US-China Education Review
Volume 7, Number 10, October 2010 (Serial Number 71)

Da vid Publishing

David Publishing Company

Publication Information: US-China Education Review (ISSN1548-6613) is published monthly in hard copy and online by David Publishing Company located at 1840 Industrial Drive, Suite 160, Libertyville, Illinois 60048, USA. Aims and Scope: US-China Education Review, a monthly professional academic journal, covers all sorts of researches on Higher Education Research, Educational Theory, Psychological Research, Educational Management, Teacher’s Education Research, Curriculum and Teaching Research, and Educational Technology, as well as other issues. Editorial Board Members:
Cameron Scott White,University of Houston, USA Diane Schwartz, Hofstra University, USA Güner Tural Dinçer, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey Mercedes Ruiz Lozano, University of Cordoba, Spain

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Hitoshi Isahara Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. LIAO Hong-zhi 78 Educational Technology Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system Lee Tan Luck. Number 10. Irena Shehu 42 51 62 70 Special Education Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education ZHANG Jian-xin. Shu-Fen Chiu Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) Pavlovic Slavica Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning Margarita Hido.000 citations can tell Adriaan Swanepoel Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students Rossafri bin Mohamad.US-China Education Review Volume 7. Malliga Govindasamy 87 98 106 Education History Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press Judit Langer-Buchwald 114 . October 2010 (Serial Number 71) Contents Curriculum and Teaching A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity Katsunori Kotani. inventiveness and innovation Peter H. Hackbert How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading Fatma Kayan Fadlelmula. Teodora Vigato Teaching statistics in labor. Phillips Olaide Okunola. social. Meriç Özgeldi Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention Diana Nenadic-Bilan. Chew Fong Peng What 37. María Jesús Rosales-Moreno. Takehiko Yoshimi. Balakrishnan Muninday. Sikiru Omotayo Subair The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education Robin Jung-Cheng Chen. María Dolores Huete-Morales 1 10 22 29 36 Educational Management and Policy Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice Ramoni Ayobami Alani. juridical or economic studies Esteban Navarrete-Álvarez.


Introduction Computer-based evaluation plays an important role in foreign language learning and teaching. Shiga 520-2194. However.2%. et al. Ryukoku University. Various studies have investigated the methods of evaluating foreign language reading skills (Nagata. Katsunori Kotani. 2. 2008). is an ordeal for teachers. Furthermore. Although comprehension questions are useful for evaluating reading proficiency. Hitoshi Isahara3 (1. Osaka 573-1001. In case.October 2010. which typically do not include such kinds of questions. These studies proposed statistical evaluation methods by using machine learning algorithms. Aichi 441-8580. School of English Language and Communication. the authors constructed a reading model that automatically evaluates a learner’s reading proficiency on the basis of his/her reading time. preparing these questions by using authentic texts.. 1998). the authors can evaluate a learner’s reading proficiency by comparing the optimal reading time with the learner’s actual reading time. Moreover. Toyohashi University of Technology. wherein comprehension questions are not required. foreign (second) language reading proficiency is often evaluated through comprehension questions. Japan. The result of this examination showed that the error rate was the lowest for the group of learners with fast RS. Volume 7. Faculty of Science and Technology. A reading model following this method predicted reading proficiency with an ER (error rate) of 18. The primary advantage of such evaluations is that they allow a learner’s reading proficiency to be assessed without the use of comprehension questions. Japan. Kotani. et al. Key words: computer-assisted language learning. 3. research field: computational linguistics. Information and Media Center.. Kansai Gaidai University. Since these methods predict the optimal reading time. Hitoshi Isahara. Information and Media Center. School of English Language and Communication. Faculty of Science and Technology. This paper introduces a method for automatically evaluating proficiency. the ER of the authors’ reading model for various learner groups classified by their RS (reading speeds) was examined. research field: computational linguistics. natural language processing 1. learners’ reading. Japan) Abstract: In textbooks. authentic texts are used as reading material. professor. Ryukoku University. associate professor. Takehiko Yoshimi2. such as SVMs (support vector machines) (Vapnik. No. 1 . such questions should be prepared by teachers. 2002. Following the above-mentioned studies. preparing appropriate questions may be a very demanding task for teachers.10 (Serial No. Takehiko Yoshimi. ISSN 1548-6613. This method assesses a learner’s reading proficiency on the basis of the linguistic features of the text and the learner’s reading time. English as a foreign language. USA A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity Katsunori Kotani1. research fields: theoretical linguistics. Kansai Gaidai University. This ER is lower than those of models proposed in previous studies. 2007. Toyohashi University of Technology. associate professor. computational linguistics.71) US-China Education Review.

it is generally supposed that reading time is correlated with the rate of comprehension. (2002) developed a word recognition time model using a neural network learning algorithm. (2009b) further investigated the relation between their reading model and learners’ RS in order to determine whether any shortcomings still remained in the reading model. In light of this. reading proficiency refers to the score obtained for the reading section in the TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication). et al.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity unlike in the case of comprehension questions. et al.. tests based on reading time are expected to have a pedagogical effect (Alderson. 2007. et al. (2005) used SVMs. 2008) conducted a multiple regression analysis. teachers are relieved of an ordeal. Finally. Nagata. such sentence-by-sentence evaluation is a difficult task when methods based on comprehension questions are followed. 2007. Next. as reported in Just and Carpenter (1987). 2002. et al. First.2% owing to these features. It is evident that.. 2005) has proposed the readability model.. et al. 2001). Given the aforementioned properties of reading time. (2007. Kotani. In this paper. 1998. In this model. et al. In addition. All these studies derived their reading models by using a statistical method. Linguistic features are classified into lexical. syntactic and discourse features. 2 . 2002.. another study (Schwarm. the authors introduce new linguistic features aiming at decreasing the error rate. et al. (2009a) proposed a reading model that estimates reading proficiency by examining a learner’s reading time and the linguistic features of the text. reading time can be measured by using a variety of texts. 2008). Bell. whereas Schwarm.. et al. Naganuma & Wada. since evaluations based on reading time do not require comprehension questions. the authors derived a reading model that uses support vector regression based on reading time and linguistic features. as shown in Figure 1. Following Kotani. The findings of this study will present a new direction with respect to the evaluation of foreign language reading proficiency under a computer-assisted language learning system. 2. 2009). if the time taken to read individual sentences is measured. the reliability and validity of such tests have been acknowledged with respect to second language reading assessments (Shizuka. Kotani. (2009a). et al. such as newspapers or magazine articles. 2008) have proposed the reading time model. Kotani. et al. 2000. Related studies As shown in section 1. previous studies (Nagata. TOEIC reading part score reading model linguistic features lexical features syntactic features reading time discourse features Figure 1 Reading model Kotani. et al. The authors shall briefly note other reasons for choosing reading time as an evaluation criterion. Kotani.5% to 18. Further. The experimental result showed that the error rate decreased from 18. In addition. a learner’s strengths and weaknesses with respect to reading can be comprehensively analyzed for each sentence (Yoshimi. the authors can use their reading model as an evaluation method for reading proficiency in a computer-based placement test.

