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2: Ethernet Development Module 1 Exercise Module 2: Ethernet Basics 2.1: Transmitting and Receiving Data 2.2: Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model 2 .3: The Physical Layer 2.4: The MAC Sublayer 2.5: Repeaters, Switches and Bridge s Module 2 Exercise Module 3: Ethernet Operations 3.1: The CSMA/CD Algorithm 3.2: Maximum Distance between Stations 3.3: Exponenti al Backoff Algorithm 3.4: Collisions and Performance Considerations 3.5: Network Segmentation Module 3 Exercise Module 4: Ethernet Frame Composition 4.1: Basic Ethernet Frame Composition 4.2: Preamble/SFD 4.3: Destination Address and Source Address Fields 4.4: Type/Length Field 4.5: Data Field 4.6: Frame Che ck Sequence 4.7: Interframe Gap Module 4 Exercise Module 5: Ethernet Frame Types 5.1: Overview 5.2: Ethernet II Frame 5.3: IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 80 2.2 LLC Header 5.4: IEEE 802.3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation 5.5: Novell 802.3 F rame Module 5 Exercise Module 6: Full-duplex Ethernet 6.1: Full-duplex and Half-duplex Compared 6.2: The Benefits of Full-duplex Ether net 6.3: Full-duplex and Distance Limitations 6.4: Full-duplex Mode and Gigabit Ethernet Module 6 Exercise
Module 7: Ethernet Operation at 10Mbps 7.1: 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 7.2: 10Base-T 7.3: 10Base-FL 7.4: Implementation: 10M bps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Module 7 Exercise Module 8: Fast Ethernet 8.1: The Growth of Fast Ethernet 8.2: 10Mbps Ethernet vs. Fast Ethernet 8.3: 100 Base-TX 8.4: 100Base-FX 8.5: Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guideli nes 8.6: Auto-negotiation Module 8 Exercise Module 9: Gigabit Ethernet 9.1: Why Gigabit Ethernet is Needed 9.2: Gigabit Ethernet Defined 9.3: Implement ation of Gigabit Ethernet 9.4: Gigabit Ethernet and CSMA/CD 9.5: Considerations for Early Adoption Module 9 Exercise Module 10: Ethernet and Other Physical-layer Technologies 10.1: Overview: Ethernet and Other Technologies 10.2: Ethernet Compared 10.3: Sp ecific Examples Module 10 Exercise Module 11: Ethernet and the Upper-layer Protocols 11.1: The OSI Model Revisited 11.2: Running Multiple Protocols Module 11 Exercis e Post-course Assessment Course Evaluation
Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology Course Description This web-based course teaches the fundamentals of Ethernet ne tworking. It contains eleven modules, which can be selected individually. Each m odule contains a number of lessons that discuss Ethernet concepts, generic imple mentation types, definitions and basic processes. The course does not include ha nds-on lab exercises, nor 'how to' directions for specific Intel products. This course begins with a brief overview about what Ethernet is and, also, describes the historical setting in which Ethernet was developed and delineates the reason s for the tremendous success of Ethernet products in the marketplace. The second module of the course serves as a comprehensive introduction to basic methods us ed by Ethernet to facilitate communication between computers. Following the high -level overviews of Ethernet that comprise the first two modules, the remaining modules of the course each focus on a specific aspect of Ethernet technology ran ging from Ethernet's collision detection system and data transfer methods to spe cific types of Ethernet, including 10Base-T, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. General configuration guidelines for each Ethernet type are also discussed. Fol lowing a description of Gigabit Ethernet operations, the course discusses Ethern et's relationship to other physical-layer technologies, such as Token Ring, ATM and FDDI. The course concludes with an examination of Ethernet's relationship to the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet serves, reinforcing the concept of Ethe rnet as an Open Systems technology. Recommended Prerequisites Knowledge of netwo rking fundamentals Course Goal After completing this self-study course, students should understand the fundamentals of Ethernet technology. Subsequent Intel cer tification courses are based on the assumption that students understand the basi c concepts covered in this course. Certification courses will not attempt to cov er these topics. This will minimize the amount of time students will spend outsi de of their work environment in advanced technical/sales training. Course Object ives q Identify the characteristics of the layers in the OSI layering model for data co mmunications, with particular emphasis on the functionality included in OSI laye rs
q q q q q q q q q q q one (physical layer) and two (data link layer) Identify the communication proces s that Ethernet standards define Identify common terminology used in the IEEE se t of Ethernet standards Identify the role of the Ethernet bus and the concept of collision domains Identify the function and characteristics of Ethernet NICs. 4 and 5 UTP cabling certifications Identify the concepts o f half-duplex and full-duplex Ethernet operation. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . h ubs. as well as the co nstruction of specific Ethernet frame types Identify the similarities of and dif ferences between Ethernet running at 10Mbps and 100Mbps Identify the basic speci fications for Gigabit Ethernet and the basic configuration guidelines for 10Mbps . Estimated time of completion is six hours. auto-negotiation of speed and duplex operation Identify Ethernet's relationship to other networking technologi es Duration The course consists of an introduction and eleven separate course modul es. bridges and switches Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algor ithm Identify each field in an Ethernet frame and its purpose. 100Mbps and 1000Mbps Ethernet Identify the basic operation and characteristics of Ethernet over copper media and optical fiber media. depending on your reading speed a nd the level of detail you desire. as well as the differenc es between the Cat 3. repeaters.
Using the Course Syllabus to Navigate w ithin a Course The course syllabus provides you with easy navigation through the course. read the Registration/Log-on FAQs. For more information. including web browsers. When it is time to take a break. track your progress. take one at a lo gical stopping point. Tracking Yo ur Progress Use the Student Records to track your progress. please take a moment to review the following information. set aside some time to take this course. when you return to a course aft er a break. read the Course Taking FAQs. and how to get the most out of the course. Check out Before you get started If you have never taken an Intel webbased training course . Turn off the phone and consider using ear pl ugs to prevent unwanted noise. how the exercises and course a ssessments work. Logging In Remember to log in each time you take a course. Preparing Yourself f or Training Before you begin. plugins and screen res olution. go through the webbased training tutorial before you begin this course. allowing you to quickly reach the modules and lessons that contain the information that you want to learn. Ensur ing Your System Is Set Up Properly Please ensure your computer is properly set u p to take advantage of the interactive training at this site. For example. For more informati on about the system requirements. read the System Requirements/Troubleshooting FAQs. It will b e most beneficial to your learning experience to spend an hour or so at each ses sion. Registering allows you to participate in course ex ercises. For more information on loggin g in. how to navigate through the course. This t utorial explains how course content is organized. such as the end of a module. receive credit for completed courses and receive i ncentives that are associated with these courses. . Remove possible distractions.Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology Welcome! Welcome to the Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology course! Before you b egin the course. you can use the course syllabus to jump to the last module or lesson you were taking.
Encou ntering Technical Problems Many of the most common technical issues are describe d in the System Requirements/Troubleshooting FAQs.courses you’ve enrolled in. parts of courses you’ve completed and your scores. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
1 defines Ethernet s relationshi p to upper-layer network protocols and introduces some of the basic components o f an Ethernet network.ETHERNET OVERVIEW Module Description In addition to providing a high-level overview of the role Et hernet plays in network computing. this module also provides an historical persp ective on the development of Ethernet. Module Objectives q q q q q q Identify Ethernet s basic role in computer networking Identify the components us ed on an Ethernet LAN Identify the key milestones in the historical development of Ethernet Identify the benefits of distributed processing Identify the benefit s of Open Systems solutions Identify the reasons for Ethernet s success in the m arketplace * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Lesson 1. Lesson 1.2 focuses on the historical development of Ether net. and concludes by identifying the reasons for Ethernet s success in the mark etplace.
such as TCP/IP. which makes Ethernet equally suitable for both small and large networks.What is Ethernet? Lesson Objectives q q Identify Ethernet s basic role in computer networking Identify the components us ed on an Ethernet LAN Ethernet Defined Ethernet is a highly popular and internationally standardized n etworking technology that enables computers to communicate with each other. Ethe rnet s role in the landscape of network communication is limited. Today. NetBEUI. IPX. Ethernet equipm ent is manufactured by a wide variety of vendors. which in turn use Ethernet. UNIX. nearly every brand of m odern computer can be equipped to communicate on an Ethernet network. along with the applicatio ns that run on them. . use these protocols. or physical layer. to th e hardware-level transfer of data from one point to another. NetWare* and others. of networking. Beyond the hardware -level. however. data transport is handled by software protocols. to provide the broad range of networking services that people depend upon. DECnet and others. Ethernet t echnology can provide network speeds from 10Mbps (10 megabits per second) to 1Gb ps (1 gigabit per second). Network operating sy stems. such as Windows NT*.
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servers. network interface cards (NICs). telephone and radio technology. Like all inventions. hubs and switches. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Ethernet originates from a series of innovations on older t echnologies. As you work through the mo dules of this course. By the end of this course.What is Ethernet? (Continued) Course Introduction The basic concepts of Ethernet are very easy to understand. The fig ure on the previous page shows you these basic components of an Ethernet network and how they fit together. you will learn that just like the communication technologi es that have come before it. you will understand how e ach of these components works and how the Ethernet standard as a whole works to make communication between computers. The basic components of an Ethernet network include cabli ng. The basic concepts of Ethernet evolve directly from the basic conce pts behind telegraph. clients. printers and other office devices possible . Ethernet is nothing more than a practical solution to practical problems.
Third. becomes the driving force behind the development and adopti on of Ethernet. It gives you a foundation for understanding the practical and technical compu ting problems that Ethernet addresses. as technology improves). computer-aided design programs and statistical analysis tools requires an amount of computing power and quick response time that mainframes simply cannot not provide at any cost. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Se cond. First. and finally. 2. distributed and multivendor approach to data processing. The High Cost of Mainframe Computing In the 1970 s a nd 1980 s. the search for a decentralized. now kn own as Open Systems. Companies must either plan to continually upgrade an entry-level mainframe. because most mainframe solutions f rom different vendors are incompatible with each other. or they must make a significant.Ethernet Development Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the key milestones in the historical development of Ethernet Identify t he benefits of distributed processing Identify the benefits of Open Systems solu tions Identify the reasons for Ethernet s success in the marketplace Overview Understanding a little about the history of Ethernet is important for t wo reasons: 1. It gives you the cultural background you ne ed to feel competent when discussing network technology with advanced systems ad ministrators and engineers. window-based graphical user inter faces. it is generally cost prohibitive to change vendors later on. Both options are expensive. As an alternative to the mainframe-centric world of the 1970 s. as well as other LAN technologies. capital investment in a large mainframe (and l ater upgrade it as well. mainframe computing began to present a number of significant limitati ons for large and small businesses alike. the demand for advanced word processors. mainframes are not easily scala ble. once a company chooses a particular vendor.
Shortly thereafter. By publishing the first Ethernet standard j ointly. 3. vendor-indep endent set of "open" interoperability standards) offers companies an economical way to purchase additional computing power in the form of file servers and PC wo rkstations on an as needed basis. The widespread adoption o f distributed computing and Open Systems (the concept of a modular. Provides a scalable network architecture at an affordable cost. Open communications technologies like Ether net provide the basis for a modular solution that: 1. ea sy-to-implement and easy-to-maintain technology for high-speed communication bet ween computers from either the same or different manufacturers. 2. evolved directly from the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center s (PARC) experimental networks of the 1970 s. Allows companies to networ k a mixture of hardware and software solutions from different vendors. it was generally not possible to network computer s manufactured by different vendors. this standard was adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO). Intel and Xero x jointly published the first commercial Ethernet standard for connecting comput ers together.Ethernet Development (Continued) The Development of Ethernet Standards In September 1980. Intel and Xerox made openly available an easy-to-understand. Digital.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications. In 1985. sometimes referred to as the DIX standard (D[igital] I[ntel] X[erox]). which effectively po sitioned Ethernet technology in a way that enabled it to become the most widely used method for connecting Local Area Networks (LANs). 4. and from whatever vendor they believe will del iver the best value for their money. Gives users mainframe-like access to shared information. This original Ethernet standard. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Prior to the joint publication of this standard. Distributes the p rocessing load required for advanced applications. Digital. the Ins titute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the first intern ationally approved set of Ethernet standards under the somewhat obscure title IE EE 802.
while working for Xerox at the now famous P alo Alto Research Center (PARC). the laser printer. of a network of wires that can serve as a binding medium across which a ll the different parts of the computer universe can communicate. The ether of Ethernet is a reference to the hypothetical element. the mouse. Somewhere along the line. The abstract concept of an Ethernet i s. many physici sts believe to permeate the entire universe. the name Alto Aloha (derived f rom the FM radio-based ALOHA Network System built at the University of Hawaii) w as dropped in favor of the slightly more mystical sounding. Robert Metcalfe (later founder of 3Com*) designed the first Ethernet ne twork. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . then. "lumeniferous ether.to late 1970 s a number of exciting things were happening at PARC." wh ich from the 18th century up until Einstein s theory of relativity. holding it together and providing a medium for electromagnetic (light) waves. In the mid. including the development of a graphics-based mo nitor. Ethernet.In 1973. the windowed display concept. which was originally a software m anagement and network maintenance strategy. the desktop w orkstation and even something called the Worm. named the Alto Aloha Network. yet later became a prototype for the modern computer virus.
Ethernet technology has achieved commodity status and is a vailable from a wide range of manufacturers and distributors. 1995-2001. As the figure above shows. Ethernet has proved capable of meeting demands for higher LAN speeds in a costeffective manner. relatively inexpensive. only recently introduced. maintain an d troubleshoot. Ethernet is easy to install. . Ethernet has gone on to become the most successful LAN technology in the marketplace. 100Mbps Fast Ethernet. and an IEEE sta ndard for Gigabit Ethernet is expected to be finalized by the end of 1998. Source: IDC 1997 PC NIC Market Forecast Summary. Ethernet devices are relatively easy to design and manufacture.Ethernet Development (Continued) Ethernet Today Today. Ethernet dominates the market today and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. generally leaving consumers free to pick and choose from a variety of alternatives. a nd as a result. Since the first Ethernet components appeared on the market in the beginning of t he 1980 s. keeping the cost of ownership down. 1997 shipments of network interface cards by technology. has been highly successful. from laptops to mainframes. There are several reasons why: q q q q Ethernet interfaces are available for almost any type of computer.
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Module Objectives q q q q q q q q q q q q Identify the basic characteristics of the Ethernet bus Identify the function of network interface cards Identify the basic components of the Ethernet frame Iden tify the fundamental process of Ethernet communication Identify the basic concep ts of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the importance of configuration guidelines Identify the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI model Identify Ethernet s relati onship to the upper layers of the OSI model Identify Ethernet bus and star topol ogies Identify the difference between physical network topology and the logical topology Identify the role of the MAC sublayer Identify the roles that repeaters . Lesson 2.1 also introduces and explains the CSMA/CD algori thm. and illustrates the importance of configuration guidelines. Lesson 2. and explains the difference between physical and logical topologies.1 introduces the Ethernet Bus wire. Lesson 2. Lesson 2. switches and bridges play * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .4 identifies the role of the MAC sublayer and the Ethernet operations that take place at the MAC sublayer. Lesson 2. Lesson 2.2 desc ribes the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI reference model.ETHERNET BASICS Module Description This module describes details of Ethernet operation and is th e largest module of the course.5 concludes Mo dule 2 with an explanation of repeaters. and identifies the basic network services that Ethernet provides. and describes the roles that network interface cards (NICs) and data frames play in Ethernet communications.1 also describes Ethernet s method for contro lling access to the shared broadcast medium by drawing an analogy between Ethern et and two-way radio. switches and bridges. Lesson 2.3 describes in general terms Ethernet cabling schemes.
