.00
KL/ry = 84.45
Lb = 30.00 ft
UNS = Compact
Lz = 15.00 ft
Kz = 1.00
KL/rz = 90.99
Cb = 1.00
STI = Noncompact
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES:
Fx = 160.00 kip
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES:
ALLOWABLE STRESSES:
fa = 13.91 ksi
Fa = 14.09 ksi
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS:
fa/Fa = 13.91/14.09 = 0.99 < 1.00
ASD (H1-1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section OK !!!
COMPARISON:
Resistance, interaction expression
For W10x45
1. Service load compression stress fa= P/Ag [ksi]
2. Allowable stress at service load Fa [ksi]
For W10x39
1. Service load compression stress fa= P/Ag [ksi]
2. Allowable stress at service load Fa [ksi]

March 2010

Robot

Handbook

12.03
14.22

12.0
14.3

13.91
14.09

13.9
14.1

page 41 / 93

In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for members 1 and 3 and switch off Code requirements – Deformation (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.3).Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Save the newly-created type of member. For analyzed member pre-defined type of member BEAM may be initially opened.10.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. March 2010 page 42 / 93 . SOLUTION: Define a new type of member 1. Assign previously defined label Segment 1_3 (type of member) to member 3. Type a new name Segment 1_3 in the Member Type editable field. Now.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 . concentrated load points.5-kip load (at point 4) includes 4 kips dead load: the remainder is live load. and at the end of the cantilever. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. The 26-kip load (at point 2) contains 6 kips dead load and the 11. Lateral support is provided at the vertical supports. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends). which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. It can be set in Member type combo-box.Lateral-torsional buckling of beams Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . SPECIFICATION: Select an economical W section for the beam shown below. Use A36 steel and Allowable Steel Design. Johnson TITLE: Lateral-torsional buckling of beams (Example 9. Salmon and John E.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . RESULTS: a) for the first segment March 2010 page 43 / 93 . Pressing the line with results for member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.Verification Manual for US codes Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Moreover.

00 L = 24.07 < 1.020 in4 tf=0.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .500 in2 tw=0.664 in2 Ax=21.00 ASD (H1-3) fvz/Fvz = 0.24 in b=8.75 STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: My = 240.Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1.19/21.07 ksi Fvz = 14.000 in4 Iz=70.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .07 = 0.19 ksi Fbty = 21.29 in Ay=12.659 in3 Welz=17.91 < 1.022 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 24.00 ASD (F4) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! b) for the third segment March 2010 page 44 / 93 .60 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fbcy/Fbcy = 19.600 in4 J=3.74 in Wely=150.46 in Iy=1600.00 ft Cb = 1.95 ksi Fbcy = 21.00 ft Lb = 24.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 TST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL Fy = 36.277 in2 Az=9.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 21x73 d=21.20 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES: ALLOWABLE STRESSES: fbcy = 19.93 kip*ft Vz = 9.19 ksi fvz = 0.40 ksi fbty = -19.00 ft UNS = Compact Lz = 24.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .95 < 1.659 in3 Welz=17.24 in b=8.46 ksi fvz = 1. interaction expression For the first segment 1.46 ksi Fbty = 21.00 ft Lb = 21.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 TST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL Fy = 36. moment of inertia).277 in2 Az=9.60 ksi Fvz = 14.60 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fbcy/Fbcy = 20.4 21.60 = 0.500 in2 tw=0. Service load flexural stress fby = P/Ag [ ksi ] 2.664 in2 Ax=21.97 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES: ALLOWABLE STRESSES: fbcy = 20.46 in Iy=1600.46 21.020 in4 tf=0.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 21x73 d=21.07 19.00 ft Cb = 1.34 ksi Fbcy = 21.19 21. Allowable service load axial stress Fbcz [ ksi ] For the first segment 1.40 ksi fbty = -20.000 in4 Iz=70.00 ASD (F4) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance. Allowable service load axial stress Fbcz [ ksi ] Robot Handbook 19.46/21.00 ft UNS = Compact Lz = 21.74 in Wely=150.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .1 20.6 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area.94 kip*ft Vz = 12.6 20.022 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 21.600 in4 J=3. section modulus.29 in Ay=12.09 < 1.00 ASD (H1-3) fvz/Fvz = 0. March 2010 page 45 / 93 .Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0.75 STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: My = -256.1 21.00 L = 0. Service load flexural stress fby = P/Ag [ ksi ] 2.

March 2010 page 46 / 93 . Repeat the same action for Cmz. Type a new name Column1 in the Member Type editable field. The total service loads are P=350 kips and M=60 ft-kips. It can be set in Member type combo-box.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Combined bending and axial load Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . The steel is A572 Grade 60.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3 . which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. Johnson TITLE: Combined bending and axial load (Example 12. press More button.1) SPECIFICATION: Investigate the acceptability of a W 16 x 67 used as a beam-column in a braced frame under the loading shown aside. SOLUTION: Define a new type of member. Save the newly-created type of member. For defining appropriate values of Cm coefficients (coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation). For analyzed member pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened. Choose the icon for Cmy and double-click the second icon (Cmy calculated automatically) in Parameter Cm dialog box. Use Allowable Stress Design. Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.14. Salmon and John E.

The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. March 2010 page 47 / 93 . Pressing the line with results for member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member.Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for members 1 and switch off Code requirements – Deformation (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). Now. Moreover.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.

