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Manual for the 32-bit Windows Version 3.6
Assessment Systems Corporation
Personal computer running Microsoft Windows 95/98/NT/ME/or XP 2 Mb free RAM
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User’s Manual for the ITEMAN Conventional Item Analysis Program Second Edition, 32-bit Windows Version
Copyright © 1989-2006 by Assessment Systems Corporation All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the prior written consent of the publisher.
. ITEMAN is the Trademark of Assessment Systems Corporation. Windows is the Registered Trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Chapter 1: Overview
ITEMAN is one of the analysis programs that comprise Assessment Systems Corporation’s Item and Test Analysis Package. ITEMAN analyzes test and survey item response data and provides conventional item analysis statistics (e.g., proportion/percentage endorsing and item-total correlations) for each item, in order to assist in determining the extent to which items are contributing to the reliability of a test and which response alternatives are functioning well for each item. In addition to item-level statistics the ITEMAN program also provides statistical indicators on the performance of the test as a whole (e.g., mean, standard deviation, reliability, median p-value). See Chapter 3 for a complete description of the ITEMAN program and information on the specific statistical indicators available with ITEMAN. This manual will tell you how to install and run the ITEMAN program. Although Chapter 3 describes each statistic that is computed, it assumes some knowledge of the proper use and interpretation of these statistics. You might wish to refer to a basic textbook on test theory and methods such as Crocker and Algina (1986) for a brief review if the terms in Chapter 3 seem unfamiliar to you.
Table of Contents
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Crocker, L., and Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
A line of keyed responses. The examinee data. Each of these elements is described in the following sections. Up to 750 items can be included in a single analysis. A line specifying which items are to be included in the analysis. 3. or a program written specifically to format your data. a word-processing editor that produces true ASCII output. The File Format The proper format for the input file is similar for all the Item and Test Analysis Package programs. A control line describing the data.Chapter 2: Formatting Examinee Data Overview The ITEMAN program requires that input data be formatted in ASCII (text-only) files. Example Input File Containing Dichotomous Items 30 O N 5 143534243521132435241342351423 KEY 555555555555555555555555555555 NO. The only differences in format reflect the ability of ITEMAN to analyze more than one scale at a time and to analyze data for multipoint or rating-scale-type items. All the data to be included in the analysis must be contained in a single input file. ALTERNATIVES YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY ITEMS TO INCLUDE EX001543542143554321542345134332413 EXAMINEE #1 EX002143534244522133OO2542531342513 EXAMINEE #2 EX003143534223521132435244342351233 EXAMINEE #3 EX004143534243521132435241342352NNN EXAMINEE #4 EX005143534243412132435452132341323 EXAMINEE #5 A data file consists of five primary components: 1. 2. An example of a data file in the proper input format is shown in Figure 2-1. Comments may also be included in the data file. Figure 2-1. 2-1 . A line of the numbers of alternatives for the items. and 5. while the number of examinees is virtually unlimited. This can be accomplished through the use of the ITEMAN for Windows text editor. Notepad. 4.
The code in column 1 corresponds to the key for item 1 and so forth. it might be “9” for a five-alternative item. these digits must be right justified — the “tens” must be in column 9 and the “units” in column 10. ITEMAN makes no distinction between items that are omitted and items that are not reached. This number must be right-justified: The “units” go into column 3. and the “hundreds” in column 1. the letter “O” indicates an omitted item. you must enter the number of items that are included in the file. it can be a digit larger than the number of alternatives or any other character. The entire key must be contained on a single line.” For example. The maximum number of identification characters is 80. Column 7 must contain the alphanumeric code for items that the examinee did not reach and therefore did not have a chance to answer. Item 1 is keyed “1. the “tens” in column 2. 2-2 . and “N” indicates a not-reached item. Like the omission code. both are scored as incorrect. The Keyed Responses The second line of the file contains the keyed response for each item in the data file. examinee identification will not be expected and the examinees’ responses must begin in column 1 on the data lines. in the data lines (beginning on line 5 of the input file in Figure 2-1). you will note that the examinees are identified by “EX001” through “EX005”. for the example in Figure 2-1. Note also the optional comment on the key line following item 30. In Figure 2-1. This can be a digit larger than the number of alternatives.” and the last item (Item 30) is keyed “3”. or some other character including a “blank. a letter. For rating-scale-type items. Column 5 must contain the alphanumeric code for items that the examinee has omitted. If columns 9 and 10 are left blank or if zero identification characters are specified.” Columns 9 and 10 contain the number of characters at the beginning of each examinee’s data record used for identification. The example in Figure 21 indicates that there are 5 characters of identification for each examinee.The Control Line The first line of the data file must contain the following data in the columns specified: Column 1-3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 Data Number of items for which responses are recorded for each examinee (maximum is 750) Blank Alphanumeric code for omitted responses Blank Alphanumeric code for items not reached by the examinee Blank Number of characters of identification data recorded for each examinee (maximum is 80) In columns 1-3.” Item 2 is keyed “4. For dichotomously scored items. ITEMAN will allow you to specify one of three ways for dealing with missing data (these options are presented on the Options screen). or a period. A maximum of 750 items can be handled by ITEMAN Figure 2-1 shows a data file with 30 items to be analyzed. an “O” for omitted. Both the responses recorded as omitted and those recorded as not reached will be considered “missing. which identifies the data on that line. As with the number of items. Thus.