Transmitting and Receiving Data Lesson Objectives q q q q q q Identify the basic characteristics of the Ethernet bus Identify the function of network interface cards Identify the basic components of the Ethernet frame Iden tify the fundamental process of Ethernet communication Identify the basic concep ts of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the importance of configuration guidelines The Ethernet Bus Computers on an Ethernet network communicate with each other by broadcasting packets of data on a shared wire. In the hypothetical small office environment shown in t he figure below. Each computer that participates in the network must connect direc tly to the Ethernet bus. Each computer s physical connection to the network is compo sed of a network interface card (NIC). the Ethernet bus winds through the entire office. . continuous length of wire that serves as a medium for pack et broadcasts. The Ethe rnet bus is a single. a short drop line and a connector that ta ps directly into the bus-wire. called an Ethernet bus. passing close ly by each computer.
Bus-type, coaxial cabling scheme for a small office. Network Interface Card (NIC) Addresses and Ethernet Frames Ethernet distinguishe s one computer from another by a unique address assigned to each NIC. Each NIC i s both a sender and receiver of packets of data called Ethernet frames. When a c ommunication technology, like Ethernet, packages or frames, data, it means simpl y that routing information is being added to the beginning and the end of the or iginal data. Once the data has been routed successfully, the routing information is discarded, just like a postal envelope is often discarded once its contents have been extracted. Furthermore, like postal envelopes, Ethernet frames can tra nsport only a certain amount of data at a time. (For a standard frame, the maxim um size of the data field is 1500 bytes.) Like sending a large letter in a serie s of envelopes, Ethernet transports larger amounts of data in multiple frames. U pon receiving each frame, the receiving computer discards the routing data and p uts the original data back in order. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Unlike postal envelopes, however, which arrive all at once, an Ethernet frame ar rives one bit at a time. Each Ethernet frame contains a structured series of dat a fields that identify: 1. 2. 3. 4. The beginning of the frame The address of the intended receiver The address of t he sender The type of data being sent Immediately following this information, the Ethernet frame includes the original data, or the "content" of the frame. The frame ends with a mathematical value ( called a cyclic redundancy check, or CRC) that the receiving NIC uses to verify the frame has been received correctly. The figure below illustrates the structur e of a standard Ethernet frame. Structure of a standard Ethernet frame. Listening, Sending and Receiving Ethernet was designed to be a relatively simple communications protocol. As a result, Ethernet bears many characteristics simil ar to common technologies such as telephone, telegraph and radio. Though recent advances in Ethernet switching technology have allowed Ethernet to operate more like a telephone system, the original Ethernet bus actually operates more like a two-way radio network of taxicab drivers. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Listening, Sending and Receiving (Continued) Taxicab fleets often use two-way ra dios to share information about changing traffic patterns, pick-up locations, de stinations and emergencies. All radio operators on the taxicab network hear all messages that are broadcast. Most messages, however, are intended for use by onl y one out of the many drivers. A typical radio message might sound as follows: " Message to Taxi 99. This is Central. Pick-up at 144th and Broadway. Reply." Very much like an Ethernet frame, the routing data ("Message to Taxi 99. This is Cen tral") frames the core message (" Pick-up at 144th and Broadway"). There may be thousands of messages like this broadcast over the radio each day. A taxicab ope rator becomes accustomed, however, to overhearing all of the messages on his or her radio, yet paying close attention, or "processing," only those messages spec ifically addressed his or her taxicab. Computers on an Ethernet network function essentially the same way. Like the two-way radio network of taxicab drivers, al l computers connected to the Ethernet bus hear all broadcasts. Whenever one comp uter sends a frame (or message) to another computer, the frame is broadcast over the entire length of the bus-cable, which all computers share. As the frame arr ives at each computer, the network interface card (NIC) checks the frame s addre ss information. If the destination address of the frame matches the NIC s addres s, the NIC processes the frame by checking the data packet s integrity and remov ing the routing information. If the frame s destination address does not match t he NIC s address, the NIC does not process any of the information and waits for the next frame to arrive. Just like a taxicab driver, each NIC "listens" to all messages, but only processes those messages specifically addressed to it. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
one computer s wait time will likely be shorter than the ot her. Collisions are a normal part of Ethernet operations. On e of the operators may not realize that his or her message was garbled. CSMA/ CD stands for "carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. if one driver is already speaking. both messages are garb led. sends out wh at is called a jam signal that informs all the computers on the network that a c ollision has occurred. The resulting garbled transmission is ca lled a collision. Because only one radio opera tor can be heard at a time. broadcast their frames simultaneously. the NIC waits until that frame is completed and the bus is free. Because the time to wait is randomly chosen. The collision detection part of the CSMA/CD algo rithm defines many of the physical limitations of Ethernet and directly affects how Ethernet networks must be configured. The set of r ules by which Ethernet handles collisions is called the CSMA/CD algorithm. all operators are free to contend for the open channel. Ethernet communication takes place in essentially this same way. in which case. if no one is currently speaking.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Collisions On the taxicabs radio network. The computers whose frames collided must then wait for a random time before trying again to resend their frames. If two operators begin to speak at the same time." which si mply is a technical way to refer to the sense-to-see-ifthe-line-is-free-before-y ou-send method that the multiple computers on an Ethernet network use to share a ccess to the broadcast channel. When a computer s NIC has a frame ready to send. it first listens to the network for any frames from other computers already being broadcast. It is possible. The computer with the shorter wait time will gain access to the open bus fi rst. If there is a frame already being transmitted on the bus. Once again. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . and the second computer will then wait until the first computer s broadcast is completed. and each operator must stop speaking and wait until the channel is free. every other drive r must wait until that person finishes before broadcasting a message of his or h er own. however. that two or more computers with frames to sen d will listen to the network at the same time and thinking that the bus is free. The first NIC to detect the garbled transmission. a third operator will ask him or her to restate the message.
it assumes that the frame has be en received intact and that it has been processed correctly. If the jam signal that results from a collision is not detected by the sending stat ion before the sending station completes its transmission. Basically. the sending station h as no way of knowing that it must retransmit its frame. and the frame transmission long enough. If a jam signal is received by a sending station after it has completed its transmission. Once a sending station completes its frame transmission.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) The Fundamental Rule The fundamental rule of all Ethernet configuration guidelin es is that collisions must be detected before a sending station completes the tr ansmission of its frame. this means that the network connection betwe en the two computers with the greatest distance between them must be short enoug h. Properly configured Ethe rnet networks ensure that the distance between the two stations farthest apart o n the network is short enough that when a collision occurs neither of these two stations will have had time enough to finish its transmission before being inter rupted by the jam signal. the sendi ng station will assume that the collision belongs to a set of stations elsewhere on the network. The importance of Ethernet stations being able to detect collis ions before the completion of each frame transmission cannot be understated. so that if one of these two computers happens to begin a transmission the instant before a transmission from the othe r computer arrives. w ithout having been interrupted by a jam signal. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the consequent collision can be detected before either trans mission is completed.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Ethernet assumes the frame has arrived intact and has been processed correctly.Usually. But as far as Ethernet is conce rned. it will use Ethernet to resend the data. once the Ethernet NIC has been able to transmit its frame without the inte rruption of a jam signal. If th e upper-layer protocol does not receive the expected reply within a certain time frame. the upper-layer protocol responsible for the frame s data packet will e xpect a reply from the same upper-layer protocol on the receiving station.
OSI standards are explained graphically using the OSI reference model. . The OSI reference model provides a comprehens ive and modular framework for interconnecting computer systems from different ma nufacturers. a variety of communications takes place between your computer and the server. remote access and messaging. The OSI model defines seven separate and distinct layers of communi cation that together provide a comprehensive suite of network services. and you would now like to save this document to a file in a directory on your workgroup s server before you attach it to an e-mail message. Technically. i ncluding requests for directory information. you have crea ted a document in a word processor. Ethernet neither initiates these kinds of network communications nor controls them in a substantive way. for example. Ethernet works at the bottom as a servant to all the layers above it. f ile transfer. According to Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards. Ethernet is merely a taxi service for these upper layer protocols. access rights and file creation. shown in the figure below. Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model The International Standar ds Organization and the IEEE published the first Open Systems Interconnection st andards in 1977. Network services like file transfer.Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model Lesson Objectives q q Identify the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI model Identify Ethernet s relati onship to the upper layers of the OSI model Though Ethernet plays a critical role in network communications. Let s say. data security. network manageme nt. When you give the command to save your file. in addition to the actual transfer of data from your word processor to the hard disk on the server. which employ Ethernet to help accomplish their wor k. remote terminal access and network security are all facilitated by what are called upper-layer protocols. this role is li mited to a specific set of services that combine with upper-layer networking ser vices to produce practical benefits such as network management. Th ough all of these communications are broadcast by Ethernet over the Ethernet bus . in the hierarchy o f network services.
The OSI mode l requires only that every technology be able to accept data from the immediate layer below it and deliver data to the immediate layer above it using universall y accepted methods. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Though most networking solutions today do not strictly confo rm to the boundaries of the OSI model. the OSI model still provides a solid fram ework for understanding how networking technologies interoperate. The OSI model does not define a specific technology for each layer.The Open Systems Interconnection reference model.
Layers of the OSI Model Layer Function Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application This layer provides services to user applications. flow control and arbitrates medium access. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . It can also provide services like encryption and compression. This layer provides a reliable end-t o-end connection across a network. This layer is responsible for routing packets between end stations in a network. This layer can provide error handling. Ses sion Transport Network Data Link Physical This layer establishes. Presentation This layer describes how data should be formatted when presented to applications. This layer defines the electrical. manages and en ds connections between users and resources. optical and mechanical characteristics of a network connection.
the physical layer and the lower half of the data link layer. Ethernet does not specifically exclude any p articular network layer technology. it treats the TCP/IP packet exactly the same as it would a NetBEUI or IPX/SPX packet. Ethernet connects computers together physically with cabling and network inte rface cards. Like a taxicab. As an Open Systems technology. Ethernet transports data packets from the network layer service on one computer to the network layer service of either one or a number of other comput ers. only the destination. Ethernet provides two general services: 1. Ethernet simply transports the fare.Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model (Continued) Ethernet and the OSI Model The Ethernet specification covers only the bottom lay ers of the model. it does not ask for names. For example. 2. Ethernet and the OSI Model * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . when Ethernet receives a TCP/IP packet from the network layer.
optical fiber and connectors. In gene ral. provide fixed tap points for individual computers. mec hanical and signaling characteristics of the physical medium.The Physical Layer Lesson Objectives q q Identify Ethernet bus and star topologies Identify the difference between physic al network topology and the logical topology At the physical layer. the Ether net bus was constructed using coaxial (10Base-5 and 10Base-2) cable. . On these networks. Today. Ethernet spe cifications cover details about the cabling requirements for Ethernet. a variety of specific cabling schemes can be used in the design of E thernet networks. or by connecting directly to the bus itself. the physical configuration of an Ethernet network conforms to one of two ba sic network topologies: bus or star. disadvantages and limitations of each are disc ussed in more detail in Modules 7 through 9. twisted-pair wire. The bus winds though the building close enough to each computer s NIC that each computer can be connected to a Tconnector eith er directly or by using a short drop cable. Phys ical layer specifications also define data rates. which cover operations. Physical la yer specifications also describe how Ethernet activates and deactivates connecti ons. Ethernet Bus Topology Originally. the lowest layer of the OSI reference model. A series of T-connectors. 100Mbps and 1000Mbps. inserted along the length of the bus. as well as the electrical. guidelines and specifications for Ethernet running at 10Mbps. Physical layer spe cifications describe how Ethernet represents data as either electrical signals s ent over a wire or as light pulses sent through a fiber optic cable. the Ethernet bus-cable stretches from one end of the building to the other. The advantages. The figure below shows the basic sch ematic of Ethernet bus topologies. including the use of coaxial cable. and compute rs connected to the bus using coaxial drop cables. Terminating resistors placed at each end of the b us ensure that each broadcast signal travels the length of the wire only once.
Bus Topology * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
. Twisted-pair wiring can be used for other purposes besides Ethernet. for example. There are several reasons for this: q q q q Twisted-pair wiring is easier to install than coaxial cable. to carry voice. the hub forms a central wir ing closet that physically takes the place of the long. Ethernet LANs are built almost exclusively using t wisted-pair wire to connect computers to a central hub (sometimes called a conce ntrator).The Physical Layer (Continued) Ethernet Star Topology Today. Star network topology In the star configuration shown in the figure above. The star configuration makes data traffic easier to monitor and troubleshooting simpler b y concentrating the location of physical network connections in a small space (t he hub). coaxial Ethernet bus. The evolution from bus to star topologies is perhap s best understood as simply a dramatic shortening of the Ethernet bus and an equ ally dramatic elongation of the drop lines that connect individual computers to the shared broadcast medium. Twisted-pair wiring is significantly less expensive than coaxial cable. the basic operations of Eth ernet are the same for both. Ev en though the star topology shown in the figure above looks radically different from the bus topology shown in the figure before it.
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The Physical Layer (Continued) The figure below shows the same office space shown in Lesson 2. A Logical Bus Both Ethernet star and bus topologies connect com puters in such a way that packet broadcasts from one station are received by all other stations on the network. twisted-pair wiring scheme for a small office. the logical topology of Ethernet networks is a bus. Regardless of the shape of the network cabling scheme (star or bus). A Physical Star. Star-shaped.1. this time cabl ed using a star topology. The logical scheme for the b us topologies shown in the previous figures is the same as depicted for the star topologies. The network cabling still forms a shared broadca st medium. .
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* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .If you find the concept of a star being a bus difficult to grasp. simply imagine a very short bus enclosed inside the hub and very long drop cables connecting t he network stations to the bus.
Ethernet operations at the MAC su blayer process the destination address and verify the integrity of the frame usi ng the CRC checksum.The MAC Sublayer Lesson Objective q Identify the role of the MAC sublayer The IEEE 802 series of network standards divides the second layer of the OSI ref erence model. The LLC sublayer uses the MAC sublayer to provide medium-independen t link functions to the network layer above it. Ethernet operations at the MAC sublayer assem ble the destination and source addresses for each Ethernet frame and calculate t he frame s CRC checksum.3 Ethe rnet specification covers the physical layer and the MAC sublayer. but not the L LC sublayer. The IEEE 802. MAC sublayer When a computer transmits a frame. Ethernet s collision detection and handling protocol. the C SMA/CD algorithm also operates at the MAC sublayer. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . into two sublayers called the medium access c ontrol (MAC) layer and the logical link control (LLC) layer. At the receiving end. the data link layer.