00 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES: ALLOWABLE STRESSES: fa = 17.87 Lb = 15.00 KL/rz = 73.16 ksi Fbty = 36.91 < 1.76 ksi fbcy = 6.840 in3 Welz=23.450 in2 Ax=19.00 ksi Fey = 223.00 kip*ft Vz = -4.00 KL/ry = 25.16 ksi fvz = -0. Allowable bending stress at service load Fb [ksi] 3.23 in Ay=13.00 ASD (F4) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance.00 ft Ky = 1.20 ksi Fez = 27.Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1.06 ksi Fvz = 24. Allowable service load axial stress Fa [ ksi ] 2.000 in4 Iz=119. moment of inertia).00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 16x67 d=16.8 29.24 Cb = 1.254 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 15.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .06 0.00 STI = Noncompact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: Fx = 350.00 ft Cmy = 0.60 UNS = Compact Lz = 15.33 in b=10.67 in Wely=116.84 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fa/Fa + (Cmy*fbcy)/((1-fa/Fey)*Fbcy) = 0.390 in4 tf=0. section modulus.00 ft Kz = 1.62 ksi Fbcy = 30.00 ksi fbty = -6.00 L = 15.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .03| < 1.91 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area. March 2010 page 48 / 93 .00 kip My = -60.000 in4 J=2. Check ASD Formula (H1-1) Robot 17. interaction expression 1.77 ksi Fa = 22.700 in2 tw=0.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 TEST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A572-60 Fy = 60.00 ASD (H1-1) fvz/Fvz = |-0.91 Handbook 17.40 in Iy=954.613 in2 Az=6.9 0.77 30.

Axial compression and bending about weak axis Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . Johnson TITLE: Axial compression and bending about weak axis (Example 12. Save the newly-created type of member. For defining appropriate values of Cm coefficients (coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation). Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . It can be set in Member type combo-box.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 4 . Choose the icon for Cmy and double-click the third icon (Cmy = 1. SOLUTION: Define a new type of member.15. press More button. March 2010 page 49 / 93 .3) SPECIFICATION: Investigate the adequacy according to Allowable Stress Design of the W8 x 24 sections shown aside. Salmon and John E. Repeat the same action for Cmz.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G.0) in Parameter Cm dialog box. For analysed member pre-defined type of member BEAM may be initially opened. The member is loaded to cause bending about its weak axis and steel is A572 Grade. Type a new name Beam 1 in the Member Type editable field. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box.

the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 1 and switch off Code requirements – Deformation (only Ultimate Limit state will be analysed). The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Now. Pressing the line with results for member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analysed member. Moreover. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. March 2010 page 50 / 93 . Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen.

5 0.1 37.350 in4 tf=0.95 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area. section modulus.50 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fa/Fa + (Cmz*fbcz)/((1-fa/Fez)*Fbcz) = 0.89 ksi Fa = 20.80 ksi fbtz = -10.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 8x24 d=7.06 37.65 ksi Fbtz = 37. Allowable service load axial stress Fa [ ksi ] 2.50 ksi Fez = 26.40 in Wely=20.94 Handbook 20.5 0.800 in4 Iz=18.00 ASD (H1-1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance.28 ksi fbcz = 10. interaction expression 1.00 kip*ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES: ALLOWABLE STRESSES: fa = 9.Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 2 COORDINATE: x = 0.300 in4 J=0. Check ASD Formula (H1-1) Robot 20.00 STI = Noncompact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: Fx = 70.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .50 in Ay=5.50 L = 5.65 ksi Fbcz = 37.883 in3 Welz=5.635 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 10.00 ft UNS = Compact Lz = 10.00 ft Cmz = 1. March 2010 page 51 / 93 . moment of inertia).196 in2 Az=1.06 ksi Fey = 121.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 service ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A572-50 Fy = 50.93 in b=6.25 in Iy=82.94 < 1.943 in2 Ax=7.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .00 kip Mz = -5. Allowable bending stress at service load Fbcz [ksi] 3.080 in2 tw=0.

The joints are rigid to give frame action in the plane of bending. using service loads P=60 kips and M=112 ft-kips.3 consists two bars (1 and 2) by pressing New button in Definition – ASD dialog-box. SPECIFICATION: Select a suitable W section for the column member of the frame.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Solve for the following two cases: 1. 2.Frame member under axial compression / bending Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . Type 1 2 in Bar List editable field.4). define a new type of member. Salmon and John E. For member 3 analyzed as a member of braced frame pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened. Unbraced frame in the plane of bending. SOLUTION: Create a new super-member No. It can be set in Member Type combo-box.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 5 . Johnson TITLE: Frame member under axial compression and bending (Example 12.15. March 2010 page 52 / 93 .Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. but in the transverse direction sway bracing is provided and the attachments may be considered hinged. Braced frame in the plane of bending. Use A36 steel and Allowable Stress Design. Then.

Repeat the same action for Cmz. Next. press the Upper flange button that opens Lateral buckling length coefficients dialog box and choose the icon Lb=0. Pressing the line with results for member 3 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. Type a new name Braced in the Member Type editable field. The new dialog box Internal bracing will appear.Verification Manual for US codes Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . press More button. Define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0. Then press Buckling Length coefficient Y icon and select the second icon (Ky = 0.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. Choose the icon for Cmy and double-click the second icon (Cmy calculated automatically) in Parameter Cm dialog box. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button.5L. Save the newly-created type of member. Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. Now. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends). For defining appropriate values of Cm coefficients (coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation). press Buckling Length coefficient Z icon and select the last icon. Next. In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 3 and switch off Code requirements – Deformation (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). March 2010 page 53 / 93 .7). which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. Repeat the same action for Lower flange.

850 in2 Az=7.700 in4 J=0.700 KL/ry = 20.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.66 in b=6. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.863 Lb = 10.00 L = 20.607 in3 Welz=6.35 in Iy=843.097 Cb = 2.Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 3 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1.000 in2 tw=0.300 STI = Noncompact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: Fx = 60.00 kip My = -112.000 KL/rz = 95.231 in2 Ax=13.Verification Manual for US codes The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Moreover.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 21x44 d=20.00 ft Ky = 0.770 in4 tf=0.50 in Ay=5.00 ft UNS = Compact Lz = 10.00 kip*ft Vz = -8.40 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- March 2010 page 54 / 93 .000 in4 Iz=20.45 in Wely=81.00 ft Kz = 1. 1. W21x44 for the braced frame STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .369 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 20.