It is well known that word length affects text readability and that readability formulas (Flesch. According to Kotani. namely. Next.1 Lexical features Lexical features comprise word length and vocabulary difficulty for the reading model of Kotani et al. et al. syntactic and discourse features. In addition. this reading model has been developed by using support vector regression (Vapnik. In contrast to these models. such as the incorrect labeling of syntactic nodes. et al. 1982). When using a syntactic parser. word length should be considered for evaluating a learner’s 3 . et al. (2005) is based on syntactic features involving the distribution of specific grammatical constructions such as noun phrases. 1948. Kotani. these models can be classified into 2 groups on the basis of their syntactic features. for instance. The word recognition time is weighted for the words that appear in these constructions. whereas the previous models were constructed by using multiple regression analysis. (2007) exhibited higher prediction accuracy than a model having the labeling problem. 3. the authors must consider the presence of technological errors. a reading model using these features should be able to tolerate the margin of technological errors related to natural language processing tools. For instance. The reading model of Kotani. Similarly. 3. (2009b). the authors develop a reading model that estimates a learner’s reading proficiency in terms of his/her TOEIC score by examining the reading time of the learner and the linguistic features of the text.. (2007) uses syntactic features that are not limited to certain grammatical constructions. verb phrases and subordinate clauses. through the garden-path effect (Frazier & Rayner. Given this possibility. a readability model developed by Schwarm. Smith & Kincaid. a non-relative clause might be incorrectly labeled as a relative clause. 1970) use word length as an independent variable for text readability. (2002). Since these features can be detected with state-of-the-art natural language processing tools. Word length is defined as the number of characters in a word. the authors’ model differs from the previous models in that it evaluates a learner’s reading proficiency. the syntactic features they used are the length of a sentence in terms of the number of words and the size of a sentence in terms of the number of syntactic branching nodes. (2008) developed another reading model using not only syntactic features. et al. et al. it is difficult for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language) to comprehend such constructions. et al. (2007) solved this problem by using syntactic features that are available without labeling. 2008). the authors introduce certain linguistic features as well as a learner feature. such as relative clauses. et al. Hence.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity Notwithstanding the above similarity. Given this result. while the previous models identified sentences that were difficult to comprehend by a learner. reading time. Kotani. 1948. Hence. Features of the reading model Following the previous models (Kotani. participle clauses and to-infinitive clauses. According to Nagata. Linguistic features encompass lexical. it is possible to implement this reading model in a computer-assisted language learning system. although the syntactic features of specific grammatical constructions undeniably affect reading time or readability. 2007. (2002) comprises the syntactic features of specific grammatical constructions. (2007). The number of branching nodes is believed to affect the reading time from the psycholinguistic perspective. Specifically. The authors’ reading model examines both the reading time of the learner and the linguistic features of the text. a reading model of Kotani. the authors have to reduce the error effect to the minimum. 1998). The reading model of Nagata. but also lexical and discourse features. Smith & Kincaid. et al. 1970). Sentence length is commonly used as a syntactic feature for examining readability (Flesch. et al.

Since these words have various usages. 1993). their difficulty could depend on the context in which these words appear. In addition. et al. (2009b). 2007). Since word length cannot exhaustively explain the lexical effect. 1970). 3. it is confirmed that the number of branching nodes highly correlates with readability in the case of EFL learners (Kotani. This list provides the difficulty scores for 11 levels (Someya. Syntactic parsing is performed by using the Apple Pie Parser (Sekine & Grishman. it is generally supposed that sentence length negatively correlates with readability (Flesch. Hence. syntactic features comprise sentence length and the number of branching nodes in a syntactic tree. 1948. the vocabulary difficulty of unregistered words should be higher than the registered ones. the authors define sentence length as the number of words in a sequence of sentences. it does not explain memory load in a syntactic parsing process. 2000).. Here. For instance. the authors decided to use this quantificational information of syntactic nodes as another syntactic feature. It is reported that reading comprehension may be difficult for Japanese EFL learners even when only short words are used (Sano & Ino. the words. the height of a syntactic tree should also be considered. Since the number of syntactic nodes explains the size of a syntactic tree. Smith & Kincaid. (2009b). or (2) considering the number of unregistered words in a text as a lexical feature. The number of word meanings is measured by using WordNet2. Since a syntactic tree represents a syntactic parsing result. sentence length should be regarded as a syntactic feature. et al. following Kotani. (2009b). Therefore. the authors can solve the problem of unregistered words by: (1) regarding unregistered words as more difficult than registered words. because it is hard to precisely determine the vocabulary difficulty of unregistered words. authentic texts may contain words that are not registered in this list. Vocabulary difficulty is determined by English teachers working with Japanese EFL learners. The authors attempt to solve this problem by introducing a new lexical feature. Similar to word length. 1982). et al. Given this property.0 (Fellbaum. the authors include vocabulary difficulty as another lexical feature. i. Following Kotani. 1995). While the vocabulary difficulty list covers basic vocabulary for EFL learners. the authors choose the latter solution in this paper. 1998). Although the vocabulary difficulty list contains more than 35. et al. Hence.. the number of syntactic nodes stored in short-term memory. et al. et al. Following this assumption.000 words. In addition to these features used by Kotani. The garden-path effect is a similar branching node effect (Frazier & Rayner. which is summarized in the JACET 4. The authors proposed the number of syntactic nodes stored in short-term memory as a syntactic 4 . it is supposed to cover vocabularies that they should learn.2 Syntactic features As mentioned above.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity reading proficiency. (2009b). such as “get” and “make” are regarded as the least difficult words in the list. The number of syntactic nodes in a text is determined by summing up those in all sentences in a text. (2009b) encounters a problem that the model cannot estimate the vocabulary difficulty for such words. some basic words might be more difficult than expected. Since the vocabulary difficulty list is compiled mainly for EFL learners. Vocabulary difficulty is determined by summing up the scores of all the words in a given text. 2000). The number of word meanings of a text is determined by summing up the word meanings of each word in a text. The former solution is hardly feasible.000 Basic Words List (JACET. which is a large lexical database of the English language. As sentence length is equivalent to the width of a syntactic tree. the authors have assigned vocabulary difficulty scores on the basis of heuristically determined vocabulary difficulty. following Kotani. the authors introduce a new feature. the reading model of Kotani. the number of word meanings.e.

DT is rewritten as “The”. beginning from 0. 1960). the sum of the numbers of nodes in a sentence is regarded as a syntactic feature. that is. The sum of the numbers in the path from S to a word indicates the number of symbols stored in a stack for that word. Thus. the terminal symbol S is transformed into (NP. Syntactic nodes stored in short-term memory refer to those stored in a stack when analyzing a sentence in a top-down fashion by using a push-down automaton. references to pronouns should be identified. 1 and 0. et al. The authors consider that the detection of pronouns involves fewer technical problems. Thus. Figure 2 shows how the number of non-terminal symbols stored in a stack is determined for the sentence “The man saw the boy” in a push-down automaton (Yngve. N). 1. S 1 NP 1 DT 0 N 0 0 V 0 1 DT 0 The man saw the N 0 boy 1 0 VP 0 NP 0 2 1 1 1 0 Figure 2 The number of nodes stored in short-term memory The number of nodes stored in a stack is measured as shown in Figure 2 (Yngve. as NPs in the sentence “The man saw the boy” have no post-modifier. a number is assigned to each branch from the right to left direction. The number of nodes in a stack is determined by following this revised procedure. Although there are other anaphoric expressions. these are not included as a discourse feature. Therefore. VP). This exclusion is also because of the technological error effect (see section 2). The following numbers are assigned to each word as the number of nodes stored in a stack for the sentence “The man saw the boy”: 2. 3.4 Learner feature In contrast to other models that generally use comprehension questions. following Kotani. When the first word “The” is inserted. the authors’ reading model can be 5 . (2009b). the symbol VP is stored in a al. As mentioned above. (2001) modified this number assignment procedure in certain aspects. However. for instance. 3.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity feature that represents short-term memory load. the two non-terminal symbols N and VP are stored in a stack. the authors suppose that the number of pronouns indicates the complexity of a discourse structure. Then.3 Discourse features The authors use the number of pronouns as a discourse feature. The number of nodes stored in a stack when parsing a text is determined by summing up those when parsing all the sentences in a text. and VP is memorized. such as definite expressions. 1. the authors’ reading model evaluates a learner’s reading proficiency on the basis of reading time. while “The” is processed. Next. this is because that evaluations based on reading time allow assessments using authentic texts. 1 and 0. Hence. and N is stored in a stack. This identification of pronominal references requires comprehension of the discourse structure. the terminal symbol NP is transformed into (DT. NP that has no post-modifier will not be transformed. Murata. the numbers of nodes in a stack are 1. 1960). While reading a text.