Because collisions on an Ethernet network must be detected before a station co mpletes the transmission of its frame (IEEE 802. on a switched network with four computers (A. for example. however. Switches Ethernet switches operate like intellig ent hubs that repeat incoming frames only to the computer (or computers) to whic h each frame is addressed. switches are becoming an increasingl y popular replacement for Ethernet hubs. C and D). Repeaters Technically. the maximum allowable distance bet ween any two stations on an Ethernet network operating at 10Mbps is 2500 m (mete rs). As a result of their ability to signifi cantly increase overall network throughput. and computer C can broadcast to computer D simultaneously. Bridges Bridges operate at both the phy sical layer and the MAC sublayer and connect otherwise completely separate Ether net networks. Thus. Network hubs and repeaters work at the physical level to regenerat e the strength of electrical signals so that distant segments of a network can s hare the same broadcast medium. Ethe rnet switching effectively doubles total throughput of the network by allowing c omputers A and C to broadcast at full network speed without having to wait for t he first computer s broadcast to finish. . Switches and Bridges Lesson Objectives q Identify the roles that repeaters.Repeaters. however. Bridges can also connect networks runnin g at different speeds with different topologies or communication protocols. become undeciph erable at a distance of a little over 100 m. B . Bridges sit between each network and repeat only those frames that are specifically addressed to computers on the other side. By designing separat e network domains connected with bridges. to provide a complete overview of the basic components of Ethernet networking. this dista nce is 500 m. network traffic can be isolated withou t sacrificing system-wide connectivity.3 standards actually limit the m inimum collision detection time to 512 bits). electrical signals transmitte d from an NIC lose their clarity and strength due to a natural weakening called attenuation. In this simple example. 10Mbps signals over twisted-pair wire. switches and bridges play in Ethernet network ing Repeaters. an Ethernet hub is also a repeater because it regenerates the strength of all incoming signals and repeats them individually to each port . For thick coaxial cable. computer A can broadcast to computer B. They are introduced here. Over a distance much less than this. without a collision. switches and bridges are physical networking components that will be discussed in some detail later in the course.
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Lesson 3. Lesson 3. Lesson 3.4 discusses the effect of collisions and excessi ve collisions on performance. Lesson 3.5 concludes Module 3 by illustrating a nu mber of ways that Ethernet networks can be configured to reduce collisions and i ncrease performance. also.2 explains t he reason for Ethernet s maximum distance specifications and. Module Objectives q q q q q q * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Ethernet network Identify Ethernet s distance limitation in bit times Identify the operation and purpose of the bac koff algorithm used to control retransmissions on an Ethernet Identify how to de termine whether an Ethernet network is experiencing too many collisions Identify some of the ways Ethernet networks can be segmented to reduce collisions .3 defines the exponential backoff algorithm. Lesson 3.ETHERNET OPERATIONS Module Description This module describes the details of data transmission and ac cess control on Ethernet networks. and discusses the role it plays in collision detection and r etransmission process.1 covers the CSMA/CD algorithm and f ocuses particularly on the process of collision detection. explains in general how maximum distances are calculated.
physical medium. The CSMA/CD algorithm defines when s tations are allowed to transmit and for how long. as well as how to manage situa tions in which two or more stations attempt to transmit at the same time. The fo llowing two flow charts illustrate the decision making processes that an Etherne t NIC completes when sending and receiving frames.The CSMA/CD Algorithm Lesson Objectives q q Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Ethernet network Module 2 briefly introduced the CSMA/CD algorithm and how it works to control ac cess to Ethernet s shared. .
.Flow chart for Ethernet frame transmissions.
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CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense. Multiple Access with Collision Detection. the transmissions collide and the signal becomes und ecipherable as a result. network stations mus t take turns transmitting data across the medium. "Carrier Sense" . Because an Ethernet network uses a shared broadcast medium. If more than one station trans mits data at the same time.The CSMA/CD Algorithm (Continued) Flow chart for receiving Ethernet frame transmissions.
"Multiple Access" means that Ethernet pro vides a number of stations the opportunity to transmit on the single cable.means that network stations with data to transmit should first listen to determi ne if another station is sending data. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . "Col lision Detection" refers to the process by which stations detect simultaneous tr ansmissions.
000 bits/second) by the time the first of the bits reaches station B. He nce. (Propagation is a technical term for the process by which signals.000. travel across a mediu m. they still take time to travel over the network medium. it will take the transmitted signal about 2. As illustrated by the series of figures below. or waves. it will begin to transmit. water or atmosphere. Consequently. the two signals collide o n the wire immediately afterwards. this means that station A will have transmitte d 25 bits (2.5 µs multiplied by (x) 10. Because station B believes that the c able is free. As a result. The speed of signal propagation through the cable varies slightly.) Generally. Collision .640 ft [feet]). After station A begins to transmit. Now.5 µs (microseconds) to travel 500 m. as shown in the figure below. depending on the cable type used. assume that station B decides to begin a tra nsmission immediately before the first bit from A s transmission has traveled th e 500 m distance between the two stations. Station A transmitting The figure above shows two stations connected to an Ethernet bus and 500 m apart (about 1. the signal travels away from station A in both directions. such as wire. stations must continue to monitor for collisions even after gaining access to the medium. collisions can occur even though each station must check first to see if the med ium is free. signal propagation speed throu gh copper and fiber cable is 2/3c.The CSMA/CD Algorithm (Continued) Even though data signals travel near the speed of light. On a 10Mbps Ethernet network. where c is the speed of light in a vacuum.
Station B discovers the collision right away and transmits a jam pattern to ensu re that all stations on the network detect the collision. A jam pattern is a seq uence of bits that is put together in such a way that the signal cannot be mista ken for a valid transmission. Station A detects the collision It takes another 2.5 µs before the jam signal has traveled 500 m from station B to station A. By the time station A discovers the collision and stops the transmis sion, 5 µs have elapsed and, station A has already transmitted 50 bits. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Maximum Distance between Stations Lesson Objectives q q Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Eth ernet network Identify Ethernet s distance limitation in bit times If the distance between station A and station B increases, station A will transm it more and more bits without discovering a collision. If the stations are place d too far apart, station A will complete its transmission before the collision i s discovered. If this happens, when station A receives the jam signal, it will n ot assume that its transmission was involved in the collision. Station A will, i nstead, assume that the collision belongs to some other set of computers. One of the significant assumptions of Ethernet operations is that once an Ethernet sta tion is able to finish its transmission without being interrupted by either a ja m signal or a collision, that station assumes that its transmission has been rec eived successfully. Usually, the upper-layer protocol responsible for the frame s data packet expects a response from the same upper-layer protocol on the recei ving station. When the expected reply is not received within a specified time un ique to each protocol, the upper-layer protocol on the sending station will use Ethernet to resend the original data. These kinds of retransmissions, however, n ot only result in unacceptable delays and network inefficiency, but they are als o unnecessary. The Ethernet standard contains several specifications that ensure collisions will be detected before a station finishes its transmission. First, the standard limits that the maximum distance between two stations in such a way that a station will not have transmitted more than 512 bits before a collision is discovered. On a 10Mbps Ethernet network, the maximum distance between two st ations cannot exceed 2,500 m (about 8,200 ft). On a 100Mbps Ethernet network, th e maximum distance is much shorter because data is transmitted ten times faster; thus, stations have less time to discover collisions. Second, the standard spec ifies that an Ethernet frame must always be at least 512 bits (64 bytes) long. T hird, Ethernet standards require transmitting stations to monitor the cable for collisions throughout the first 512 bits of every transmission. After that, stat ions are free to assume that a collision will not occur.
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such as wire. water or atmosphere. the rest is a safe ty margin. repeaters are used to regenerate the strength of electrical signals so that distant segments of a network can share the same broadcast medium. The first signal is assumed to be a data transmission and the second a jam signal. The phrase "ro und trip propagation delay" refers specifically to the time it takes for a singl e Ethernet transmission to travel the length of the wire twice. or waves. (Technically.The round-trip propagation delay at 2. (Propagation is a technical term for the process by which signals. travel across a medium. The maximum allowable distance between any two stations on an Etherne t network operating at 10Mbps is 2500 m.500 m is about 25 µs or only 250-bit times a t 10Mbps.) What about t he remaining 262-bit times? Some of it is there to allow a small delay in electr onics circuits such as repeaters and network interface cards. Thus.) * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Over a distances much less than this. h owever. an Ethernet hub is also a repeater beca use it regenerates the strength of all incoming signals and repeats them individ ually to each port. electrical signals transmitted lose their clarity and strength due to a natural weakening called attenuation.
and so begins to transmit. On Fast Ethernet networks. the affected stations wer e to simply retransmit their frames immediately after the jam signal has finishe d. According to Ethernet s exponentia l backoff algorithm. it is only 5. To avoid repeated collisions. If after a collision. then. On 10Mbps Ethernet network s. Aft er a collision has occurred. Ethe rnet uses an exponential backoff algorithm that requires each station affected b y a collision to wait a randomly selected amount of time before retransmitting.2 µs. Once the transmission from the station which randomly chos e the shortest backoff time has been recognized by all other stations on the net work. the sending station assumes that no other station has frames to send. before transmitting ag ain. all stations involved in the colli sion will wait for an amount of time. The station which randomly chooses the shortest backoff time will. all stations must then wait until the transmission is completed before onc e again contending for access to the network. the exact same collision will occur again. once a collision occurs. called a slot time. it is 51. be able to transmit its frame without interference from the station that contributed to the prior collision. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The slot time depends on the transmission speed. there are always at least two stations on the network with frames to send.Exponential Backoff Algorithm Lesson Objective q Identify the operation and purpose of the backoff algorithm used to control retr ansmissions on an Ethernet After checking the broadcast medium and finding it is free. however.12 µs.
maximum number of slot times stays at 1. on the fourth attempt between 0 a nd 8 slot times and so on.023.2 µs. there is a range of slot times from which stations must randomly choose after each unsuccessful transmission. Specified ranges for slot times are shown in Table 3-3 below. Each time the station tries to retransmit a nd encounters a collision. On the third attempt to transmit the frame.Exponential Backoff Algorithm (Continued) If two stations both wait for the same number of slot times. the wa iting time will be between 0 and 4 slot times. An Ethernet station will attempt to transmit the sam e frame up to 16 times.2 µs. this means that the waiting time will be either 0x51. the transmissions w ill collide again. If a first trans mission attempt fails due to a collision. it will give up and discard the frame. After eleven successive collisions. Thus.2 µs or 2x51. On 10Mbps Ethernet. Transmission Attempt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Minimum Wait Slot Times N/A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maximum Wait Slot Times N/A 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1023 1023 1023 1023 1023 1023 . all stations involved in the collision will wait between 0 and 2 slot times before attempting to transmit the frame a second time. the maximum waiting time is doubled. After that. 1x51. if the transmission has not been successfull y completed.
17 Give up Table 3-3. Backoff algorithm slot times Give up * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
you must. among other things. users and management may be w illing to accept a poorer quality of service from the network. if 95 percent of all transmissions are not deferred (have to wait because another transmission is already taking place ) and do not have to be retransmitted because of a collision. The definition of "acceptable limits" is. To decrease the number of collisions. a 95 percent average availability may not be sufficient. In some cases. To determine whether a network is experiencing too many collisions. and in other situ ations. subjective. limit the number of stations that share an Ethernet collision domain. the delay experien ced by users is probably within acceptable limits. A good rule of thumb is that the following inequality should hold true: (Nu mber of deferred transmissions + number of retransmissions) / Total number of tr ansmissions < 5 percent.Collisions and Performance Considerations Lesson Objective q Identify how to determine whether an Ethernet network is experiencing too many c ollisions It is important to understand that collisions are a normal occurrence on an Ethe rnet. of course. decrease network is not an error. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .) In other words. a transmitting station should experience a collision no more than tw o times before it successfully transmits data. however. Another way to measure if an Ethernet network is experiencing too many collisions is to calcula te the number of successive collisions that a transmitting station experiences. a collision Too many collisions will. a network admi nistrator must first determine the quality of service he or she expects to maint ain. performance. In general.
cable faults and fault s in network hardware. CRC errors are usually c aused by cable faults and other faults in the network. A frame that is longer than 6. CRC E rror. that is the CRC information in the FC S field does not match the CRC value computed by the receiving station. remedial action should be taken. The station tra nsmitting the oversized frames . Correcting the problem us ually means replacing defective cables or equipment. The station transmitting the ove rsized frames has a hardware or software error. Short. Correcting th e problem usually means replacing defective cables or network interface cards Lo ng. Short frames can be caused by noisy connections. have a bad CRC and are not an integral number of bytes in length. It should be found and removed f rom the network. Frames wit h alignment errors are frames that are longer than 64 bytes. switches and routers. A frame which has been corrupted during transmission. the number of bits in th e frame is not divisible by 8.Common Ethernet Errors The following is brief description of the most common err ors on Ethernet networks and their most likely causes. such as dedicated troubleshooting equipm ent like network monitors and probes as well as from network equipment such as b ridges. Cor recting the problem usually means replacing defective cables or equipment. Longs can have a negative impact on general network performa nce and may result in users being disconnected. Alignment errors are usuall y caused by cable faults or problems with network interface cards. If they occur often. Alignment Error. Frames w ith CRC errors are discarded by the receiving hardware. that is. Frames with alignment errors are discarded by the receiving station because they have an invalid CRC. A CRC error is regis tered when the 4-byte checksum is invalid. A frame which is shorter than the minimum 6 4 bytes. Error statistics can be o btained from several different sources. Giant. A frame that is longer than the legal maximum length of 1518 bytes but short er than 6000 bytes.000 bytes.
an Ethernet station will try up to 16 times to transmit a fra me. Late collisions should never occu r in a healthy Ethernet network or segment. "Jabbers" are usually cau sed by a malfunctioning network interface card or external transceiver. Occurs after the first 512 bits have been transmitted by the sending station. A long frame with a CRC or alignment error. Late Collision. The faul ty equipment should be replaced.has a hardware or software error. Late collisions are typically caused by misconfiguration. A late collision can cause severe pe rformance degradation because it cannot be detected by the sending station. If all transmission attempts fail due to collisions the frame is discarded b y the sending station. It should be found and removed from the networ k. such as having too long ca ble distances or by having more than 4 repeaters between one or more network sta tions in a 10Mbps environment. This situation is called an excessive collision. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Jabber. Excessive Collisions. the network should be redesigned to relieve the congestion. If this occurs frequently due to heavy network traffic. As pre viously described. The problem must be solved by changing the networ k configuration so it complies with the guidelines.
The number of transmissions that experienc e more than six successive collisions is too small to be visible on the chart.Collisions and Performance Considerations (Continued) The figure below shows an example of how collision statistics might look on an E thernet segment that is performing well. Notice that most transmissions succeed after only two successive collisions. An Ethernet segment that is performing well. By contrast. Note that more of the transmissions experience multiple collision s on this segment. . The total of all blue bars in the g raph represents the total number of collisions on the network. following figure shows collision statistics on a heavily loaded Eth ernet segment.
The total of all blue bars in the graph repre sents the total number of collisions on the network. Most of the retransmissions on this network experience two or more successive collisions.A heavily loaded Ethernet segment. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Network congestio n is so great that some transmissions reach the excessive collision limit and ar e dropped by the sending station s NIC.
Increase network efficiency by using switches in the place of hubs.Network Segmentation Lesson Objective q Identify some of the ways Ethernet networks can be segmented to reduce collision s Network managers can decrease the total number of collisions on a network in sev eral ways. small collision domains by segmenting network traffic. The figure below shows a basic network configur ation that uses a single collision domain. Network managers can: q q q Create multiple. links between servers and clusters of power workstations. The lesson focuses only on the general concept of network segmentation. Bridges Between Segments Later courses in advanced network design and management will discuss these solutions in detail. . Increase network spe ed by implementing Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet on hightraffic backbones.