each keyed response is coded as the character that will be scored as correct for the item. If you want the alternative/option labels to appear as alphabetic then you should provide keyed responses for your items that are alphabetic. . In ITEMAN. This equivalence continues through “I” = “i” = “9”. When an item is keyed “–”. . “A”) and numeric (e. “B” = “b” = “2”. For convenience. that ITEMAN distinguishes between alphabetic (e. For example. There is no letter equivalent to zero. “1” or “A” = 5 for a five-alternative item).. Examples are five-point Likert-type rating scales and the Like/Indifferent/Dislike scales on interest inventories. Multipoint items are not dichotomously scored. Similarly. There is no letter equivalent to zero. the item score is equal to the complement of the number of alternatives (for example.) Multipoint Items ITEMAN allows you to analyze multipoint as well as dichotomously scored items. For dichotomously scored items. “A” and “a” have been defined to be equivalent to “1”. Note. This equivalence continues through “I” = “i” = “9”. the number of alternatives is the maximum value the item response can take. Example of a Data File Containing Multipoint Items 30 X Y 10 30 items and 10-character ids +++++---++--++++--+-+++++++--keys for scale 555555555555555555557777777777 numbers of alternatives 111111111111111111111111111111 scale assignment code EX9013371D214214123242343423111231243767 EX2024438D312214214242443423224562332565 EX1224466W224212331332443124325462437124 EX2036874U22421112X432443323226556664122 EX2034163S324214242342443443226535467343 EX3021364L212213141242444422221323342576 . “A” and “a” have been defined to be equivalent to “1”. the number of alternatives is used in computing the response-alternative statistics.Dichotomously Scored Items For dichotomously scored items. two or more possible response categories are ordered along some scale.. For convenience. Similarly. The response can be specified using the numerals 1 through 9 or the letters A through I. For multipoint items. When an item is keyed “+”. a “1” means that all responses of “1” will be counted as correct. Instead. In the example in Figure 2-1. (See Figure 2-3. The key can be specified using the numerals 1 through 9 or the letters A through I. “1”) keyed responses for purposes of determining how the alternatives for the item will be labeled in the ITEMAN output file. each of the items has five alternatives. For multipoint items. Figure 2-2. 2-3 . the item score is equal to the number of the response (for example. It must be specified by a digit between 2 and 9. however. this must be equal to the number of choices allowed for the item.g. “B” = “b” = “2”.g. The Number of Alternatives The third line of the file must specify the number of alternatives for each item. “1” or “A” = 1). the permissible values of the key are “+” and “–” (see Figure 2-2).
Items coded “Y” are included in the analysis. items on the second scale are assigned inclusion codes of “1”. with the exception of the four control lines that must be at the beginning of all ITEMAN data files. In Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-2. and each examinee’s identification data must begin in the first column and continue through the number of characters you specified in the first line. . Figure 2-3 shows a data file for a test composed of three scales. Any alphanumeric coding that corresponds to the omitted and not-reached codes in the first control line and to the range of legitimate responses specified in the third control line can be used to indicate the examinees’ responses. Figure 2-3. the items are assigned to the scales using the inclusion codes. Example Data File for a Test With Multiple Scales 45 S N 10 ABDABDCACBCDCABCDBDABDCACBCDDBABCADCBDABDBDAD KEY 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 N ALTS 000000000000000122112211221122112211221122112 SCALES ID#998783 ABDACBBDDDAACCBDCACDCBCCBCDCDACDACCACBBCBBBAD ID#989367 AADCABBDCDACBBCCBDAABCCCACDBSSSAAACACDBBBDDCN ID#103102 ABDACBADCBAACBBDCACBBDCAAABBDABDCDCBCDCBDDDAA ID#993167 ABDACBADCBDACBBDCACBCDCABCDBDABDCACDCDBBDBCAD ID#983458 CADBDAABADBBBBCAACDDACBBADBDCCAAABBADCCCBANNN . ITEMAN and Multiple Scales When the test to be analyzed by ITEMAN is composed of multiple scales. 2-4 . Comments Comments can be placed to the right of the data on any line. all the items will be included in the analysis. Using Files Produced by Optical Scanners Most data files produced by optical scanning devices are very close to the format that ITEMAN requires.The Scale Inclusion Codes The fourth line contains scale inclusion codes. The Examinee Data Lines The examinee response data follow the fourth control line. Up to ten scales can be specified using the digits 0 through 9 as inclusion codes. In Figure 2-3. the letters A through D were used. In the example shown in Figure 2-1. which indicate whether an item should be included in the analysis. . the digits 1 through 5 were used for examinee responses. and so forth. The data for each examinee must be placed on a single line regardless of the number of items. Items on the first scale are assigned inclusion codes of “0”. A “Y” will assign the item to scale zero. You can still use “N” to exclude items altogether. There must be at least one space between the data on any given line and a comment on that line. those coded “N” are not.
Note that if you use a word processor. You must also ensure that the scanner output file writes each item response in a single character-width field and that.DOC file saved from Word or other word processor. To use ITEMAN with a scanner-produced (ASCII) output file you must either append the first four control lines of information to the top of your scan data file.In order for scanned data files to be compatible with ITEMAN you must ensure that the scanner output file is written in an ASCII format with one line for each examinee and that all scanned demographic and identification information (e.TXT) file. you must save the file as a text (. If you decide to append the four control lines to the top of your scanner data file. Wordpad) and paste it onto the top of the scanner file.. student ID. etc. the easiest method to accomplish this is to create a small file containing only the four control lines using your text editor (Notepad. ITEMAN will not function properly with a . once begun. the item responses are continuous. date of birth. such as Microsoft Word to create or combine these file.) is located at the beginning of each examinee’s record. 2-5 . or use the option for running ITEMAN in batch mode and include the four control lines in the header file used for batch operation (see Chapter 3). name.g.
Multipoint items differ from dichotomously scored items in that the item responses are not reduced to one of two possible values. Five pull-down menus and three buttons are immediately available (see Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2). The ITEMAN copyright screen will appear briefly. Most multiple-choice items are scored dichotomously. The program analyzes items and tests composed of from one to ten scales (or subtests). with which you can browse any of the ASCII files ITEMAN uses and edit the input file.Chapter 3: Analyzing Items and Tests Introduction This chapter describes how to use the ITEMAN for Windows Item and Test Analysis Program. Running ITEMAN The ITEMAN Interface When you exit the ITEMAN installation program. The Edit menu permits access to the ITEMAN file browser/editor. by their nature. dichotomously scored. a new group/folder called “Assessment Systems” will appear in the ProgramManager/Start Menu. also accessible by clicking on the pencil icon button below the menus. Multipoint items are not dichotomously scored. ITEMAN will allow you to analyze scales containing either dichotomously scored or multipoint items. Select the ITEMAN for Windows icon within the folder to start the program. it is ready to accept file names for the input and output files. The File menu contains the commands for printing and exiting the program. Type the name in the space provided or 3-1 . Instead. ITEMAN can also be used to compute and record test scores for individual examinees. The Three Initial Buttons and Their Commands Configure Analyze Exit Entering File Names When you access the Analysis Options Configuration Window (see Figure 3-3). two or more possible response categories are ordered along some scale. The Configure menu opens the Analysis Options Configuration Window. True-false items are. The Help menu accesses copyright information about ITEMAN. this usually refers to correct/incorrect scoring. Dichotomously scored items are those that can be scored in a binary (0 or 1) fashion. Examples are seven-point Likerttype rating scales and Like/Indifferent/Dislike interest-inventory scales. ITEMAN performs the analysis when you select Go under the Analyze menu or click on the computer button. Figure 3-1. In psychological tests.