After receiving instructions about the tool. The participants were instructed to first read a text and then answer the comprehension questions. the participants could take as much time as they needed. in the authors’ model. It displays one sentence at a time. In this paper. the authors did not inform them that the tool would be measuring their reading times. The participants in the authors’ data collection process were recruited from a job information website. After collecting the reading times of all the participants. The authors excluded the data in the cases where the RS were extremely fast or slow. reading time data was regarded 6 . As a result. From the participants who responded. reading motivation and background knowledge of a topic. 4.. 31 participants took 1 test set and 33 participants took 2 test sets. 2005). a comprehension question appeared. In order to reduce the pressure on the participants. When the cursor was positioned on a question icon. 2001. 1979). there are other learner factors. Reading time data were collected using a reading process recording tool (Yoshimi. 64 took part in the data collection process. et al. the authors prepared test sets based on 84 texts from TOEIC preparation textbooks (Arbogast. A sentence appears on the computer screen when the cursor is positioned over a reading icon. et al. An effective RS model will be investigated in a future study.. Reading time data collection The construction of the reading model requires the reading time data of EFL learners. Since the authors did not impose time constraints. The participants were misled to believe that the goal of the data collection was to examine the comprehension scores for TOEIC comprehension questions on a sentenceby-sentence reading basis. These data were collected in the following manner. In principle. The native language of all the participants was Japanese. The authors also directed participants to understand the text sufficiently well to correctly answer the comprehension questions. and it disappears when the cursor is moved away from the icon. the authors have developed an initial reading time model. However. The authors will examine non-verbal learner features in a future study. Each text was accompanied by several multiple-choice comprehension questions. the authors excluded the erroneous reading time data. Logheed. which was measured in terms of WPM (words per minute). the authors assigned restrictions on the RS. Further. The participants used this tool not only for reading the text. they can consider not only reading time. In this data collection process.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity implemented by using comprehension questions. Even though the tool recorded the reading time for comprehension questions. such as text interest. The authors randomly provided 1 or 2 test sets to the participants. participants practiced by reading several texts and answering comprehension questions. First. but also the effective RS—a complex measure of the RS and comprehension rate (Jackson & McClelland. The participants were chosen on the basis of the following criteria: (1) They had taken the TOEIC and could submit the score sheet. and (3) They lived near the site of the data collection process. The participants answered a question by clicking on one of the answer icons. but also for answering comprehension questions. and every test set contained different texts. 2003). Each test consisted of 7 texts. 2002). (2) They were EFL learners. This tool measures reading time on a 10-millisecond time scale. the authors excluded it from their reading time data. these non-verbal learner features are not included in their reading model. because non-verbal learner features appear to have little impact on reading proficiency (Naganuma & Wada.

A slow RS might have been the result of unnecessarily careful reading.2 Performance of the reading model The authors report the performance of their reading model in terms of the ER (error rate) computed by using the following formula. The distribution of ERs indicates that a lower error rate is more frequently observed. The authors’ reading time data comprise 451 instances.2% and the range was 247. The median ER was 18. The first order polynomial was set as a type of kernel function.6. 5. 5. The mean age of the participants was 29. Support vector regression was performed by using an algorithm implemented in the mySVM software (Rüping. 2000). the authors describe the experimental method for assessing their reading model and report the corresponding results. 1982).5). Fast RS were also judged as improper data because the average RS of native English speakers is reported to be in the range of 200-300 WPM (Carver. The predicted value refers to a learner’s score in the TOEIC reading section as calculated using the reading model. Nine participants were males and 51 were females. Predicted value − Observed value ER = × 100 % Observed value 160 140 120 107 74 143 Frequency 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 30 50 70 90 100 < 27 18 16 12 15 27 6 6 Error Rate (%) Figure 3 Histogram of the ER The distribution of the ERs for the authors’ reading model is shown in Figure 3. Validity of the reading model In this section. The authors evaluated the prediction performance of the reading models by using 5-fold cross-validation tests using the 451 instances in the reading time data described in section 4. the distribution of the ER is positively skewed. 1998) with the TOEIC reading section scores as a dependent variable and all the linguistic features and the learner features shown in section 3 as independent variables.1 Experimental method The authors constructed their reading model by using support vector regression (Vapnik.8 years (SD: 9. The frequency is the highest at the interval of 10%-20%. the reading times of 60 participants for 84 texts. Moreover. and the other settings were retained as the default ones. 5. 7 . i. The ER shows the degree to which the reading model correctly predicted a learner’s TOEIC reading section scores.e.. and the observed value indicates the learner’s actual score in the TOEIC reading section taken in the data collection described in section 4.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity as improper data if the RS was more than 200 WPM or less than 70 WPM.

6% (=(18. number of verb phrases and number of subordinate conjunctions. The syntactic feature of Schwarm’s model (henceforth.8% and 18.2% (=(19. using the linguistic features stated in section 3.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity 5. the distribution of the ERs differs between slow and intermediate RS groups (19.2)/18. Further. 2009b. that against the N-model was 4. 20 19 18 17 16 15 Slow Int. et al. The syntactic feature of Nagata’s model (henceforth. the authors’ reading model should be modified by examining the reading behavior of slow and intermediate EFL learners.6%) and fast RS group (15. The ER of the K-model was 18. As shown in Figure 4.2)/19. 5.5-18.2-18. The authors’ reading model basically follows the reading model of Kotani. number of noun phrases. 2002. participle clause and to-infinitive clause. Therefore. the authors’ reading model still does not include phrase-level features. Since these features appear to make reading difficult for slow and intermediate RS learners. What differs between these models are lexical features and a syntactic feature.4 Fast 19. fast: 130 WPM≤RS). et al. The error reduction rate against the K-model was 1.2)/19.5×100).6 Error Rate (%) Learner Figure 4 Graph of the ER for the learner groups 8 . and the median ERs were calculated for each group. et al.1-18. If the ER is higher for a particular group. Schwarm.5%.2×100). The authors will further address this problem in future research. ones including a relative clause.7% (=(19.4%). N-model) comprises specific grammatical constructions.2%.2%.4 Analysis of ER The results of the experiment revealed that the authors’ reading model had an ER of 18. S-model) comprises the height of a syntactic tree. such as idiomatic expressions. i.3 Comparison with other models In order to validate the authors’ reading model. that of the N-model was 19. Improvements in the authors’ reading model can be achieved by using different linguistic features. they compare it with other reading models that were derived using the syntactic features proposed by previous studies (Kotani.e. 15. et al. the authors can examine the linguistic features that greatly influence the learners in the group in order to improve the model’s prediction performance.1% and that of the S-model was 19.. the authors examined the ER of their reading model with respect to 3 learner groups categorized according to RS. intermediate: 100 WPM≤RS<130 WPM. The 451 instances of the reading time data were divided into 3 groups according to learners’ RS (slow: 70 WPM≤RS<100 WPM. K-model)..8 18. but not for fast RS learners.1×100) and that against the S-model was 5. Nagata.. the authors’ reading model should include these features in order to reduce the ER.. For instance. as introduced in section 3. (2009b) (henceforth. This result indicates the superiority of the authors’ reading model. 2005).