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a bridge is used to connect segments. In the figure above. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Network Segmentation (Continued) The figure below shows a segmented network configuration that includes multiple collision domains. netwo rk engineers try to keep at least 80% of all traffic generated by a collision do main within that same domain. As a general rule. The bridge functions as a selective repeater that retransmits the frames it receives only when they a re specifically addressed to devices on the other side.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The server reads the destinatio n address of each frame and repeats only those frames addressed to devices on th e other segment. Using segmented collision domains on a single server not only d ecreases the number of total collisions on the network. In this situation.Network Segmentation (Continued) Separate Domains on a Single Server Some network operating systems allow a singl e server to use multiple NICs to create segmented networks. e ach NIC in the server functions as a separate network segment. The figure below illustrates a network configuration that includes two collision domains and onl y one server. but also allows the serv er to receive packets from two or more segments simultaneously. Software running on the server performs the function of a bridge.
Module Objectives q q q q q Identify the fields found in an Ethernet frame Identify the purpose of the pream ble/SFD.ETHERNET FRAME COMPOSITION Module Description This module discusses the composition of the Ethernet frame.1 gives a general overview of the contents of the Ethernet frame. multicast and broadcast addresses Ide ntify the purpose of having an interframe gap * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .2 through 4. type/length. Lesson 4. Lesso ns 4.7 each discuss in detail the content and purpose of each of the Ethernet frame s six fields. data and FCS fields Identify the structure of MAC addresse s Identify the difference between unicast.
The destination address. Announcing the a rrival of each frame. d estination.2 through 4. perhaps. A frame check sequence field marks the end of the Ethernet frame and contains a checksum value that can be used to verify the frame has not been corrupted in tr ansit. however. with the exception of t he data field. The checksum is the result of a calculation of bit values derived from of all other fields in the frame. Since the original Ethernet standard was publish ed in 1980. Ethernet frame composition Ethernet frames contain six fields in total.6 describe in detail the six basic fields of an Ethernet frame. source address and typeIlength field s together form what is commonly referred to as the Ethernet header. size and protocol of the upperlayer data packet contained in the dat a field. The Etherne t header contains control information used by Ethernet to identify the source. follow the basic structure shown in th e figure above. All other fields in the frame have fixed lengths.Basic Ethernet Frame Composition Lesson Objective q Identify the fields found in an Ethernet frame The Ethernet frame can. a 7-byte preamble serves to synchronize the sending statio n s and the receiving stations clocks. Following the preamble a 1-byte start-of-frame delim iter signals to the receiving station that the substantive portion of the frame is about to start. ensuring that each frame is received at the same speed it was sent. Lessons 4. The general format of an Ethernet frame is shown in the figure below. is precisely defined both in length and content. best be thought of as a container for safely an d efficiently transporting data packets from one station to another. Each field. a number of variant Ethernet frame types have been developed and are now in common use. . All of them. The data field immediately follows the header fields and varies in leng th between 46 and 1500 bytes.
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the SFD appears unnecessary. upon receipt. Bit-serial means that frames are transmitted and received one bit at a time across the medium. are interpreted as dig ital 0 s or 1 s. because it may seem that the receiver could simply count bits until 8 bytes (64 bits) have been received and then start copying the frame to memory." The binary "11" se quence alerts the receiver to the fact the preamble has ended and the Ethernet h eader will now begin. synchronous transmission facility. The phrase synchronous transmission refers to the fact that the clocks in both the sender and receiver must be synchronized in order f or each bit to be correctly detected. Start of Frame Delimiter The start of frame delimiter (SFD) is also an alternating binary 1 s and 0 s pattern. Synchronization The Ether net frame enables the receiving station to synchronize its clock with the sendin g station by using a 7-byte (56-bit) series of alternating 1 s and 0 s. The steady alteration of 1 s and 0 s in the preamble constitutes a si mple way to encode clocking information in the signal itself. However. except for the last two bits which are "11. An unsynchronized clock will time the signal incorrectly and wi ll either not be able to interpret the signal at all or will misinterpret the si gnal by reading high-to-low sequences as low-to-high sequences. In such instances.Preamble/SFD Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the preamble/SFD field Ethernet frame composition: preamble/SFD field Timing Ethernet is sometimes described as a bit-serial. and vice versa. Clock synchronization is important because Ethernet uses precisely timed changes in signal strength to create recognizable high-to-low and low-to-high patterns that. the preamble s 56bits of alternating 1 s and 0 s allow the receiving station to adjust its clock until the steady alterations of the preamble are timed correctly. called a preamble. the frame is said to be misaligned. Like a drum roll u sed to synchronize the feet of soldiers in a very fast march. At a first glance. the sender a nd receiver clocks may be so far out of synchronization that .
the receiver will not be able to synchronize on the signal immediately. thus all owing an indeterminable portion of the preamble to pass by unrecognized. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
that station simply disregards the rest of the frame. The source . Illustrated i n the figure below. (Although. the MAC address consists of two parts: a 3-byte manufacturer ID and a unique 3-byte NIC ID number. So urce Address The source address (SA) field contains the MAC address of the sendi ng station. When a station recognizes its own MAC address in the destination address f ield of an Ethernet frame. In an example MAC address such as "00-A0-C9CE-20-03. Usi ng this same example. assigned by the manufacturer. the first two bytes written using binary notation would re ad 00000000-10100000. each station s unique destination address (DA). as opposed to writing out the binary digits. 00-A0-C9. When a station recognizes that the destination address is not its own. So. the MAC address can be manually set using a s eries of jumper connections on the circuit board. the second three bytes.Destination Address and Source Address Fields Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of MAC addresses Identify the difference between unicast. usually called a MAC address." the first three bytes. of course. multicast and broadcast addresses Ethernet frame composition: destination address and source address fields The Structure of MAC Addresses Every NIC attached to an Ethernet network must ha ve a unique 6-byte hardware address. represent the manu facturer ID (Intel). (On certain first and second generation NICs. Ethernet a ctually reverses the bit-ordering of each byte when it is transmitted.) MAC address structure Technical manuals usually record the bytes of the MAC address using hexadecimal notation. represent the NIC ID.) Destination A ddress The MAC address is. the station copies the rest of the frame to memory fo r further processing by the CPU. CE-20-03. the s ame two bytes would actually be transmitted as 00000000-00000101. to make things somewhat interesting.
Multicast and Broadcast Fram es In addition to Ethernet s ability to send individual frames to a single works tation (sometimes called a unicast). requesting the frame be resent or answering a particular request. The unicast addre ss for a particular destination is simply another name for an NIC s unique MAC a ddress. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .address field gives a receiving station the opportunity to respond to the origin ating station either by confirming receipt of the frame. Unicast. Ethernet also has the ability to send frame s either to a group of stations on a single segment (a multicast) or to all Ethe rnet stations on the network (a broadcast). and by servers responding to client-specific re quests. Unicast Addresses. An Ethernet frame sent to a unicast address is intended for one station only. Unicast transmissions are used by clients requesting application or file s ervices from a particular sever.
All stations on the network are expected to copy Ethernet frames sent to the broadcast addre ss and pass them to the CPU for further processing. The broadcast address. Routing information updates. is composed entirely of binary 1 s. but it will always be sent from a specific station on the network.Destination Address and Source Address Fields (Continued) Multicast Addresses. Specific examples include. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . while other stations disregard them. Other examples of the use of multicast addresses are video distribution and bridge packets used by the spa nning tree algorithm. the first bit of a multicast address is always a binary 1. So that NICs instantly recognize a multicast address. Each network has only one broadcast address. Broadcast Addresses. Routers on the network copy these frame s from the wire. Ethernet LAN services such a s address resolution and service advertisements that rely on recurrent transmiss ions to all stations frequently send packets to the broadcast address. never in the source addres s field. Multicast and broadcast addres ses can appear only in the destination address field. A frame can be intended for a group of stations. A multicast address identifies an entire group of stations attached to the same Ethernet segment. are often sent to a multicast address. as it appears in the destination address field. for instance . the services provided by Address Resolution Protocol (ARP [a c omponent of the TCP/IP suite]) and NetWare* SAPs.
The spanning tree algorithm is an IEEE 802 standardized method of communication between bridges and switches. Sometimes brid ges and switches contain conflicting address information. In this case a group of bridges or switches mistakenly forwards the packet in a circle among t hemselves without ever forwarding the packet to the actual segment to which the packet is addressed. The table tells the br idge or switch which packets to forward and which to not forward. fram es can become trapped in an endless loop of bridges and switches. The spanning tree algorithm works to help bridges and switc hes communicate in order to both avoid loops and operate efficiently. as a result. and. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Most switches and bridges keep track of the layout of a network by building a table of address information.
Generally speaking. which discusses four of the most common Ethernet frame types.). etc.e. The contents and purpose of the type/length field are discussed in det ail in Module 5. IPX. with the main difference be ing the type of information that is placed in the 2-byte field following the sou rce address field. AppleTal k. this portion of the frame is used to desi gnate either the size of the data field or the upper-layer protocol to which the contents of the data field should be delivered (i. DECnet.Type/Length Field Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the type/length field Ethernet frame composition: type/length field Ethernet frames come in slightly different variants.. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . IP.
So the data field can never be less than 46 bytes long. for instance. Transmitting Small Amounts o f Data What happens. as well. such as TCP/IP. Switches and bridges. To ensure correct detection of collisions on the network. t he type/length field and the frame check sequence field together account for 18 bytes. The destination and source address fields. In this case. a single keystroke) to the application. preventing them from propagating through out the rest of the network. though.Data Field Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the data field Ethernet frame composition: data field Minimum Length Requirements The data field contains the data packet that will be delivered to an upper-layer protocol. which examine an entire frame before forwar ding it. immediately discard all frames that do not meet the 64-byte minimum length requirement. At the receivi ng end. NICs. . if a station has less than 46 total bytes to transm it? In a Telnet session. the total length of an Ethernet frame cannot be less than 64 bytes. Frames received t hat are less than 64 bytes long are usually the byproducts of collisions and are called runts. IPX or DECnet. immediately discard all runts. the upper-layer protocol that requests Ethernet to transmit the data simply pads the remaining portion of the data fie ld with extra bytes until the 46-byte minimum requirement is met. the same upper-layer protocol is then required to remove the extra bytes before passing the content of the data field (in this case. a single keystroke may be the only data a station needs to transmit.
Transmitting small amounts of data. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
many other applications would benefit e qually as well from a smaller frame size. including the DA. type/length and FCS fields. 1518-byte Ethernet frames. Using Ethernet s minimum 64-byte frame size. It would take. they unfortunately increase the overall amount of overhead on the wire. By computer standards 52 ms is a l ong time and could lead to unacceptably long wait times for other stations. As Ethernet speeds continue to increas e. For maximum-sized.Data Field (Continued) Transmitting Larger Amounts of Data The upper-limit size of the data field is 15 00 bytes. Striking a Balance If Ethernet were to allow the transmission of very large frames. the relative efficiency or inefficiency of Ethernet compared to other possible networking schemes continue s to diminish in importance. The 1500byte data fiel d limit denotes Ethernet s compromise between transmission efficiency on the one hand and network availability on the other.536 bytes or more. cannot exceed 1518 bytes. however. and thus decrease the total amount of data throughput that the net work can provide. meaning that the total length of an Ethernet frame. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . E thernet s 18-byte overhead for each frame becomes comparatively insignificant to the datapacket portion of the frame. overhead falls to 11% of the total transmission. from 10Mbps to 100Mbps. 65. approximately 52 m s to transmit a frame of this size at 10Mbps. and now 1000Mbps. however. overhead for small packets is 28% of the total transmis sion. While it is true that certain applications would benefit fr om a larger maximum Ethernet frame size. SA. Thou gh smaller upperlimits on frame size can substantially decrease wait times for a ccess to the network. with a minimum 46 bytes for data packets. of say.
recalculate the CRC value and place it in the FCS field. the receiving station performs the same calculation and compares the resulting CRC value with the one found in the FCS field. the receiving station assumes the frame has been corrupted.Frame Check Sequence Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the FCS field Ethernet frame composition: frame check sequence The frame check sequence (FCS) field contains a checksum called a cyclic redunda ncy check (CRC) that can be used to verify that the frame has not corrupted in t ransit. The transmitting station calculates th e CRC value as the frame is transmitted and places the result in the FCS field. A sophisticate d user with malicious intentions and the appropriate tools could change the fram e. If the two values match. The frame check sequence is simply the result of a complex division prob lem applied to the contents of the frame. The FCS is intend ed only to protect against errors caused by noise on the transmission medium or by malfunctioning network equipment. The receiver would t hen be unable to detect that the frame has been tampered with. If the two values do not match. and cons equently discards it. . the receiving station accepts the frame. When the frame is received. Note that the FCS field does not constitute a security mechanism.
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* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Optional Exercise** Check your unde rstanding of an Ethernet Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply yo ur knowledge of frame fields and sizes. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. it is possible for a station that has just completed a transmission to miss a frame destined for it because it has not yet cycled back into receive mode. Dropped packets can significantly r educe overall network performance. manufacturers can claim an increased overall network throughput co mpared to their competitors. and is included in the specifications for Fast Ethernet as well.6 µs allowe d.3 standards. At 10Mbps.6 µs specification are combined with devices that use a shorter interframe spacing. Ethernet specifica tions require that an interframe gap of at least 96 bit-times pass before any st ation on the network can transmit the next frame. The reason for the 9. At Fa st Ethernet speeds. Even though modern Ethernet devices are capable of cycling from send mode to receive mode in a shorter time than the 9.6 µs interframe gap is to allow enough time for station that last transmitted to cycle its circuitry from transmit mode to rece ive mode. however. which in turn results in upp er-layer protocol initiated retransmissions.6 µs. w hen devices that meet the 9. Mixing devices that use different interframe gap t imes increases the potential for dropped packets. 96 bit-times translates to 960 ns (nanoseconds).Interframe Gap Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of having an interframe gap After a frame has been successfully transmitted and received. however. the 96 bit-time interframe gap specification is still a part of the official standard. Some Ethernet manufacturers currently m arket NICs (and Ethernet switches. on e-tenth of the time for 10Mbps Ethernet. cause client stati ons to lose their connection to the network. as well) that use an interframe gap that is s maller than 96 bit-times specified by IEEE 802. and. By shortening the in terframe gap. 96 bit-times transl ates to 9. Without the interframe gap. Network administrators must be cautious. in certain instances.
The field names go in the empty blue squares. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the field sizes go in the empty black squar es.Drag the components of an Ethernet frame into their correct positions.
Module Objectives q q q Identify the structure of variant Ethernet frame types Identify the reasons behi nd the development of each variant frame type Identify naming conventions for va riant Ethernet frame types * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .ETHERNET FRAME TYPES Module Description Since the publication of the original DIX Ethernet standard i n 1980. a variety of Ethernet frame types have been developed. This module ident ifies these variant frame types and in what situations they are most commonly us ed.
the amount of overhead a frame uses is directly related to the sophistication of the services it can support. everything in an Ethernet fr ame. Novell 802. Many networks support several frame type s at the same time.3 for IPX. including AppleTalk. Each of the frame types covered in this module att empts to strike a useful balance between efficiency and sophistication. and re asons why particular information is included in some frames and excluded in othe rs. Though the Ethernet II frame provides a more efficient use of netwo rk bandwidth. the Ethernet SNAP frame is able to support a broader range of uppe r-layer protocols. on the other h and. must be considered overhead. The Ethernet SNAP frame. for example.Overview Lesson Objectives q q Identify the concept of data overhead Identify the use of multiple frame types From the point of view of a network-layer protocol. excluding the data field. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Generally speaking. may support up to three different frame types: Ethernet II for TCP/ IP. for example. The Ethe rnet II frame. The purpose of this module is to describe the overhead information unique to each Ethernet frame type. A network using TCP/IP. includes 34 bytes of overhead information (counting the preamble) for each data packet. and Ethernet SNAP for AppleTalk support. includes only 26 bytes of overhead information (coun ting the preamble) for each data packet. IPX and AppleTalk.
