RF Training

Microwave Link Engineering • A communication system that utilizes the radio frequency band spanning 2 to 60 GHz. As per IEEE, electromagnetic waves between 30 and 300 GHz are called millimeter waves (MMW) instead of microwaves as their wavelengths are about 1 to 10mm Small capacity systems generally employ the frequencies less than 3 GHz while medium and large capacity systems utilize frequencies ranging from 3 to 15 GHz. Frequencies > 15 GHz are essentially used for short-haul transmission.

Advantages: • • • • • • • • • • • Less affected by natural calamities Less prone to accidental damage Links across mountains and rivers are more economically feasible Single point installation and maintenance Single point security They are quickly deployed

Line of Sight Characteristic Highly directive Pencil like beam width EM wave follow straight line

Link Engineering Site selection Frequency selection o o o o o o o o • • G = 20 log F + 20 log D – 52.6 Frequency increase ~ Diameter decreases While choosing frequency, two things should be noted interference, 2) Regulatory Issues f = c/ (f mean mean rain attenuation decreases)

loss = 36.6 + 20 log f + 20 log D loss = 32.4 + 20 log f + 20 log D f mean loss mean distance

Tower Heights profile Free Space phenomenon o o o o Reflection Refraction Diffraction Attenuation

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Terrain Survey Equipment Selection (depends on choice of frequency and antenna)

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ICT (Installation, Commissioning and Testing)

Fresnel Zone Wave front has expanding properties as it travels through space. These properties result in phase transition and reflection as wave passes over an obstacle. This results in increase or decrease of signal. The amount of additional clearness that must be allowed to avoid Fresnel Phenomenon is called Fresnel Zone. Earth Bulge: K = effective radius of earth / true radius of earth

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Fading Weakening of RF signal Is due to Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction, Attenuation Type: o Multi path fading: interference between a direct wave and reflected wave. Caused by reflection from grounds and atmospheric sheets and layers. Temperature inversion of earth surface. Trees and water bodies. Flat fading: A fade where all frequencies in the channel are equally affected. There is barely noticeable variation of the amplitude of the signal across the channel bandwidth Frequency selective fading: that disturb selected frequency Fast Fading: rapid fluctuation of signal over small areas. Slow fading: result of shadowing, mountain, hills and other non-moving objects. Rain fading: rain attenuates the signal, caused by scattering and absorption of EM waves by rain drops. It start increasing at 10 GHz and above 15GHz


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Fade Margin • The amount by which the received signal may be reduced without causing the system performance to fall is call Fade Margin

Path Loss • • The reduction of power density of EM wave as it travel thorough space Causes: FSL, Diffraction, Absorption, Distance between Tx and Rx, height, location of Antennas

Diversity • • • • Used to removed fading Method of improving of reliability of message signal by using two or more communication channel. Provide equipment reliability Types: o Frequency diversity: two Tx and two Rx both are tuned at different frequencies with same information is being transmitted over both frequencies so one of them provides sufficient signal strength. A bit expensive. Space diversity: if two antennas are placed many wavelength apart, it has been observed that fading can not occur. One of the antennas provides sufficient signal strength.


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Time diversity: A time delay of two identical signals on parallel paths Path diversity: signal arrives on geographically separate paths.

Diversity Combiner o o Combiner combines two or more diversity paths Types: ̇ ̇ ̇ Selection combiner Equal gain combiner Maximal ratio combiner

radiate power equally in all direction. Directivity Maximum value of directive gain is called directivity depend on shape of radiation pattern. Pattern or antenna pattern or antenna radiation pattern • The directional function characterizing the relative distribution of power radiated by antenna Polarization • • • • Physical orientation of electric field Vertical and horizontal Transmitter and receiver antenna should have same polarization.Antenna An electrical conductor used to transmit and receive EM wave Types • Isotropic o o • Ideal antenna. • Dipole o Simplest practical antenna with center fed element for transmission and reception of RF energy. television and data communication • Directional o Radiate greater power in one or more direction. allowing for increase performance on Tx and Rx and reduce interference from unwanted sources. Gain ___ Parabolic o High gain reflector antenna used in radio. Efficiency • • Gain • • • • • Power output in a particular direction to that produced in any direction by isotropic antenna G = power output by antenna / power output by isotropic antenna Product of efficiency and directivity G= D Ration of total power radiated to the input power of antenna. = power radiated / input power Reciprocity Antenna ability which shows that same radiation pattern for transmission and reception Beam width • Angular separation of half power points of radiation pattern .