The Output File After specifying the name of your input file you must enter a name for the output file to which the results of the analysis will be written. Main ITEMAN Program Window The Input File The input file contains the test data that you want to analyze. Input data can be produced from an optical scanner (optical mark reader) or might have been entered into a data file by some other means. The . If the old output file is valuable and you do not want to overwrite it.DAT (e. If a file with the name you specify for your output already exists.g. select Yes. If you want to erase the existing file of that name. Therefore. select No. Figure 3-2.. allowing selection or creation of a file.OUT file extension will be attached to this filename unless you explicitly specify another extension. You can then enter a different name for the output file. you must enter the full file name. including the extension. Three sets of radio buttons allow you to specify whether you want ITEMAN to create a score file or external statistics file or to use an exceptions file.click the folder icon to select an existing file without typing. a folder icon appears. or ITEMAN will not be able to locate it. The program will automatically attach the . the program will display the prompt shown in Figure 3-4. if your input file has an extension other than . DATA.TST). 3-2 . If you select Yes for any of these. You may also double click in the space provided or press the space bar.DAT extension to the filename that you enter unless you explicitly specify a different extension.
the program will ask whether you want to erase and replace the old file. A folder icon will appear. in a multiple-choice test. At the extreme. If a file by that name already exists. allowing you to specify the file name as described above. you might find that you want to consider more than one option/alternative as the correct (keyed) response. select the Yes radio button in the “Generate Examinee Scores” box. You can browse the scores by selecting Score File under the Edit menu after completing the analysis. no single 3-3 . Figure 3-4.SCR will be applied to the file name you provide unless you provide another extension as part of the file name. Overwrite File Confirmation Box Key Alternative Exceptions Option The exceptions file capability in ITEMAN allows you to re-analyze data in cases where. or an indication of additional problems from a previous ITEMAN analysis. As a result.Figure 3-3. Some possible situations for giving credit to more than one alternative include poorly phrased questions. A file extension of . ITEMAN Configuration Window (File Names) Examinee Scores Option If you want ITEMAN to compute and retain the scores for the examinees. conflicting source information. all responses/alternatives can be scored as correct.
and so on).DAT data file is found in the file SAMPLE1. Figure 3-5. Sample Exceptions File SAMPLE1. D=4. For Item 6. The alternatives must be declared as numerical values (A=1. For whatever reason.EXP on your original ITEMAN Program Diskette.” If you need to use the exceptions capability. If you want ITEMAN to read exception information from a file. you must specify it rather than simply clicking on the appropriate file name. The exceptions file is an ASCII (text) file that contains the following information: Line 1: The header line must start with ITEMAN3. B=2. You can create an exceptions file by either using a text editor such as NOTEPAD or WORDPAD or a word processor(such as Microsoft Word) that can save a file as an ASCII (text) file with line breaks.response will be considered correct and the item will have no influence on the total score.EXP exceptions file is shown in Figure 3-5. You may browse this file by selecting Statistics File under the Edit menu after completing the analysis. ITEMAN expects . External Statistics Option The external statistics file is for use when you want to save the results of the analysis as an external ASCII (text) file for analysis with another statistical program. The exact format of the file that is produced is specified. alternative 4 in item 2 is defined as an exception to be counted as correct. If you want to have ITEMAN save the statistics to an ASCII file. this has no effect on the operation of the exceptions file). An attempt to read alphabetic characters in the exceptions file will result in an error.EXP files by default. you must first create an “exceptions” file. which must be in capital letters. and 4 will all be counted as correct. 2. For item 20 the alternatives numbered 1 and 2 are defined as correct (note that although option 2 is the “keyed” response. each separated by one space. The data for the alternatives defined as “exceptions” will then be combined with the data from the keyed response for purposes of the item analysis.5 (beginning in column 1). ITEMAN will then ask you to enter a file name for the 3-4 . in detail. Line 2 (and following): The Item Sequence Number (from the input file) followed by at least one space and then the numerical value(s) of any alternative(s) that you want to have considered as correct. ITEMAN allows you to analyze a data file which contains such “exceptions. The alternative(s) that you declared in the exceptions file will be denoted by an ‘E’ under the “Key” column header in the analysis output file. in Appendix A. 3. C=3.5 Exceptions File 2 4 6 1 2 3 4 20 1 2 In this example exceptions file. click on the Yes radio button in the Exceptions File box and select the exceptions file by clicking on the folder icon. A listing of the SAMPLE1. An example of an ITEMAN exceptions file for the SAMPLE1. alternatives 1.EXP ITEMAN3. click on the Yes radio button in the External Statistics box. If your exceptions file has a different extension.
Most item analysis work will use the point-biserial correlation as the preferred method and it should probably be selected if you do not understand the distinction between the two types of correlations. if a file with that name already exists. Again. The biserial correlation is a correlation between dichotomized item scores 3-5 . To toggle options with the keyboard.STT will be applied to the file name you provide unless you specifically enter another extension. the program will ask whether or not you want to erase and replace the old file.) Options can be toggled either with the mouse or the keyboard. A file extension of . (The format of that file. ITEMAN Configuration Window (Options) Type of Correlations This option allows you to define the type of item-total score correlation that you want ITEMAN to compute and report for dichotomous scales (note that multipoint scales always use product-moment correlations).statistics file. you will be asked to enter a different filename. Figure 3-6. There are a number of options that you may set to your preferences for the ITEMAN analysis. click on the Options button or tab to access that screen (Figure 3-6). is described below. which can be modified. The point-biserial correlation is a Pearson product-moment correlation between the 0-1 item scores and the number-correct (total) score for that test (scale). The defaults for the program configuration are read from the file ITEMAN. use the Tab key to highlight the next option and an arrow key to toggle it.CFG when the program begins. Entering Analysis Options After entering the appropriate file names. If you respond No. You can select either a point-biserial correlation or a biserial correlation.