Ethernet II Frame Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of Ethernet II frame Identify the reasons behind the deve lopment the Ethernet II frame The original Ethernet standard published by Digital. the EtherType value is set to 0x 8137. TCP/IPbased networks use the Ethernet II frame almost exclusively.) should handle the contents of the data fie ld.) As illustrated in the figure below. which serves to distinguish Ethernet II frames from IEEE 802. which replace the type field with a size field (which i s always less than 1500). Intel and Xerox defines the format for the Ethernet II frame. Generally speaking. DECnet. the type field indicates to the receiving station which protocol (i.3 frames. If the data field contains IPX data. IPX. By assigning a unique value to each upper-laye r protocol. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. are configured to us e Ethernet II frames. . as does DECnet. the Ethernet II frame is the most commonly used frame-type. All EtherType values are equal to d ecimal numbers greater than 1500. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of an Etherne t II Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of fram e fields. (What might be called the Ethernet I frame wa s used only in the developmental stages of Ethernet and was not published as par t of the jointly developed standard. for example. Many Novell networks. e. as well. the EtherType value is set to 0x0800. IP. etc. AppleTalk. the Et hernet II frame includes a 2-byte type field that immediately follows the source address. If the data field contains IP data.. Ethernet II Frame The type field is used to contain a value called an EtherType that identifies th e type of data in the data field. and for AppleTalk the value is 0x809B.
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* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Drag the fields of an Ethernet II frame into their correct positions.
2 LLC header . The figure below illustrates the format of the IEEE 802.3 frames. A ne twork administrator s decision to support the Ethernet II frame but not the IEEE 802. and sometimes both.3 frame by default for IPX/SPX packets and the Ethernet II frame for TCP/IP packets.IEEE 802.3 frame with IEEE 802. the Ether net II frame is still the most widely implemented and widely supported frame typ e. Generally speaking.3 frame Identify the 802. even though the IEEE 802. is highly dependent upon the particular circumstanc es and is often a matter of mere preference. For example.2 LLC header Ide ntify the reasons behind the development of the IEEE 802. Ethernet IEEE 802.3 frame is the officially recognized international standard. Novell networks now use the IEEE 802.3 frame.3 frame. or vice versa.2 LLC Header Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the structure of the IEEE 802.3 frame replaces Ethernet II s 2-byte type field with a 2-byte l ength field and adds a 3-byte LLC (logical link control) header to the data fiel d.3 frame Identify naming conventions for variant frame types Most networks can be configured to use either Ethernet II or IEEE 802. The IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802. thoug h some network administrators prefer to use the Ethernet II frame for both.
3 standard specifies operations for the physical layer and the MAC sublayer. The value of the length field will always be equal to a number between 46 – 1500. the IEEE 802. contains information that enables the LLC layer to hand off the contents of the data field to the appropriate network layer protocol. the source service access point (SSAP) and the control field .2 standard specifies operations for the LLC sublayer. Th e LLC header. thus. Length Field The length field identifies the combined length of the LLC and da ta fields in number of bytes. and thus support both types of frames running on the sa me network. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 length values always equal a number 1500 or less. and 802.You will remember that the IEEE 802 standard breaks up the OSI model s data link layer into the MAC (medium access control) sublayer and the LLC sublayer. While the IEEE 802. Since EtherType values always equal a number great er than 1500. The LL C header is actually comprised of three 1-byte fields: the destination service a ccess point (DSAP). it is possible for most network hardware and software to distinguish between Ethernet II and IEEE frame types.
3 frame as the IEEE 802. th e corresponding values for the SSAP and DSAP fields are.2 header IEEE 802.3 raw the 802.2 header. however.3/802.2 LLC Header! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields.2 LLC Header (Continued) DSAP and SSAP Fields The DSAP (destination service access point) field serves th e same purpose as the EtherType used in the Ethernet II frame. For instan ce.3 frame A frame type that uses the structure of the IEEE 802. refer to the IEEE 802.2 frame.3 frame without 802.3 frame and its variants can be confusing.3 fram e with 802. commonly-used naming conventions for both the IEEE 802.3 Naming Conventions Because a number of frame types are ba sed on the IEEE 802. specified by Ethernet standards. The SSAP (source service access point) field identi fies the upper-layer protocol that sent the data packet. the DSAP field s hexad ecimal value is set to 0xEO. .3 frame. such as Novell. also. The following table correlates commonly-used naming conventions with tech nically correct terminology.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 8 02. Because the source prot ocol and the destination protocol are typically the same for each data field.3/802. The DSAP field id entifies which protocol should handle the contents of the data field. For example. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of an IEEE 802. IEEE 802. Ctrl Field The ctrl field s value distinguishes between different types of LL C headers.2 frame SNAP frame Ethernet II frame IEEE 802.3 frame with 802.2 frame.2 frame 802. Common Name DIX frame 802.2 header and Sub-Network Access Protocol encapsulation Technical Desc ription Novell 802. typically the sam e. if the data field contains a NetWare* IPX/SPX packet.IEEE 802. certain networking v endors refer to the IEEE 802. The operation of the LLC layer is not. It is used only on Novell networks.3 frame simply as the IEEE 802. while other vendors.
**This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
Drag the fields of an IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.2 LLC Header into their correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
t he hexadecimal value of both the DSAP and SSAP fields equals 0xAA. the Ethernet SNAP frame is most commonly use d to support Ethernet Macintosh* clients running AppleTalk. For Ethernet SNAP frames. Manufacturers have not. SSAP and ctrl fields.2 frame are only eight b its (one byte) long. The SNAP ID is di vided in two parts: a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI). however. Today. and a 2-byte type field (equivalent to the EtherType field in the Ethernet II frame). sometimes called a code field. Ethernet SNAP frames are recogniz ed by the content of the DSAP. and the value for the ctrl field equals 0x03. with two of the eight bits reserved for other purposes. Ethernet SNAP Frame On networks that support multiple frame types.2 frame can assign unique values to only 64 protocols. field is to give individual vendors the ability to assign their own unique values for protocols running on their own equipment. the Ethernet SNAP frame includes an additio nal 5 bytes of header information. The SNAP ID Fields The purpose of the OUI. with the exception of certain Apple protocols.IEEE 802. In practical use. however. In order to pro vide support more than 64 protocols. or c ode. the IEEE 802. usually called the SNAP ID. the content of the code field is always set to "0000-00" and the value in the "type" field is the same value that is used in the Ethernet II type field.3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of the SNAP frame Identify the reasons behind the develop ment of the SNAP frame Driven largely by the TCP/IP community.3 frame was designed to expand the number of upper pr otocols that Ethernet can support. implemented SNAP on even a modest scale. the addition of sub-network access proto col (SNAP) to the IEEE 802. Optional Exercise** . Expanding Protocol S upport Because the DSAP and SSAP fields of the IEEE 802.
Check your understanding of an IEEE 802. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation! This in teractive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.
3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation into their correc t positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Drag the fields of an IEEE 802.
Novell 802. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Optional Exercise** Check your understandin g of a Novell 802. the Novell 802.2 LLC header in the data f ield.3 frame or the SNAP frame and the same amount of overhead as the Ether net II frame.3 frame.3 frame is oft en called "802. has caused even many Novell netwo rk administrators to resist its use. Because of its low overhead.3 frame is used exclusively on Novell networks. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.3 frame does not provide a "type" or "DSAP" field f or encoding protocol information. and is used for Novell IPX data only.3 Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your kn owledge of frame fields. Because the Novell 802.3 frame is extremely e fficient.3 frame Like the IEEE 802.3 frame cannot support upper-la yer protocols of different types. the Novell 802. As the f igure above shows.3 frame contains less overhead than either the IEEE 802.3 frame Novell Ethernet 802. The Novell 802. The Novell 8 02. however.3 Frame Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of Novell 802. the Novell 802. Its lack of sophistication.3 frame differs from the Ethernet II f rame by using a length field in the place Ethernet II s type field. the Novell 802.3 raw" because it does not use the 802.3 frame Identify the reasons behind the dev elopment of the Novell 802.
Drag the fields of a Novell 802.3 Frame into their correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
1 compares full-dup lex and half-duplex operation by using analogies that include telephone and twoway radio communication models.3 explains how distan ce limitations are affected by full-duplex operation. where it is commonly implemented and what its benefits are.4 concludes the m odule by briefly identifying the role full-duplex plays in the use of Gigabit Et hernet. Lesson 6. and Lesson 6. Lesson 6. Module Objectives q q q q q Identify how full-duplex Ethernet works Identify the benefits and limitations of full-duplex Ethernet Identify how full-duplex Ethernet affects distance limitat ions Identify connection limits of full-duplex Ethernet Identify use of full-dup lex with Gigabit Ethernet * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .2 explains how full-duplex links can be used to increase overall network throughput. Lesson 6.FULL-DUPLEX ETHERNET Module Description This module explains how full-duplex Ethernet works.
w orks in a similar way and uses the CSMA/ CD algorithm to establish rules for sha ring the same broadcast channel. Using full-duplex communication. of course.Full-duplex and Half-duplex Compared Lesson Objective q Identify how full-duplex Ethernet works To understand the difference between full-duplex and half-duplex communication m odes. where all communicants share a single broadcast channel and when one person speaks. consider the difference in convenience there is using modern telephones ve rsus using twoway radios. both p arties can speak and listen at the same time without encountering garbled transm issions that would otherwise result from simultaneous broadcasts. Two-way radio operates in half-duplex communication mo de. Ethernet. and vice versa. operate i n full-duplex mode using two broadcast channels simultaneously. all must listen if anybody is to be heard at all. Full-duplex mode allows one person s transmission channel to function exclusively as the other p erson s receive channel. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . on the other hand. Modern telephones.
however. Full-duplex Ethernet operation. between a server an d a switch). but also eliminate colli sions. Full-duplex links not only double potential throughput. . On a switch equipped with a full-duplex port. In actual usage. a packet arriving at a half-duplex por t can be relayed on the full-duplex port. only half-d uplex operation is possible. two computers are directly connect ed using a medium type that has two separate channels. server-to-switch and switch-to-switch connections. limi ted to a single connection between two devices (for example. full-duplex segments are. twinax. Add itionally. or fiber optic cabling and full-duplex compatible NI Cs. With both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet. In this case. bandwidth improvements are more modest. If reads and writes on a full-duplex link are symmetric.The Benefits of Full-duplex Ethernet Lesson Objectives q q Identify the benefits of full-duplex Ethernet Identify connection limits of full -duplex Ethernet Using twisted-pair. as well as the need for each station to wait until the other station fini shes transmitting. since there are no collisions on a full-duplex lin k. however. Full-duplex operation all ows Station A to transmit on Station B s receive channel at the same time Statio n B is transmitting on Station A s receive channel. full-duplex Ethernet allows two stations to transmit and receive data simult aneously. For three or more devices attached to the same segment. Full-duplex Ethernet and Fast Ethernet links are particularly usef ul for server-to-server. as soon as it has determined that the incoming packet on the half-duplex port has not been damaged by a collision. packets arriving from a fullduplex port can be forwarded as soon as t he destination is determined. data throughput can be doubled.
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the ma ximum distance between devices for UTP cable is 100 m. Due to UTP cable s higher rate of attenuation. For example.Full-duplex and Distance Limitations Lesson Objective q Identify the distance limitations of full-duplex Ethernet Because full-duplex operation eliminates the need to detect collisions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the same as for half-dupl ex. distance s between devices can be extended to the full length that the medium is able to transmit a recognizable data signal. with Fast Ethernet running on multimode fiber the maximum distance between devices is extended from about 400 m to approximately 2000 m.
all Gigabit Ethernet devices manufactured will support full-duplex operation. Initially. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Full-duplex Mode and Gigabit Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify use of full-duplex with Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet has been developed to use full-duplex mode almost exclusively. Running at Gigabit Ethernet speeds a switch-like device called a buffered distri butor will connect multiple full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet devices.
which specifies the use of unsh ielded twisted-pair cabling.ETHERNET OPERATION AT 10MBPS Module Description The IEEE 802. Lesson 7. Module Objectives q q q q q q q q Identify the characteristics of 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Identify the topology and limitations of 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks Identify the differences and simil arities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 1 0Base-T and 10Base-FL Identify twisted-pair (UTP) wiring categories Identify UTP connectors Identify important guidelines to follow when building 10Mbps Etherne t networks Identify rules specific to 10Base-FL * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 specification designates Ethernet implementati on types according to the cabling used and the speed of data transfer. This modu le covers the specifications for Ethernet operating at 10Mbps over coaxial. Lastly. which specify the use of coaxial and thin coaxial ca ble. Lesson 7. Lesson 7. Lesson 7.3 covers the designation 10Base-FL. which specifies the use of fiber optic cabling.1 covers Ethernet designat ions 10Base-5 and 10Base-2.4 reviews a number of configuration gui delines for 10Mbps Ethernet implementations. the most widely used medium for new Ethernet implem entations.2 covers the designation 10Base-T. unsh ielded twisted-pair and fiber optic cabling.
10Base-2 cable is cheaper to buy and to install than 10Base-5. signals are reflected back into the medium from t he end of the bus cable. however. i ntended to be easier to use. Both t ypes of coaxial bus cables require terminating resistors placed at each end of t he cable. The f igure below shows how computers are attached to the bus cable on 10Base-5 and 10 Base-2 networks. uses baseband transmission. causing each transmission to collide with itself.10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Lesson Objectives q q q Identify the differences and similarities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 10Base-FL Identify important guidelines to foll ow when building 10Mbps Ethernet networks The 10Base-5 designation was the first Ethernet implementation type to be define d by Ethernet standards. Because it is thinner. 10Base-2 was. 10Base-2 cable segments can only be 185 m (ab out 600 ft) long. difficult to work with and expensive to install. Both 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks use a physical bus topolog y. using a T-connector. . a computer’s network interface card attaches directly to the bus. Without terminators. On 10Base-2 networks. and can carry a signal a maximum distance of 5 00 m without the use of a repeater. workstations attach to the bus cable using drop cables over distances up to 40 m (about 130 ft) long. Unfortunately. On 10Base-5 networks. 10Base-5 designates a network that is implemented at 10 Mbps. cabling used for 10Base-5 is rigid.
10Base-5 and 10Base-2 bus * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
There is no central location from where users can be added to or removed from the bus witho ut disrupting the entire network. Adding a new user to a 10Base-2 cable requires that the cable be cut to insert a new T-connector. the bus cable must be mo ved to accommodate that workstation. the users on that cable segment lose access to the network.10Base-5 and 10Base-2 (Continued) Because the 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 specifications require networks to use the phy sical bus topology. If a user on a 10Base-2 cable segment breaks the bus by removing his or her work station’s T-connector. inclu ding the following: q q A cable or connection problem anywhere on the network’s bus is likely to cause pro blems for all users. If a workstation on a 10Base -5 network must be moved more than 40 m from the cable. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . these implementations present a number of limitations. as shown in the animation below. the users on that cable segment lose access to the network. For instance. if a user on a 10Base-2 cable segment breaks the bus by removing his or her workstation’s T-connector.