) Antenna performance [calculated by site master] VSWR Distance to fault Insertion lose Reflection mean power transferred mean return lose ./ V0+ VSWR / SWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ration) The SWR have max and min voltages The ratio of max voltage to min voltage of SW is called standing wave ratio and if we are dealing in term of voltage then it is called VSWR VSWR = V max /V min = (1 + ) / (1 .Reflection Coefficient • • • • • • • • Ratio of reflected wave to incident wave = V0.

multipoint configuration) Physical topology (mesh. half/full duplex) Layer # 2 (Data Link Layer) o o o o o o Frames Framing Physical addressing (source/destination address) Flow control (prevent overwhelming) Error control Access control • Layer # 3 (Network Layer) o o o o Packets Source to destination delivery of packets Logical addressing Routing • Layer # 4 (Transport Layer) o o o o o o o Segment Source to destination (end-to-end) delivery of entire message Service point addressing Segmentation and reassembly Connection control (connection oriented / connection less) Flow control (perform end to end) Error control (perform end to end) • Layer # 5 (Session Layer) o o o Establish.Networking Function of OSI Layers • Layer # 1 (Physical Layer) o o o o o o o • Physical characteristics of interfaces and media Representation of bits (types of encoding) Date rate (transmission rate (duration of bits)) Synchronization of bits Line configuration (point-to-point configuration. synchronize and terminates session between two communication systems Dialog control Synchronization • Layer # 6 (Presentation Layer) o o Translation Encryption / decryption . ring. maintain. bus topology etc) Transmission mode (simplex.

Protocol • • • • • • • • • • • Set of rules that governs the communication for each layer Difference between Protocol and Standard Protocol is Software (Data Link Layer) Standard is Hardware (Physical Layer) Every protocol may be standard but every standard is not a protocol Unicast an individual or device can be addressed to a single one Multicast an individual or device can be addressed to a group Broadcast an individual or device can be addressed to all Simplex Communication is unidirectional (TV. Access Method: Token Passing FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface.3.o • Compression Layer # 7 (Application Layer) o o o o Network virtual terminal File transfer. Access Method: Token Passing . Radio) Half Duplex Each station can receive and transmit but not at the same time (Walky talky) Full Duplex Both station can receive and transmit simultaneously (Telephone) Broadband The generating frequency is different from is different from transmission frequency Baseband • • • The generating and transmission frequency are same LAN (Local Area Network) A network system which deals within one premise or same premises. access and management (FTAM) Mail services Directory services Network: • Two or more than two computers that are attached to each other and communication with each others. LAN Technologies o o o Ethernet: 802. Access Method: CSMA/CD Token Ring: 802.5.

Bus. Ring. o Coaxial Cable. Wireless (WiFi) Topology: o o Topology is a physical layout or distribution of network. Mesh • LAN Devices: o Repeaters: ̇ ̇ o Hub: ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ o A hub is a physical layer (layer 1) device Used to connect multiple devices Internally Bus topology One broadcast domain and one collision domain A repeater is a physical layer (layer 1) device Receive a digital signal and retransmit at high power Bridge: ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ A bridge is a Data Link layer (layer 2) device Connect multiple network segments One broadcast domain No. of ports = collision domain (max 16 ports) Software based o Switch: ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ A Switch is a Data Link layer (layer 2) device Some switches also work on Network Layer (layer 3) Connect multiple network segments One broadcast domain Contain more Ethernet ports Hardware based WAN • Wide Area Network is a computer network that covers a broad area i. Star. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan.• • There are four basic types of media are used in local-area networks.e. Optical Fiber. select the best path for destination and forward packet to next device on selective path No broadcast domain Used to connect different networks • . Twisted Pair Cable. There are four basic types Topologies in LAN. regional or national boundaries Router o o o o o Network layer device (layer 3) Works on IP Device that extracts a destination of packet.

In order to route packets. It is also called default routing because there is only one destination network where we want to send a message. and the path to the next hop router Switching protocol • Layer 2 protocol o ARP (Address resolution protocol) ̇ o Conversion of IP to MAC address RARP (reverse Address resolution protocol) ̇ Conversion of MAC to IP address Metric • • • • Criteria through which path selection is made Administrative Distance Assigned by CISCO Varies between 0 ~ 255 Can be changed except directly connected network Protocol RIP ISIS OSPF IGRP EIGRP BGP Static Route Directly Connected Routing protocol • • Used for the selection of best path Operates on routers only Administrative Distance 120 115 110 100 90 20 1 0 . a router communicates with other routers using routing protocols and using this information creates and maintains a routing table.o Principles of Router ̇ ̇ ̇ Routing is always done on the network portion of destination IP address Routing is always done on next hop basis Packets from unknown destination are ignored by router • There are two types of routing. The routing table stores the best routes to certain network destinations. o Dynamic Routing ̇ Router selects the best path for packet or data from routing table and also depends upon metric based calculation and hop count. o Static Routing ̇ Static routing used fixed tables. the "routing metrics" associated with those routes. Routing tables hold the data for making forwarding decisions.

delay Support IP. topology table and neighboring table Forward the routing table whenever change occur in network topology Fast convergence and better performance OSPF • RIP (Routing information protocol) o o o o Distance vector routing protocol Metric is hop count Maximum hop count is 15 Administrative distance is 120 • IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing protocol) o o o o o CISCO proprietary protocol and run on CISCO Routers Distance vector routing protocol Metric is Bandwidth. reliability. load. IGRP. Apple Talk Administrative distance is 90 • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) o o o o o o o Defined by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Metric is Cost based on BW (cost = 108 / BW) Link State routing protocol Deployed in hierarchical design Suitable for large network Administrative distance is 110 Decrease network overhead due to introduction of areas • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) .• • RIP. OSPF. IPx. IGRP • Link State Routing Protocol o o o o Contain routing table. MTU By default is BW and delay Administrative distance is 100 • EIGRP (Extended Interior Gateway Routing protocol) o o o o o CISCO proprietary protocol Hybrid protocol (contain functionality of both Link State and Distance Vector routing protocol) Metric is Bandwidth. EIGRP. delay. BGP Distance Vector Routing Protocol o o o o Maintain routing table Update routing information after every 30 seconds Transmit routing table to neighboring node RIP.

