You are on page 1of 37

# 12.

0 Power Amplifiers 1 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 2 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 3 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 4 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 5 of 37
Class A Power Calculations

Pi(dc) = Vcc*Ico

Po(ac) = Icrms2*Rc

= (Icp/2 ½ )2*Rc

= (Vcp/2 ½ )2/Rc

= (Vcpp/2*2 ½ )2/Rc

= (Vcpp)2/8Rc

= (Icpp)2*Rc /8

and since,

then,

## Po(ac) = Vcpp* Icpp /8

12.0 Power Amplifiers 6 of 37
Maximum Power Output and Efficiency

## Vcppmax = Vcc and then,

Pomax(ac) = (Vcc)2/8Rc

ICQ = Vcc/2Rc

## Power input to the circuit is then,

Pimax(dc) = Vcc*Vcc/2Rc

## The efficiency is then,

% = Pomax(ac)/Pimax(dc) = 25%

But, if the bias is not in the center, the power output is as calculated as
Po(ac) = Vcpp* Icpp /8 and
Pi(dc) = Vcc*Ico
12.0 Power Amplifiers 7 of 37

The Class A amplifier has a load line and Q-point as shown. Determine the power situation.

## a) What is the Pi?

b) What is the maximum Po when the amp is operated at this Q-point?
Pi = VCC*ICQ = 20V * 2mA = 40mW
Po = Vrms2/R R = 20/8mA = 2500
0.5 2
= (5/2 ) /2500 =
= 5mW or,
Po = (Vcemax – Vcemin)(Icmax – Icmin) /8
= (20-10)(4 - )/8 = 5mW
c) What is the maximum Po when the amp is operated at a Q-point of 10v and 4ma?
Po = (20 – 0)(8 – 0)/8 = 20mW and Pi = 20V*4mA = 80mW

Ic

8ma
0

Qpt

2ma

0
0 Vce
15v 20v
12.0 Power Amplifiers 8 of 37

10.70mA
55.13uA R1
R2
1k
350k

V2
Q1
C1 20Vdc

1
Q2N2222

VAMPL = 4m

## a) Pi(dc) , ignore the base current

Pi = 20V*10.7mA = 0.214W
b) Po(ac)
Po = (10.6 – 7.8)2 /1k = 0.952mW
( 2*21/2 )2
12.0 Power Amplifiers 9 of 37

## The collector-emitter voltage swing is,

11V

10V

9V

8V

7V
0s 2ms 4ms 6ms 8ms 10ms
V(R1:1)
Time
12.0 Power Amplifiers 10 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 11 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 12 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 13 of 37

The signal output swing is nearly 2x the supply voltage. This is the efficiency improvement.
12.0 Power Amplifiers 14 of 37

## Po(ac) = (VCEmax – VCEmin)( ICmax – Icmin)/8

Efficiency of amplifier

Pi(dc) = Vcc*ICQ

## If VCEmin = 0, then efficiency is max at 50%

12.0 Power Amplifiers 15 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 16 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 17 of 37

## Then the slope of 1/72 gives an intersection of current axis at,

Ic = 140mA + 10V/72 = 140mA + 139mA = 279mA

Looking at the graph & setting the max Ib = 6mA + 4mA = 10mA........results in a max of 255mA by
eyeballing the plot.

The minimum current is when Ib = 6mA – 4mA = 2mA and is 25mA again from estimating the plot.

from the plot the min and max Vce’s are found to be 1.7V and 18.3V.

Notice that the signal swing is nearly 2X the supply voltage.....this where the efficiency gain occurs.
So, the power output is,

## The max for a class A transformer coupled amp is 50%.

12.0 Power Amplifiers 18 of 37

The resistance load of a transistor amplifier is plotted on the transistor characteristics. Determine,
a) Input power, P(dc)
b) Maximum output power

Q-point

P(dc) = (160mA)(25) = 4 W
R = 25/0.4 = 62.5 ohms
P(ac) = Vp2/2R = (25-15)2/2*62.5 = 0.8 W
12.0 Power Amplifiers 19 of 37

The load reflected back to the transistor is 50 ohms. Determine the following,
b) Minimum and maximum output voltages
c) Maximum power efficiency for this bias condition

Q-point
12.0 Power Amplifiers 20 of 37

Q-point

## eff = 50%(VCEmax – VCEmin)( VCEmax + VCEmin)/8

= 50%[(17.5 – 2.5)/(17.5 + 2.5)]2
= 28.125%
12.0 Power Amplifiers 21 of 37

For the transformer-coupled Class A amplifier below the dc base current is 6ma and the signal base current
swings from 8ma to 4ma. The turns ratio is 5:1 and the load resistance is 4 ohms.