In most cases the classical index of discrimination will identify the same “poor” performing items as does the item-total correlation (point-biserial or biserial). a button with a pencil icon appears. since they are not product-moment correlations.(based on the assumption that the dichotomous item score—correct vs. however. The index is the difference between the proportion correct in the high ability (score) group and the low ability (score) group (Crocker & Algina. that in order to perform the ability grouping based on number-correct scores. Ability Grouping This option allows ITEMAN to group the examinees into the highest and lowest 27% based on the number-correct (total) scores for each scale (test). The subgroup target code can be up to 4 characters in length and specifies the code in the examinee’s identification field that you want to include in the subgroup analysis. You will also be required to enter the beginning column and ending column for the code (which will be the same for a single-character target code). If you select Yes. can exceed 1.. which accesses the subgroup analysis window. incorrect—has an underlying normal distribution) and the number-correct (total) score. For example. It should be noted.0. Figure 3-7 shows a subgroup analysis of cases with a “target” code of “F” in column 6 of the data file.0. This index has a possible range of -1. less than 0.0 to +1.20) values might be indicative of poor item performance.g. ITEMAN requires a second “pass” through the data file and thus will take somewhat longer to complete the analysis than when ability grouping is not selected. The classical index of discrimination measures how well the item can differentiate between high scoring and low scoring examinees. but negative values and low (e. 3-6 . Items that do not differentiate well between high and low scoring examinees might not be providing useful psychometric information. When ability grouping is in effect the classical index of discrimination is automatically computed for each item in dichotomous test scales. When this option is selected. 1986). the proportion/percentage endorsements for the high and low score (ability) groups are reported in addition to the total (entire) group. Subgroup Analysis This option tells ITEMAN whether to perform the analysis on a subset of the data file. It should be noted that biserial correlations.
Interval widths larger than “1” will result in score intervals of the width specified.” Once you have selected the program configuration options that you would like to have in effect for the analysis. Subgroup Analysis Window Spuriousness Correction This option allows you to implement a correction on the item-total score correlations to remove the influence of each item being included in the total score. Default Configuration Options The default configuration options for ITEMAN are read from the ITEMAN. The inclusion of an item in the total (number-correct) score will have a larger effect on item-total correlations for short tests.CFG file each time the program is executed. Endorsements Endorsement rates can be expressed as either proportions or percentages.CFG file is as follows: 3-7 . click on the OK button (or Cancel button to make ITEMAN ignore the changes you have made). but its impact diminishes as test length increases. Specifying a score interval width of “1” will result in an ungrouped score frequency distribution and is recommended for short tests. The format of the ITEMAN. This configuration file enables you to customize your ITEMAN program by defining your own preferences. Score Distribution/Histogram Interval Width This option allows you to specify the width of the score intervals to be used in the score distribution/histogram output that is provided for each dichotomous test scale. Note that ITEMAN will automatically “clip off” score intervals at the bottom and top of the distribution if there are no examinees in those intervals. depending on your preferences. thus avoiding the re-entry of configuration information each time you run the program. The correction is computed based on formulas provided by Guilford (1963).Figure 3-7. If this happens the score distribution will show this by printing the statement “No examinees below (above) this score.
Likert) scales.Score Distribution Interval Width (1-3 digit integer) Missing Data Options If all the data in your file are from dichotomously scored items. Line 10: Ending column of subgroup analysis target code.g. scalewise deletion. an additional window will appear (see Figure 3-9) which will ask you to toggle the type of missing data option that you want to use for the analysis. You should examine the ITEMAN. C to express endorsements as percentages Line 7: Integer specifying width of score intervals on distributions (remember “1” means no score grouping) Lines 8 through 10 are optional (invoked only if Line 4 is “Y”): Line 8: Subgroup analysis target code (up to 4 characters). Line 9: Beginning column of subgroup analysis target code. or casewise deletion. Figure 3-8. You can create or modify the ITEMAN. The missing data option that you select will affect the scores printed for all test scales that are composed of multipoint items.Biserial B = Biserial Y .Ability Grouping: Y = Yes N = No N . the analysis will begin when you click on the computer icon and all missing data will be scored as incorrect and reported in the “other” alternative statistics.Express Endorsements as: P = Proportions C = Percentages 1 .Line 1: Line 2: Line 3: Line 4: Line 5: Line 6: Header Line — can contain any identifying information P for point-biserial correlations. When analyzing data that contains multipoint (e.Type of Correlation: P = Pt. 3-8 . however.Correct Correlations for Spuriousness: Y = Yes N = No P .5 Configuration File **** P .CFG **** ITEMAN Version 3.CFG file using either a text editor (such as the DOS EDIT program) or by using a word processor and saving the file as a text file with line breaks.SubGroup Analysis: Y = Yes N = No N . ITEMAN offers three choices for how missing data is handled in multipoint scales: itemwise deletion.CFG file that came with ITEMAN (see Figure 3-8) to see how this file is constructed.. Sample Configuration File ITEMAN. B for biserial correlations Y for ability grouping Y for subgroup analysis Y to correct correlations for spuriousness P to express endorsements as proportions.