N. IPx (internet packet exchange) IP Addressing Numeric identified assigned to each machine on a IP network Network address uniquely identifies the network Node address uniquely identifies each machine Classes of IP Addressing o o o o o • Class ‘A’ (1 Class ‘B’ (128 Class ‘C’ (192 Class ‘D’ (224 Class ‘E’ (240 126) 191) 223) 239) 255) used for data communication -do-doused for multi casting research and testing purposes Class ‘A’ o N.H.H.0.0 Private IP 10.0.H 110 x xxxx o o o o 110 0 0000 110 1 1111 192 223 Sub net mast 255. Apple Talk.097.168.0 Private IP 172.16.0 Private IP 192.777.777.255.0.534) hosts 10 00 0000 10 11 1111 128 191 • Class ‘C’ o N.0 27-2 (128-2=126) networks 224-2 (16.152) networks 28-2 (256-2= 254) hosts .N.536-2= 65.0 221 ( hosts 0 000 0000 0 111 1111 0 127 • Class ‘B’ o N.0.N.255.216-2= 16.0 214 (16.H.0. Operate all over the network IP.H 10 xx xxxx o o o o Sub net mast 255.384) networks 216-2 (65.H 0 xxx xxxx o o o o Sub net mast 255.0.Routed protocol • • • • • • • Used to carry the data and reached to destination according to the best path.

Dynamic allocation of IP: Network administrator assigns a range of IP address to DHCP.Subnetting • • • • • • To create subnetworks. • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) o Client-Server protocol that automatically provide an IP host with its IP address and other related configuration information such as subnet mask and default gateway. Port used 16384-32767 Less sensitive for packet loss but sensitive for delay Uses UDP Header is normally of 12 bytes Header fields are: ̇ Payload (7 bits): type of audio or video encoding . Use for real time application. During network initialization an IP is assigned to client. • RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) o o o o o o Defines standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over internet. Manual Allocation: Allocate IP on base of table of MAC address o o o • File Transfer Protocol o Use to transfer data from one computer to another over the internet or through a network. Data is passed from the program in an application-specific format. take bits from host portion to network i. and then encapsulated into a transport layer protocol. Automatic Allocation: Permanently assign an IP from the pool of IP addresses to client.323 o o o o Is an umbrella recommended by ITU-T defines the protocol to provide audio-visual communication session on any packet network. • H. Commonly used in VoIP Developed for transporting multimedia applications. DNS (Domain Name System) o • Translation from Host Name to IP and vice versa. subnet Determine the required network ID Determine the host required per subnet One subnet mast for entire network Range of host ID Default subnet mask is used to determine the part of host address in IP address TCP / IP Model Layer 5 (Application Layer) • The application layer is used by most programs for network communication.e.

̇ ̇ ̇ • Sequence No. modifying and terminating session Port no is 5060 SIP client uses UDP and TCP Commonly used in VoIP with H. commonly audio data. RTCP Packets are sent periodically and contain sender and receiver reports that announce statistics. (16 bits) Time Stamp (32 bits): for sampling instance SSRC (32 bits): Synchronous Source Identifier used for identification of RTP source RTCP (Real Time Control Protocol) o o o o Multimedia application use with conjunction with RTP. The main advantage of this separation is to make it possible to receive only one part of the transmission. Separate sessions are used for each media content (e. which lowers the total bandwidth • RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) o RTSP is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server. audio and video). Used to increase QoS RTP/RTCP protocols are commonly used to transport audio or audio/video data. Out of band protocol Use both TCP or UDP Does not define compression for audio and video Does not define how audio and video encapsulated Does not restrict how media player buffer audio/video o o o o o • SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) o o o o o Used for creating.323 Provide signaling similar to HTTP (Human readable) . issuing VCR-like commands such as ‘play’ and ‘pause’.g. and allowing time-based access to files on a server.

End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either: Connection oriented or Connectionless TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) o o o Connection oriented. ECE (ECN-Echo) – indicate that the TCP peer is ECN capable during 3-way handshake (added to header by RFC 3168). along with error control. The minimum size header is 5 words and the maximum is 15 words thus giving the minimum size of 20 bytes and maximum of 60 bytes.Layer 4 (Transport Layer) • The transport layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network. acknowledge Reliable 20 byte header contain: • ̇ ̇ ̇ Source port (16 bits): identifies the sending port Destination port (16 bits): identifies the receiving port Sequence number (32 bits): has a dual role • If the SYN flag is present then this is the initial sequence number and the first data byte is the sequence number plus 1 if the SYN flag is not present then the first data byte is the sequence number • ̇ Acknowledgment number (32 bits): if the ACK flag is set then the value of this field is the sequence number that the sender of the acknowledgment expects next. Data offset (4 bits): specifies the size of the TCP header in 32-bit words. Reserved (4 bits): for future use and should be set to zero Flags (aka Control bits) – contains 8 bit flags • CWR – Congestion Window Reduced (CWR) flag is set by the sending host to indicate that it received a TCP segment with the ECE flag set (added to header by RFC 3168). This field gets its name from the fact that it is also the offset from the start of the TCP packet to the data. ̇ ̇ ̇ • . fragmentation and flow control.

