Course Content : TCWMP (Teleman Certified Wireless Maintenance Professional

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M1. Communication Basics - Transmission & Switching

Communications Basics - Radio Frequencies - Modulation and Multiplexing - Transmission Media OFC characteristics - Index - Modes - Types, Optical Window - Links - OFC Constructions - OFC Types – Splicing – Coding Theory - Transmission Systems, PCM, PDH, SDH-MW and Satellite Systems. Digital Switching - Fundamental Telecom Plans - Network Hierarchy - Standards and recommendation - CCS7 Signaling - Traffic Theory.

M2. Data Communication

Digital Data Transmission and Modems - Networking Media - Data Networks - LAN, WAN, MAN Ethernet - FDDI - ATM - Token Ring - OSI - Interface specification - CAT, RG, RJ, RS - Error Control - Routers - L3 Switches - X.25, PAD, FR-IP Addressing - IPv4, IPv6 - Upper Layer Protocol - Routing Concepts - ADSL - DSLAM - BRAS - ISP.

M3. Mobile Communication Technologies (GSM & CDMA)

Mobile Systems Overview - Frequency Spectrum - Cell Principles Sectorisation - GSM Network Architecture - MSC, GMSC, HLR, VLR, EIR, IWF, interfaces, OMC, NMC, - Channel Coding, ciphering, interleaving - GSM channels, Bursts and frames - Link budget - RF Engineering and Planning Mobile Handset Identities - Call Processing in GSM System - Roaming Overview of GPRS and EDGE. CDMA (IS-95) - Spread Spectrum Technique Power Control and Handoff - CDMA 2000 Technology - Base Transceiver Station - BTS & BSC - HUAWEI system - CDMA Call Processing - Overview of CDMA2000 - CDMA code generation - PN codes - Forward & Reverse link Traffic & Control channels – 1x EVDO and EVDV. 2G to 3G Migration Path, IMT-2000, UMTS, WCDMA and beyond.

M4. BTS Infrastructure Maintenance (BTS Site installation & commissioning)

Earthing . Feeder & jumper connection. Power supply and Alarms.MPLS Architecture . Earthing Arrangement of BTS. crowning of E1 & alarm cable. Interview Sucess Training: Pre-interview Preparation. M5. WiMAX . Power Supply. Power on procedure.Antennas for Mobile Communication. Teleman On Site Lab Teleman On-Site Lab would cover training on Antenna Alignment and Orientation. TRX Cards.Electrification in Shelters of Cell Sites. Testing of Alarms. DG Set.BTS Cell Site Maintenance procedure. Microwave antenna alignment and LOS alignment through MUX.VLAN. New Technology Wire Line (SDH .Power Supply and Power backup. OFC connectors & mechanical splicing.SDH Operation & Maintenance . Hands on Practical: Use of installation tools (crimping.V5 interface .BTS Towers and Shelters. stripping.Installation guide line of BTS and MW Equipment. lugging of power cables. cutting). E1 termination using Krone panels. Power supply arrangement with Battery backup.L3 and L2 VPN – IPDSLAM.Antenna Installation Guide lines. MPLS.DLC. LMDS & Wimax) • Ethernet Switch (MEN) . different feeder connectors.DLC Operation & Maintenance .• Antenna Theory.Local Multipoint Distributed System . Spanning Tree Protocol NGN concepts . Tower and AC earthing.Wireless Broadband – WiFi. BTS Hardware Structure . . Feeder Termination at BTS and Antenna. Grooming Skills & Mock Sessions.

. .this is responsible for transmitting and receiving the specific GSM frequency for a particular network. A BTS contains the transmit and receive technology and also the aerials to supply a radio cell.. on a much larger scale with a large GSM mast. Base Tranceiver Station. A BTS is also called a base station (BS) and is commonly referred to as a "cell phone tower." Typically the equipment owned and operated by a wireless service provider that generates the radio frequencies picked up by subscriber handsets or other mobile devices. a BTS holds the radio transceivers that define a cell and coordinates the radio-link protocolswith the mobile device.BTS Short for base transceiver station.. Technical term for a mobile phone base station. A BTS is controlled by a base station controller. which is in turn under an MSC (Mobile Switching Center). This could be in the form of a picocell for Private Mobile Networks but would also apply.. to Vodafone. .. Orange etc. The BTS is the networking component of a mobile communications system from which all signals are sent and received. In mobile communications. A GSM antenna . Several BTSs are administered by a BSC (Base Station Controller).