85) in Parameter Cm dialog box.000 ASD (H1-2) fvz/Fvz = |-0. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. March 2010 page 55 / 93 .16 ksi fbty = -16. Repeat the same action for Cmz.000 ASD (F4) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! 2. press More button.40 ksi Fbty = 21.60 ksi Fvz = 14.60 ksi Fey = 343. Choose the icon for Cmy and double-click the first icon (Cmy =0. Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.10 ksi Fez = 16.47 ksi ALLOWABLE STRESSES: Fa = 13.59 ksi Fbcy = 21. W21x44 for the unbraced frame Using previously defined member type Braced create the new set of parameters for unbraced frame.47 ksi fvz = -1. For defining appropriate values of Cm coefficients (coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation).081| < 1.51 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fa/(0. Type a new name Unbraced in the Member Type editable field.6*Fy) + fbcy/Fbcy = 0. Save the newly-created type of member.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Make the calculations for member 3.Verification Manual for US codes CALCULATION STRESSES: fa = 4.24 in editable field.62 ksi fbcy = 16.976 < 1. Define the new value of Buckling Length coefficient Y by typing value 1.

March 2010 page 56 / 93 . COMPARISON: Resistance.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 21x44 d=20.00 L = 20.6 21.6 1.00 ft Ky = 1.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Check ASD Formula (H1-1) Robot Handbook 13.98 13.016 13.300 STI = Noncompact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: Fx = 60.097 Cb = 2.Ninth Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 3 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1. Allowable service load axial stress Fa [ ksi ] 5.976 13.59 21.45 in Wely=81.231 in2 Ax=13.850 in2 Az=7. Allowable service load axial stress Fa [ ksi ] 2.000 ASD (F4) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incorrect section !!! For this unbraced frame the stability requirement governs.47 ksi Fbty = 21.35 in Iy=843.6 21. section modulus.081| < 1.000 in4 Iz=20.60 ksi Fey = 109.62 ksi Fa = 13.000 in2 tw=0. Check ASD Formula (H1-1) W21x44 in unbraced frame 4.000 ASD (H1-1) fvz/Fvz = |-0. Allowable bending stress at service load Fbcy [ksi] 3.000 KL/rz = 95. Thus if a small overstress is acceptable for the unbraced frame.700 in4 J=0.16 ksi Fbcy = 21.240 KL/ry = 36.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: Allowable Stress Design .00 kip My = -112.016 > 1.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.4 1.00 ft Cmy = 0. moment of inertia).34 ksi fbty = -16.770 in4 tf=0.00 ft Kz = 1.03 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area.6 0.59 ksi Fvz = 14.60 ksi Fez = 16.369 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 20. Allowable bending stress at service load Fbcy [ksi] 6.956 Lb = 10.59 21.51 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: fa/Fa + (Cmy*fbcy)/((1-fa/Fey)*Fbcy) = 1.850 UNS = Compact Lz = 10.607 in3 Welz=6.66 in b=6.4 0.47 ksi fvz = -1.40 ksi fbcy = 16. interaction expression W21x44 in braced frame 1.00 kip*ft Vz = -8.40 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALCULATION STRESSES: ALLOWABLE STRESSES: fa = 4.50 in Ay=5. the same W21x44 could be used whether the frame is braced or unbraced.

LRFD March 2010 page 57 / 93 .Verification Manual for US codes 3.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab. Then. The member is assumed pinned at top and bottom and in addition has weak direction support at midheight. Save the newly-created type of member. Salmon and John E.10.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . It can be set in Member type combo-box. The new dialog box Internal bracing will appear.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 .2) SPECIFICATION: Select the lightest W section of A36 steel to serve as a main member 30 ft long to carry an axial compression load of 50 kips dead load and 110 kips live load in a braced structure. as shown below. Johnson TITLE: Axially loaded column (Example 6. For analyzed member pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened. March 2010 page 58 / 93 .Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. Define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0. Type a new name Column 1 in the Member Type editable field. press Buckling Length coefficient Z icon and select the last icon.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. SOLUTION: Define a new type of member.Axially loaded column Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . Use AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design.

RESULTS: a) In the first step W8x40 was considered. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added. Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. Pressing the line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. Moreover. The results for the shape are presented below. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. Now.Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 1 and switch off Limit State – Serviceability (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). March 2010 page 59 / 93 . The view of the RESULTS window is presented below.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

91 Lz = 15.87 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 236.25 in Ay=9. type W 10x45 in the editable field below drawing of shape and press ENTER.970 in2 Ax=11.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 tst ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL Fy = 36.000 in4 Iz=49.90 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Non-compact STI = Non-compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) = 1.038 in2 Az=2.14 > 1.500 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 30.394 in3 Sz=12.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0.90 Fi c = 0.80 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.00 LRFD (E2-1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incorrect section !!! b) Now check W10x45.100 in4 J=1.169 in3 tf=0.85 Fi v = 0.120 in4 tw=0.700 in2 b=8.00 ft KLz/rz = 87.00 ft KLy/ry = 101.07 in Iy=146.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 8x40 d=8.56 in Zy=39.800 in3 Zz=18.00 kip Pn = 243. The results for selected section are presented below.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Being still in Detailed results dialog box.36 in Sy=35. March 2010 page 60 / 93 .00 L = 0.

00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 10x45 d=10.510 in4 tw=0.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . moment of inertia).00 ft KLy/ry = 83. March 2010 page 61 / 93 .00 ft KLz/rz = 89.900 in3 Zz=20.00 LRFD (E2-1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance. Compressive resistance φc Pn [kips] for W8x40 207.00 L = 0.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 tst ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL Fy = 36.90 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Non-compact STI = Non-compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) = 0. interaction expression Robot Handbook 1.35 in Sy=49. section modulus.300 in2 b=8.00 kip Pn = 313.37 Lz = 15.62 in Zy=54.23 208 2.02 in Iy=248.109 in3 Sz=13.400 in4 J=1.12 267 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area.90 Fi c = 0.945 in2 Az=3. Compressive resistance φc Pn [kips] for W10x45 266.83 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 236.300 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 30.89 < 1.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0.317 in3 tf=0.10 in Ay=9.535 in2 Ax=13.000 in4 Iz=53.85 Fi v = 0.08 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.