unacknowledged Not Reliable No hand shaking between Tx and Rx Small packet overhead DNS. .• • • • • • ̇ URG – indicates that the URGent pointer field is significant ACK – indicates that the ACKnowledgment field is significant PSH – Push function RST – Reset the connection SYN – Synchronize sequence numbers FIN – No more data from sender Window (16 bits): the number of bytes that may be received on the receiving side before being halted from sliding any further and receiving any more bytes as a result of a packet at the beginning of the sliding window not having been acknowledged or received. o Length ̇ A 16-bit field that specifies the length in bytes of the entire datagram: header and data. The practical limit for the data length which is imposed by the underlying IPv4 protocol is 65. o Destination port ̇ This field identifies the destination port and is required. then it should be zero. The minimum length is 8 bytes since that's the length of the header. The field size sets a theoretical limit of 65.507 bytes. RIP and SNMP use UDP Used with multimedia. If not used. Starts at acknowledgement field. • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) o o o o o o o Connection less. voice application Depend upper layer protocol for reliability o Source port ̇ This field identifies the sending port when meaningful and should be assumed to be the port to reply to if needed.527 bytes for the data carried by a single UDP datagram.

Since an IPv4 header may contain a variable number of options. The minimum-length datagram is 20 bytes (20 bytes header + 0 bytes data) and the maximum is 65. in bytes.535 — the maximum value of a 16-bit word. including header and data. connection less Provide no error checking or tracking Packet in IP layer is called ‘Datagram’ Length is variable (up to 65536 bytes) Header is of 20 to 60 byte Header contain: ̇ version (IPv4 or IPv6) 4 bits ̇ Internet Header Length (IHL): The second field is a 4-bit Internet Header Length (IHL) telling the number of 32-bit words in the header. in which case datagrams must be fragmented. this field specifies the size of the header (this also coincides with the offset to the data). such as for adding packet-tracing information to ̇ ̇ ̇ . Being a 4bit field the maximum length is 15 words or 480 bits. Sometimes subnetworks impose further restrictions on the size. The minimum value for this field is 5 (rfc791). Fragmentation is handled in either the host or packet switch in IPv4 (see Fragmentation and reassembly).• ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) o o o Ping Error reporting Used by host and routers to communicate network layer information with other Layer 3 (Internet Layer) • Internet Protocol o o o o o o Unreliable. Identification: This field is an identification field and is primarily used for uniquely identifying fragments of an original IP datagram. Some experimental work has suggested using the ID field for other purposes. Type of Service (TOS) Total Length: This 16-bit field defines the entire datagram size. The minimum size datagram that any host is required to be able to handle is 576 bytes. which is a length of 5×32 = 160 bits. but most modern hosts handle much larger packets.

is 13-bits long and specifies the offset of a particular fragment relative to the beginning of the original unfragmented IP datagram. Don't Fragment (DF) More Fragments (MF) If the DF flag is set and fragmentation is required to route the packet then the packet will be dropped.535 with the header length included. going in circles) on an internetwork. • • • • • • • • • • ATM is ‘Cell Relay’ No error correction or flow control ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) High speed connection oriented and multiplexing technology for transmitting information across a wide area network 53 bytes of cell (48 byte data. Typically. When a packet is fragmented all fragments have the MF flag set except the last fragment. This allows a maximum offset of 65. which does not have the MF flag set. 5 byte header) Different from IP or Ethernet where variable size packet is used. When the TTL field hits zero. They are (in order. measured in units of 8byte blocks. from high order to low order): • • • • Reserved. Historically the TTL field limited a datagram's lifetime in seconds. ̇ Layer 2 & 1 (Data Link / Physical Layer) Cell Relay: fix length packets called ‘Cell’ to be transported between nodes.datagrams in order to help trace back datagrams with spoofed source addresses ̇ Flags: A 3-bit field follows and is used to control or identify fragments. must be zero. The reception of these ICMP messages is at the heart of how traceroute works. Mostly used in WAN ADSL implements ATM Eliminates varying delay time associated with different packet size Can use permanent virtual circuit or switched virtual circuit ATM standard defines three layers . the packet is no longer forwarded by a packet switch and is discarded. but has come to be a hop count field. This can be used when sending packets to a host that does not have sufficient resources to handle fragmentation. an ICMP message (specifically the time exceeded) is sent back to the sender that it has been discarded. Time To Live (TTL): An 8-bit time to live (TTL) field helps prevent datagrams from persisting (e. • ̇ Fragment Offset: The fragment offset field.g. Each packet switch (or router) that a datagram crosses decrements the TTL field by one.528 () which would exceed the maximum IP packet length of 65. The first fragment has an offset of 0. The MF flag is also not set on packets that are not fragmented — clearly an unfragmented packet can be considered the last fragment.