Figure 3-9. An individual with an average score of 3. Likert/survey) scale scores are reported as an average of the endorsements across items in the scale.00 is recorded for the examinee in the score file (if a score output file was specified.4 is most similar to the characteristics defined by the 3-9 . Missing Data Options Itemwise Deletion When itemwise deletion is selected. might be based on varying numbers of examinees within a single scale. an examinee with missing data on a particular (multipoint) scale is excluded from the analysis of that scale and a score of -9. Item statistics. Scalewise Deletion When scalewise deletion is selected.00 is recorded in the examinee score file (if score output is selected) for all scales (including any containing dichotomously scored items). (3) neutral. a score of -9. For scoring purposes. Casewise deletion is the only missing data option that will affect the analysis of dichotomously scored items included in the same data file. Casewise Deletion When casewise deletion is selected. Thus the number of examinees responding to each item will be constant within a scale but might vary across scales. This will result in item statistics where the number of examinees is consistent not only within a scale but across all scales in the analysis. suppose you have a multipoint scale with 5 categories: (1) dislike very much. and (5) like very much. therefore.. item statistics are based on the set of examinees who had a complete set of valid responses to all items in the scale. (4) like. For scoring purposes. Type of Scores in Multipoint Scales Multipoint (e. an examinee with missing data on any multipoint scale is deleted from all analyses.g. For example. not just those involving the multipoint scales. ITEMAN will compute statistics for each item using all the available data and will compute scores for each examinee using data from those items to which the examinee responded.). (2) dislike.
The File menu allows access to file manipulation and printing commands. Figure 3-10. As the bar fills. Following entry of the multipoint missing data option. ITEMAN is a quickly executing program on most computers for most data sets.“3” (or neutral) category. When the analysis is complete. and the options you select in the configuration window (ability grouping will require more time). Two menus are available in the ITEMAN editor. Browsing Analysis Results You can browse through the output file at the conclusion of the analysis—as well as any of the other files you specified in the ITEMAN configuration window. and lets you exit the editor. Figure 3-11 will be displayed. Once the analysis has begun. click on the computer icon (or select Go under the Analyze menu) to start the analysis. 3-10 . a summed (total) score has been implemented as an optional feature. Choose the appropriate selection under the Edit menu to open the ITEMAN data file editor. All things considered. most analyses are completed in a few seconds. another box (Figure 3-10) will appear allowing you to indicate the type of multipoint scores that ITEMAN should compute (averaged or summed). the size of the data set that you are analyzing. Multipoint Score Type Selection Box Analysis Once you have selected your file names and analysis options. the ITEMAN program reads the data file and computes all the requested item and test statistics. Although this approach is preferable for many psychological as well as other survey situations. a small window will appear displaying a percentage-complete bar. The duration of the analysis depends on the speed of the computer you are using. while the Edit menu provides find and replace functions.
The algorithms the Windows version uses are identical to those used by the DOS version. Figure 3-12. Any of the files used by ITEMAN for Windows can be printed by first opening them via the Edit menu and then selecting Print under the File menu (or by pressing Alt-P). Output Control Buttons and Their Commands Print Output View Output Running ITEMAN in Batch Mode Due to limitations placed on programs by Windows. by selecting Print from the File menu. as is its output. Therefore.Figure 3-11. A header file is a file that contains all the information that is normally entered through the keyboard at the time ITEMAN is run. This can be useful when running ITEMAN overnight with large datasets so your computer is available during the day. The DOS version of ITEMAN can be run in batch mode from a header file. To run the program in a DOS windows from a header file. Analysis Completed Screen Printing Analysis Results You can print the output by clicking on the printer icon. we have included the DOS Extended version of ITEMAN with your purchase. add the name of the header file after the command ITEMAN: ITEMAN headerfilename 3-11 . or by pressing Alt-P. the Windows version of ITEMAN cannot itself run in batch mode.
The name of the score file into which you want examinee scores written.out math24.5 math24. If they are included in the header file. 3. See Figure 3-13 for an example header file. When using a header file.dat math24. ITEMAN will assume that the input file does not contain this information.5 in all capital letters. 2. or 3) corresponding to the options that ITEMAN normally prompts you for in that window. The name ITEMAN3. 3-12 . The name of the Key Exceptions file. Enter “Y” if multipoint scores are to be averaged across items. If you leave this line blank.exp math24. it is very important that the four lines of information occur in only one place.stt 2 Y 30 o n 0 423142242113424141324213411334 444444444444444444444444444444 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY The four optional lines consist of the information that normally constitutes the first four lines of an ITEMAN input file (see Chapter 2). some numerical value (1. and “3” for casewise deletion. ITEMAN will not create an external statistics file. and other information normally contained on the first four lines of the data file for ITEMAN. ITEMAN will not ask if it is okay to write over an existing file with this name— it will just do it. If you leave this line blank. 1. The name of the external statistics file. The missing data option. This is to ensure that you do not use a header file intended for one of the other analysis programs in the Item and Test Analysis Package for ITEMAN. 2. 7. “1” is for itemwise deletion. The four optional lines contain the key. 6. “2” for scalewise deletion. 8. The missing data option must be a single digit (1. If they are included in both the input file and the header file. “N” if multipoint scores should be summed (totals) across items. Note that although this is used only if the analyses include multipoint items.scr math24. The name of the input file. The first eight lines primarily contain information normally entered from the keyboard. or 3) must be included on this line for batch mode to work properly. ITEMAN assumes there are no exceptions in the analysis. 2. The name of the output file (including file extension). If you leave this line blank. Note: Unlike running in the interactive mode. number of alternatives.The header file is an ASCII file either eight or 12 lines long. ITEMAN will not compute scores. ITEMAN will assume that this information is in the first four lines of the input file. The required lines in the header file are described below. Figure 3-13. 5. 4. Example Header File for Batch Mode ITEMAN3. If they are not included in the header file. they will be analyzed as data in the input file.