Type a new name Segment 2 in the Member Type editable field. Save the newly-created type of member.Lateral torsional buckling of beams Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . Use A36 steel and Load and Resistance Factor Design.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. March 2010 page 62 / 93 . Salmon and John E. concentrated load points. SPECIFICATION: Select an economical W section for the beam as shown below.3). It can be set in Member type combo-box. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 . The 26-kip load (at point 2) contains 6 kips dead load and the 11. and at the end of the cantilever.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Assign previously defined label Segment 2 (type of member) to member 2. Define a new type of member 2.5-kip load (at point 4) includes 4 kips dead load: the remainder is live load. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends). Johnson TITLE: Lateral-torsional buckling of beams (Example 9. Lateral support is provided at the vertical supports.9. For analyzed member pre-defined type of member BEAM may be initially opened. Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.

RESULTS: a) In the first step W 24x68 was considered March 2010 page 63 / 93 . Now. Pressing the line with results for the member 2 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member.Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for members 2 and switch off Limit State – Serviceability (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. Moreover. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. The view of the RESULTS window is presented below.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

900 Fi t = 0.96 in Iy=1830. Being still in Detailed results dialog box.000 in4 Iz=70.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 4 Combination 1 1*1.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 2 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0. type W 24x76 in the editable field below drawing of shape and press ENTER.900 Fi v = 0.200+2*1.870 in4 tw=0.03 kip Mny = 459.72 kip -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.706 in3 tf=0.235 in3 Sz=15.214 Lb = 28.848 in2 Ax=20.06 kip*ft Vuz = -20.952 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Muy = 460.536 Cb = 1.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 24x68 d=23. The results for selected section are presented below.71 kip*ft Vnz = 212.00 L = 0.73 in Ay=10.00 ft KLz/rz = 179.58 in Zy=177.000 LRFD (F1-2) Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.000 in3 Zz=24. March 2010 page 64 / 93 .112 > 1.00 ft KLy/ry = 35.105 < 1.900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Muy/(Fib*Mny) = 1.00 ft Lz = 28.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incorrect section !!! b) Now check W24x76.500 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 28.100 in2 b=8.489 in2 Az=9.600 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.400 in4 J=1.41 in Sy=154.

900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Muy/(Fib*Mny) = 0. interaction expression Robot Handbook 1.354 in3 tf=0. March 2010 page 65 / 93 .680 in4 tw=0.34 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 24x76 d=23.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 2 POINT: 1 COORDINATE: x = 0. Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] for W24x68 459.600 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 28. Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] for W24x73 567.000 in3 Zz=28.00 ft Lz = 28.226 in2 Az=10. In Handbook the old equation was used.99 in Iy=2100.92 in Ay=12.000 in4 Iz=82.585 in3 Sz=18.500 in4 J=2.71 468 2.68 in Zy=200.600 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.900 Fi v = 0.00 ft KLz/rz = 175.00 L = 0.200+2*1.03 kip Mny = 567.702 Lb = 28.000 LRFD (F1-2) Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 4 Combination 1 1*1.400 in2 b=8.15 kip*ft Vnz = 227.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .06 kip*ft Vuz = -20.952 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Muy = 460.080 Cb = 1.901 < 1.15 581 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of Cb calculations in the handbook and in the program. Robot uses the new equation given by LRFD Second edition in chapter F formula (F1-3).00 ft KLy/ry = 34.900 Fi t = 0.525 in2 Ax=22.098 < 1.44 in Sy=175.

1). Save the newly-created type of member. SPECIFICATION: Investigate the acceptability of a W 16 x 67 used as a beam-column in a braced frame under the loading shown aside.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3 .Combined bending and axial compression Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . SOLUTION: Define a new type of member. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends). March 2010 page 66 / 93 . For analyzed member pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened. Salmon and John E.Use Load and Design Factor Design. It can be set in Member type combo-box. The steel is A572 Grade 60.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. Johnson TITLE: Combined bending and axial compression (Example 12. which opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. Type a new name Column1 in the Member Type editable field. Press the Parameters button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.10.

Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. Pressing the line with results for the member 1 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. Now. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added. March 2010 page 67 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for members 1 and switch off Limit State – Serviceability (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Moreover.

200+2*1.866 Lb = 15.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! COMPARISON: Resistance.000 LRFD (H1-1A) Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.667 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 525.00 L = 15.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 16x67 d=16.000 in4 J=2. Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] 3. Nominal strength of an axially loaded compression member φc*Pn [kips] 2.30 kip Muy = -90.850 Fi v = 0.33 in Ay=13.000 in4 Iz=119. interaction expression 1.00 ft Lz = 15.67 in Zy=130.00 kip*ft Vuz = -6.23 in Iy=954.40 in Sy=116.000 in3 Zz=35.390 in4 tw=0.00 kip Mny = 650.55 Handbook 628 650 0.00 kip*ft Vnz = 232. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) March 2010 Robot 627.613 in2 Az=6.237 Cb = 1.254 in3 tf=0.973 650 0.900 Fi c = 0.00 ft KLz/rz = 73.973 page 68 / 93 .973 < 1.840 in3 Sz=23.700 in2 b=10.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*Muy/(Fib*Mny) = 0.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 1 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1.500 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 15.600 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A572-60 Fy = 60.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 3 COMBINATION 1 1*1.450 in2 Ax=19.21 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.00 ft KLy/ry = 25.00 kip Pn = 738.029 < 1.