64 kbps. 512 kbps and 1.o AAL (Application Adaptation Layer): accept transmission from upper layer services and mapped them into ATM cell ̇ AAL is divided into two sublayer: • Convergence sublayer (CS): o o • add overhead and manipulates the data stream at the sending station Perform the opposite function at receiving end Segmentation and reassembling (SAR): o o At sending station. segment the bit stream in same sized packet.5 Mbps . 256 kbps. use a simplified version of HDLC (High level data link control) Routing and switching are function of data link layer Flow control is handled through BECN (backward explicit congestion notification) or FECN (forward explicit congestion notification) 56 kbps. 128 kbps. switching and multiplexing services Physical Layer: define the transmission medium bit transmission encoding to electrical to optical transformation FR (Frame Relay) • • • • • • • • • • • Cost effective technology that connects LAN Used as encapsulation technique for voice and data by network service providers between LAN and WAN Can handle bursty data Eliminate extensive error checking PVC (permanent virtual circuit) and SVC (switched virtual circuit) connections are used DLCI (data link connection identifier) identifies VC in FR Operate at layer 1 & 2 At layer 2. add header and trailer Perform the opposite function at receiving end • Four different AAL o o o o AAL1: constant bit rate stream AAL2: variable bit rate stream AAL3/4: conventional packet switching AAL5: packet requiring no information from SAR Layer o o ATM Layer: provide routing traffic management.

the basis for the term "cellular phone. Also. radio ports and control channel. of carriers 125 GSM 1800 (DCS-Digital Cellular System) o o o o Uplink 1710-1785 MHz Downlink 1805-1880 MHz Sub band 75 MHz with 200kHz guard band No. of carriers 375 ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number) • It is a number scheme used to identify RF channels in GSM radio system BW (Bandwidth) • • Information carrying capacity of a communication channel Express in Hz for analog and bps for digital (data rate) BER (bit error rate) • Number of bits corrupted bits / total number of bits (for digital system) Cell • The geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station (a site containing radio transmitter/receiver and network communication equipment). Wireless transmission networks are comprised of many hexagonal. overlapping cell sites to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions.Global System for Mobile Communication GSM Band • GSM 900 o o o o • Uplink 890-915 MHz Downlink 935-960 MHz Sub band 25 MHz with 200kHz guard band No." Cluster • A group of cell with no frequency reuse in adjacent cell Sector • Physical coverage area associated with base station having its own antenna. Sectorization • .

The IMSI will be transmitted over the radio interface only if necessary. Normally handheld wireless phone contain SIM that carry all information of subscriber.• • Co channel interference • Unwanted interference within a radio channel from another transmitter using the same channel at a different location. Cell Splitting • • Process of splitting cell into smaller cell. . It uniquely identifies a given MS. The IMSI contains 15 digits and includes ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ o Mobile Country Code (MCC)-3 digits (home country) Mobile Network Code (MNC)-2 digits (home GSM PLMN) Mobile Subscriber Identification (MSIN) Nation Mobile Subscriber Identity (NMSI) TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber identity is assigned to an MS by the VLR. km per MHz GSM Architecture MS • Physical equipment use by subscriber. It is a dominant factor in frequency reuse system. Usually done to accommodate more traffic Spectral Efficiency • Traffic in earlang per sq. The maximum number of bits that can be used for TMSI is 32. The TMSI uniquely identifies an MS within the area controlled by a given VLR. SIM • The SIM carriers the following information: o o o o o Authentication Key (Ki) Subscriber information Cipher key (Kc) Additional GSM Services IMSI: The IMSI is assigned to an MS at subscription time.

frequency hopping. also referred to as the GSM core network NSS carries out switching functions and manages the communications between mobile phones and the PSTN. It handles radio-channel setup. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC). One BSC may handle multiple BTSs (more than 40) NSS (Network Switching Subsystem) • • The Network Switching Subsystem. . decoding and allow lower data rates over Abis Channel. TRAU can be located in MSC for more compressed transmission BSC (Base Station Controller) o o o o The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. and handovers. This is the radio gear that passes all calls coming in and going out of a cell site.G OMC VLR Other MSC’s VLR D BSS Um Abis B A C M S B T S B S C MSC HLR AUC E F Other MSC Other Network EIR BSS (Base Station Subsystem) • • • The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts: BTS (Base Transceiver Station) & BSC (Base Station Controller) These communicate across the standardized Abis interface BTS (Base Transceiver Station) o o o o o o • The Base Transceiver Station houses the radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. The base station is under direction of a base station controller BTS contain TRAU (Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit) TRAU is used for speech encoding.