The Reading Matrix. C. S. Effects of syntactic factors on EFL learners’ reading time. Fellbaum. H.. L.. I. NY: Barron’s Educational Series. 2008 from http://www-ai. Jerris. H. 1(1). Conclusion The authors proposed a method for evaluating the reading proficiency of learners... MySVM-Manual. (1979). MA. Sekine. (2008). Bell. M. Springer Berlin: Heidelberg. (to be continued on Page 41) 9 . Duke. R. A. Cognitive Psychology. Yoshimi.. 457-460. Nagata. & Isahara. Kotani.000 basic words. 43-52. & Isahara. Hauppanuge. A. T. 178-210.uni-dortmund. Furthermore. (2009b).cs. & Carpenter. MA: The MIT Press. 34-52. K. S. S.2%. & Ino. Reading level assessment using support vector machines and statistical language models. Kotani. Measurement of difficulty on English grammar and automatic analysis. Inc. Yoshimi. Sata. Optimal rate of reading prose. Lawrenceville. Measurement of English reading ability by reading speed and text readability. (2000).. T. Magical number seven plus or minus two: Syntactic structure recognition in Japanese and English sentences: Computational linguistics and intelli-gent text processing. 99-103.. 5-12. Rüping. TOEIC official test-preparation guide: Test of English for international communication. (1993). R. EFL learner reading time model for evaluating reading proficiency. Lougheed. Sata. & Isahara. Kawai.A prediction model of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity 6. MA: Allyn and Bacon. E. & Grishman. (2002). Uchimoto. Processing determinants of reading speed. Proceedings of Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics. A. 2004. T. Retrieved September. M. Proceedings of International Technology. T. JACET 4. 12. & McClelland. K. P. & Siino. University of Dortmund. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. References: Alderson.. T. Ashmore. F. I. (2000). Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies. H. Information Technology Letters. (1987).. Reading Research Quarterly. J. Finally. NJ: Peterson’s. & Isahara. Kutsumi. Automatic evaluation of foreign language reading proficiency based on reading time and linguistic features.. 4919. Predicting foreign language learners’ reading proficiency based on reading time and text complexity. 56-88. (2002). I. 12. 523-530. Yoshimi. T. H. K. R.. P. J. It predicted the scores with an ER of 18. T. E. Lehrstuhl Informatik 8. T. The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Making and correcting errors during sentence comprehension: Eye movements in the analysis of structurally ambiguous sentences. (2009b). (2009a). This ER was lower than that of the reading model of Kotani. The model was developed so that it could predict learners’ scores in the TOEIC reading section by examining their reading times and the linguistic features of the text. L. Carver. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. & Ostendorf. 32. 151-181. Peterson’s. Masui. 5. T. K. Q. Schwarm. (14). L. A method of rating English reading skill automatically: Rating English reading skill using reading speed. Newton.. A corpus-based probabilistic grammar with only two non-terminals. Jackson.. K. (2005). (1998).. Sata. Education and Development Conference. K. & Locke. H. Naganuma. Kotani. Tokyo: The Japan Association of College English Teachers. JACET. 18(1)... T. M. B. (2000). C. Frazier. (1982). (1982). Kotani. M. Just. H. Murata. 108. & Wada. (1995). 35-40. K. Kutsumi. Computer & Education. 655-644. A. M. Chauncey Group International. the authors confirmed that the ER of their reading model was the lowest for the group of learners with fast RS. & Isahara. (2001). (1948). Kutsumi. Sano. N. Extensive reading: Speed and comprehension. 117. (2001). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Flesch. (2003). Journal of Experimental Psychology. Yoshimi. JLTA Journal. & Rayner. 3040-3049.. D. 221-233. IPSJ SIG Notes. Springer Berlin: Heidelberg. WordNet: An electronic lexical database. T.. (2001). Arbogast. (2007). Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 6. A new readability yardstick. et al. Journal of Applied Psychology. Cambridge. M. the authors found that the predictions of their model were more accurate than those of the reading models proposed in previous studies. Assessing reading. How to prepare for the TOEIC test: Test of English for international communication.

as making things up is a creative act. such as when chimps refashion sticks to snare tasty termites. Berea College. inventiveness and innovation Peter H. painting. entrepreneurship for the Public Good Program. the vagaries of hunting and gathering. US) Abstract: Creativity is the process of generating something new or original that has value to an individual. Improvisation is viewed as a master key to creativity (Nachmanovitch. 1985). Human capabilities to “make things up” are critical in the context of human evolution.71) US-China Education Review. Mirvis (1998) reminded people of the discontinuities and need for a creative response. creative interactions. general education. general education. Creativity Creativity is the process of generating something new or original that has value to an individual. Introduction This paper will provide a brief description and definition of improvisation and provide a summary of the description and methods of a general studies course (GST 186: Creativity. invention. research fields: creativity. technology and the world of commerce. dance.October 2010. Volume 7. techniques and improvisational methods as prerequisites for a progression of increased experiences of idea generation. USA Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. director. This paper describes an academic setting that draws upon the definition. and the array of modern day challenges confronting the arts. Student perspectives describe the outcomes of the improvisation techniques as viewed in their reflective journals and formal assessments of the course compared to other general education courses. Improvisation is used as a critical ingredient to enhance creativity for undergraduate liberal arts students in a freshman general studies course leading to student product development and field-based innovations. 2. sciences. an industry or a society (Young. innovation.. Improvising is found throughout nature. human ingenuity. law. a group. a group. and most recently. Improvisational theater techniques are used to enhance creative thinking and action in a variety of disciplines as broad as education. an industry or a society. And the paper will describe the specific methods applied to introduce creativity and inventiveness to the students. new venture formation. No.10 (Serial No. 10 . Suggestions for incorporating simple improvisational techniques into everyday activities and educational settings are offered in the conclusion. entrepreneurship.D. ball games 1. threatening global climates. writing and music. Faculty of General Studies. Berea College. theater. and collective. new product invention and innovation. Hackbert. Berea 40404. Ph. an organization. Mirvis (1998) described the evolutionary origins of improvising prompted by memories of the ancestors’ confrontations with voracious animals. inventiveness and innovation) at Berea College. Hackbert (Faculty of General Studies. entrepreneurial learning. entrepreneurship education. ISSN 1548-6613. business. improvisation. 1990). an organization. wolves hunt in new formations to avoid human contact or bees Peter H. he observed. Key words: creativity.