as might be the horizontal effect of a crane. The compression load P is 30 kips dead load and 70 kips live load.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 4 .6(70) = 148 kips (right site) Wu = 1. Save the newly-created type of member. as might by caused by a crane. In editable field Bar List type numbers of existing bars 1 2.2/16)8 = 47. The new dialog box Internal bracing will appear. March 2010 page 69 / 93 . • Compute factored loads. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends). press Buckling Length coefficient Z icon and select the last icon. Define a new type of member. The member is part of a braced system.Axial compression and biaxial bending I Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . It can be set in Member type combo-box. Use A36 steel and Load and Resistance Factor Design.4 ft-kips SOLUTION: Create a new ”super-member” consists of the elements 1 and 2.6(18) = 31.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .3).2 kips Pu =148 + 31. For analysed member 3 predefined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened.6 ft-kips • Moment magnification for W 10x39 (initially taken for analysis) Mux = B1*Mnt = 1.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. Define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0. Johnson TITLE: Axial compression and biaxial bending (Example 12. The bracked load W is 2 kips dead load and 18 live load.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. Type a new name COLUMN1 in the Member Type editable field. but only at the top and bottom for the strong direction.10*47.2 = 179 kips (left site) Hu = 1. Press the New button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab.2(30) + 1.13. Salmon and John E.6(5) = 8 kips Maximum moment = (H/2 + W/16)*8 Mnt = (8/2 +31. and the horizontal load H is 5 kips live load. Assume a first-order analysis was performed to obtain the given forces: Pu = 1. has support in the weak direction at mid height. Press the Parameters button that opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box. SPECIFICATION: Design a beam-column W section for the service loading conditions shown below. Then. The new member 3 will be automatically created.2(2) + 1.6 = 52.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . Moreover. The view of the RESULTS window is presented below.Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 3 and switch off Limit State – Serviceability (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). Pressing the line with results for the member 3 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added. March 2010 page 70 / 93 . start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen. Now.

430 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 179.038 Lb = 16.92 in Ay=8.00 ft KLz/rz = 48.980 in4 tw=0.50 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*Muy/(Fib*Mny) = 0.000 in4 J=0.00 ft Lz = 8.50 L = 8.72 kip Muy = 52.850 Fi v = 0.098 < 1.900 Fi c = 0.500 in2 b=7.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 10x39 d=9.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .40 kip*ft Vuz = 5.464 in2 Az=3.000 in4 Iz=45.530 Cb = 1.000 LRFD (H1-1A) Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.271 in3 tf=0.125 in2 Ax=11.800 in3 Zz=17.99 in Iy=209.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS: a) for W 10 x 39 STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 3 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 0.40 kip*ft Vnz = 67.200 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 16.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Section OK !!! March 2010 page 71 / 93 .945 < 1.20 kip Pn = 365.32 in Sy=42.137 in3 Sz=11.53 in Zy=46.95 kip Mny = 140.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.00 ft KLy/ry = 45.

500 Lb = 16.56 in Iy=285.300 in2 b=6.430 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 179.30 in Sy=45.740 in4 tw=0.50 L = 8.900 Fi c = 0.00 ft Lz = 8.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 12x35 d=12.000 LRFD (H1-1A) Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.52 in Zy=51.00 ft KLz/rz = 62.00 ft KLy/ry = 36.082 < 1.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A36 Fy = 36.600 in3 Sz=7.822 in2 Az=3.500 in4 J=0.00 kip ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incorrect section !!! March 2010 page 72 / 93 .200 in3 Zz=11.500 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 16.60 kip*ft Vnz = 81.000 in4 Iz=24.Verification Manual for US codes b) check for lighter section W 12 x 35 STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 3 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 0.20 kip Pn = 302.95 kip Mny = 153.850 Fi v = 0.50 in Ay=6.750 in2 Ax=10.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .40 kip*ft Vuz = 5.034 > 1.38 kip Muy = 52.245 Cb = 1.470 in3 tf=0.900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*Muy/(Fib*Mny) = 1.

Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] 3. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) For W12x35 section 4.02 The lightest section that satisfies is the W 14 x 38.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . however.Nominal strength of an axially loaded comp.87 140. member φc*Pn [kips] 5. the extra 4 in. of depth may not be desirable.03 0.945 311 140 0. section modulus. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) for W 14 x 34 Robot Handbook 310. interaction expression For W10x39 section 1.Verification Manual for US codes COMPARISON: Resistance.94 257.91 1.60 1. Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] 6. March 2010 page 73 / 93 . moment of inertia).034 0.026 257 154 1. member φc*Pn [kips] 2.40 0.03 153. CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) 7. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) for W 14 x 38 8.Nominal strength of an axially loaded comp.909 1.

and Mntz=14 ft-kips about the z-axis at the top of column.7).Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 5 . loaded as shown below.Axial compression and biaxial bending II Example taken from STEEL STRUCTURES . Save the newly-created type of member. Use A572 Grade 50 steel and Load and Design Factor Design. Press the Parameters button that opens MEMBER DEFINITION – PARAMETERS dialog box.5 in the Coordinates of the existing bracings field. press Buckling Length coefficient Z icon and select the last icon. The new dialog box Internal bracing will appear. SPECIFICATION: Select the lightest W12 50 section to carry an axial compression in addition to biaxial bending. It can be set in Member type combo-box. Johnson TITLE: Axial compression and biaxial bending (Example 12. Salmon and John E. The results give Pu=375 kips. For defining appropriate values of lateral buckling parameters choose the icon Cb that opens Parameter Cb dialog box and double-click the second icon (Moments at the ends).5 coefficient in lateral buckling length Lb editable field.13. Type a new name Column1 in the Member Type editable field. Define internal support in the middle of the member by typing value 0. Define a new type of member. Then. Additionally set 0. The new member 3 will be automatically created.Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition written by Charles G. Press the New button in DEFINITION-MEMBERS tab. Assume a first-order structural analysis has been performed using factored load. SOLUTION: Create a new ”super-member” consists of the elements 1 and 2. March 2010 page 74 / 93 . Mnty=38 ft-kips about y-axis at the top of the column. For analysed member 3 pre-defined type of member COLUMN may be initially opened. In editable field Bar List type numbers of existing bars 1 2.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

Pressing the line with results for the member 3 opens the RESULTS dialog box with detailed results for the analyzed member. The view of the RESULTS window is presented below. Moreover. start the calculations by pressing Calculations button. Member Verification dialog box with most significant results data will appear on screen.Verification Manual for US codes In the CALCULATIONS dialog box set Member Verification option for member 3 and switch off Limit State – Serviceability (only Ultimate Limit state will be analyzed). March 2010 page 75 / 93 . Now.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . the printout note containing the same results data as in Simplified results tab of the RESULTS window is added.