In appearance. but it also specifies the use of a star topolo gy which makes both the implementation and maintenance of Ethernet 10Base-T netw orks significantly easier compared to 10Base-2 and 10Base-5. all UTP cables look similar to telephone wire. allow only half-duplex operation. UTP cabling categories are defined in the Electronic Industry As sociation and Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) 568 cabling stan dards. or higher. The definitive advantages of 10B ase-T over coaxial-based networks have made it the most widely implemented Ether net standard. In addition.10Base-T Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the differences and similarities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 10Base-T Identify twisted-pair (UTP) wiring cat egories Identify UTP connectors The IEEE addressed the implementation and maintenance difficulties of Ethernet b us topologies with specifications for Ethernet 10Base-T. The 10Base-T designatio n not only includes the use of inexpensive. 10Base-2 and 10Base5. on th e other hand. 10Base-T networks use Category 3. Category 5 Unshielded twisted-pair * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Categories are distin guished by the quality of the cable. which currently include 5 categories for UTP cable. The figure below shows a Category 5 UTP cable. or the speed at which reliable communicatio n can take place. unshielded twisted-pa ir (UTP) cable. 10Base-T makes full-duplex operation possible. one for transmitting data and one for receiving data. unshielded twisted-pair cabling (whi ch is similar to telephone wire). becaus e 10Base-T uses two wire pairs.
RJ-45 jack and connector . On 10Base-T networks each computer is attached to a central hub using UTP cables over distances up to 100 m (328 ft) long. and o ther high-speed network technologies. Used for 10Base-T and Token Ring. When the maximum 100 m distance is us ed. especially in older installations. Used for 10Base-T. leaving 10 m for the connection between the computer and the wall p late and for the patch cables used in the wiring closet. shown in the figure below. Used for 10Base-T. 100Base-T (Fast Ethernet). Computers are attached to the UTP cable by an RJ-45 style connector. Widely deployed. Category 2 (cat 2) Rated to 1MHz Category 3 (cat 3) Rated to 16MHz Category 4 ( cat 4) Rated to 20MHz Category 5 (cat 5) Rated to 100MHz Used for telephone wiri ng. the cable running from the wall plate to the cable closet should be no longe r than 90 m.10Base-T (Continued) The table below lists all five UTP cabling categories and their associated perfo rmance standards: UTP Category Rated Performance Applications Category 1 (cat 1) No performance criteria Used in some older telephone systems.
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10Base-T networks provide several advantages over 10Base-5 and 10Base-2. With a hub.10Base-T (Continued) The hubs at the center of a 10Base-T network are actually multiport repeaters. 1. both hubs and NICs show whe ther a connection is active or not by using green LEDs that give users live feed back about the status of the connection. This makes troubleshooting a 10Base-T n etwork much simpler than troubleshooting 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. 3. administrators can add or remove computers from the network without disrupting other computers. it a ffects only the workstation directly attached to the cable. . The hubs repeat only valid signals. so if there is a problem on a cable. 2. A signal from one station enters the hub on one port and is repeated on all the o ther hub ports as illustrated in the figure below. Repeater hub operation Because 10Base-T networks use a star topology with hubs at the center. as shown in the animation below. On 10Base-T networks.
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Fiber optic cabling is m ost commonly used to connect hubs to other hubs. optical fiber cable can span much greater distances than UTP cable. 10Base-FL can o perate in fullduplex mode. Thus. Optical fiber cable (specifically. 5/125 fiber. Each compute r on a 10Base-FL network connects to a central hub. The main difference between 10Base-T and 10Base-FL is 10Base-FL s use of optical fiber cable instead of UTP.000 m (about 6. However. Moreover.560 ft). In addition. full-duplex links between hubs can be up to 2. the transmi tters and receivers designed to work with fiber) is more expensive than UTP cabl e. on 10Base-FL networks. Each fiber connects to networking equipment using a bayonet-type co nnector known as an ST connector. optical fiber cable can potentially support future data transmission rates of several hundreds of megabits per second.10Base-FL Lesson Objective q Identify the characteristics of 10Base-FL The 10Base-FL specification resembles 10Base-T in several respects. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The fiber used is multimode 62.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . It is the type of fiber optic c abling most often used on LANs.5/125 means that the fiber s core is 62. with an outer cladding of 125 microns. By contrast. It can be used over longer distances than multimode fiber cable.62.5 microns in diameter. Multimode fiber has a relatively large core diameter an d uses inexpensive light emitters and receivers. monomode fiber has a narrow core di ameter and uses expensive transmitters and receivers.
(The 5-4-3 rule applies only to 10Mbps Ethernet.Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Lesson Objectives q q Identify important guidelines to follow when building 10Mbps Ethernet networks I dentify rules specific to 10Base-FL In addition to the Ethernet specifications described in the previous lessons. The figure below shows one possible configuration that the 5-4-3 rule allows. Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet s faster wire speeds reduce the maximum allowable distance bet ween stations. 4 repeaters. . This configuration consists of 5 total segments of 100 m each. The longest distance bet ween any two stations is between the PCs on the left and the servers on the righ t. th ere are a number of general guidelines that must be followed when implementing a 10Mbps Ethernet LAN. The 5-4-3 Rule All 10Mbps Ethernet networks must follow th e 5-4-3 rule.) The 5-4-3 rule states that a single 10Mbps collision doma in can consist of five cable segments connected by four repeaters. and also reduce the number of repeaters that can be used in a sin gle collision domain. Only three of the cable segments. may be populated with network stations. The total network diameter is 500 m. with only 3 of the segments populated with network devices. however.
At first. as the third repeater from the left does in the figure above. this means that one of the four repeaters must serve only to connect one repeater to another. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Why couldn t you si mply connect the second and fourth repeaters to each other directly? The simples t answer is that the second and fourth repeaters are too far apart (200 m) to he ar each other. this repeater may seem unnecessary.Because only three of the five Ethernet segments are allowed to be populated wit h network devices.
A ttenuation used to describe this natural degradation in signal quality as signal s travel across the network medium. The two following figures (on this page and the next) illustrate the diminutive effect of attenuation. Repeater use on 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. Only three of these segments can be multistatio n segments (e. Inside a collision domain. Even fiber optic transmissions are affected by attenuation. repeaters are inserted between the individual cable segments. chaining the cables together. On 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. as well as the restorative effect of Ethernet repeaters. the following simple configuration rules apply : q q There cannot be more than five cable segments and four repeaters between any two stations in a collision domain. Repeaters serve to restore data signals to their original streng th so that they may be heard at distances that would otherwise not be possible. Inside a single collision domain. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . each of the network segment s that connect to a switch or router port belong to their own collision domain. The resulting topology is shown i n the figure below. Collision domains are bounded by switches and r outers. The last two segments must connect only a station to a hub or a hub to a hub. they diminish in strength until they are no longer is the technical term recognizable as valid data transmissions. 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Ethernet segments that are connected using repeaters form a single collision domain.Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) As Ethernet signals travel across the wire. 10Base-2 or 10Base5).g. For networks that have a router or a switch.. all stations must contend for access to the shared medium.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation made thi .The word attenuation comes from the Latin word attenuatus. which means n.
10Base-FL segmen ts must not exceed 1. there can be no more than four 10Base -T repeater hubs between any two stations on the network.000 m (3. 10Base-FL segments must not exceed 500 m (1. With two repeaters and three cable segmen ts.000 m (6. 10Base-FL-Specific Rules In addition to described above. the 5-4-3 rul there are no paths between stations in the network tha repeater hops.640 ft). With three repeaters and four cable segments. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation hubs in the network in the figure above. Network with multiple repeater hubs Even though there are six e is not violated because t involve more than three following the 5-4-3 rule rding to the rules listed q q q With four repeaters and five cable segments.280 ft). All the servers and workstations in this figure are in the same collision domain.Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) The same rules apply to 10Base-T networks.561ft). sharing the same half-duplex transmission medi um. A typical configuratio n is shown in the figure below. 10Base-FL networks must be built acco below: . 10Base-FL segments can be up to 2.
Lessons 8 . Lesson 8.5 concludes this module by describing how Fast Ethernet s auto-negotiation fe ature enables 10/100Mbps devices to automatically configure themselves for eithe r 10Mbps or 100Mbps operation.3 cover Ethernet types 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX. Module Objectives q q q q q q q Identify reasons for the development of Fast Ethernet Identify the similarities and differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Identify the basic cha racteristics of 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX Identify and use simple Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines Identify advanced Fast Ethernet configuration calculati ons Identify how the limitations to the size of a Fast Ethernet network can be a voided through the use of Ethernet switches Identify the purpose of auto-negotia tion * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .2 and 8.1 explains that because of upward trends in network growth. L esson 8.2 discusses some of the b asic differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet operations. and Lesson 8.FAST ETHERNET Module Description Fast Ethernet operates at a data transfer speed of 100Mbps.4 includes a comprehensive discussion of Fast Ethernet implementation guidelines. Lesson 8. Fast Etherne t will soon surpass 10Mbps Ethernet in sales.
they represent. In 1995. with sales of 100Mbps network interface cards expected to surp ass sales of 10Mbps cards in 1998. a si gnificant challenge to implement and maintain. Fast Ethernet will soon become the most widely used Etherne t implementation. technolo gies such as FDDI and ATM are simply too expensive. with the I EEE publication of the 100Mbps Fast Ethernet specification. As shown in the figure below. for most companies. With Fast Ethernet. Fast Ethernet equipment is easy to install and manage.The Growth of Fast Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify reasons for the development of Fast Ethernet In the early 1990s. Many network interface cards already support both 10Mbps and 100Mbps transmission rates and the prices of Fast Ethernet hub a nd switch ports are dropping rapidly. are becomin g clogged with traffic. While other high-speed LAN technologies. such as FDDI (F iber Distributed Data Interface) exist. Network backbones. however. And because it uses the same basic technology as 1 0Mbps Ethernet. it is clear that 10Mbps Ethernet implementations are not fas t enough for many larger networks. organizations can install high-speed LAN segmen ts at a very reasonable cost. for many companies. companies soon had a relatively inexpensive way to significantly increase the speed of their high-tr affic links. and. in particular. .
Source: IDC * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .IDC World-wide adapter market forecast.
yet since the data transmission rate is ten times as fast. On Fast Ethernet networks. but because transmission speeds are multiplied by ten. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the interframe gap is still 96 bit tim es. stations on an Ethernet network must be ten times as close in order to detect collisions wit hin the same number of bit times as for 10Mbps. Ethernet frame types are also the same 10Mbps and Fa st Ethernet networks. Fast Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD algorithm to control access to a shared broadcast medium. Another difference bet ween the two technologies is that on Fast Ethernet networks. stations must still be able to detect collisions within the first 512 bits tran smitted. there can be only o ne or possibly two repeaters or hubs between transmitting stations. Like Ethernet.10Mbps Ethernet vs. 10Mbps maximum distance of 2500 m between stations is reduced to 250 m for Fast Ethernet.6 µs. the interframe gap is only 960 ns instead of 9. Fast Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify the similarities and differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ether net In almost all respects. Fast Ethernet is simply Ethernet scaled by a factor of t en. With Fast Ethernet. The major difference between 10Mbps Ethernet and F ast Ethernet is that the maximum diameter of Fast Ethernet networks is smaller t han the maximum diameter of 10Mbps Ethernet networks.
100Base-T4 supports only half-duplex operation. 1 00Base-TX requires Category 5 cable. The RJ-45-type connector is also used. T he maximum distance between the workstation and the hub is 100 m (328 ft). so if an organization wants to upgrade a 10 Mbps Ethernet network using Category 3 cable to Fast Ethernet. so full-du plex operation is possible. all four wire p airs are required. Servers and other high-performance network stations attached using 100Base-TX can transmit at 100Mbps and receive at 100Mbps at the same time. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . However.100Base-TX Lesson Objective q Identify the basic characteristics of 100Base-TX 100Base-TX is very similar to 10Base-T. Like 10Base-T. A 100Base-T4 network enables an organiz ation to run Fast Ethernet over Category 3 or 4 cables. 100Base-TX provides separate transmit and receive channels. however. it must either re cable or implement a 100Base-T4 network. effectively boosting the bandwidth on the link to 200Mbps. Stations on 100Base-TX networks are conn ected to a central hub using UTP cable. and 100Base-T 4 equipment is much less common than 100Base-TX equipment.
This makes Cat 5 as the only option for 100Base-T. which requires a cable that is certified for at least 46. Cat 3 is certified for 16Mh z. so each of these can be used. meaning that the signal that can be transmitt ed in a cable certified for 15Mhz signals or better.25Mhz.8 75Mhz. Cat 4 for 20Mhz and Cat 5 for 100Mhz. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .10Base-T uses a Manchester encoding scheme that results in a digital signal with a fundamental frequency of 10Mhz. 100Base-T X uses a different encoding scheme that results in a signal with a fundamental f requency of 31.
561 ft) is possible on full-duplex links. Like 10Base-FL. Th e connectors can be ST connectors. the cheaper SC connector is used. so if an organization anticipates upgrading to an even faster LAN technology in the futur e. 100Base-FX uses two strands of multimode 62.5/125 fiber. 100Bas e-FX is typically used for one of two reasons: 1. bu t more commonly.000 m (6. up to 2. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The SC connector is keyed to reduce the risk of accidentally swapping the transmit and receive fibers. Optical fiber cable can support much higher bandwidths than UTP cable. Optical fiber cable spans greater distances than UTP cable.100Base-FX Lesson Objective q Identify the basic characteristics of 100Base-FX The specification for Fast Ethernet over optical fiber cable is known as 100Base -FX. which are also used on 10Base-FL networks. 2. it might install optical fiber cable.
Both simple and advanced configuration rules can be used to verify that a pa rticular Fast Ethernet network meets configuration requirements. two Class II hubs are allowed between stations in a single collision domain. collisions must be detected within 5.46 µs of latency. Simple Configur ation Rules Hubs and repeaters add a small delay (or latency) when an Ethernet f rame is received and retransmitted. but only one Class I hub is permitted. If stations are too far ap art or have too many repeaters between them.Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Lesson Objectives q q q Identify simple Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines Identify advanced Fast Et hernet configuration calculations Identify how the limitations to the size of a Fast Ethernet network can be avoided through the use of Ethernet switches At 100Mbps.7 µs of latency. The length of each cable segment is also restricted: q q A UTP segment can be up to 100 m long. hubs are p laced in two groups depending on the length of this delay: q q Class I hubs add less than 0. the timing requirements cannot be m et. Class II hubs add less than 0. Simple configuration rules are summarized in Table 8-1. A (half-duplex) fiber segment can be up t o 412 m long. Hub Type Single Segment One Class I Hub UTP Fiber (FX) UTP and Fiber (FX) N/A 260 m (100 m UTP) 100 m 412 m 200 m 272 m . Because Class II hubs are faster. Using simple configuration rules.12 µs.