MSC is basically is an ISDN switch coordinating and setting up calls to and from the mobile station. . and GSM services to the mobile phones roaming within the area that it serves. HLR address or GT. but there are additional functions which are needed because the phones are not fixed in one location. and subscriber data on supplementary services. or collected from the MS. • • o • GMSC (Gateway MSC) o o GMSC is the MSC that determines which visited MSC the subscriber who is being called is currently located. The architecture closely resembles a telephone exchange. IMSI. • EIR (Equipment Identity Register) o o EIR is a list of valid mobile equipment on the network. mobility management. Each Base Station in the network is served by exactly one VLR. VLR address. The HLR stores details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator. data and fax services. The data stored in the VLR has either been received from the HLR. if used. data on supplementary services.• It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile phones to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider telecommunications network. IMEI (international mobile equipment identity) used to interrogate EIR. MSC (Mobile Switching Center) o MSC is a sophisticated telephone exchange which provides circuit-switched calling. This means voice. There is one logical HLR per PLMN. The VLR stores the MSRN. MS ISDN number. The HLR stores the IMSI. • HLR (Home Location Register) o o o o HLR is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. TMSI. • AUC (Authentication Center) o o It is a protected database that contain security information of subscriber Usually interacts with the HLR • VLR (Visitor Location Register) o o o o The Visitor Location Register or VLR is a temporary database of the subscribers who have roamed into the particular area which it serves. the location area. All mobile to mobile calls and PSTN to mobile calls are routed through a GMSC. hence a subscriber cannot be present in more than one VLR at a time. It also interfaces with the PSTN. as well as SMS and call divert. and local MS identity. MS ISDN number.

Authentication. Handover. Data rate is 13 kbps (RPE-LP) o • Abis Interface (BTS to BSC) o o Generally carried by a DS1. . The Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) requests 5 triples from the Home Location Register (HLR). Power control. Data rate 64kbps for user data or speech and 16 kbps for signaling • ‘A’ interface (BSC to MSC) o o It is used for carrying Traffic channels. Kc is the 64-bit ciphering key used as a Session Key for encryption of the overthe-air channel. Authorization. Kc is generated by the Mobile Station from the random challenge presented by the GSM network and the Ki from the SIM utilizing the A8 algorithm • • • Authentication and Key Generation Mechanism • • • The Mobile Station (MS) signs into the network. measurement reporting.GSM Interfaces • Um Radio Interfaces (MS to BTS) o This interface uses LAPDm protocol for signaling. The Home Location Register creates five triples utilizing the A8 algorithm. to conduct call control. ES1 or E1. Location Update and so on. SRES is the 32-bit Signed Response generated by the Mobile Station and the Mobile Services Switching Center. Data rate 2 Mbps or more Security Algorithm • • • • Authentication (A3) Encryption (A5) Privacy key generation (A8) Ki is the 128-bit Individual Subscriber Authentication Key utilized as a secret key shared between the Mobile Station and the Home Location Register of the subscriber's home network. The Base Transceiver Station sends the random challenge from the first triple to the Mobile Station. RAND is 128-bit random challenge generated by the Home Location Register. These five triples each contain: o o o • • • A 128-bit random challenge (RAND) A 32-bit matching Signed Response (SRES) A 64-bit ciphering key used as a Session Key (Kc) The Home Location Register sends the Mobile Services Switching Center the five triples. The Mobile Services Switching Center sends the random challenge from the first triple to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS).

Group 3 Fax. • • • • • • • • • • • GSM Services • Bearer services o These services give the subscriber the capacity required to transmit appropriate signals between certain access points (i.• The Mobile Station receives the random challenge from the Base Transceiver Station and encrypts it with the Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) assigned to the Mobile Station utilizing the A3 algorithm.e. Email o • Teleservices o o These services provide the subscriber with necessary capabilities including terminal equipment functions to communicate with other subscribers. The Base Transceiver Station verifies the Session Keys from the Mobile Station and the Mobile Services switching Center. Speech coding method are: . The Base Transceiver Station receives the Session Key (Kc) from the Mobile Station. Emergency calling • Supplementary services o These services modify or supplement basic telecommunications services and are offered together or in association with basic telecommunications services. The Base Transceiver Station sends the Signed Response to the Mobile Services Switching Center. the Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) assigned to the Mobile Station. Mobile telephony. user-network interface). The Mobile Services Switching Center verifies the Signed Response. Over-the-air communication channel between the Mobile Station and Base Transceiver Station can now be encrypted utilizing the A5 algorithm. call hold. The Base Transceiver Station receives the Session Key (Kc) from the Mobile Services Switching Center. The Mobile Station sends the Session Key (Kc) to the Base Transceiver Station. The Mobile Services Switching Center sends the Session Key (Kc) to the Base Transceiver Station. SMS. The Mobile Station sends the Signed Response to the Base Transceiver Station. Voice mail box. Call waiting. The A5 algorithm is initialized with the Session Key (Kc) and the number of the frame to be encrypted. call forwarding o Speech Coding • • Speech coding is a process of reducing bit rate of digital speech for transmission and storage while maintaining speech quality. and the random challenge received from the Base Transceiver Station. The Mobile Station generates a Session Key (Kc) utilizing the A8 algorithm. UMS (Unified message services).

Transmission bit rate 64 kbps 32 kbps 16 kbps PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) ADPCM (Adaptive Differential PCM) CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction): RPE-LP (Regular Pulse Excited Linear Prediction): 13 kbps VSELP (Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction): Quadruple-mode VSELP: PSI (Pitch Synchronous Innovation) 8 – 6. Complexity. low delay) Source coding (vocoding) Hybrid coding (high capacity. high delay) Speech codec attributes: o Delay. Bandwidth.45 kbps Channel Coding • • Used to reduces BER of channel Convolutional coding is used as channel coding in GSM .6 kbps 3.7 kbps 5. Quality.o o o • • • • • • • • Wave form coding (low capacity.

Channels .

Used to synchronies the mobile to the time slot structure of a cell by defining the boundaries of burst periods. Used to alert the mobile station of an incoming call. Used for low rate. Slotted Aloha channel used by the mobile to request access to the network. under different MSCs (inter-MSC) . and the time slot numbering. and for handover commands Access Grant Channel (AGCH) Broadcast downlink Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) Uplink and downlink Uplink and downlink Handover • • • • • The passing of call signal from one BS to other as user move out of the range Handoffs between time slots or frequencies in the same cell (intra-BTS). In every traffic channel. information including base station identity. BTS under one BSC to BTS of another BSC. but all under the same MSC (interBSC). Used to allocate an SDCCH to a mobile for signaling (in order to obtain a dedicated channel). on the downlink. subscriber authentication. non critical signaling. BTS in one network to BTS of another network.Control Channel Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Channel Type Broadcast downlink (Base station to mobile) Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) Broadcast downlink Synchronization Channel (SCH) Common uplink (Mobile to base station) Common downlink (Base station to mobile) Random Access Channel (RACH) Paging Channel (PCH) Usage Continually broadcasts. and frequencyhopping sequences. A high rate signaling channel. frequency allocations. which are by definition on time slot number 0 (within a TDMA frame). following a request on the RACH. Handoffs from BTS to BTS under control of the same BSC (inter-BTS). used during call establishment. Every cell in a GSM network broadcasts exactly one FCCH and one SCH.

Frequency reuse generally utilizes regular reuse patterns. operating frequency is changed in every TDMA frame The mobile transmitting at one frequency during the time slot. . What is interleaving? • • The process of spreading of block of data over a wider time frame by placing bits from other data block in between the original data bits in original data block. What is DTX? • • Discontinuous Transmission Means that the transmitter is powered on only when the user is actively talking and power should be off when is there is no burst transmitted. MS should transmit less power then the MS which is at the boundary of Cell. error control bits may be increased AMR is used to reduced interference What is Equalization? • Measure taken to reduce distortion effects in a radio channel. What is Frequency Re-use? • A technique of reusing frequencies and channels within a communications system to improve capacity and spectral efficiency. What is SHF? • • • • Slow frequency hoping In SHF. hop to different frequency before the next time slot.Which modulation scheme is used in GSM? • GMSK (Guassian Minimum Shift Keying) What is AMR? • • • • • AMR is Adaptive Multi Rate Codec AMR is a codec that can change the encoding technique according to the SNR If SNR is better. Interleaving avoid bursty fading and interference phenomenon. Used to improve signal quality in GSM What is APC? • • • Adaptive Power Control The purpose of APC is to adjust the radio transmitter and adapt to the need of an actual radio link between the BTS and MS If MS is very near to BTS. less bits should be used for error control If SNR is not good.

L = 256 (R = 8 Data rate = 64 kbps Aliasing . Digital Signals NRZ Multilevel Binary Biphase Scrambling Scheme Digital Data. Analog Signals ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) PSK (Phase Shift Keying) FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) o o o Logical extension of QPSK Combination of ASK and PSK Two signals can be transmitted with phase quadrature Analog Data.Communication Fundamental Signal Encoding Scheme Bit Rate • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of bits per second Bit rate = sampling rate x number of bits / sample Baud Rate Number of symbol per second Baud rate = bit rate / number of bits per sample Digital Data. Digital Signals • Steps involved for converting A/D o o o • Sampling Quantization Encoding PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) o It is a digital representation of analog signal where the magnitude of signal is sampled regular intervals (twice the BW) then quantized a series to symbol in binary code ∆ [Step size] = 2mp/ L ̇ o L=2 ̇ o o o R o L = Number of Levels R = Number of bits used to encode one sample L = 28 = 256) For PCM.

base band signal ∆f = kp mp / 2 BW of PM signal = 2 (∆f + 2B) .r. This information can be voice. base band signal Demodulation of AM ̇ ̇ o Synchronous Detection: Carrier is generated at receiver with same characteristic Envelop Detection: Carrier is send along with modulated signal Modulation Index (µ) ̇ ̇ ̇ Ratio of Amplitudes µ = mp/A (mp = peak amp of base band signal. or signaling data. Analog Signals • Modulation o Modulation is the process of putting useful information on a carrier that can be transmitted from one point to another.r.t. base band signal Frequency deviation [∆f] = kf mp / 2 BW of FM signal = 2 (∆f + 2B) [B is BW of base band signal] Deviation Ratio [ ] = ∆f / B • PM (Phase Modulation) o o o Phase of carries changes w. A = amp of carrier) 0 ≤ µ ≤ 1 (µ = 1 is full modulation) • FM (Frequency Modulation) o o o o Frequency of carries changes w.r.t.̇ o A type of signal distortion that occur when sampling frequency is kept less then the Nyquist Rate Quantization Error ̇ ̇ Difference between actual analog value and approximated digital value due to rounding off Step size is uniform results a uniform quantization error • DPCM (Differential PCM) o o Difference between actual sample value and its predicted value is quantized and then encoded Data rate = 32 kbps • • ADPCM (Adaptive Differential PCM) o DM (Delta Modulation) o o 1 bit encoding 8 kbps Analog Data. data. • AM (Amplitude Modulation) o o Amplitude of carries changes w.t.

o • Multipoint Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) systems are composed of two key elements o o Base station and Subscriber equipment • CPE: customer premises equipment .16 802." Wireless is point to point and WiMAX is point to multipoint Range 30 miles Radius from the Base Station for LOS Range 4 – 6 miles Radius from the Base Station for NLOS Maximum data speed supported is 70 Mbps Line of Sight is not needed between user and the base station unless very high data rates are required at the user premises.4GHz and 5GHz) are the free of cost frequencies i.15 WiFi (2.16 o o o Superior Performance: To achieve superior throughputs in delivering IP data services compared to other 3G technologies Flexibility: Allow operators to offer both fixed and mobile access in multiple spectrum bands Attractive Economics: Eliminating the need for extensive and expensive wire line infrastructure and providing highly flexible and cost-effective lastmile solutions QoS: Defines Service Flows which can map to DiffServ code points or MPLS flow labels that enable end-to-end IP based QoS.e. Licensed] WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) [unlicensed 2.WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access • • • • • • • • • • Describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL. 5GHz] Bluetooth 802. Unlicensed WiMAX (2GHz to 6GHz) contain both licensed and unlicensed frequencies Aims and Objectives of WiMAX 802. Licensed Frequency band: 2 – 11 GHz Unlicensed Frequency band: 10 to 66 GHz Uses Cyclic Prefix (CP) to eliminate ISI Two main types of spectrum allocation: o o • • • • • • Licensed: Licensed frequencies are typically awarded through an auction or “beauty contest” Unlicensed: Unlicensed frequencies allow multiple service providers to utilize the same section of the spectrum Wireless MAN Wireless LAN Wireless PAN (WiMAX ) [Unlicensed.4GHz.11 802.

16REVd Fixed Outdoor Applications · Indoor Broadband access for residential users (High Speed Internet. VoIP.802.16a Fixed Outdoor Applications · E1/T1 service for enterprises · Backhaul for Hotspots · Limited residential Broadband access 802.…) 802.16e Mobility Applications · "Portable" Broadband access for consumers · Always Best Connected CPE CPE CPE · External box connected to PC · External box connected to PC · PC Card with outside antenna with built-in antenna .

• Network Architecture: Access solution comprises of o o o CPE (talks to the Access point ) Access Point (a kind of BTS for CPE) also called DAP (diversity access point) which combats fading. Therefore DAP automatically overcome have this multipath fading • • • • Types of Access to WiMAX Baseband: Single frequency in one direction called Baseband Broadband: Multiple frequency in one direction called Broadband DAP / Access point: o o o o o Data rate depends upon Modulation Covering area Covering area Covering area 1km 2km 3km 64QAM 16QAM QPSK covers 3KM range . DAP supports MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).16d Spectrum Channel Bit Rate Mobility • < 11GHz Non Line of Sight Up to 75Mbps at 20MHz Fixed.16d & 802. Microwave Backhaul • • Key Differences between 802.16e 802. High Speed Mobility NOTE: Reflection is blessing in WiMAX at standard 802. Pedestrian Mobility.16e which also invokes MULTIPATH FADING but on the other hand DAP (Diversity access point in WiMAX just like BTS) able to combat multipath fading. Out Door Access and Nomadic Application 802.16e <11 GHz Non Line of Sight up to 75Mbps at 20MHz Mobile/Indoor Access.

̈ Range 30 miles Radius from the Base Station for LOS ̈ Range 4 – 6 miles Radius from the Base Station for NLOS ̈ Maximum data speed supported is 70 Mbps ̈ Line of Sight is not needed between user and the base station unless very high data rates are required at the user premises.o o • • “BPSK” is the least data efficient Method and it employed where the SS is farthest from BASE Station ”64QAM” offers high data efficiency. In addition to your knowledge GSM uses slow frequency hopping to mitigate the multipath fading and this slow frequency hopping comes in BCH (Broadcast channel). • DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) o o extra chip-pin code is used If 1bit=10 bit chipping code • OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) o 1 channel is divided into 256 sub-channels and every carrier has to modulate. requiring less Tx power. OFDM in fact the technique that made WiMAX broadband. WiMAX is broadband but nature is baseband How to transmit a signal in wireless o 3 techniques to avoid interference • FHSS (Frequency Hopping (jumping) Spread Spectrum) o o Channel jumping is more. ̈ Licensed Frequency band: 2 – 11 GHz ̈ Unlicensed Frequency band: 10 to 66 GHz .

52 Mbps OC-12 = 622 Mbps OC-48 = 2.448 Gbps .544 Mbps T2 = 4 T1 T3 = 28 T1 T4 = 168 T1 **************************** DS0 = 64 kbps DS1 = 24 x DS0 DS3 = 28 DS1 **************************** OC-3 = 155.04 Mbps E3 = 16 x T1 **************************** T1 = 24 x 64 kbps = 1.Multiplexing o Sharing of medium by number of users without overlapping Data Rates • • • • • • • • • • • • E1 = 32 x 64 kbps = 2.

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