This is the classical index of item discrimination that provides information about the item’s ability to differentiate between high and low scoring examinees. The actual results of the item and test analyses performed by ITEMAN are then printed in four sections: item statistics for dichotomously scored items (if any). including file names and configuration options that were in effect. An example of the item and response-alternative output of ITEMAN is shown in Figure 3-14. This is the biserial correlation between correct responses to the item and numbercorrect scores on the scale to which the item was assigned. This example uses the ability grouping configuration option. at some point in the future. item statistics for multipoint items (if any). No. The difference is that these statistics are calculated separately for each response alternative and are thus based on endorsement of that alternative rather than on selection of the correct or 3-13 . Point-Biser. the following statistics are output for each item included in the analysis (values that cannot be computed will print as blanks). Proportion/Percentage Correct. Item Statistics for Dichotomously Scored Items For scales composed of dichotomously scored items. Index = PHigh .PLow Where PHigh is the proportion of examinees in the upper 27% of the score distribution who answered the item with the correct/keyed answer and PLow is the same proportion in the lower 27% group.0 or close to 1. Extreme values (close to 0. re-run an analysis on the same data. This is the proportion or percentage (depending on your configuration option) of examinees who answered the item correctly. This is the item’s sequence number within the data file. The index of discrimination is computed as: Disc. Item-Total Correlation. Disc. A negative value indicates that examinees who answered correctly scored relatively low on the scale as a whole. This summary “header” page can prove useful if you must.0) indicate that the item was too difficult or too easy for the examinees. This is the scale number to which the item was assigned and the item’s sequence number within the scale. Seq. Biser. A negative biserial correlation is undesirable for the keyed response alternative but desirable for the other alternatives.Interpreting the Analyses The first page of the analysis output file contains summary information about the analysis. The four sections will appear in the above order in the output following the analysis summary “header” page. and score frequency distributions for dichotomously scored scales (if any). Scale-Item. Scale numbering begins at 0. summary statistics for each scale. A positive value indicates that examinees who answered the item correctly scored relatively high on the scale as a whole. Index. This is the point-biserial correlation between correct responses on the item and the total scale scores. The alternative statistics give much of the same information as the item statistics.
Disc.22 .16 .05 .-----.53 .00 .63 .39 . Figure 3-14.22 .18 .16 .10 . the average for each item in a scale will be based on the same set of examinees (those with complete data on that scale).20 .37 -.--1 2 3 4 Other 1 2 3 4 Other 1 2 3 4 Other .08 .33 . Item Statistics for Multipoint Items For scales composed of multipoint items.50 -.44 .21 .00 . when a statistic cannot be calculated for the response alternative the value will not be printed. ------. the low ability (lowest 27% scoring) group.39 -.55 .13 -.00 .13 * ? CHECK THE KEY 2 was specified. Total Low High Biser. the following statistics are output for each item included in the analysis (blanks will be printed for any value that cannot be computed).15 . Scale-Item.-----. For scalewise deletion. No.00 .37 Alternative Statistics ----------------------------------Prop. Seq. Because the example in Figure 3-14 uses ability grouping the proportion/percentage endorsing each alternative (response) is provided for the total group.40 .38 -. Endorsing Point Alt. This occurs most frequently when no examinees endorse an alternative. Scale numbering begins at 0 Item Mean.11 .70 . the average will be based on those examinees with complete data on all multipoint scales.14 . This is the average response to the item. This is the item’s sequence number within the data file. It will be computed somewhat differently depending upon the missing data option selected.00 .00 .15 .28 .00 -. Item and Alternative Statistics for Dichotomously Scored Items Seq.26 .04 -.58 . Key ----.33 . For itemwise deletion.20 .---.00 .24 .---. and the high ability (upper 27% scoring) group.44 .keyed response.58 .45 .20 .15 * 2 1-2 .00 . ---1 Scale -Item ----1-1 Item Statistics ----------------------Prop.22 . An asterisk appear to the right of the data for the alternative keyed as correct.00 . 4 works better As mentioned above.50 -.06 . No. An example of this type of output is shown in Figure 3-15. the average migh be based upon different subsets of examinees for each item. Point Correct Index Biser. This is the scale number to which the item was assigned and the item’s sequence number within the scale.85 .-----.38 .38 * 3 1-3 .10 . For casewise deletion.17 .----.49 -. 3-14 .16 -.06 .15 .38 .00 .22 .
Correlation Item ---.10 .81 48 + 23 3-3 3.12 .299 . -Item Mean Var. In the column labeled “Key. Item-Scale Correlation.20 .---------.Figure 3-15.18 .02 + 22 3-2 4. The alternative statistics for multipoint items describe the proportion/percentage (depending on your configuration) of examinees endorsing each response within the specified range for the item. a blank value field indicates that the statistic could not be calculated for the response alternative.401 . This is the Pearson product-moment correlation between responses to the item and average scores for examinees.17 . Scale (Test) Statistics The following statistics are provided by ITEMAN for each scale (subtest) analyzed (see Figure 3-16).00 .18 .08 .----------. 3-15 .--1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other .918 3.” a plus or minus sign indicates the direction in which the multipoint item was scored when examinee scores and other statistics were computed.23 .02 . This is the variance of the responses to the item.120 4.746 . Once again.20 .08 .Proportion native Endorsing Key -----.75 49 + Item Var.04 .04 .14 .31 .04 .10 . This is the number of examinees on which the item statistics are based.89 50 ----------------------Alter. Its computation can also be affected by the missing data option selected.20 .04 .12 . N per Item.---------.-----.08 .35 . Scale Item Item Item-Scale N per No.----21 3-1 4. Item and Response Alternative Statistics for Mutipoint Items Item Statistics Alternative Statistics --------------------------------Seq.125 2.
This is the variance of the distribution of examinee scores on each scale. It is thus the score that half of the examinees scored at or below. For scales containing multipoint items. This is the lowest score on each scale for any examinee. A negative skewness indicates that there is a relative abundance of scores at the high end of the scale distribution. Interpolation is not used in the calculation of this value. The kurtosis of a normal distribution is zero. It gives an indication of the spread of the scores around the mean score and. Median. This is the standard deviation of the distribution of examinee scores for each scale. Variance. N of Examinees. The skewness gives an indication of the shape of the score distribution.N of Items. 3-16 . the number printed is the total number of examinees in the data file. When casewise deletion is selected. can be affected by the missing data option selected. a negative value indicates a flatter distribution. each examinee’s score can be based on a different subset of items. The kurtosis indicates the peakedness/flatness of the distribution relative to that of a normal distribution. it will also be the total number of examinees for multipoint scales in the same data file unless the casewise deletion option was selected for these scales. An examinee’s score can be his or her average response or the sum of the weights for their responses. This is the number of items in the scale that are included in the analysis. This is the examinee score at the fiftieth percentile for each scale. For scales with dichotomously scored items. This is the highest score on each scale for any examinee. Std. When itemwise deletion of missing data is selected. For scales with multipoint items. When scalewise deletion is selected. Mean. A positive value indicates a more peaked distribution. for multipoint items. Minimum. this will be the total number of examinees in the data file. it is the average examinee score for examinees included in the analysis. Skew. the number will be the total number of examinees with complete data on all the multipoint scales. A positive skewness means that there is a relative abundance of scores at the low end of the distribution. For scales composed of dichotomously scored items. the number will be the total number of examinees with complete data for that scale. A skewness of zero means that the scores are symmetrically distributed about the mean. this will be the total number of items on the scale. Maximum. This is the number of examinees that are included in the analysis for the scale. For scales composed of dichotomously scored items. This is the kurtosis of the distribution of examinee scores for each scale. This is the skewness of the distribution of examinee scores for each scale. Kurtosis. It is the square root of the variance. this is the average number of items on each scale that were answered correctly. the actual number used to compute the item statistics can vary from item to item. Dev. the number of examinees can differ as a result of the missing data option selected. When itemwise deletion is selected.
