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1.1 Understanding Waves The Nature Of Waves * There have four various types of waves: a) Sea waves b) Sound c) Light d) Electromagnetic waves * A wave is a travelling distrurbance from a vibrating or oscillating source. As a wave travels, it carries energy along with it in the direction of its propagatio * There are two basic types of waves, namely the transverse waves and the longitudinal waves. * A transverse wave is a wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves. Examples of transverse are water waves and electromagnetic waves. * A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction parallel to the direction in which the wave moves. An example of longitudinal waves is sound waves
Wavefronts * Figure above shows the circular and plane wavefronts of water waves respectively.
* A wave front is an imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave. * The direction of propagation of a wave is perpendicular to the wavefront Oscilating Systems An oscilating system refers to a system that undergoes a periodic to-andfro movement. Figure below shows a simple pendulum, an example of oscilating system:
* One complete oscilating of a pendulum occurs when the pendulum bob moves from a position, returns to that position and moving in the same direction. Figure below shows a pendulum bob complete one oscilation by moving through position A-B-C-B-A
* The amplitude , a of an oscilation is the maximum displacement from the mean position. * The period, T of the oscilation is the maximum displacement from the mean position. * The frequency, f of the oscilation is the number of complete oscilations made in one second. The SI unit for frequency is hertz (Hz)
Displacement-time Graph * Figure above shows an oscillating pendulum and its corresponding displacement-time graph * The displacement-time graph show that a wave is a series of repetitive cycle. The period, T is the time taken for one complete cycle. * The amplitude, a is represented by the height of the crest of the graph. * The amplitude, a and the wavelength, l of the wave are shown in figure above. The wavelength, l is the horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on the wave. Wave Speed * Frequency, f =5Hz. Therefore, the wave moves with 5 complete wavelengths in 1 second. * Wavelength, l = 0.2 m. Therefore, the wave moves 5x 0.2 = 1.0m in 1 second Waves >> Understanding Waves_Note 3
* Figure above illustrates the connection between frequency, wavelength and wave speed. a) If an source produces waves at a frequency of 5 Hz, therefore it produces five complete waves in one second. b) If the waves have a wavelength of 0.2 m in the medium they are travelling through, then the waves move forward a distance of 5 x 0.2 m s-1. Therefore, the wave speed is 10 ms-1 * Generally, if the frequency of a wave source is f Hz, it produces f complete waves in one second. If the wavelength of the wave is l m. Then the waves move forward a distance of f x l per second. Theredore, the speed of waves, v is given by the formula.
Dampling In An Oscillating System * Figure above shows the displacement-time graph of an oscillating system undergoing damping. The dotted lines indicate the decrease of the amplitude of the oscillation with time. * Some example of damping in oscillating system are an oscillating
hacksaw blade, a simple pendulum, a loaded spring and an oscillating float Forced Oscillation And Resonance * A system oscillates at its natural frequency when no external force is applied on it. * The natural frequency of a simple pendulum is depending on its length. A longer pendulum has a lower natural frequency. * When a periodic force is applied to an oscillating system, the response depends on the frequency of the period force. * An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is driven at its natural frequency by a periodic force. Maximum energy transfer occurs to the system and it oscillates at a large amplitude
Analysing Reflection Of Waves.
Reflection Of Waves * Reflection of waves occurs when all of part of the waves return after they encounter an obstacle. The obstacle is known as a reflector. * A ripple tank kit is a very useful apparatus for studying waves in the laboratory Characteristics Of Reflection Of Waves * The direction of the propagation of waves changes after undergoing reflection * The angle of reflection, r is equal; to the angle of incidence, i. * The wavelength, l of the reflected waves is the same as that of the incident waves. * * The frequency, f of the reflected waves is the same as that of the incident waves. * By considering the fact that both the wavelength and the frequency of the incident and reflected waves are the same is the same as that of the incident waves.