Johnstone. 1985. Kelley. 2007). They would improvise their own dialogue within a framework provided by a set scenario. Palmer. planning. Two dimensions of improvisation are intuition and spontaneity. is defined as “intuition guiding action in a spontaneous way” (Crossan & Sorrenti. with more creativity and intuition applied to actions. or “improv” as it is commonly called. they were telling stories by acting them out. Alan Arkin. Troupes of performers would travel from town to town. “You can’t improvise on nothing. it should not be viewed as “anything goes” or “winging it”. With improvisational theater. More recently. there have been many different improvisational styles. “improv” techniques have been adopted as a means to enhance organizational members’ capacity to be innovative and responsive. it’s what we’re doing all the time” (Sager. theater (Boal. Instead. Spolin. props or scripts. Lobman. visioning and transacting). Solomon (1986) included the notion that intuition incorporates creation and execution at the same time. 2000. Over the centuries. said that. it should be accepted as a process governed both by freedom and form. Improvisational theater can be compared to traditional theater. 2005). 1963). Rice. Brown & Crawford. costumes. inventiveness and innovation socialize a queen in novel ways so as not to get consumed by her. 1980. dance (Banes. and the actors play a variety of roles.. 1997). 2002. “Improv” exercises are used by actors to develop their skills. while Weick (1993) hinted that “improv” gives organizations the ability to “make do” with available resources. the director helps the actors reflect on the performance. Adoption of the “improv” techniques has proven to advance effectiveness in enhancing creative. 2007. Actors are selected for their likeness to the particular characters portrayed. Improvisational theatre Improvisational theatre pre-dates the invention of writing. be smarter. you’ve gotta improvise on something” is a noted statement by jazz musician Charles Mingus (Kernfeld. The audiences have no input into the performance. The emphasis within improvisation is on action and continuous experimentation. not on obsessive planning (Perry. there are no sets. “Improv” approaches are reported to enhance organizations’ ability to learn faster than their competitors—to design faster cycle time. Chase (1988) cited “improv” as “imagination guiding action in an unplanned way”. Rather than directing the performance in the traditional sense. 1991). The most direct ancestor of modern “improv” is probably the Commedia Dell’Arte. Traditional theater uses a script to guide the actors and the performance with sets. 3. since long before people started writing scripts. which Crossan and Sorrenti (1997) used to differentiate improvising from other strategic activities (e. an academy award winning actor. 1995). 2000. and a director provides the leadership to ensure that all elements support one another. These dual requirements—increased speed and a higher degree of innovation—create a need for organizations and their members to operate more spontaneously. Sawyer. Lubins. 1992. Improvisational techniques have been used to enhance creative thinking and action in a variety of disciplines as broad as education (Willdorf. 1980). “Improv” is an outstanding example of “thinking outside the box”.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity.g. Kanter. presenting shows in the public squares and on makeshift stages. “Improv” just offers such a solution. 1998). 1996. costumes and props to enhance the story lines. 11 . and generate more innovative solutions. Improvisation provides a way to understand what it takes to be spontaneous and innovative. Improvisation is by no means a haphazard process. The audiences participate in the performance by providing input into the story line. 2002. 1997. Weick. 2000). Improvisation. “improvisation has been crucial to my whole life. and business (Crossam & Sorrenti. innovation thinking and personal growth for individuals at all ability levels (Lemons. which was popular throughout Europe for almost 200 years starting in the mid-1500s.

creative methods. General education at Berea College Berea College’s mission is to educate and inspire students primarily from Appalachia to become service-oriented leaders. and (3) having insights on how to collaborate with a team or hot group to develop creative and innovative ideas. The course requires reading and discussion and uses exercises. Berea College offers a liberal education by helping students develop the skills. The intention of the course is to examine how unconventional ideas. This paper describes module 1. including religion. Module 2 is described in Hackbert (2008) and module 3 in Hackbert (2009). using a variety of instructional methods.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. It is designed to help students: (1) develop their abilities to think critically and communicate effectively through writing and speaking. the college emphasizes a broad range of subjects and approaches to learning. This education should result in personal satisfaction. (2) individual and hot group projects (Kelley. myths. and well-accepted organizational processes.1 billion endowment to provide each student admitted to the college with a full tuition scholarship for the 4 years they are enrolled and reside at the college. and (5) evaluation—creative. inventiveness and innovation can set a tone of academic expectation and standards for inquisitive learning for the incoming class members. For the freshmen. and (3) cultivate their appreciation of human diversity and their capacity for moral reflection. The general education program is where the goals of liberal education are explicitly addressed for all students. field-based projects and group process techniques to strengthen the goal of fostering creativity leading to actionable plans. Upon completion of this course. GST186 is a general education elective course entitled: “creativity. Believing that narrow specialization in the undergraduate years can inhibit growth and restrict opportunities. inventiveness and innovation 4. tools and approaches to develop innovative solutions to common problems. This source of knowledge and skill set can become the undergraduate’s personal tools for the 21 century—a better way to lead. (4) live cases/stories and guests. inventiveness and innovation: the source and skills for artists. acquire the knowledge and nurture the habits and attitudes that will enhance their ability to live reflectively and responsibly. a student should have accomplished 3 outcomes: (1) experiencing a framework for understanding how to think creatively. to compete and to succeed. This course is divided into 3. the arts and the natural and social sciences. as well as a growing awareness of one’s relations and obligations to the larger communities in which one participates. which 12 . The active learning course format as contrasted to other undergraduate courses may appear unconventional. deviants. 2001). strategic filtering and assessment of ideas. including: (1) discovery based learning. inventions and solutions to problems. inventing new products and welcoming an innovative mindset. The course uses the mnemonic PROBE to discover students’ hidden talents: (1) problems—understanding how to identify what a problem or need really is. (2) exposing some cutting edge. (4) brainstorming—idea generation (including bad ideas). (3) creativity exercises and tools. history. In pursuit of this mission. along with specific methods to jumpstarting creative thinking. (2) reverse—encouraging creativity through the identification and reversal of commonly held rules. and help students to confront their passion and apply their entrepreneurial leadership talents in the service for others. inventiveness and innovation. groundbreaking products and group processes changed the world. (3) observation—using observation and anthropological methods to understand others and their perspectives.or 5. their intentions and their life. This has involved identifying students with high academic promise but limited financial resources for over 150 years. thinkers and (thought) leaders”. These experiences will make students aware of their untapped potential in their work. Berea College has used its $1. mavericks. (2) deepen their understanding of their cultural heritage.week long modules: creativity. the first semester course and a class in creativity. and (5) team teaching.

safety. The leader draws attention to how each class member feels after repeating the statement. The instructor announces that the class will repeat the 13 . inventive or innovative) to the class in a 20-minute exercise. thought leaders currently advancing the importance and theory behind creativity. The tools learned and the skills for transferring these tools and attitudes could provide continued growth and problems-solving long after the students moved to other courses and majors while at Berea College. entrepreneurial and pedagogical principles were previously tested while at a small liberal arts college and at a major research university (Hackbert. or the key elements of an “improv” comedy show. Berkun (2007). 2005). These approaches and the applied nature of the course included exercises. risk and challenge.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. The module’s aim was to develop new and lasting attitudes of personal responsibility and the intentions to be a highly successful and creative undergraduate student while at Berea College. honest emotional expression. on Tuesday and Thursday mornings and as the class sessions progressed. The class met at 8:00 A. Higgins (2006). and practical exercises to transform knowledge into action. These experiences were designed to make students aware of their untapped potential for creativity in both work and life. learning and professional growth were explained. Ray and Myers (1986) and Kelley (2001). Experiential learning theory can magnify the importance of learning within the process of entrepreneurship (Corbett. Five-week long module 1.M. The first exercise was executed on the first day of class. modeled and used as energy for change. Experiential. 5. The next section describes how these elements emerge from the exercises described below. 2006b. 2005). 2006a. barriers to successful teaching. Some class members state that they feel uncomfortable and “fake”. 2006c. The emphasis was placed on transforming first-year students to become engaged and involved in applied innovation. It communicates the intention of the course as an experiential course. community and teamwork. Improvisational exercises Improvisational exercises are structural elements that form the basis of improvisational comedy and theater. self-actualization and joy. while they listened to each class member announce their names and reasons for enrolling in the class. subconsciously think and spontaneity. The leader forms a circle of class members and asks each person to go around the circle. exposed students to guiding principles in advancing creative energy. creativity. one at a time stating their names and why they are enrolled in the class in 1 or 2 sentences. because in fact. Exercises are used to train actors and spark the spirit of imagination. they could not remember their classmates’ names a short time later. Lemons (2005) described the utilitarian diversity of improvisation techniques across diverse fields. projects and group process techniques introduced in the first week of class and selectively repeated in every session thereafter. 5. The leader then asks the class to say.1 Name game exercise This exercise is designed to demonstrate the improvisation rules and GST 186 class practices for the entire semester. Each of the “improv” exercises is explained in detail below. “improv” “warm up exercises” were introduced by the instructor and led by class members to start each session. and (2) teaching one application (creative. “I know everyone’s name”. The author introduced pedagogical models integrating theory and practice learned while attending a National Collegiate Inventors and Innovator Alliance Workshop at Stanford University in 2001. Students read material from Florida (2002). inventiveness and innovation includes a team of students responsible for: (1) studying a particular problem-solving or creativity technique. The exercises can be used as adjuncts to acting. break-out sessions for personal trainers. In this environment. Seven elements of improvisation emerged from his interview data including: communication.