One Class II Hub 200 m 320 m 308 m (100 m UTP) 216 m (105 m UTP) Two Class II Hubs 205 m 228 m Table 8-1. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The maximum distance increases to 32 0 m when fiber is used because the Class II hub adds less latency than the Class I hub.g. Simple Fast Ethernet configuration rules. The maximum distance using fiber and UTP is 216 m (two UTP segments of 100 m and 5 m. you can have 100 m of UTP an d 160 m of fiber. The maximum distance using fiber is 228 m. you can have a maximum distance between any two stations on the repeated segment of 200 m using UTP cable and of 272 m using fiber optic cab le. With two Class II hubs. two 100 m segments and a 5 m segment between the hubs). the maximum distance using UTP is uncha nged since no UTP segment can exceed 100 m. If you combine UTP cable and fiber optic cable.. you will notice the following: q q q With a Class I hub. In Table 8-1. With one Class II hub. you can have 205 m of UTP cable (e. plus one 111 m fiber segment).
Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) Advanced Configuration Guidelines Rather than relying on the "canned" configurat ion rules given above, the exact delay between any two stations can be calculate d using the following guidelines. In some cases, these guidelines allow a greate r network diameter than the configuration rules given above. The advanced config uration rules rely on calculating the exact delay between any two stations in th e network, based on the exact specifications for network interface cards, networ k cables and hubs. The delay between two stations in a network can be calculated using the following formula: Total delay = Hub delay + Cable delay + Network in terface delay. To enable a station at one end of the network to detect a collisi on with a station at the other end, the following inequality must hold true: 2 x Total delay < 5.12 µs. To comply with the Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines, you must ensure that this requirement is fulfilled between any two stations in the network. To perform this calculation, fill in the delay values in the center column in Table 8-2 with the actual values that apply to your network. Sample v alues are given in the right column. Component Two Network Interface Cards UTP c able Fiber cable Class I hub Class II hub(s) Total delay Round-trip delay (Sum o f the above) Total delay x 2 Must be less than 5.12 µs Delay Typical value 0.25 µs x 2 0.0055 µs/m. 100m maximum. 0.0050 µs/m. 412m maximum. Less than 0.7 µs Less than 0. 46 µs Table 8-2. Calculating round-trip delays.
To be on the safe side, you should add a safety margin to your calculations. If you get very close to the limit you may have problems later on, for instance if a network component is exchanged for another with a slower response time. While performing the exact calculation of round-trip delays using the exact specificat ions of network adapters, cable and hubs used in the network may in some instanc es allow you to go beyond the distances specified in the simple configuration ru les, this approach cannot in general be recommended because it adds a significan t extra administrative burden to network maintenance. Every time a network compo nent or cable is exchanged for another, you must repeat the calculations above t o verify that the maximum delay is still within the specified limits. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) Fast Ethernet Switches By using switches on a Fast Ethernet network, you can hav e a network much larger than would be allowed normally. Each port on an Ethernet switch forms its own collision domain. The network segments attached to each sw itch port must still conform to the configuration guidelines, but the total size of a switched 100Mbps network can grow much larger. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Change connection speeds. such a s the speed and duplex mode at which they operate. Perhaps the most significant benefit of auto-negotiation is that it allows network administrators the ability to incrementally upgrade t heir network hardware easily. and then up grading the NICs of older machines over a period of time. use dualspeed interfaces that allow a single device to operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps. Determine what capabili ties the network devices have. Using auto-negotiation . For example. 3. a company that cannot afford to upgrade their entire network all at once can pursue an incremental migration by purchasing 10/100 NI Cs for all new machines. such as an NIC. 2.Auto-negotiation Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of auto-negotiation The Fast Ethernet specification defines a process called auto-negotiation that e nables Ethernet devices to exchange information about their capabilities. Auto-negotiation also provide s a method that enables network administrators to: 1. Autonegotiation enables an Ethernet device. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . to automatically configure itself for either 1 0Mbps or 100Mbps mode depending upon the capabilities of the device on the other end of the connection. and perhaps a 10/100 hub or switch as well. without having to perform manual configurations fo r each device. Discover the reason a connection has been refused. hubs and switches. the 10/100 hub will automatically configure itself to achieve the highest poss ible performance for the devices attached to it. Making Migrations to Fast Ethernet Easier Many recently manufactured Ethernet de vices. including NICs.
Auto-negotiation (Continued) How Auto-negotiation Works Auto-negotiation is an extension of the link test met hods used by 10Base-T and 10Base-FL to verify the integrity of the link between devices. which toget her serve to identify a device s capabilities. A 10Base -T device will respond to the fast link pulse burst with its usual normal link p ulse signal. Auto-negotiation advertises a device s abilities by encoding a 16-bit d ata packet. 4. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . called a link code word (LCW). older devices may not be compatible with auto-negotiation. FLP bursts have an approximate duration of 2 µs and are transmitted in 16. In certain cases where automatic configurations are not desired. a 10/100-capable device will recogniz e normal link pulse and choose 10Mbps mode operation. 2. a 10Base-T device that does not have auto-negotiation capabilities sees fast link pulse bursts simply as a link test signal. auto-negotiation provides a way for these settings to be overridden manually. Auto-negotiation attempts to find the greatest common denominator for the two devices on the link in the f ollowing order of preference: 1. not the case. within a burst of 17 to 33 link pulse s. At the other end of the link. each device equi pped with auto-negotiation will configure itself automatically. This is. called a fast link pulse (FLP) burst. 100Base-TX full-duplex 100Base-T4 100Base-TX 10Base-T full-duplex 10Base-T halfduplex Once the greatest common denominator of settings is determined. It may seem that because the fast link pulse and the normal link pulse use the same interval at the same frequenc y. 3.8 µs intervals (the same interval as for the norm al link pulses used by 10Base-T and 10Base-FL). The link code word contains two fields (called the selector field and the technology ability field). 5. For example. however.
4 discusses Gigabit Ethernet s use of the CSMA/CD algorithm. Lesson 9. and also introduces a device new to Ethernet technology.GIGABIT ETHERNET Module Description The first two lessons in this module identify the basic opera tions of Gigabit Ethernet and some of the reasons that Gigabit Ethernet is neede d in the marketplace. Module Objectives q q q q q q q q Identify factors contributing to the need for Gigabit Ethernet Identify the key characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Identify Gigabit Ethernet types 1000Base-SX. -CX and -T Identify possible migration strategies for Gigabit Ethernet Ide ntify how the buffered distributor works Identify Gigabit Ethernet s use of full -duplex mode Identify modified specifications for Gigabit Ethernet running in ha lf-duplex mode Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 covers Gigabit Ethernet implementation strategi es. Lesson 9.5 concludes the module by identifying certain issues that network admi nistrators must consider when implementing first-generation Gigabit Ethernet equ ipment. the buffered distri butor. and Lesson 9. -LX.
Due to the increasing complexity of desktop publishing. Compared to the alternative solutions for high speed networking. scienti fic modeling. workflow. desktop video conferencing and interactive white boarding require high-bandwidth connections that can deliver a constant and reli able data stream. q q q q q q Intranet and Internet traffic is growing at an exponential rate. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the extension of Fast Ethernet to the desktop reintro duces the congestion that Fast Ethernet backbones were originally designed to el iminate. Mission critica l mainframe applications continue to be replaced with distributed solutions. average file size is expanding. incrementa l migrations from Ethernet and Fast Ethernet possible. Gigabit Ethernet offers the advantage of using protocols directly compati ble with currently implemented Ethernet standards. highresolution imaging and three-dimensional engineering applicati ons. Increasingly popular applications like mult imedia computer-based training. Hig h-traffic document management. Finally. imaging and other information managemen t and distributed database applications are becoming integral parts of core busi ness strategies. making lower-cost. such as ATM and FDDI.Why Gigabit Ethernet is Needed Lesson Objective q Identify factors contributing to the need for Gigabit Ethernet The growing need for network bandwidth in excess of the 100Mbps delivered by Fas t Ethernet is driven by several factors.
Over 120 Ethernet vendors. testing interoperability standards and fostering open communications bet ween potential suppliers and consumers. since many vendors are developing products concurrently with the s tandardization effort. q q q q q q q The transmission speed for Gigabit Ethernet is 1. -CX and -T The growing need for network bandwidth in excess of the 100Mbps delivered by Fas t Ethernet is driven by several factors. Gigabit Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD a ccess method with support for one repeater per collision domain.000Mbps – 100 times that of Ether net.Gigabit Ethernet Defined Lesson Objectives q q Identify the key characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Identify Gigabit Ethernet t ypes 1000Base-SX. Gigabit Ethernet Alliance The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance is an open forum that pr omotes industry cooperation in an effort to accelerate the development and stand ardization of Gigabit Ethernet. Th e upcoming IEEE 802. At the MAC laye r. Gigabit Ethernet is equivalent to Fast Ethernet scaled by a factor of ten. many Gigabit Ethernet products are currently available. on shielded copper wire. I nternational Data Corporation (IDC). The IEEE Standards Board expects to achieve final ratification of the 802. Because Fast Ethernet s success can be a ttributed largely to its compatibility with 10Mbps Ethernet. over short distances. expect s the value of the market for Gigabit Ethernet products to exceed USD 1 billion by the year 2000. curr ently participate in the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance by contributing technical exp ertise. . However. Gigabit Et hernet uses the 802.3ab) will specify Gigabit Ethernet o peration for Cat 5 UTP cabling over distances up to 100 m.3z standard is expected to define Gigabit Ethernet running o ver multimode fiber and. leaving unchanged a s much of the original Ethernet specification as possible is a core strategy for making Gigabit Ethernet successful as well. a commonly referenced research firm. -LX. A separa te standards effort (IEEE working group 802. The IEEE specification for Gigabit Ethernet will be IEEE 802.3z standard in either June or September 1 998. including Intel.3 Ethernet frame format.3z.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
SC fiber optic connectors SC connector cross section 1000Base-CX 1000Base-CX designates Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over twinax. 62. In order to minimize the time-to-market for new products. specialty cable. server farms and power workgroups. 1000Base-SX and 1000Ba se-LX. 1000Base-LX uses multimode fiber to allow connections over distances up to 440 m and single-mode fiber for distances up to 3000 m. designate Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over fiber optic cabling. Designed for lo nger-distance connections. 1000Base-SX works best as a short-distance (up to 260 m) backbone an d utilizes low-cost. 1000Base-CX s distance limitation of up to only 25 m makes 1000Base-CX best suited for interconnecting switching clo sets.5 micron fiber optic cabling. 10 00Base-SX and 1000Base-LX use the same SC connectors (shown in the figures below ) used for 100Base-FX systems. a 1 50-Ohm balanced. Gigabit Ethernet incorporates optical signaling components and encoding and decoding schemes borrowed from Fib re Channel.Gigabit Ethernet Defined (Continued) 1000Base-SX and 1000Base-LX Two physical-layer standards. multimode. shielded. also referred to as 8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2 connectors (also below). 1000Base-CX supports two kinds of conne ctors: standard 9-pin D connectors (below) and HSSC (High Speed Serial Card) con nectors. .
HSSC/8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2 Connector * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
The table below summari zes Gigabit Ethernet media types and their distance limitations. Under the IEEE 802. -LX. will specify a way to use encoding schemes other than the Fiber Ch annel encoding scheme used by 1000Base-SX. Specification M edium Maximum Distance 260 m 440 m 3000 m 25 m 1000Base-SX Multimode Fiber 1000Base-LX 1000Base-LX Multimode Fiber Single-mode Fiber 1000Base-CX Twin-ax copper 1000Base-T Four Pairs of Category 5 UTP 100 m Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of Gigabit Ethernet! This interacti ve exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of Gigabit Ethernet specification s. The standard for 1000Base-T comprises the second phase of the Gigabit Ethe rnet standards process and falls under the purview of the IEEE 802. and -CX. To accommodate the u se of cost-effective UTP cabling. 1000Base-T will be designed to take advantage of existing UTP cable already w idely deployed for Ethernet and Fast Ethernet. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . which is designed primarily for f iber cabling. 1000Base-T connections can run up to 1 00 m. IEEE 802.3z.3ab standard.Gigabit Ethernet Defined (Continued) 1000Base-T 1000Base-T designates Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over Category 5 UT P cable. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.3ab task forc e. The IEEE Standards Board does not expect to ratify the 1000Base-T standard until early 1999.
drag the medium and maximum distance in to the correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .For each Gigabit Ethernet specification.
They include: switches. rather than jeopard izing missioncritical applications. uplink/downlink modules. Gigabit Ethernet implementation scenarios will mirror those f or Fast Ethernet. Like a standard repeater. The buffered distributor is a full-duplex. Upgrading switch-to-switch links Upgrading switch-to-server links Upgrading swit ched Fast Ethernet backbones Upgrading shared FDDI backbones Upgrading high-perf ormance workgroups Due to the inherent risk of any first generation technology. Gigabit Ethernet does. 5. expand ing the implementation of Gigabit Ethernet to mission-critical backbones. hub-like device that interconnects two or more Ethernet links operati ng at 1000Mbps. 4. multiport. most likely upgrade scenarios for Gigabit Ethernet. called a buffered distributor. As the general availability of Gigabit Ethernet products incre ases. Migration and Rollout Strategies The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance identifies f ive. 2. hubs. server links and wiring closets will become more natural. including: 1. switches. they will be able to clearly measure a return on investment. include lesser-risk. NICs and router interfaces. many network managers will initially impleme nt Gigabit Ethernet in lowerrisk segments of the network. the most likely targets for Gigabit Ethernet implementation will be links between routers. where. introduce one new de vice. Once companies h ave been able to deploy Gigabit Ethernet successfully on a limited scale. repeaters and servers. the buffered distributor . however. The Buffered Distributor Mos t Gigabit Ethernet products are simply faster versions of the Ethernet component s you already know quite well.Implementation of Gigabit Ethernet Lesson Objectives q q q Identify possible migration strategies for Gigabit Ethernet Identify how the buf fered distributor works Identify Gigabit Ethernet s use of full-duplex mode For the most part. Early implementations of Gigabit Ethernet may. 3. at the same tim e. non-mission-critical target s such as the server-to-router and server-to-switch connections of power workgro ups. however.
All first generation Gigabit Ethernet devices curre ntly slated for production by major manufacturers are full-duplex devices. thus avoid ing collisions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet and Fast Ethernet support full-duplex operation only as a single link between two devices. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.forwards all incoming packets to all connected links (except the original incomi ng link) creating a shared broadcast domain. Unlike a standard repeater. however. enable fullduplex network to be created using a hub-like star configuration for server farms and power workgroups. The swit ching capabilities of the Gigabit Ethernet buffered distributor. Optio nal Exercise** Check your understanding of Gigabit Ethernet! This interactive ex ercise allows you to apply your knowledge of migration and rollout strategies. the buffered distributor is permitted to bu ffer one or more incoming frames on each link before forwarding them. Adding a third device to full-duplex Ethernet and Fast Ethernet links is not possible. comparable to an Ethernet collision domain.
according to the Gigabit Ethernet Alli ance. click on the Done button to find out how you did. select the links that are the most likely cand idates for upgrading to Gigabit Ethernet. Once you have completed the exercise. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .On the following network diagram.