1. Draw a line to represent the direction of propagation of the incident waves. 2. Draw the normal, N that is perpendicular to the reflector. 3. Draw a line to represent the direction of propagation of the reflected waves. 4. Draw the wavefronts of the reflected waves which are perpendicular with the line drawn in step 3
1.3 Analysing Refraction Of Waves * Refraction of waves occurs when there is a change of direction of the propagation of waves travelling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed * The refraction of water waves occurs when water waves travel from one area to another area of different depths. Hence the different depths of water is equivalent to the different media Charecteristics Of Refraction Of Waves * When waves propagate from a less dense medium to a denser medium, the angle of incidence, i is greater than the angle of refraction, r * The wavelength, l of the refracted waves in the denser medium is shorter. * The frequency, f of the waves remains unchanged. * The waves speed, v in the denser medium is smaller than that in the less dense medium. * The directions of incident and refracted waves are different.
Guides On How To Draw A Diagram To Show The Refraction Of Waves 1. Draw a line to represent the direction of propagation of the incident waves. 2. Draw the normal, N at the boundary between the two area. 3. Draw a line to represent the direction of propagation of the refracted waves. 4. Draw the refracted wavefronts
1.4 Analysing Diffraction Of Waves * Diffraction of waves is a phenomenon that refer to the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or round an obstacle Characteristics Of Diffraction Of Waves * The wavelength, l of the diffracted waves is the same as that of the incident waves. * The frequency, f of the diffracted waves is the same as that of the incident waves. * The wave speed, v of the diffracted wave is the same as that of the incident waves * The direction of propagation of the diffracted waves depends on the width of the gaps or obstacles. For smaller gaps and obstacles, the change of direction is more while the spread is bigger. * The amplitude, a of the diffracted waves is smaller than that of the incident waves.
Analysing Interference Of Waves
1.5 Analysing Interference Of Waves * When two separate sets of waves with the same frequency meet in the ripple tank, they combine in an interesting way. The result is known as the interference of waves * When interference occurs, the waves either interfere constructively or destructively. The two spherical dippers which produce continuous sequence of waves act as coherent sources of waves. Coherent sources of waves are *sources which maintain a constant phase difference. Principle Of Superposition * When the waves meet, they overlap with each other to form a combined wave forms. * The principle of superposition states that at any time, the combined wave forms of two or more interfering waves is given by the sum of the displacement of the individual wave at each point of medium
* If a wave with a positive displacement meets another with a negative displacement of the same magnitude, they cancel each other and the combined amplitude become zero. The waves undergo destructive interference. * Figure above shows two waves meet to interfere destructively.
* Figure above shows the interference of two coherent sources A and B. Where, a = the distance between the two coherent sources of waves. x = the distance between two consecutive constructive interferences ( or destructive interferences) D = the perpendicular distance between the two coherent sources of waves and the place where the interference pattern is observed
1.6 Analysing Sound Waves
* Sound are mechanical waves. They are caused by vibrating objects. The strings of a guitar, the skim of a drum and a tuning fork vibrate to produce sound.
* The vibrating cone of a loudspeaker in figure above produce sound * Its vibrating diaphragm is continually compressing and stretching the air next to it. * This maker a series of compression and rarefaction travel through the air away from the loudspeaker. * Compression is a region of increased pressure and rarefaction is a region of decreased pressure. The resulting succession of compression and rarefaction constitute the sound waves * Sound wave is longitudinal in nature because the air molecules vibrate in the direction which is parallel to the direction of propagation. * Sound wave needs a medium for its propagation because its propagation is essentially due
to the vibration of molecules of its medium. * Compression and rarefaction need a material which can be compressed and stretches. This explains why we do not hear any sound from the outer space which mainly consists of vacuum Application Of Sound Waves * Sound can be generated at a wide range of frequency * Sound wave generated between 20Hz and 20 kHz can be heard by normal humans ears and are known as audio waves. * Those below 20Hz are called infrasound and those above 20kHz are known as ultrasound * A bat can navigate in complete darkness by emitting very high-pitches sound waves in the ultrasound range. * Dolphins use ultrasonic frequency of about 150kHz for communication and navigation * Ultrasonic rulers in ships ultrasonic echoes to measure distance. An ultrasonic ruler of a ship being used to determine the depth of the sea. * Ultrasonic imaging is a simple structural and safe technique for diagnostic procedure. It is safer to use than X-ray. This technique enables doctors to evaluate the structural aspects of the organs inside the body as well as the foetus of a pregnant mother. * Opticians and goldsmiths use ultrasonic cleaner to clean spectacles, jewellery and ornaments. The water used for the cleaning purpose is vibrated by ultrasound. The vibrations shake off dirt attached to these objects.
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