## a) Find and plot the Q-point on the collector characteristics below.

12V & 180mA 5pt

b) What is the input power including both the base and collector currents?
(180+6)*10 = 1860mW = 1.86W 5pt

## c) What is the power delivered to the load?

PL =~ 1/8 *(18 – 7)*(240mA – 125mA) = 0.18W 5pt

## Loadline 100 5pt 12V

4 ohms

0 5:1
Ic

400ma
12ma 0

300ma 10ma

8ma
200ma
6ma

4ma
100ma
2ma

0
0 5 10 15 20 Vce
12.0 Power Amplifiers 22 of 37

The Class A transformer-coupled power amplifier circuit schematic and simulation results are given below.
The schematic with DC collector current is,
TX1

R1
R2
4
75k
V2
0 20Vdc
Q1
C1 55.58mA

1
Q2N2222

VAMPL = 0.004

## Q1 collector voltage waveform is,

22V

21V

20V

19V

18V
18.0us 18.5us 19.0us 19.5us 20.0us
V(TX1:2)
Time
12.0 Power Amplifiers 23 of 37

## The collector current waveform is,

64mA

60mA

56mA

52mA

48mA
18.0us 18.5us 19.0us 19.5us 20.0us
I(TX1:1)
Time
12.0 Power Amplifiers 24 of 37

## 4 ohm resistor voltage waveform is,

200mV

100mV

0V

-100mV

-200mV
18.0us 18.5us 19.0us 19.5us 20.0us
V(TX1:3)
Time

## Determine the following,

a) Pi(dc) ignore the base current
Pi = 20V*55.58mA = W

## b) Po(ac) using the collector voltage & current waveform values.

Po = (1/8)(21.5V – 18.4V)*(61.8mA – 49.8mA) = W

## c) Po(ac) using the load voltage waveform values (show calculations).

Po = [(200mV + 185mV)/2*2 ½ ]2/4
12.0 Power Amplifiers 25 of 37

Assume the power amplifiers in the questions below are operating at a Q-point such that maximum power
output could be obtained if desired.

## Determine for each power amplifier circuit the following,

a) Power Input
b) Power Output
Show your work; i.e., the formulas/algebra you used for each problem.

1. A resistor-load power amplifier has a voltage output swing peak voltage equal to 0.4Vcc.
2
Pi = Vcc * Vcc/2R = Vcc /2R
1/2 2
Po = (0.4Vcc/(2 )) /R

2. A 1:1 transformer-load power amplifier has a voltage output swing peak voltage equal to 0.8Vcc.
2
Pi = Vcc*Vcc/R = Vcc /R
1/2 2
Po = (0.8Vcc/2 ) /R

3. A Class B (push-pull) power amplifier has a voltage output swing peak voltage equal to 0.7Vcc.

Pi = Vcc*2(0.7)Vcc/πR
1/2 2
Po = (0.7Vcc/2 ) /R
12.0 Power Amplifiers 26 of 37

## Class B amplifier - eliminate the bias current.

12.0 Power Amplifiers 27 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 28 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 29 of 37

## Input Power = Pi(dc) = Vcc*Idc

For each half cycle current goes through the power supply, Vcc.

## For a half wave rectifier the average current is,

Idc = Ip/π
and since this current flows on each half cycle the average current is
Idc = 2Ip/π

= 2* VLp/RL π

## Pi(dc) = 2*Vcc* VLp/RL π

Output Power
Po(ac) = VLrms2/RL

= VLp2/2RL

= VLpp2/8RL
12.0 Power Amplifiers 30 of 37

Efficiency

% = 100%*Po(ac)/Pi(dc)

## = 100%*( VLp2/2RL)/( 2* VLp/RL π)

100%*π*(VLp/4Vcc)

% = π/4 = 78.5%

Transistor Power

## P2Q = Pi(dc) - Po(ac)

PQ = ½ *P2Q
12.0 Power Amplifiers 31 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 32 of 37
Power Amplifiers

Pi = Vcc * Vcc/2R = Vcc2/2R

## Po = (Vcc/(2*21/2 ))2/R = Vcc2/8R

%efficiency max = 25%

## Transformer Load 1:1 turns ratio

Pi = Vcc*Vcc/R = Vcc2/R

## Po = (Vcc/21/2 )2/R = Vcc2/2R

%efficiency max = 50%

Push-Pull
Pi = 2Vcc*Vcc/πR

Po = (Vcc/21/2)2/R = Vcc2/2R
%efficiency max = (1/2)/(2/ π) = 25π %
12.0 Power Amplifiers 33 of 37
Summary of Power Amplifiers

Draw 3 circuits

## Output power - voltage and current

Signal swing (peak-to-peak / 2)/sqrt of 2 for rms
Ipp*Vpp/8

## Vpp Ipp Output Avg Voltage Input %efficiency

Power Current Supply Power
Class A Vcc Vcc/R Vcc2/8R Vcc/2R Vcc Vcc2/2R 25
Class A 2Vcc 2Vcc/R’ 4Vcc2/8R’ Vcc/R Vcc Vcc2/R’ 50
Transformer
Class B 2Vcc 2Vcc/R 4Vcc2/8R 2Vcc/πR Vcc 2Vcc2/πR 100π/4
12.0 Power Amplifiers 34 of 37
Amplifier Distortion

Harmonic Distortion

## % nth harmonic distortion

= % Dn where n = 2, 3, 4,……..

= 100%* |An|/|A1|

P1 = I12*Rc/2

## P = (I12+ I22+ I22 + …..)Rc/2

= (1 + THD2)P1
12.0 Power Amplifiers 35 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 36 of 37
12.0 Power Amplifiers 37 of 37