So the person on the left side uses his/her left arm to touch his/her head. For example. One primary function of the class and “improv” technique exercises is not only warming up the class. members in the chain increase and the more challenging the “improv” exercise. Whichever class member is responsible for the part that was not formed has to go into the center. Kinesthetic learners learn best by moving and attaching physical meaning to other forms of information processing behaviors. the class moves from a mere juxtaposition of unconnected individuals to a community of learners. then the outlying class member has to replace the person in the center of the circle. The name game exercise also illustrates the recognition of diverse learning styles. Should a class member make a mistake. Class members need to work together to solve the human chain problem.3 Bippity bippity bop This warm-up “improv” exercise encourages the class members to laugh and create an open space for creativity. but forging a community of learners. i. such as “elephant”.4 Human chain This exercise is much more of a class community building exercise than one just focuses on improvisation. The name game introduces the concepts of reflection. Every student learns in very diverse ways.e. illustrations and videos work for visual learners. This activity is completed until all class members in the class have taken a turn in the circle. a class member steps into the middle of the circle and starts a story with a sentence 14 . Visual learners also are helped by opportunities for class materials to be summarized on charts. The outlier that receives the distinction of being selected sticks his/her arm in front of his/her face and dangles it like an elephant trunk. one at a time announces his/her name. other elements are added. If they do something together. Each class member. 5. 5. if the elephant has a trunk and a right ear but no left ear. As a human chain. The elephant must be formed before the center person counts to 10. Pictures. and report other introductions. Later in the exercise. they must switch places with the center person. Forming a circle. then the outlier to the left of the trunk goes into the circle. there is always an element of “warming-up” as a way of priming the students to better receive information. 5. Class members report that the integration of the auditory and kinesthetic sign repeatedly increases the recall of class members’ names..Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. the concept of Bozo the Clown and the Clown Bow with “TA TA” is introduced as the way in which class members and the leader will announce to others the mistake or error. The leader asks the class to say.5 Tell a story In this “improv” exercise. As the class size increases. then they must figure out how to stand up together. and at the same time. “I know everyone’s name” again. 5. Class members sit on the floor in a circle with their arms linked in a circle. then their names with a kinesthetic sign or action. and the person on the right uses his/her right arm to form the opposite ear. one person placed in the center yells “bippity bippity bop” at someone in the circle. such as a motion of something they like to do or an emphatic action in conjunction with their announced names. inventiveness and innovation exercise kinesthetically. and confront the strengths and weaknesses of each class member. The next class member repeats the previous person’s name and the kinesthetic sign or emphatic action. and that class member must reply with the word “bop” before the center person does. a class member in the center points to an outlier in the ring and states the name of an item. The people on either side of the chosen outlier must make the ears of the elephant. demonstrates a kinesthetic sign. If the elephant does not have ears and a trunk by the time number 10 is called.2 The function of the warm-up In each class. If the outlier does not succeed.

An alternative to this exercise is that each class member in the circle contributes a word to the story. too. the teacher can allow any of the class in the circle to call out “period” to end the sentence. Nothing in the nonthreatening environment is considered as a “mistake”. responds and incorporates what other members are doing. the ball game is an integration of ideas 15 . letting go of their own ideas when the story turns in a different direction. the next person could say “out”. it is imperative to create a safe environment. Other members of the class take turns stepping in to continue the story when they feel it is appropriate. and understanding when not to “step into the middle”. The ball games accomplish this by accepting all offers. Individuals accept the offer made to them. saying and playing to participate and contribute to a mutual and collaborative outcome. The “word at a time” stories should also make sense. It also helps if the thrower always makes it clear that he is holding a ball in his hands. If the intended receiver is not clearly indicated. This is a great exercise to practice paying attention to classmates’ ideas and building upon them. The ongoing exercise requires that each member listens. Each player simulates the motions and gestures appropriate to the ball size and weight. In improvisation.1 Mime ball In 1993. Instead of offering a witty word that will make everyone laugh. if the first person to speak says “Sarah”. If the sentences are going on too long. Communication becomes the key element within this improvisational exercise. there can be no spectators. If a group has a hard time duplicating these motions. each potential recipient will know where a ball may come from. Ball games are best played in an open space that allows a group of 10-15 participants to stand comfortably in a circle. players on either side of the recipient will try to catch the ball. and everyone must attend. Ball games all involve playing catching with an imaginary ball. 6. a real ball may be used as a reminder. Ball games are also flexible and easily modified to suit different educational and problem-solving purposes. The person with the ball passes it to another person. they should add the next most logical word. Larger classes may form more than one circle. and so on. inventiveness and innovation or two. For example. They are easy to teach and utilize in group problem-solving sessions. who catches it and then tosses it to another person. There is no negation and nothing is rejected. The first difficulty with playing mime ball is knowing who is supposed to catch the ball. Because there is a high degree of risk and uncertainty involved in the game. Stretching and relaxation exercises are useful warm-up activities. Participants should be relaxed and attentive. the next person could say “set”. A 2-handed pass or scooped-style throw and a solid 2-handed catch that absorbs the imaginary impact work best. present tense always works best. Banning “and” and “but” are also good ways to keep people from prolonging things and leading to properly formed sentences.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. This simple game reveals the key ingredient of subsequent games. the thrower must establish firm eye contact with the intended receiver before throwing the ball. honor it and build on it. The best way to help the players build stories is to try and keep them in the present tense. This “improv” exercise takes control away from those class members that tend to drive scenes. Ball games The improvisational exercises described here are called ball games. 6. The best way to start is to focus on the ball handling technique. about 15 appears optimal in a class setting. played with an imaginary basketball. All players must be full participants. To avoid this. The players need to be listening to the story as it develops. While they can be played by as few as two people. As a cooperative effort. in that way. This is often the most commonly uses of all the “improv” exercises. Faste introduced the game of mime ball.