768 Lb = 7.00 kip*ft Vnz = 135.004 > 1. interaction expression 1.24 300.50 ft Lz = 7.37 in Sy=64.1 89.021 < 1.00 ft KLy/ry = 34.Verification Manual for US codes STEEL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE: LRFD Second Edition ANALYSIS TYPE: Member Verification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CODE GROUP: MEMBER: 3 3 POINT: 3 COORDINATE: x = 1. section modulus.64 in Zy=72.009 < 1.08 in Iy=394.00 ksi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION PARAMETERS: W 12x50 d=12.000 in3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MEMBER PARAMETERS: Ly = 15. moment of inertia).50 kip*ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COEFFICIENTS: Fi b = 0.2 0.850 Fi v = 0.936 in3 tf=0.00 kip*ft Vuz = -2.00 L = 15.667 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERNAL FORCES: NOMINAL STRENGTHS: Pu = 375. Nominal moment strength Mnz [ft-kips] 4.780 in4 tw=0.900 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION ELEMENTS: UNS = Compact STI = Compact ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VERIFICATION FORMULAS: Pu/(Fic*Pn) + 8/9*(Muy/(Fib*Mny) + Muz/(Fib*Mnz)) = 1.00 87.000 in3 Zz=21. member φc*Pn 2.000 LRFD (F2-2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incorrect section !!! COMPARISON: Resistance.24 kip Muy = -38.00 ft ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOADS: Governing Load Case: 1 service ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL: STEEL A572-50 Fy = 50.988 Cb = 1.69 kip Vny = 279.5 1.000 LRFD (H1-1A) Vuy/(Fiv*Vny) = 0.000 Vuz/(Fiv*Vnz) = 0.004 Handbook 535 301. March 2010 page 76 / 93 .50 ft KLz/rz = 45.900 Fi c = 0.Nominal strength of an axially loaded comp.00 kip Vuy = -2.19 in Ay=10.31 kip Muz = 14.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .342 in2 Az=4.510 in2 Ax=14.53 kip Mny = 300.33 kip Pn = 629.00 kip*ft Mnz = 87. Nominal moment strength Mny [ft-kips] 3.98 CONCLUSIONS: The differences are caused by different way of rounding-off the cross-sectional properties (crosssectional area.643 in3 Sz=13.700 in2 b=8. Check LRFD Formula (H1-1a) Robot 535.300 in4 J=1.000 in4 Iz=56.

Verification Manual for US codes CONCRETE March 2010 page 77 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .Verification Manual for US codes 1. ACI 318-02 – RC columns March 2010 page 78 / 93 .

G. A Fundamental Approach”.Column subjected to axial load and uni-axial bending I Example based on: [2] E. IMPORTANT STEPS: In the dialog box Buckling length set buckling parameter ky as 1. the results of the program. LOADS: Pu=726 M1=46 M2=127 [kip] [kip-ft] [kip-ft] GEOMETRY: lu=18 cross section: 21x21 [ft] [in] MATERIAL: Concrete: Steel: f’c= 5000 fy= 60000 [psi].29x106 Es = 2. “Reinforced Concrete. Moreover. Cross section with reinforcement determined in [2] (10 No. 1987. March 2010 page 79 / 93 .9x106 [psi] [psi] Fig. Fifth Edition. assuming lateral sideway due to wind as negligible. Ec = 4.2. concerning the calculations of reinforcement and buckling analysis are compared to the results of [2].1.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 1 .15. [psi]. Nawy. manual calculations are carried out in parallel.).Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . 372 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXAMPLE: Rectangular tied column is subjected to uni-axial bending.9). Design the column section and reinforcement necessary for gravity loads only.1. pp. in order to better verify the results. Example 9.7 (Fig. In the following example.

). In the Calculation Option/ General dialog box check: Design – unidirectional bending: My direction (Fig. RESULTS OF REINFORCEMENT CALCULATION: The reinforcement generated by the program (Fig 1. that if we fix the bars diameter as No. since the authors of [2] assume Cm=1 (Fig. MyB.2.5. In the Loads dialog box put the axial force N. March 2010 page 80 / 93 . 1. 1.4. and the moment in the mid-height MyC = MyA. Buckling parameters of the column. moments at the ends of the column MyA.3. thus the total area is equal to 10.3. we obtain the same reinforcement as the authors of [2] (five No.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .) is different than that calculated in [2].84 in2. Unidirectional bending. Fig. 1.1. 6 bars. It should be noted. Fig.). 1. thus the total area is equal to 8.99in2. The calculations with the program result in reinforcement with 20 No. 9 (Reinforcement pattern dialog). Loads. The reinforcement determined by the program is more optimal solution.4. The authors of [2] find the reinforcement of 5 No. 9 bars at each side). 9 bars at each side.Verification Manual for US codes Fig.

10.4 E c I g ⎪⎩ 1 + β d 10.2 E c I g + E s I se ⎪ 1 + βd ⎪ EI = max ⎨ ⎪ 0. after the modification of reinforcement to the form as in [2].9 (-) ⎧M 2 M 2 = max ⎨ ⎩ Pu (0.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .0 2 (kip-ft ) 10.86 326.5723 60.82 Pc = (-) π 2 EI (klu ) 2 Cm = 1.10 (kip) 128634 uses only 10. 6). 1.8 (kip-ft) March 2010 10.Verification Manual for US codes Fig.12 150194 150206 1356 1583 1583 1.7 Ig (in4) 16207 16207 16207 I se (in4) - 640 640 ⎧ (0.3.0 3.13 (-) *10.75Pc ⎩⎪1 10. In order to verify the results of buckling analysis.5.11.003h) (kip-ft) M c = δ ns M 2 10.12. the verification is carried out.16 326.12 10.2 60.0 1.14 page 81 / 93 .57 2.5723 (Unit) klu r 10.6 + 0.495 2. RESULTS OF BUCKLING ANALYSIS: Formula number in [1] Quality [2] Robot Manual calculations 58.0 1. Reinforcement generated by the program (20 No.57 127 127 127 444.1 δ ns ⎧ Cm ⎪ Pu ⎪ = max ⎨1 − ⎪ 0.