The Base Station subsystem (BSS) – comprising a BSC and several BTSes The Operations support system . . WLL phones. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets). The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. CDMA. WAN. simply. For discussion of the LTE standard the abbreviation eNB for enhanced node B is widely used. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve severaldifferent frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations). In this regard. the base station (BS). A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controllervia the base station control function (BCF). It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. WLL. Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. WiMAX etc. WiFi and WiMAX gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the wireless communication technologies like GSM. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. WiFi. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. A GSM network is made up of three subsystems:    The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) – comprising an MSC and associated registers.for maintenance of the network.A base transceiver station (BTS) or cell site is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network. BTS is also referred to as the radio base station(RBS). node B (in 3G Networks) or. computers with wireless internet connectivity. it is generally and commonly associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA.

The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. .and manages operational states of each TRX. known as antenna diversity or space diversity. Does sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA) Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. The antennas can be spaced horizontally or vertically. status changes. Antenna This is also considered a part of the BTS. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx) Frequency hopping. placed at an equal distance to an uneven multiple of a quarter of wavelength (for 900 MHz the wavelength it is 30 cm). Allows for a reduction in the number of antenna used. This technique. DRX are either in the form of single (sTRU). Alarm extension system Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. as well as software handling and alarm collection. are done through the control function. Important terms regarding a mobile BTS Diversity techniques To improve the quality of the received signal. software upgrades. Horizontal spacing requires more complex installation. but better performance is obtained in this configuration. General Architecture A BTS in general has the following parts: Transceiver (TRX) Quite widely referred to as the driver receiver (DRX). double(dTRU) or a composite Double Radio Unit (DRU). often two receiving antennas are used. avoids interruption caused by path fading. may be integrated with DRX. etc. Combiner Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. signal DSP. Duplexer For separating sending and receiving signals to/from antenna. etc. On-the-spot configurations. It basically does transmission and reception of signals. Control function Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software.

known as sector. 1/2". the cell will be served by an omnidirectional antenna. Every field can therefore be considered like one new cell.S. Splitting The flow of power within a particular area of the cell. LMR400 . A typical structure is the trisector. Every sector has a separate direction of tracking of 120° with respect to the adjacent ones. Home-Products-Coaxial connectors & Adapters RF Coaxial connectors with 7/16 DIN & N connectors interface are very typical type used in the engineering of base transceiver station(BTS) transmission line systems. antenna pattern diversity. also known as clover. Our connectors have features as below: Excellent V. in which there are three sectors. and polarization diversity. RG214. such as 3/8". the co-channel interference is reduced.R Performance Very Low Intermodulation Fast and Easy Installation Waterproof Environment Resistance Ensures Long Life and Consistent Performance 7/16 connectors N connectors Adapters Home-Products-Jumper cables . each one served by separate antennas.. 5/4".Other than antenna or space diversity. Bisectored cells are also implemented with the antennas serving sectors of 180° separation to one another. If not sectorised. We manufacturer connectors for kinds of cable. which radiates in all directions.W.. 13/8" and RG8. there are other diversity techniques such as frequency/time diversity. By using directional antennas.

RG214. Features Excellent V..3/8".Jumper cables are widely used in the connections between main feeders and antennas or between main feeders and RF-equipments. Our jumper cables incorporate our developed 7/16. The material of these products is high standard stainless steel and high quality plastics (transnature polypropylene). such as telecom tower.1/2".7/8".Feeder clamp series Feeder clamps. Our feeder clamps..5/4".S..W. snap in hangers and adapters are designed for different BTS site installation and kinds of antenna system. N connectors with the soldering technology to guarantee superior electrical performance. BTS.R Performance Low and Stable Intermodulation Designed for outdoor applications under extreme climatic conditions High flexibility and small bending diameters Complete Weatherproof Available in any cable length with a large variety of connector combination 1/2 R&S Jumper cables Home-Products. We manufactue 1/2" flexible or superflexible Jumpers with 7/16 din. hangers and adapters are widely used in site installation to fix coaxial feeder cables to base towers (BTS). We manufacture clamps for various size of coaxial cable include 1/4". Through Type Double Anchor Type Angle Adapters Wall Attachment . N (female/male) or right angle interface used in antenna system.13/8". antenna feeder system.

Framework type Clip on type Standard type Gemel type Indoor type 1 Indoor type 2 Outdoor grounding bars Home-Products-Microwave components Our microwave products include power dividers and couplers. Features: Quick and easy installation.. We provide indoor & outdoor grounding kits. bars with different design that applied to various GSM/CDMA telecom tower engineering.Kits Home-Products-Grounding kits series / Lightning protection Lightning protection system is crucial for performance of the telecom tower. Our grounding kits are designed to protect transmission line system from the damaging effects of lightning strikes or other current surges. Grounding cable AWG 6 (16 mm2). which used in base station applications and wireless transceivers. to ensure a good performace. Power dividers Couplers Home-Products-Wall entries .coaxial cable . Intergated design. Low contact transition resistance. Corrosion resistant. We manufacture kinds of grounding kits for 3/8. 5/4. 13/8 . grounding bars and other accessories for lightning protection of telecom tower transmission line system. 1/2.

Throat type Diameter type Square type Circular type Home-Products-Surge arresters Lightning strikes can lead to voltage surges of up to 50 kV/m – within a few microseconds.there are many advantages:small volume. Seal rings and material are supplied in complement: special specifications can be produced for the customers’ requirements.good appearance.These high voltage spikes produce enormous loads on base station system– maybe lead to serious damage and extremely high repair costs.high strenght. We provide surge arresters & arrester brackets for lightning and EMP protection. and easy installation .light weight .Wall entry systems are made up of Aluminum plate and stainless steel. Quarterwave arreters Gas tube type arresters Arrester bracket SWR meter An SWR meter to be used with CB radio equipment .efficient seal. sprayed with baking finish .reasonable structure .

The resistors are chosen to match the characteristic impedance of the sense lines. respectively. The meter can be used to indicate the degree of mismatch between a transmission line and its load (usually a radio antenna). A simple directional SWR meter Referring to the above diagram. and diode rectifiers at the other. or evaluate the effectiveness of impedance matching efforts. first calculate the reflection coefficient: Then calculate the VSWR: In a passive meter. A calculation can then be performed to arrive at the SWR.The SWR meter or VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio) meter measures the standing wave ratio in a transmission line. Directional SWR Meter A directional SWR meter measures the magnitude of the forward & reflected waves by sensing each one individually. . To calculate the VSWR. This main line is electromagnetically coupled to two smaller sense lines (directional couplers) which are terminated with resistors at one end. The diodes convert the magnitudes of the forward & reverse waves to FWD and REV DC voltages. with directional couplers. this is usually indicated on a non-linear scale. which are then smoothed by the capacitors[1]. the transmitter (TX) and antenna (ANT) terminals are connected via an internal transmission line.

If the characteristic impedance of the line is known to be 50 ohms. Properly designed. but only the mismatch ratio. Note also that for accurate readings. its input impedance deviates from its characteristic impedance. 50 ohms). an antenna analyzer or other similar RF measuring device is required. This usually involves alternately connecting the reference wave and the reflected wave to a power meter. a bridge circuit can be used not only to indicate a match. but the degree of mismatch . The bridge is balanced (0 volts across the detector) only when the test impedance exactly matches the reference impedance. and intermodulation products when receiving. .. When not actually measuring SWR. they can normally be left in without causing such problems. and comparing the magnitudes of the resulting deflections. a bridge can be used to determine the presence or absence of a low SWR. and the wave reflected from the load. An SWR meter should be connected to the line as close as possible to the antenna: All practical transmission lines have a certain amount of loss. to select the resistance appropriate for the sense lines. we know the magnitude and phase of the forward wave. the SWR is highest closest to the load. To measure the actual impedance. the resistance and reactance). This is because the internal diodes of such meters can generate harmonics when transmitting. and only improves as the distance from the load increases. the reference impedance of the bridge is set to the expected load impedance (for example. some SWR meters have switches on the rear.SWR Bridge SWR can also be measured using an impedance bridge circuit. the SWR meter must be matched to the line impedance. usually 50 or 75 ohms. which causes the reflected wave to be attenuated as it travels back along the line. it is the same wave present on the other side of the detector. To test for a match. Subtracting this known wave from the wave present at the line input yields the reflected wave. To accommodate multiple impedances. When a transmission line is mismatched (SWR > 1:1).thus making it possible to calculate the SWR. it is best to remove the more usual types of passive SWR meter from the line. Because active SWR meters do not usually suffer from this effect. thus. Thus. The voltage at the line input represents the vector sum of the forward wave. and the transmission line connected as the unknown impedance. RF power is applied to the circuit.e. Limitations Note that an SWR meter does not measure the actual impedance of a load (i.

the measurement of depth underwater. which is related to the term bathymetry. . The measurement of altitude is called altimetry.ALTIMETER An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

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