4 Other ball games As it has been seen. “valentine” with contempt. “apple pie” may be tossed with repulsion.3 Word ball Word ball follows sound ball. there are a variety of opportunities for creative expression. Anxiety. Clearly. As players become more skilled. except that words are now tossed instead of sounds. establish eye contact and throw a new sound which comes spontaneously with the gesture of throwing. As the recipient makes the catching motion. everyone is responsible for moving the game along. mean or loving. the leader can “throw in” another sound ball and another. sad or happy. Each player must commit and engage. A well-practiced and alert group can keep 3 or more sound balls going at once. In particular. “explosion” with a whisper. Eye contact is crucial. the player will find class members reading the Q and Z entries in the dictionary and stockpiling in a perhaps acceptable form. Alternatively. but this time releases a “sound ball”. concern or over eagerness will inhibit the ball games success.. the passer must intend to have the ball successfully caught by another person. The receiver must catch the message and the accompanying attitude. the receiver catches the word while repeating it. Gibberish ball is another game requiring careful listening. knees bent. but then gives the word a definition before tossing a gibberish word to another person. Words and attitudes may conflict. The word is said at the moment of release. That is. The sound is completed as the ball is released. There is the obvious form where gibberish words are tossed and caught. The correct mental state is one of relaxed attention. Another form is foreign language gibberish where the leader can change the national origin of the gibberish from Spanish to Italian to Swedish. This attention is of a special sort. everyone must play with the intention of moving the game forward.2 Sound ball Another “improv” game is sound ball.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. 6. A player throws as before. a player on either side of the intended receiver might pick up the “dropped ball” and continue the game. Another is alphabet ball. 6. each person tosses a new word that begins with the last letter of the word he/she caught. inventiveness and innovation and leads to a new product or process creation. sounds. By playing this game often. If a person does not catch the ball. When a group has this game moving along smoothly. then the receiver tosses a new invented word of his/her own. they repeat the sound exactly as they heard it. the thrower must continue to assume responsibility for the ball and throw again. and they can be potentially conflicting. words or themes are tossed with an attitude: hard or soft. Constraints are easily added to the games already mentioned. Everything is as before. 6. where each word has to begin with the next letter of the alphabet. the challenge here is for players to be receptive to both the content and the expression. In addition to attending. and the best posture is slightly crouched. using clear passing gestures and eye contact. the thrower makes a sound as they throw the imaginary ball. eye contact can be established during the throwing motion. In short. In the last letter—first letter game. In a more interesting form. The constraints given to games can be more than intellectual. ready to move in any direction with arms hanging loosely at the side. gibberish dictionary. The new word should be the first word that pops into his/her head after he/she has caught the previous ball and as he/she throws his/her own. etc. The recipient catches the word and repeats the word exactly as he/she heard it. It is very hard to stockpile with this constraint. In addition to being hilarious. In the attitude ball games. 16 . contributing to an emerging structure that is built on by the group and creates possibilities for others. this game reveals a number of unexpected abilities among the players. then quickly turn toward someone else.

but that players do not want to throw the word they think of. That is. imaginative or even profound. This is best done by making sure it is safe for players to behave spontaneously. Indeed. players will find they actually hear better when they are not worried about being precisely accurate. 1996). It puts the players in the brink of the unknown and ready to leap between risk and challenge. Players should repeat what they heard as well as they can without hesitation. and thus not having a set script. but this stops the game. It is even more preferable to guess what was said than to stop the action. which is by no means trivial. The objective is to maintain a constant flow. if a person is trying to project a creative image. Commitment is needed and simply understanding the game is not enough. The problem is not so much that there is no word to throw. can be frightening. When there is no time to plan and edit what the players are going to do or say. players often fail to hear a sound or word clearly when the ball is thrown to them. their first reactions and instincts are forced to the surface. Stockpiling consists of thinking up suitable words to say while the player is not actively involved. has already been mentioned: Each individual must be willing to play the game. occurs when the player starts to make a pass. What constitutes a suitable word depends on secondary and internal games the player is playing—often some kinds of image games. inventiveness and innovation 7. It is better to keep the game moving smoothly along. This behavior is not difficult to recognize. Laughter is fine. players will begin to use a defense mechanism known as stockpiling. honest and spontaneous. Not knowing what to expect or what to say. perhaps or sexy. Everyone should be less concerned with getting it right and more concerned with moving the game along. It is more than adequate—It is what is desired. Since control is hard to achieve in real time. For example. This exercise adds the element of honest emotional expression and staying spontaneous. the result is often words that are strange. For example. The person may wish to appear smart. but no word comes out of his/her mouth. they want to exercise controlling over the word. The central problem that arises during these games. ordinary. they are about being fresh. On the other hand. especially word ball. wacky or even weird. “Improv” games are not about acting. Five spontaneous “mashed potatoes” is better than 17 . It should be clear that saying something obvious or ordinary is adequate. It is the leader’s job to discourage stockpiling and encourage more productive strategies. stupid or perhaps worst of all. rather than simply being themselves. The first issue. The word will ring false and lack the authenticity that comes from being in the flow of the group. and it guarantees that the word passed to the next player will have nothing to do with the context of the game of that moment. even exhilarating. This is what provides their energy and makes them enjoyable.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. It is acceptable to repeat something that has been heard recently or said before. and they want to find a good one before throwing. they may simply wish to avoid appearing dumb. witty. There is a tendency to ask the person to repeat the sound so as to get it correct. It diverts the player’s attention away from the other players and the action of the game. The players should be relaxed enough to adapt to the game’s changing pace. acting without concern for right and wrong in a state where time is inconsequential (Csikszentmihalyi. Ball game difficulties and problems The problems which arise during the playing of these games reveal much about the nature of creative behavior. in the mistaken belief that it will make them appear creative. Or perhaps they have another image that they wish to project—macho. but ridicule is not. Students must play the game with the intention of becoming skilled at it. People mistakenly believe that creativity involves being clever. Stockpiling subverts the game in the two ways. creative.

However. 2001). People are what they are experts in. People are what they do. Sharpening the focus requires a well-honed problem statement.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. is a prime example of corporate brainstorming. and (5) spacing remembers. inventiveness and innovation one slow “Gila monster”. Leapfrogging refers to jumping over the ideas of others to generate a new idea. In concept ball. Even in people’s daily lives. to give up passing judgment on ideas that lie within their domain. it is exceedingly difficult for experts. The image needs not to be imaginative: “Green peas” is as good as “charging African elephants”. it is clear that this progression of exercises has led to a brainstorming session. Consequently. as if any idea is acceptable for the time being. This issue of expertise is but one manifestation of the image problem mentioned earlier. it is not 18 . in which he describes his firm’s approach to group brainstorming (Kelley. and are reluctant to come out and give up control. However. participants should gleefully abandon judgment. a loss of control and security. IDEO. 8. they could all use more balance between intuition and logic as two equally useful states of mind. leapfrogging and piggybacking require do these freely without getting bogged down in lengthy discussion. The action itself helps a word come to life. IDEO’s CEO. Space remembers refer to writing down the flow of ideas in a medium visible to the group. (3) piggybacking and leapfrogging. The phrase “defer judgment” can also be seen as conciliatory. but later people will apply judgment. People use them all the time. To overcome them. Perhaps one of the hardest things for an undergraduate general studies student to do is not to test or judge ideas at the same time as they are expressed. it should be made clear that defensive strategies designed to maintain control are only natural. Here the groups agree to a theme before beginning. But the simple statement “defer judgment” does not convey enough active meaning. images created by combining 2 or more words are thrown. Spontaneity is still the goal. Examples of topics might be “national holidays” or “things I have done today”. The rules for group brainstorming are: (1) sharpening the focus. Tom Kelley. This is also true for theme ball. an award winning design firm responsible for helping develop innovations ranging from the Palm V PDA. which is often the core of professional identity. to Steelcase’s Leap office chair. One reason for deferring judgment is difficult is that it implies giving up expertise. During the agreed upon brainstorming session. The culture in particular encourages a one-dimensional sense of self. While the goal may focus on a desired result. this is the same mental state fostered by the “improv” exercises the author has been discussing. Improvisation as a prerequisite to brainstorming and inventing If people were to change the name of the idea generating game of theme ball to problem ball. Furthermore. Piggybacking means building on one person’s idea to create other ideas. When an activity is under control. has written a book entitled The Art of Innovation. Being creative selves need not to be an unnatural state. Deferring judgment requires not criticizing ideas as they are stated. players should be encouraged to engage someone’s eyes and start the motion of throwing even before they have a word. Going for quantity requires throwing out ideas quickly. and particularly rigid or insecure ones. creativity involves risk taking. The desired mental state is subconscious flow. (4) going for quantity. accessing unedited ideas directly from one’s stored experience. (2) deferring judgment. Problem-solving requires fresh ideas and informed judgment. they should wholeheartedly embrace others’ ideas with enthusiasm and encourage extremes that some would deem stupid. People are “safe” within the fortress of our images. Then all the words or concepts thrown are related to this theme.