thus the critical force is calculated more accurately.99 in Mc 444.16 kip-ft 8. Robot uses the maximum of values from equation 10-11 and 10-12. In the case of buckling analysis.12 only. March 2010 page 82 / 93 .Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . the reinforcement obtain in the program is modified to a form as in the reference example.Verification Manual for US codes FINAL VERIFICATION: NOTE: the results of reinforcement calculation concern the automatic calculation of reinforcement. Quantity [2] Robot 2 As 10.82 kip-ft * * The reason of greater final moment determined in [2] is the use of equation 10.84 in2 326. in order to enable the comparison of total moments.

the calculations of reinforcement and calculations of capacity are compared to the results of the pcaColumn v. concerning the calculations of buckling are compared to the results of [3].G.K.64 software. First Edition.) Let the MyC in the mid-height be calculated automatically. the unit weight of concrete should be set as 0.33 cross section: 20x20 [ft] [in] MATERIAL: Concrete: Steel: f’c=5000 fy=60000 [psi]. Loads. Fig. B. Finally. In the Loads dialog box put the axial force N. moments at the ends of the column MyA.1. Moreover. in order to better verify the results.2 Mu. 2.bot = 59.Verification Manual for US codes VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 2 . 1996. Ghosh. Rabbat ‘Notes on ACI 318-95. Example 13.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .A. In the Calculation Options/General dialog box check: Design – unidirectional bending: My direction.29x106 Es= 2. Building code requirements for structural concrete’.1. page 13-21 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXAMPLE: Design A3 column in the non-sway frame.9x106 [psi] [psi] IMPORTANT STEPS: In the dialog box Buckling length set buckling parameter ky as 0. Fanella.Column subjected to axial load and uni-axial bending II Example based on: [3] S. [psi].3 [kip] [kip-ft] [kip-ft] GEOMETRY: lu=21. the results of the program.144[kip/ft3]. D. MyB (Fig.top = 116. March 2010 page 83 / 93 . In the following example. In order to obtain the same Young modulus as in [3]. manual calculations of slenderness effects are carried out in parallel. Ec=4. LOADS: Pu = 1096 Mu. 2.1.84.3.

3. Fig. Reinforcement generated automatically by the program (16 No. equal to that assumed for calculations in [3].3.4) in the program (the number of bars has been decreased down to 8 bars No. the reinforcement has been modified (Fig. 2.7). the latter one does not fulfill the capacity requirements (in [3] it is increased up to 8 bars No.7 Ig (in4) 13333 13333 13333 I se (in4) 213 213 213 (-) page 84 / 93 . RESULTS OF BUCKLING ANALYSIS: Formula number in Quantity [1] [3] Robot Manual calculations 36 37 37 (Unit) March 2010 klu r 10. Nevertheless. However.9.4. but after the calculations).7). Manually modified reinforcement (8 No.Verification Manual for US codes RESULTS OF REINFORCEMENT CALCULATION: The reinforcement generated by the program (Fig.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .7). in order to compare the results of buckling analysis with the results from [3]. 2. Fig. 2.) is different than that assumed for all calculations in the reference [3]. 2.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

⎧ (0,2 E c I g + E s I se

1 + βd

EI = max ⎨
⎪ 0,4 E c I g
⎪⎩ 1 + β d

Pc =

2

(kip-in )

π 2 EI

10.10

2

(kip)

(klu )

M1

⎪0,6 + 0,4
M2
C m = max ⎨
⎪0,4

δ ns

10.11, 10.12

⎧ Cm

Pu

= max ⎨1 −
⎪ 0,75Pc
⎪⎩1

10.13
(-)

10.9
(-)

⎧M 2
M 2 = max ⎨
⎩ Pu (0,6 + 0,003h)

10.14
(kip-ft)
10.8

M c = δ ns M 2

(kip-ft)

11.8x106

11.8x106

11.8x106

2519

2523

2523

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.9

1.93

1.91

⎧116.2
max ⎨
⎩109.6

⎧116.2
max ⎨
⎩109.6

⎧116.2
max ⎨
⎩109.6

220.8

222.1

222.1

FINAL VERIFICATION:
NOTE: the results of reinforcement calculation concern the automatic calculation of reinforcement. In
the case of buckling analysis, the reinforcement obtained in the program is modified to a form as in the
reference example, in order to enable the comparison of total moments.
Quantity

[2]

As

7.99 in2

9.62 in2

Mc

220.8 kip-ft

222.1kip-ft

VERIFICATION WITH THE OTHER SOFTWARE:
According to the current code [1], the reinforcement 8 No.9 assumed finally in the reference [3] is not
sufficient. Thus, we let Robot to calculate the reinforcement automatically (see Fig. 2.3), and then
check the results with pcaColumn v.3.64 software.
Quantity

pcaColumn
v.3.64

Robot

Mc

214.8 kip-ft

222.1kip-ft

capacity (interaction
diagrams)

March 2010

see Fig. 2.5

page 85 / 93

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

Fig. 2.5. Comparison of the interaction diagrams
CONCLUSIONS:
The results of the calculations of slenderness effects are with agreement with those from [3].
The results verified against the software pcaColumn v.3.64 show that the calculations of slenderness
effects and of capacity are correct.

March 2010

page 86 / 93

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis - Verification Manual for US codes

VERIFICATION EXAMPLE 3
- Column subjected to axial load and biaxial bending
DESCRIPTION OF THE EXAMPLE:
Following example illustrates the procedure of dimensioning of biaxial bending of column, which is
non-sway in one direction, whereas sway in the other. The results of the program are accompanied by
the ‘manual’ calculations.
1.

SECTION DIMENSIONS

2.

MATERIALS

Concrete:
Longitudinal reinforcement: Grade 60
Transversal reinforcement: Grade 60
3.

fc' = 3.50 (ksi)
fy = 60.00 (ksi)
fy = 60.00 (ksi)

BUCKLING MODEL

As can be seen the sway column is assumed for Z direction, and the non-sway column for Y direction

March 2010

page 87 / 93

Thus. thus the ratio of non-sway moment to total moment should be defined in the load table. CALCULATED REINFORCEMENT: The program generates the reinforcement 4 No.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . we define only the ends’ moments for Y direction. LOADS NOTE: The column is sway for Z direction. NOTE: Let us assume. RESULTS OF THE SECTION CALCULATIONS: The dimensioning combination is 1.18.2 DL1+1. we assume the mid-height moment is not a result of the linear distribution. In Z direction however. 5. Robot let the user define the moments in the mid-section explicitly. For such a case. the moments in Y direction are linearly distributed along the height of the column.6 LL1 The dimensioning section (where the most unfavorable set of forces is found) is for that combination the section in the mid-height of the column.Verification Manual for US Codes 4. March 2010 page 88 / 93 . 6.