643 1.------N of Items 10 10 10 N of Examinees 50 50 50 Mean 4.465 Skew 0.667 Maximum 9.109 0.712 0.387 0. This statistic is only appropriate for non-speeded scales designed to measure a single trait.636 0.935 Variance 5. this is the average proportion correct across all items on the scale.109 2 0. this is the average point-biserial correlation across all the items in the scale.000 0.145 Std.Figure 3-16.679 N/A Max Score (Low) 3 6 N/A N (Low Group) 18 16 N/A Min Score (High) 6 9 N/A N (High Group) 20 19 N/A Scale Intercorrelations ----------------------1 1 2 3 1.509 0. Scale Statistics ---------------1 2 3 ------. 0. It is an index of the homogeneity of each scale.217 -0. SEM. This statistic is not applicable (N/A) for scales composed of multipoint items.000 1.909 0. For scales composed of dichotomously scored items.180 3.0. It is computed by the formula SEM = S 1− rxx where S is the scale standard deviation and rxx is the alpha reliability. For scales composed of multipoint items.0 to 1.000 0.018 -1.146 3 0.100 Alpha 0.712 1.000 6.301 0.800 7.718 N/A Mean Item-Tot. this is the mean Pearson correlation between item responses and scale 3-17 .000 0. 1984).981 0. Mean P.120 0. For scales composed of dichotomously scored items.809 Mean Biserial 0.160 6.480 0.057 Kurtosis -0. This is the alpha reliability coefficient for each scale (Crocker & Algina.146 1. Scale Summary Statistics Missing-data option: Compute statistics on all available item responses There were 50 examinees in the data file.------.943 SEM 1. This is the standard error of measurement for each scale. It can range in value from 0. It is an estimate of the standard deviation of the errors of measurement in the scale scores.370 1. 2.000 10. The alpha value is usually considered to be a lower-bound estimate of the reliability of a scale.000 4.821 0. Dev.333 Median 5.000 Scale: Alpha.000 8.351 Mean P 0.423 Minimum 1.988 2.272 2. Mean Item-Tot.
Frequency.DAT input file included with your ITEMAN installation is shown in Figure 3-17. the correlations will be based on the subset of examinees who have complete data on all the multipoint scales. be slightly larger than the target 27%. Ideally this number would represent exactly 27% of the total number of examinees for the scale (test). For scales containing dichotomously scored items. the correlations will be based on all examinees in the data file. this is the average biserial correlation across all of the items on the scale. When itemwise deletion is selected. The number of examinees correctly answering the number correct in a given row. therefore. When ability grouping is selected. Ideally this number would represent exactly 27% of the total number of examinees for the scale (test). The accumulation of the Frequency column. Depending on the numbers of examinees at that score point. The number of items responded to correctly in each row. When ability grouping is selected from the configuration options. This statistic is not applicable (N/A) for scales composed of multipoint items. When casewise deletion is selected. therefore. Only those items for which the correlation could be computed are included in the average. be slightly larger than the target 27%. the intercorrelations can be affected by the missing data option selected.scores for items in the scale. When some or all of the scales contain multipoint items. the actual percentage of examinees in the lower ability (score) group can. These are the Pearson product-moment correlations among the examinee scores on the individual scales. however. N (Low). this is the number of examinees in the lowest score grouping. this is the minimum score an examinee could attain on the scale and still be considered a member of the high (upper) ability (scoring) group. this is the maximum score an examinee could attain on the scale and still be considered a member of the low ability (score) group. the correlation between any two scales will be based on the subset of examinees having scores computed on both scales. 3-18 . The score that defines the minimum score for membership in the high ability group is selected based on that score interval containing the 73rd percentile. Min Score (High). Cum Freq. the actual percentage of examinees in the high (upper) ability (score) group can. The score that defines the maximum score for membership in the low ability group (above) is selected based on that score interval containing the 27th percentile. each examinee’s score might be based on a different subset of items. this is the number of examinees in the highest score grouping. When scalewise deletion is selected. When ability grouping is selected from the configuration options. however. Scale Intercorrelations. It contains the following columns: Number Correct. Score Distribution Table The score distribution table for Scale 1 in the output file from the SAMPLE2. Mean Biserial. N (High). Max Score (Low). When ability grouping is selected. One table for each scale of dichotomous items is provided in the output file. Depending on the numbers of examinees at that score point. however.
an examinee with missing data on a particular scale is excluded from the analysis of that scale and a score of -9. 5. When scalewise deletion is selected. The scores will always be listed in sequential order based on the scale labels from 0 through 9.00 is recorded in the score file. an examinee’s scale score is based on the available item responses. For scales of dichotomously scored items. The percent of the examinees obtaining a certain row’s number correct. When itemwise deletion is selected. and 5. The Score Distribution Table from SAMPLE2. This figure is rounded. 8. number-correct scores will be in the data file. and the name of the input file.00 is recorded in the score file for all scales (including any containing dichotomously scored items).PR. either the average or summed item score (depending on your selection) will be provided for each examinee. 3-19 . Each pound sign (#) signifies one percent of the examinees. The missing data option you select will affect the scores output for scales composed of multipoint items. an examinee with missing data on any multipoint scale is deleted and a score of -9. For scales composed of multipoint items. The percentile rank for a given row. so the column might not sum to exactly 100 percent. No blank spaces will be left for the other scales. PCT.DAT SCALE # 1 Number Correct ------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency ------2 8 8 5 7 8 5 3 4 0 Score Distribution Table Cum Freq -----2 10 18 23 30 38 43 46 50 50 PR ---4 20 36 46 60 76 86 92 99 99 PCT ---4 16 16 10 14 16 10 6 8 0 |#### |################ |################ |########## +############## |################ |########## |###### |######## + |----+----+----+----+----+ 5 10 15 20 25 Percentage of Examinees Optional Score Output Figure 3-18 shows an example of the optional examinee score output file provided by ITEMAN. The percentage is also shown in graphical format in the last column. 3. the examinee score output will list the scores in the order: 3. When casewise deletion is selected. the number of scales to which items were assigned. for example. Figure 3-17. If. The first line contains the number of characters used to identify the examinees. the test is composed of three scales labeled 8. The score output then lists the identifying information for all examinees and their scores for each of the scales.
Psychometric methods.) New York: McGraw-Hill. L. (1963). J.00 EX2024438D 5. New York: Holt.40 EX2041546B 7.00 4.00 6.00 2.. 3-20 .00 5. and Algina.00 9.00 8. J.DAT EX9013371D 4.00 10. Sample Examinee Score Output 10 3 Scores for examinees from file C:\ITEMANW\SAMPLE2.00 8. (1986) Introduction to classical and modern test theory.00 7.00 3.80 EX2036874U 4.00 5. P.40 References Guilford. (2nd ed.00 2.Figure 3-18.00 7. Crocker.00 EX3021364L 6. Rinehart and Winston.70 EX2034163S 5.30 EX1224466W 4.00 2.
XXX ) ( XXX.102 104 .3 ( XX.118 120 .140 Field Type I3 ( XXX ) I1 ( X ) I3 ( XXX ) I1 ( X ) I1 ( X ) I5 ( XXXXX ) F6.3 F7.3 F7.3 F6.3 F7.88 90 .64 66 .XXX ) ( XXX.72 74 .80 82 .3 F6.126 128 .3 ( XXX.26 28 .3 F6.XXX ) ( XXX.Appendix A File Layout for the ITEMAN External Statistics File Dichotomous Item Scales Field Contents Item Sequence Number Scale Number Scale Sequence Number Keyed Response Number of Alternatives Number of Examinees (Attempting Item) Discrimination Index Columns 1-3 5 7-9 11 13 15 .3 F7.50 52 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XX.3 F7.3 F6.95 97 .XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) Keyed Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Alternative 1 (A) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Alternative 2 (B) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) A-1 .3 F6.XXX ) F7.133 135 .XXX ) ( XXX.3 F6.XXX ) ( XXX.34 36 .3 F7.57 59 .110 112 .XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XX.42 44 .3 F7.19 21 .XXX ) ( XX.3 F7.
3 ( XXX.Dichotomous Item Scales (Continued) Field Contents Columns Alternative 3 (C) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) 142 .XXX ) ( XX.3 F7.285 287 .270 272 .262 264 .3 F6.292 294 .3 F6.254 256 .3 F6.3 F7.202 204 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.316 318 .3 F7.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.247 249 .XXX ) ( XXX.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.156 158 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.209 211 .XXX ) ( XX.240 242 .3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.3 F7.3 F6.278 280 .3 F7.3 F6.3 F6.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XX.232 234 .3 F6.XXX ) ( XX.224 226 .XXX ) ( XX.323 325 .3 F6.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XX.148 150 .3 F6.171 173 .216 218 .3 F7.3 F7.300 302 .186 188 .194 196 .164 166 .XXX ) ( XXX.3 F7.3 F7.XXX ) ( XX.178 180 .XXX ) ( XX.3 F6.3 F7.XXX ) ( XX.330 Field Type F7.XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) Alternative 4 (D) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Alternative 5 (E) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Alternative 6 (F) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Alternative 7 (G) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) A-2 .308 310 .
392 394 .368 370 .3 F6.XXX ) ( XXX.454 Field Type F7.3 F7.XXX ) ( XX.3 F7.437 439 .XXX ) ( XX.430 432 .XXX ) ( XXX.3 F6.3 F7.3 F7.422 424 .3 F6.XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XX.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.338 340 .3 F7.3 F7.3 F7.3 ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.346 348 .406 408 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.376 378 .399 401 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) Alternative 9 (I) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) Other Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) A-3 .Dichotomous Item Scales (Continued) Field Contents Columns Alternative 8 (H) Response Block Total Grp Prop/Pct Correct Low Grp Prop/Pct Correct Top Grp Prop/Pct Correct Point-Biserial (r) Biserial (r) 332 .3 F6.414 416 .3 F6.384 386 .XXX ) ( XXX.354 356 .XXX ) ( XX.XXX ) ( XX.361 363 .3 F6.
110 142 .64 66 .) I1 ( X ) I5 ( XXXXX ) A6 ( XXXXXX ) F7.3 F7.3 A7 F6.3 F7.262 294 .3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.72 104 .42 44 .XXX ) ( XXX.3 F7.Multipoint Item Scales Field Contents Item Sequence Number Scale Number Scale Sequence Number Keyed Response Number of Categories (Alternatives) Number of Examinees (Attempting Item) (Blank) Columns 1-3 5 7-9 11 13 15 .148 180 .3 A6 F7.57 59 .224 256 .26 28 .19 21 .3 F7.186 218 .XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXXXXX ) ( XXX.414 Field Type I3 ( XXX ) I1 ( X ) I3 ( XXX ) A1 ( + OR .XXX ) ( XXXXXXX ) ( XX.3 F7.376 408 .XXX ) ( XXX.338 370 .3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) ( XXX.3 ( XXX.3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.XXX ) Keyed Response Block Item Mean Item Variance (Blank) Item-Scale Correlation (Blank) Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 1 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 2 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 3 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 4 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 5 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 6 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 7 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 8 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category 9 Prop/Pct Endorsing Category (Other) A-4 .300 332 .XXX ) ( XXX.50 52 .34 36 .3 F7.XXX ) ( XXX.
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