512-byte Minimum Carrier Event As transfer spe eds increase. on the o ther hand. compared to 2. half-duplex Gigab it Ethernet devices may not ever be manufactured. The minimum Ethernet frame length of 64 bytes remains the same. Fast Ethernet s smaller maximum distance limitations directly affect only the number of repeate rs that may be used between stations. Gigabit Ethernet adds a non-data carrier extension to the end of the packet transmission. Gigabit Ethernet were to use the same 64-byte minimum frame size. and not the maximum distance for UTP cabli ng itself. and as a result . Gigabit Ethernet will allow servers. Packet Bursting For small packets. switches and ot her devices to use a method called packet bursting to send multiple small packet s in a single transmission event. in order to support a distance limitation comparabl e to Fast Ethernet (100 m from a repeating hub to each device). By replacing non-data carrier extensions with additional packets. Fast Eth ernet still allows for a reasonably-sized maximum network diameter. e xtending minimum carrier event time decreases the ratio of data to nondata by as much as eight. For example. the time that each frame is on the wire decreases. the Gigabit Ethernet standard has preserved the CSMA/CD algorithm so that Gigabit Ethernet half-duple x operation is at least possible. To offset the inefficiency of transmitting small packets individually. the maximum allowable distance between s tations for Fast Ethernet is only 250 m. the maximum allowable distance between stations for Gigabit Ethernet would be less than 25 m.500 m for 10Mbps Ethernet . because the maximum allowable distance for UTP cabling is much shorte r than 250 m (100 m for both 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet). As a result. the maximum allowable distance between stations also decreases. For packets shorter t han 512 bytes. For example: F ast Ethernet uses the same the minimum frame size of 64 bytes (512 bits) that is used for 10Mbps Ethernet. If. However. extends the mini mum CSMA/CD carrier event time from 64 bytes to 512 bytes. . allowing stations to occupy the wire long enough to det ect collisions without modifying the 802. effectively increasing the overall speed of the network by ut ilizing bandwidth more efficiently. Gigabit Ethernet.3 frame structure. packet bursting increases the ratio of data to non-data for each transmission. Even with its restrictions on the total number of repeaters.Gigabit Ethernet and CSMA/CD Lesson Objectives q q Identify modified specifications for Gigabit Ethernet running in half-duplex mod e Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation Depending upon the market success of the buffered distributor. a 64-byte frame would need to be extended with a 44 8-byte-size non-data carrier signal. Even so.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
however. Fast Ethernet switches have decreased in price approximately 36%. Gigabit Ethernet co mponents are expected to follow a similar trend. early adopters of Gigabit Et hernet technology run a slight risk that the equipment they buy may not conform to the final standard. Pricing Pricing for first generation Gigabit Ethernet dev ices may present a barrier to entry for many companies. Despite the fact that exhibits at the Fall 1997 Networld+Interop in Atlanta demonstrated interoperability between Gigabit Ethernet equipment from different vendors. Over the past two years. for under USD 100. it is possibl e to purchase Fast Ethernet NICs. Gigabit Ethernet NICs may be priced as high as USD 1700. for example.Considerations for Early Adoption Lesson Objective q Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation Compatibility Some vendors are already shipping Gigabit Ethernet devices even th ough the 802. Initially. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3z standard is not yet finalized. and Fast Ether net switches for under USD 200 per port. Currently. and Gigabit Ethernet switches will likely be priced between USD 2000 and USD 4000 per port.
such as Token Ring. that either provide altern atives to or work in conjunction with Ethernet. ATM and FDDI Identify the advantages Ethernet has in comparison to these technologies * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Module Objectives q q Identify the relationship between Ethernet and other networking technologies suc h as Token Ring.ETHERNET AND OTHER PHYSICAL-LAYER TECHNOLOGIES Module Description This section describes Ethernet s relationship to major netwo rking technologies. FDDI and ATM.
The purp ose of this module. is to deepen your understanding of the place Ethernet occupies in the overall landscape of computer networking. if you know that Company Y uses Token Ring in their order processing center. and has decided against using Frame Relay. is it reasonable that they shou ld consider using Ethernet? (Specific answers for each of these questions appear in Lesson 10. does that mean Company X has a lso decided against using Ethernet? Or to use a slightly different situation.3. and Module 11. mor e intelligently address their concerns and more competently provide solutions to their problems. Ethernet helps to illustrate the basic concepts o f modularity and hierarchy from which the OSI reference model was born. If you were told that Company X has already implemented FDDI an d ATM. Having a clea r understanding of the relationship between Ethernet and other popular technolog ies will help you to more quickly understand what your customers are saying. and t hey ask you about upgrading the engineering department s network to accommodate a new document imaging and workflow application.) * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Overview: Ethernet and Other Technologies Lesson Objective q Identify real-world situations in which understanding the relationship between E thernet and other networking technologies is useful As an Open Systems technology.
ATM and FDDI Identify the advantages Ethernet has in comparison to these technologies Token Ring IBM first adopted Token Ring technology as a core networking strategy in the early 1980s. many IBM-based. the reasons for Ethernet s success include: 1. Even though token passing uses bandwidth more efficiently than the contention method used by Ethernet. o r a customer service department that uses workflow and document imaging to proce ss customer complaints and access customer account information. has out paced Token Ring. 2. C ompared to Token Ring. Only the computer possessing the c ontrol frame has the right to send data. overall Ethernet performance has generally kept pace with Toke n Ring and. only 10% of total network components sold in 1997 were Token Ring. Compared to Ethernet s approximately 85% ma rket share.Ethernet Compared Lesson Objectives q q Identify the relationship between Ethernet and other networking technologies suc h as Token Ring. Token Ring generally works best for net works with a large number of workstations that must constantly exchange data wit h a centrally located resource such as a distributed database or mainframe appli cation. Token Ring controls access to the physical medium by passing a control frame from one computer to the next. however. Ethernet components are simpler relatively and. Ethernet s contention method works best on networks that tr ansmit large amounts of data intermittently. 3. Such situations would include engin eering groups using CAD/CAM applications and three-dimensional modeling tools. less expensive to ma nufacture. Today. thus. always have to choose to implement only Token Ring or only Ethernet t hroughout the enterprise. Ethernet segments can be connect ed to existing Token Ring networks (as shown in the figure below) using a router that serves to bridge the two networks together. . Ethernet networking is less complex than Token Ring and easier to troubleshoo t. In contrast. As is often the case. with the introduction of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. distributed networking solutions are implemented on Token Ring networks. Companies do not .
Token Ring network connected to an Ethernet network using a router. Token Ring s market share will likely continue to decrease. In the future. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Ether net s recent advances in speed have made the slim performance advantages of Toke n Ring over 10Mbps Ethernet virtually disappear.
FDDI is one of the most expensive networking solutions to implement. In general. equipped with one or more FDDI interfaces. 100Base-T and 100VG AnyLAN. . 2. connects Ethernet workstations to the FDDI backbone. An Ethe rnet hub or switch. which is substantially less expensive than fiber. Network configuration using an FDDI ring for the network backbone. FDDI operates at 100Mbps and uses a to ken passing access control method on fiber optic cabling configured as a dual ri ng (the second ring serves a backup in case the primary ring is broken). Consequentl y. most network managers consider 100Mbps Ethernet backbones viable and economical alter natives to FDDI.Ethernet Compared (Continued) FDDI Companies usually implement FDDI as a high-speed. the economic advantages of 100Mbps Ethernet over FD DI are two-fold: 1. 100Mbps Ethernet can run on copper wire. bridges and routers. shared backbone connectin g servers. The figure below illustrates a typical FDDI configuration. switches. 100Mbps Ethernet NICs are less expensive than FDDI NICs. with the introduction of Ethernet switches.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
Switched Ethernet configurations. but uses switched Ethernet inst ead of FDDI on the backbone. however. Network configuration using switched Fast Ethernet in place of the FDDI ring sho wn in the previous figure. Though swi tched FDDI solutions are available.Ethernet Compared (Continued) For companies interested in migrating to fiber optic cable for either security o r future bandwidth needs. Network engineers should keep in mind that it takes only ten 10Mbps Ethernet cli ents transmitting files at the same time to reach FDDI s 100Mbps maximum through put on a shared ring. can provide mul tiple 100Mbps pipelines by routing each packet only to the station addressed. in general FDDI switches have proven less ef ficient than Ethernet switches. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . and on average cost up to eight times more per p ort. Ethernet 100Base-FX and Gigabit Ethernet also provide cost-effective solutions compared to FDDI. th us allowing multiple stations to transmit and receive simultaneously. The figure below shows the same basic network configuration used in the figure above.
Ethernet Compared (Continued) ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is both a LAN and a WAN technology. Much of the original lure of ATM was its potential to become a single, widely supported protocol for wide area networking, backbone connectivity and workstation connec tivity as well. Recently, however, even ardent supporters of ATM have given up h ope for success against Ethernet at the workstation. In general, ATM has failed to achieve widespread adoption for three reasons: 1. Lack of standards 2. High price 3. Complexity ATM uses fixed-sized packets (53 bytes) called cells and provides data transfer rates from 25Mbps to 2400Mbps (OC-3 = 155Mbps and OC-12 = 622Mbps). Using standa rd-sized cells enables ATM to provide constant, high-speed data streams that aud io, video and imaging applications require. ATM can be used with a variety of tr ansmission media including twistedpair and fiber optic cable. The figure below d epicts a network configuration that uses ATM on the backbone. Network configuration using ATM for both backbone and WAN connectivity. Most Ethernet component manufacturers will market Gigabit Ethernet as an alterna tive to ATM
backbones. In the past, network managers have looked to ATM as the only reliable way to achieve Quality-of-Service (QoS) grade connectivity for applications suc h as real-time databases, medical imaging and video conferencing. Gigabit Ethern et will provide QoS connectivity by working in combination with upper-layer QoS protocols such as RSVP and 802.1Q. QoS protocols enable individual packets to be prioritized so that high-priority, timesensitive data streams, like those requi red for real-time video, are not interrupted by lowerpriority, non-time-sensitiv e applications, such as e-mail. If Gigabit Ethernet becomes successful as quickl y as Fast Ethernet has, the future of ATM will likely remain at the WAN level of connectivity. Compared to ATM, Gigabit Ethernet promises to be simpler to imple ment, more cost-effective and more compatible with existing LANs. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Ethernet Compared (Continued) Summary For workstation-level interconnectivity, Ethernet and Token Ring should generally be thought of as competitors. FDDI and ATM, on the other hand, have in the past filled particular needs that Ethernet running at 10Mbps could not. Wit h the advent of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, however, Ethernet technology can now meet the bandwidth needs of high-traffic backbones and in many instance s compete directly with FDDI and ATM solutions. Currently, Ethernet is not often thought of as a WAN technology. Though Ethernet-based satellite communications systems have been researched, solutions like Frame Relay and ATM running over pu blic, telecommunications networks will continue for some time to be the WAN tech nologies of choice for linking local, Ethernet-based networks. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
even for companies that currently support Token Ring. In the case of Company Y. will likely be the most cost-eff ective strategy for Company X to adopt. In the final ana lysis.1 In reference to the questions posed at the end of Lesson 10. Company X who has chosen to implement ATM as opposed to Frame Relay for wide area connectivity. More often than no t. Because network traffic between the engine ering department and the order processing department is likely to be very low. implementing E thernet. extendi ng Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet solutions to the backbone. lower cos t of implementation and easier management makes considering Ethernet highly reas onable. b ridging the two networks is not likely to produce a bottleneck. Ethernet s better performance for large-file-size transactions. must still choose a physical-laye r technology to link individual workstations to the backbone. as Company X grows and its backbone becomes saturated with traffic. a nd who has implemented FDDI on their backbone.1. their preferred workstation-level connection strategy will be Ethernet. Later on. as opposed to im plementing ATM or a new switched FDDI solution.Specific Examples Lesson Objective q Identify answers for the hypothetical questions posed in Lesson 10. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . in the engineering department and using a router as a bridge to the order processing center s Token Ring network is both technically and economically a reasonable option. or Fast Ethernet.
Lesson 11. Lesson 11.2 completes the cour se with a consideration of Ethernet as an Open Systems technology.ETHERNET AND THE UPPER-LAYER PROTOCOLS Module Description This section explains Ethernet s practical relationship to th e technologies it serves.1 returns to a consideration of the OSI laye r and Ethernet s role in the OSI reference model. Module Object ives q q Identify some of the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet supports directly and i ndirectly Identify the role Ethernet plays in relationship to a number of specif ic and popular network protocols * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
ATM Twisted-pair. LAYER 7 – Application EXAMPLE PROTO COLS NetWare*.The OSI Model Revisited Lesson Objective q Identify some of the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet supports directly and i ndirectly Module 10 focused on Ethernet s relationship to technologies that operate at OSI layers 1 and 2. The table below reproduces the OSI model and categorizes a number of example technologies according to the OSI layer services they provide. SMB 5 – Session 4 – Transport 3 – Network 2 – Data Link 1 – P TCP. Fast Ethernet. IPX. ysical NetBIOS. NetBEUI. RIP Ethernet.1Q Gigabit Ethernet. NTAS. SNMP IP. twinax and fiber Table 11-1 MAP. DECnet. Vines*. Clarifyi ng Ethernet s relationship to upper-layer protocols will help you to quickly und erstand many practical. NCP. real-world situations. c optic cabling * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . oaxial. 802. This module focuses on Ethernet s relationship to network technologies that operate at OSI layers 3 and above. RSVP. X. the same layers at which Ethernet operates. SNA 6 – Presentation NAPLPS. FDDI. Token Ring.25.
For example. the terms Novell network and Microsoft network refer only to layer 3 networking services and higher. In the example above. Upper-layer protocols are covered in more detail in o ther courses. to implement mu ltiple protocols and run them at the same time. For example. to implement simultaneously two different t echnologies on a single network segment. This allows individual Windows 95* stations to establish clie nt-server connections with NetWare* servers (over IPX/SPX) and peer-to-peer conn ections to other Windows 95* workstations (over TCP/IP) at the same time. works only at layers 1 and 2 to provide the physical transportati on of data packets from one network client to another. When the data field of the Ethernet frame includes a TCP/IP packet. nor is it reasonable. Can a single Ethernet netwo rk. it is not only possible. how does Ethernet fit into the picture? It almost sounds as if the example refers to two. Often times. This lesson attempts merely . When the data field of t he Ethernet frame includes an IPX/SPX packet. the TCP /IP packet is handled by the Microsoft client software. At layer 3. At the network layer. the answer is yes. in relationship to each networ king protocol. entirely separate networks: a Novell network and a Microsoft network.Running Multiple Protocols Lesson Objective q Identify the role Ethernet plays in relationship to a number of specific popular network protocols Two Networks in One At the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. using only Ethernet cabling schemes and Ethernet NICs support both the Novel l network and the Microsoft network described? Of course. Ethern et as an Open Systems Solution In the example above. most Novell NetWare * networks use a protocol called IPX/SPX at the network layer and above. but in many cases advantageous. h owever. the IPX/SPX packet is handled by t he Novell client software. Windows 9 5* workstations are configured to handle both Novell IPX/SPX packets and Microso ft TCP/IP packets. Microso ft networks. it is not possible. on the other hand use TCP/IP and/or NetBEUI. though it is possible to u se a bridge to link separate Ethernet and Token Ring networks. it is not possibl e (nor would it ever be desirable) to connect a room of computers together using both Ethernet and Token Ring hardware at the same time. Ethernet. the software programs Client for Novell Networks and Client for Microsoft Networks run simult aneously on each computer and accept data packets from the data link layer and p rocesses packets according to the rules of the layer 3 protocol the client suppo rts.
Ethernet is capable of supporting a wide range of specific networ king technologies.to reinforce the fact that by limiting Ethernet operations to a clearly defined network space. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Ethernet can not only support networks running both Novell an d Microsoft networking protocols simultaneously. but also other combinations of network layer protocols as well.
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