1. 7. All the results of total forces for each combination and each section of the column may be seen in the table “Intersection” at the Column-results layout.the values are written “by hand” by the user (see point 4 – Loads) March 2010 page 89 / 93 . the loads are: G1 Q1 N (kip) 250 150 MyA (kip-ft) 40 20 MyB (kip-ft) 60 10 MyC (kip-ft) 52 16 MzA (kip-ft) 60 0 MzB (kip-ft) 80 10 MzC (kip-ft) 90* 12* 1. since the structure is non-sway in this direction.2G1+1.6Q1 540 80 88 84. In the top and bottom ends’ sections of the column in Y direction.8 72 112 127. CALCULATIONS OF TOTAL MOMENT: 7.2 Case 1 2 Dimensioning combination where A. LOADS For the dimensioning combination. the influence of buckling has not been taken into account. * . the second-order effects are taken into account in both directions. In parallel the other sections (at the ends of the column) are checked for all combinations of loads. B and C denote upper. In Z direction however.Verification Manual for US Codes Since the column is found as slender. lower and mid-height sections of the column respectively. the influence of slenderness is taken into account for all three sections of the column.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .

4 E c I g = 19569609 kip .2.00 (kip-ft) Calculation of critical force: Pc = π 2 EI (klu ) 2 ⎧ (0. THE INFLUENCE OF SLENDERNESS Two independent calculations of the total moment for both directions are carried out.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .2 ⋅ 250 1. Thus: βd = 1.00 ksi βd is calculated as a weighted average from the load cases. Y DIRECTION Slenderness: k ⋅ lu = 72.6 ⋅ 150 0.in 2 ⎪ 1+ β d ⎩ March 2010 page 90 / 93 . (10-12) I s = As ⋅ z 2 = 16.00 in4 E c = 3686.93 (in) 34 − 12 k ⋅ lu r > M1 = 23.00 (kip-ft) M2 = 88.25 r k ⋅ lu = 504 (in) r = 6. The weight factors are assumed according to the axial forces.5 =0.Verification Manual for US Codes 7.2 E c I g + E s I se ) ⎪ 1+ βd ⎪ EI = max ⎨ ⎪ 0.389 540 540 ⎧ (0.5 in4 I g = 18432.09 M2 M1 = 0.4 E c I g ⎪ 1+ β d ⎩ (10-11).00 ⋅ (12 − 3.2 E c I g + E s I se ) = 36081620 kip .1285) 2 =1259.82 ksi E s = 29000.3 + 0.in 2 ⎪ 1+ βd ⎪ EI = max ⎨ ⎪ 0.909 M2 M1 34 − 12 M2 column is slender The initial moments at the end of the column: M1 = 80.

4 M 2 = 0.964 C m = max ⎨ ⎪0.97 r k ⋅ lu = 504 (in) r = 6. the sway column is calculated for the end moment M2. the presence of moment in Y direction (which is also increased due to slenderness).93 (in) k ⋅ lu r > 22 March 2010 the column is slender page 91 / 93 . causes the mid-height section to be the most unfavorable (even though the end moment in Z direction is greater).003h) = 540 ⋅ 0.6 + 0.6 + 0.4kip − f = 88 (kip-ft) The dimensioning moment in Y direction is equal to: M c = δ ns M 2 = 174.4 ⎩ ⎧M 2 = 88 kip − ft M 2 = max ⎨ ⎩ Pu (0. EI = 36081620 kip-in2 Pc = 1402 kip The coefficient δ ns = δ ns : Cm = 1. Slenderness: k ⋅ lu = 38. In this case however.75 Pc M1 ⎧ ⎪0.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . taking into account the effects of slenderness.Verification Manual for US Codes Thus.11 = 59.981 Pu 1− 0.3 (kip-ft) Z DIRECTION NOTE: In most cases.

48 M ns = 54. but were defined directly by the user. Case MzC Load factors G1 72 1.2 0.6 - 96 - SUM MzC (dimensioning combination) 108 Mzns/Mz 0.3 (kip-ft) M cz = 145.4 Mzns = (Mzns/Mz)*Mz Mzs = (1-Mzns/Mz)*Mz 43.6 19. Check if further magnification of the moment is necessary: lu < r 35 Pu f ' c Ag lu = 38. we do not deal here with M 1 and M 2 .32 kip-ft March 2010 page 92 / 93 .52 64.97 r 35 = 55.25 (Q coefficient is defined in the Story parameters dialog box) The dimensioning moment in Z direction is equal to: M c = δ s M s + M ns = 145. 7. FINAL RESULT M cy = 174.72 (kip-ft) M s = 72.Verification Manual for US Codes The following table illustrates how the division of moments into sway and non-sway is carried out for the particular load combination.68 54.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis .3.8 7.2 11.72 72.22 Pu f 'c Ag No further magnification of moment is required.48 (kip-ft) The magnification factor for sway column is equal to: δ s = 1 /(1 − Q) = 1. but use directly the value of the mid-height moment).32 kip-ft NOTE: Since the values of moment do not result from the linear distribution.2 Q1 6 1.

e. LITERATURE [1] ACI 318-02 CODE EDITION [2] Edward G. K.3 – Final Result). Navy:’Reinforced Concrete’. Building code requirements for structural concrete’. First Edition March 2010 page 93 / 93 . 1987. The results obtained with the program (see point 6 – Results of the Section Calculations) are in agreement with the manual calculations (see point 7. Ghosh: ‘Notes on ACI 318-95.Verification Manual for US Codes 8. slenderness effects) in non-sway/sway column has been presented. 1996.Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis . CONCLUSIONS The algorithm of calculations of the total moments (i. Fifth Edition [3] S.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful