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the following terms: flower arrangement ikebana fillers foliage kensan wilting pin holders sap secateurs flower holders
(additional) k. focal area / focal point l. Types of Flowers i. mass flowers ii. line flowers iii. filler flowers 2. discuss Flower arrangement according to: a. the importance of flower arrangement b. materials needed c. types of flower arrangement 3. explain the different principles involved in flower arrangement 4. enumerate tips in prolonging the lifespan of flowers 5. discuss the different guidelines in performing Flower arrangement 6. demonstrate beginning skills in arranging flowers
1. define the following terms:
a. flower arrangement- the art of using different flowers and other botanical materials depending much on the preference of the arrangement
b. ikebana- a Japanese type of flower arrangement based on certain principles of art that emphasizes form and balance which are recognized all over the world. The structure of Ikebana flower arrangement stresses three elements: heaven, man and earth. Heaven is the primary stem and it is the central line of the arrangement. Man is the second stem and is two thirds the height of the primary stem. It is placed to the side of the primary stem. Earth is the shortest stem and it is placed on the opposite side of the man stem or in front of the primary steam. When properly placed these three flower stems appear as if they are growing from a single source.
c. fillers- any rapidly growing plant used to occupy space in permanent planting
d. foliage- clusters of leaves and branches that have such brilliant color and variety of shapes
kensan.small pruning shears with a spring that holds the handles open and a single blade that closes against a flat surface .It is the loss of rigidity of non-woody parts of plants. i. minerals or both g.clip the flowers or hold the stem of the flower towards the area.a pot decorated with flowers which renders with the possible branch stone and a few simple colors f.e. pin holders.lack of water. supporting the flower h. circulating to distribute food and water to various parts of the plant. secateurs. wilting. sap.is the fluid carried inside the phloem of a plant.
' of the design. Examples of mass flowers are magnolias. l. Flower containers can be vases.' it is the centre of interest in an arrangement. It is the point in the design where all the stems unite.' ' Highlight.j. the 'Accent. . flower holders. k. sunflowers. and the place where the most important material should be placed.' the ' Heart. Types of Flowers i. roses. focal area or focal point This is sometimes termed the ' Target. Focal flowers Focal flowers are the center of attention of a flower arrangement. tulips. and the like. They are usually a big flower on a single stem. They are also called 'focal' flowers because of the focus they attract to viewers. pots.object or containers used to hold flowers. But the most common description of a flower holder is that of a µflower frog¶. And they are usually round in shape. daisies and daffodils.
delphiniums. They are usually inserted last. materials needed i. They make your bouquet look fuller. Promotes love. the importance of flower arrangement i. ii. pompon asters. discuss flower arrangement according to: a. snapdragons. Line flowers Line is the passage on which your eye is led from one item to another in the arrangement. It is appealing and attracts attention because it satisfies sense of proportion vi. leaf or flower. iii. by its size or color should be so placed as to take your eye from a starting point to the central point of interest where it should rest. Lightens up the mood viii. and a family-oriented atmosphere b. Adds color to the environment ix. It can also be crumpled and placed into containers as a flower or foliage support. It symbolizes or brings about a feeling of sympathy and compassion x. Each bud. The empty spaces created are filled using filler flowers. This works very well in see-through containers. .ii. Cellophane . after the mass flower and line flowers are in place.This is used to line flower/bouquet boxes that are not water proof. white or pastels will freshen deeper hues. It adds beauty to the room. gladiola and stock. It gives the arrangement its height and width. joy. feverfews and ferns. it is usually placed first in the flower container. 2. Line flowers are usually tall flowers like cattails. Filler flowers Filler flowers are used to fill up the empty spaces in an arrangement. And therefore. peace of mind. dianthus. Flower arrangement can lighten up a room scheme. Filler flowers are clusters of multiples flowers in a single stem. iii. Line flowers define the shape of the arrangement. Gives µhope¶ and inspiration to sick patients vii. It brings fresh beauty in a setting v. It is a satisfying (therapeutic) activity iv. Examples are like baby's breaths.
a spongy green material you put inside a container. Just crisscross pieces of tape across the mouth of the container. Floral foam. This helps when cutting stems and even wire. woody stems.heavier stems and branches 2. Then you can insert the flowers in the spaces between the pieces of tape.use these to cut stems and thin wires. Pruning shears . Secateurs/Clippers.ii.These are special because they have a serrated edge.for carrying branches and container for materials or flowers and foliage prior to arrangement v. iii. Water spray. Floral tape. Florist's scissors . 1. Deep Bucket. iv.woody stems to help uptake of water and remove thorns 3. 4.Use these to cut thick. First you soak it in water and then you can poke flower stems into it. Cutting materials.the plant benefits from a light spray because water is absorbed through the petals and leaves as well as water is taken up through stem . Small sharp kitchen knife. vi.use it for making grids over the opening of your container.
x. This helps them to last long enough for buds to fully open and for the vase life of the flowers to be extended. pots. Sugar provides energy to the flowers so they can continue to develop.) to contain flower arrangement. Chicken wire.used to protect the floor from any water spillage and a small sheet on the surface to protect drip and make gathering rubbish easier viii. Rubber sheet. A dash of bleach stops algal growth.creative containers (vases. Your local florist can provide preserving mixtures when you buy an arrangement. or you can add sugar and bleach. Treat the water with the package of flower food usually contained in the bouquet.is the principal support of stem depending on flower arrangement ix. Flower Preservatives.vii.Flowers are living plant material and therefore need to be fed. etc. . Flower containers.
European art tradition . Fine flowers and pale colors are used to outline the shape of the design. 2.xi.Flowers such as tulips will soon droop. a. wrap a bunch of stems in damp newspaper and stand in water overnight. Looking at both is earth. large blossoms and deep areas are focused at the center. They are historically symbolic presentation of ideal harmony between earthly and eternal life. Types of Flower Arrangement 1. c. types of flower arrangement i. Ikebana: Its tallest line represents heaven. Flowers spilling out from the vase can look effective. but if to keep the flowers upright. c. b. Oriental Flower Arrangements: The emphasis is on the Lines in the floral arrangement. In mass arrangement. Originally displayed in temples b. These are full symmetrical grouping of mixed flowers displayed in highly decorated vases. a. and looking to heaven is man. depending upon setting and plant materials. Traditional/Western Flower Arrangements: The emphasis is on the Use of many flowers as a mass in the floral arrangement. Traditional arrangements may be pyramidal or it may be round or oval. Newspaper.
It has more design and character. These floral arrangements are based on the taste of the floral designer. 2. To add an element of height in the arrangement. Vertical The vertical arrangement is a tall arrangement with small width. because the flowers have their own individuality. But. Modern Flower Arrangements: There are no rules at all. it is more close to Oriental than Traditional style of arranging flowers in its inclination towards importance to lines. The focal point of vertical arrangements is near the rim or top of the flowers. An asymmetrical horizontal arrangement is what we call a horizontal interpretive arrangement. ii. It can be a classic vertical arrangement or an interpretive vertical arrangement. Moreover. thistles. This flower arrangement type signifies power and strength by using blooms with high stems. which means the length on both sides is the same. and cattails are used. Horizontal A horizontal arrangement is a low arrangement but the length is usually 2 times the height. Basic shapes 1. A classic horizontal arrangement is symmetrical. tall fillers such as twigs. . the placement of flowers is mirrored to the other side.3. Shorter fillers are added to balance the flower arrangement.
Triangular arrangements are commonly seen in ceremonies and formal settings. The pointed oval style forms either an elongated shape or a teardrop shape. . The symmetrical design looks more formal because of its three equal sides. 4.3. 5. Crescent A curve arrangement is quite difficult to make because it is asymmetrical. The two types of triangular arrangement are symmetrical and asymmetrical. The weight must be balanced too so that the arrangement is stable. while the asymmetrical design looks more casual because of its unequal sides. Oval Often used in formal functions. The proportion must be balanced from whichever angle you look at. the oval flower arrangement is a variation of the circular design with a one-sided and symmetrical style. Triangular The focal point of a triangular arrangement is a tall flower stem surrounded by filler flowers that follow a triangular shape.
iii. floral tape and floral clay. 8. Other Shapes 1. Free Standing .A pyramid is an arrangement which we seldom see but it actually exists. 7.a free standing arrangement is often one where the florist just lets his imagination run wild and arranges the flowers as he sees fit in a shallow container with the help of floral foam. Lazy S or Hogarth¶s Curve This is one of the arrangements that often require the use of flowers with curved stems to help you achieve the s shape that this comes in.6. . It can be used as a table centerpiece. Minimal arrangement This floral arrangement takes its cue from the Japanese art of Ikebana with very few flowers arranged in a style that is still very attractive despite the minimal number of flowers being used. Pyramid. The base is triangle and is very tall.
L shape As you can guess from the name. Although it is not symmetrical. 4. an L shaped arrangement has the letter L shape. 3. It looks like a triangular arrangement but slightly different. a dome arrangement is round. you must know how to position your flowers so that it looks well balanced.2. Dome As the name suggests. The dome arrangement is an allround arrangement with the same distribution of flowers all around. A classic inverted T arrangement would be something which has the same type of flowers on all 3 sides whereas an inverted T interpretive is an asymmetrical arrangement. The length on one side may be different with the other. . The container used for this type of arrangement is best medium in height. Inverted T Inverted-T arrangement is in the shape of the letter T. but upside down.
The design is essentially determined by the location. ii. Bright red. It is a visualized plan about the size and shape of the floral arrangement. (Focal Point). Harmony and Unity. then try to stick to colors that go well with your curtains. g. Color plays a vital role here. Design. f. enliven it with some brighter color flowers. your carpets.It deals with the proportions of different components of the floral arrangement. c. ester and others. larger and dark colored flowers are usually used in the focal point of the floral arrangement. yellow.It decides the structural pattern of the floral arrangement. yellow. is known as the focal point of the arrangement. Dark colors give a visual effect of weight and so are used low in the arrangement. b. Scale. You can create any design there. then choose nice light colors (white. Asymmetrical Balance.The central portion of the floral arrangement from where the flowers and foliage of the arrangement appear to be emerging from. If you want to create a nice harmonic balance in your home. light pink) and put the arrangement on a table in that corner. The fan interpretive is where you get creative at the focal area. 3. It emphasizes on directing the viewer's eye along the main line of arrangement so that the whole shape of the composition is properly followed and understood Shape. explain the different principles involved in flower arrangement a. full of fresh green should do the trick. emphasizes on the use of material used to that of the size of the container.This principle takes care of the appropriate use of flowers for the occasion. Emphasis i. occasion and the materials available. you must use flowers with long and strong stems like the gladiolus. holding the floral arrangement. It thus. Rhythm. lighter colors are more appropriate for outer and upper portions of the floral arrangements. If you find your room is too bland.The two sides of the floral arrangement are not equal but still have equal visual weight. Or if you want to lighten up a darker spot in your house. crescent and mass. The appropriate shape for an arrangement is often dictated by the occasion. but still maintain the fan shape. Hence. e.Evenness or well-distribution. There are two kinds of balance: Symmetrical and Asymmetrical i. Symmetrical Balance. . The two most important elements of Balance of an arrangement are the form and color of the floral arrangement. your tablecloth. Each flower arrangement can be used to give a particular atmosphere. d. It also takes care of the blending of colors of the flowers used in the floral arrangement and that of the container such that they contrast with each other. Fan The fan arrangement is shaped into a fan. triangle. So also. Balance. like a Hogarth's Curve.The two sides of the floral arrangement have equal amount of materials placed on either side of the floral arrangement. including oval.Flower arrangements can come in many shapes. In order to build the fan.5.It emphasizes on the use of materials in a floral arrangement which gives stability to the arrangement.
The stems should be snipped at least 2cm from the base of the stem at an angle. Sometimes the stems can have air pockets that stop the water from reaching the flower head. Contrast: is created when the arrangement uses elements that are different enough from the surroundings that it won't blend in completely²it needs to stand out to be noticed. ii. Harmony: is when the arrangement compliments its surroundings by being similar in a way that makes it seem to belong. ii. Keep flowers away from sun and heat . This is achieved when elements of the surroundings exist within the arrangement (like similar colors or textures). Color Scheme 4.i. Snip off the base of the stem This helps maintain the water flow up the stalk of the flower. Cut Flower Care i. enumerate tips in prolonging the lifespan of flowers a.
This also targets bacteria. The hotter flowers get. This gas speeds up the life of any produce around it. iii.iii. These should be the first materials placed in the arrangement. or you can add sugar and bleach. Floppy stems Flowers such as tulips will soon droop. ix. Fresh. Cut away the white part of the stem. Line materials: are used to set the general line direction of the arrangement. The largest and darkest flowers are usually placed close to the base of the design. Bulb flowers Flowering bulbs include hyacinths. This helps them to last long enough for buds to fully open and for the vase life of the flowers to be extended. wrap a bunch of stems in damp newspaper and stand in water overnight. b. where the flower is covered with a paper bag and the stems immersed in an inch of near-boiling water. In asymmetrical arrangements the materials should be placed in a way that visual weight is distributed evenly throughout the display. Milky stems ooze sap. ii. which can form a waterproof seal and stop the flow of water up the stem. . Know Your Materials The basic materials in a flower arrangement are divided into four categories which are line. discuss the different guidelines in performing flower arrangement a. Change the water Still water can build up bacteria that block the flower of water up the stem of the flower. vii. Sugar provides energy to the flowers so they can continue to develop. Place hairy-stemmed flowers in water no more than 7cm deep. the faster they release water (transpire). secondary. vi. viii. Belflora can provide preserving mixtures when you buy an arrangement. Dominant materials: these are the biggest materials in the entire arrangement and should be placed right after the line materials. help yourself to a better understanding by noting the guide below: i. Hairy stems such as gerberas. Their life is significantly reduced when you put them near a window or close to the heater. iv. A dash of bleach stops algae growth. ii. Roses and woody plants often respond to the hot water technique. daffodils and tulips. pure water every few days can prolong the life span of your flowers for up to a week. dominant. Flowers can rapidly deteriorate when around fruit. x. The smallest and lightest flowers are generally placed at the outer edges of the arrangements. which does not take up water effectively and cut stems at an angle. The base of the stems starts to rot and smell stale. flowers should be spaced evenly throughout the arrangement. Flowers and fruit don¶t mix Fruit gives off a gas called ethylene. and filler materials. but if you wish to keep the flowers upright. 5. Woody stems Slice bark from the bottom of the stem and make a vertical slit in the base to permit a greater water intake. Flowers spilling out from the vase can look effective. v. iv. Singeing the cut stem will help prevent the problem. These materials generally include foliage. Remove leaves below waterline Any leaves sitting below the waterline can rot and block the flow of water up the stem. Understanding Flower Arranging i. Add preservatives Flowers are living plant material and therefore need to be fed. Wilted flowers can often be revived by submerging the whole flower in tepid water for a few hours. xii. twigs. xi. and tiny flowers. generally don¶t like deep water. If this means nothing to you. In symmetrical arrangements.
if the room is decorated in a Victorian style. For example. In order to achieve proportion. consider line direction. Here are some questions to ask yourself before arranging: i. Secondary materials: these are slightly smaller than the dominant materials and are used to help achieve shape and add to the form of the overall design. color. i.iii. you wouldn't want bright flowers in a sleek. These are used to fill up any extra spaces in the arrangement and should be the last material placed. baskets. h. Use Harmony and Contrast When Arranging Flowers A great place to start is by understanding harmony and contrast. Contemporary containers: simple shapes with even lines and minimal details. For example. Contain Those Flowers With Style Containers are an integral part of flower arranging and can make or break the entire arrangement. Achieve Balance . These two elements are used together to create unity within an arrangement as well as to help it work with its surroundings. relate the quality and size of the arrangement to its vase or container and relate the arrangement as a whole to its setting. iii. ii. Rule of Proportion The general rule of thumb when placing flowers in a vase (or other container) is to let the vase take up 1/3 of the total height of the arrangement. g. iv. if you were needing a 12-inch arrangement. it's essential that you think about a lot of things in order to ensure that it goes with its surroundings. In order to achieve good scale. it is important that it is full enough to make an adequate centerpiece but not so tall that people have to strain to see over or around it. These should be placed after the dominant materials. Filler materials: generally consist of foliage or small flowers. f. Country containers: terra cotta pots. Overall. Your flowers would make up the additional eight inches of the arrangement. and clay pitchers. Guide to Flower Height in Arrangements d. and arrangement size. your vase should be four inches tall. modern vase. Here are some great ideas: i. What is the color scheme in the room and what is the rest of the décor in the room like? Make sure that the colors in the arrangement blend with the colors in the room and that the décor is consistent. e. the container needs to compliment both the arrangement and the surrounding in which it will be placed. Traditional containers: elegant containers made of traditional materials like silver and porcelain (tea pots and candy dishes). In order to achieve proportion and scale. Ensure That Your Arrangement is Appropriate for its Surroundings When creating a fresh flower arrangement. Which room will the arrangement be placed in? Make sure that the arrangement makes sense in the room you place it in²you wouldn't want to place a fancy arrangement fit for a formal dining room in a kitchen or the bathroom. Mind Your Proportion and Scale When Arranging Flowers These elements ensure that an arrangement will fit in a setting properly. iii. c. watering cans. When picking something to put your flowers in. Will the arrangement be a centerpiece or will it be off to the side? If the arrangement will be used as a centerpiece. the size and quantity of the materials in a display should make sense in relation to the container in which they are placed. ii. an arrangement must make sense in its location (it shouldn't be too large or small for the area where it is placed. texture. Vases are the most popular containers used to hold arrangements.
12. Keep it simple. Try recessing some flowers in order to get depth to your arrangement. Group varieties and colors instead of dotting them about in the design. This will make them turgid and help them to last longer. Asymmetrical balance: is when flowers placed in a container and split down the middle do not appear as reflections of one another. i. 5. Visible balance is what makes the entire arrangement pleasing to the eye. 3. Crush or split the ends of all woody material before placing it in an arrangement. 11. The left side should have the same amount of interest as the right side. c. 6. Leave a little more s p a c e around anything you want to stand out. . DON¶TS 1. The bottom half of the arrangement should be BIG enough to support the weight of the top. 7. The rest of the arrangement must be built around it. ii. otherwise the stem ends will dry over. they have the same visual weight. 8. The two main types of balance are called ³symmetrical balance´ and ³asymmetrical balance´ and both are defined below: i. 3. otherwise they foul the water. Change the water once an arrangement is made but top it up with fresh water each day. 4. Give your flowers hours of drinking before arranging them. Even though they appear different. 2. 13. Symmetrical balance: is when flowers placed in a container can be split exactly down the middle and both sides are so much alike that they appear almost as reflections of one another. How to Achieve Balance: a. d. Protect the blooms from the steam by wrapping them in paper.In flower arranging it is important that the finished product is positioned and secured correctly in its container. Place a base under a top-heavy arrangement. 6. arrange them in water in the usual manner. This is achieved by placing the same flowers on both sides in the same pattern. Make an arrangement every day and feel the sense of achievement. Use square or oblong containers when angular designs are required. 10. Remove the leaves from some woody stemmed flowers to allow more water to reach the blooms. DO: 1. 9. Don't over design your arrangement: too many types of flowers will look messy. ii. A little sugar in the water is also useful. Take off all leaves below the water line. Forget that most leaves should be submerged in water for hours. preferably overnight. b. By achieving this you achieve ³balance´ which is an essential element in the flower arranging process. Make a circular arrangement in a circular vase. however. Do¶s and Don¶ts i. Subtly cover the rim of the vase with drooping material in order to make the flowers and vase appear as one unit. 2. to keep it pure. Forget that Mimosa can be treated in the same way which will help it retain its fluffy appearance. Make your first placement very firm. Make sure there is water in the container before commencing the arrangement. Overlook the value of a charcoal tablet in the water. Place wilted roses in cold water. 5. Place two flowers level with each other when making a mass arrangement. to help them retain their firmness 4. Afterwards. Instead recut and split the stems and thrust into two inches of boiling water and leave until cool.
7. 2. 3. Be discouraged if some flowers are too short to take their place in a design: try placing them in a hollow stem of another longer flower which will feed the smaller one through its own intake of water. Forget that Violets absorb moisture through their petals when cut. Leave room for filler flowers. 8. Vertical Arrangements 1. This removes the outer substance and avoids bacteria forming slime which blocks the intake of water. reach towards the line material and extend on either side of the middle. 10. Place the focal flowers vertically within the diameter of the vase. 6. Using a relatively shallow container. Marigold and other plants of the semi-woody variety. Fill in the areas as needed with filler flowers. Make the lower ones flow out almost horizontally to gain extra dimension and effect. Should they wilt they can be revived by submersion in water. Forget to scrape the stem ends of such flowers as Chrysanthemums. so they need not reach water in an arrangement. Wedge or secure foam in a vase with hot glue. Push the flowers upright into a vase. demonstrate beginning skills in arranging flowers Horizontal Arrangements 1. anchor foam with a lot of glue or use anchor pins. Cut the stems of the tallest flowers or leaves to reach three or four times the height of the vase. 3. Stocks. and position sprays of line flowers to establish the shape of the design. . Insert focal flowers in the middle so they gently droop over the lip of the container on both sides. 2. 9. Fill in and around focal area with filler flowers and foliage.
Triangular Arrangements 1. 2. Angle the shape to balance in the container. Determine the vertical height and horizontal width with the smallest line flowers and/or leaves. Position the largest focal flowers in the heart of the arrangement and slightly lower to give weight and balance. Determine length of crescent and insert curved line flowers or leaves to follow the crescent form. . Secure foam in container. Secure floral foam. Crescent Arrangements 1. Fill in with the filler flowers and foliage keeping within the triangular shape. Make the height higher than the width. 3.
Place the largest. strongest or brightest flowers in the focal area. Fill in around the focal flowers with smaller flowers and foliage. Secure the floral foam. stability and depth. then frame in the outer edges of the oval shape with light colored flowers and foliage. 3. Insert the focal flowers fairly low in the bowl to achieve balance. Place wisps of filler flowers that gracefully taper off the ends. . Oval arrangements 1.2. 2. Determine the height with line flowers.
Insert vertical line flowers to determine the height. Place the focal flowers. Fill in with filler flowers as needed. 3. Minimal Arrangements 1. Adhere foam to container. . and secure the horizontal line flowers to give the basic outline of the arrangement.3. Fill in around the larger flowers and leaves with the filler flowers. 2.
The lazy "S" or "Hogarth's Curve" 1. Free Standing Arrangements 1. floral clay or floral tape. Add the focal flowers following the lines of the upper and lower curves. 3. Secure the foam with hot glue. Fill a shallow container with foam that extends one inch over the top. 2. Cluster filler blossoms and foliage around the central flowers maintaining the rhythm of the µS¶. . Bend the stems gently into graceful curves and insert them in place so they balance. Define the shape of the design with the line flowers and leaves. Anchor the foam securely.
3. Add filler flowers to integrate the design. Place the focal flowers and leaves.2. . turning the vase as you go so all the sides are even.
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