” Student 3—“I liked ‘how I had to just jump in’. people must be willing to give into spontaneity and their true selves as revealed through uninhibited improvisation. like paying attention to all conversations at a cocktail party. and everyone participated. When a group plays these games successfully in real time without stockpiling. 9. preferably more. By now it should be obvious that ball games are easily invented. Each person’s mind will instantly think of a related word or theme. All games tend to help make the mind more supple and quick. Improvisational ball games which avoid possible problems The improvisation games described in this paper provide a smooth transition from obvious games that are pure fun to problem-solving games that have a serious objective. If I could do any part of this experience over. as a practice. it would be to add on to the scenes more activity because it was a lot of fun. the author provides 2 forms of student reflective assessments at the conclusion of introducing a new learning pedagogy. Because of this.” 19 . 2005) and asked to made verbal end-of-the-exercise reflective comments immediately after the experience. going for quantity is achieved automatically. From this experience I am most eager to practice the activities again to wake me up and get me into the creative mindset. As the players always catch the word tossed to them by repeating it. I may look into acting in a school play. Did it work? Two types of indicators were obtained to answer the question that “Do these improvisational exercises contribute to student learning and satisfaction?”. These written journal narratives are used to record the individual learning progress and when read by the instructor in the aggregate. but are often no less fun. I can see and feel that we are acquiring trust. This is a version of word ball that requires at least 2 balls to be in circulation. but the word they pass on to the next person is triggered not by the word. but rather by other words that have been recently thrown by someone elsewhere in the circle. A final example that is particularly challenging is cross association ball. inventiveness and innovation risky.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. students prepared ungraded written anonymous reflective comments. I had to get into the flow of the conversation and action.” Student 2—“I was surprised when I was able to make people laugh with my imagination. I liked ‘how we had to just go with me flow of things’. What the player says is based on what is heard off to the side.” Student 4—“What I have learned about myself in that creativity exercise was that its ok to be different. First. I want to host a residence hall impromptu night. improvisation games provide idea grounds for the required mental state for brainstorming and problem-solving. Samples of students’ reflective journal at the end of the exercise are stated: Student 1—“I was surprised at how well everyone in the class was open and participated. I was proud that I stepped a little out of my comfort zone. In short. Of the things I saw in this situation. such as “improv”. 10. To reap the benefits of exercising creativity. to be weird. There was a lot of energy in the room. or will be triggered into inventing a new one. I was surprised when people who don’t talk much in class got up in front of their peers and acted out imaginatively. the participants have no choice but to piggyback and leapfrog. the written journal permits midcourse adjustments. Creativity requires trust among group members. Students had previously been introduced to the Kolb theory of experiential learning (Hackbert. They attend to both their direct interactions and their peripheral vision and hearing. and that each one can work on a different skill. I will be less cautious to show my creativity. Groups that are skillful at this game become ultra-sensitive to everything going on within the groups. I am eager and excited to attempt taping into my creative mindset using acting techniques. As an out-of-class written assessment.

P. Those 2 questions were: Question 11—Instructor’s assignments were helpful to my (students’) learning (author score is 3. Berea College institutes a standardized IEQ (Instructor Evaluation Questionnaire) across all courses at the end of each semester. 2006. 473-491. A. Baol. (1980). the findings indicated that the author’s scores meet or exceed the general education class comparisons or state differently departmental standards. London: Routledge. New York: Theatre Communications Group. Boal. (1993).0)? The obtained scores were reviewed and compared with the general education department’s fall 2007 IEQ scores for all 29 freshmen classes. (2005).0) and Question 16—How would you rate this course (author score is 3. (2006a). The net result is a marvelous introduction to brainstorming. A. Integrating active learning and cases in undergraduate entrepreneurship classes across the curriculum. CA: O’Reilly. New York: Basic Books. (2000). Proceedings of 2005 Illinois Online Conference for Teaching and Learning. familiarity. CA: Creative Arts. H. Hackbert. H. The majority of the students in the class (approximately 87%) labeled the class as either excellent or very good. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. 29. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. The use of improvisational drama techniques in engineering design education. M. New York: Harper Collins. Games for actors and non-actors. 14. Faste. AZ: Published in the conference 20 . M. Making sense of improvisation. Terpsichore in sneakers. Tucson. The myths of innovation. S. In addition to being fun to play. (1996). (2002). The course objective was to understand the importance and practices involved in being creative. Orlando. (1997). inventiveness and innovation Student 5—“In the bang game. R. It appears that the author was able to reach almost all of the class members with all of the students rating the overall teaching effectiveness indicator as average or above. In addition. I learned that life can jump out at you therefore you always have to be ready for a challenge. they greatly increase the trust.9 and campus mean is 4. Berkun. Corbett. (2007). (1992). Hackbert. The 14 fall-semester freshmen students rated this author’s first teaching assignment at Berea College at or above the mean on all but 2 of 16 questions. Advances in Strategic Management. At the end of the fall 2007. Csikszentmihalyi. Conclusion This paper has described how improvisational exercises and ball games borrowed from the world of improvisational drama can be used in general education courses to provide safe and enjoyable experiences which tap students’ natural creativity. 2005.” Second. 11. A. S. these ball games give the instructor numerous opportunities to talk about blocks to creativity and offer suggestions on how to overcome them. my greatest potential for improvement would be my listening skills. M. Florida. Crossam. When the IEQs were compared to all freshmen general education classes. Rise of the creative class. Using cases and active learning with undergraduate entrepreneurship classes. P. Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. twenty-nine classes were assessed. 155-180. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Overall. In: Innovations in engineering design education. inventive and innovative. Sebastopol. M. R. & Sorrenti. Proceedings of USASBE/SBI 2006 Joint Conference Proceeding.Using improvisational exercises in general education to advance creativity. Published online in the conference proceedings. (1988). References: Banes. Freshmen student written comments on the IEQs reveal on the whole that students were motivated. January 12-15. Improvisation: Music from the inside out. Theater of the oppressed. 89-92. (2005).9 and campus mean is 4. Berkeley. enthusiasm and social skills that are needed to overcome inhibitions that often stand in the creative process. Chase. February 16-18. piggybacking and leapfrogging. which is a very bold objective for first-semester freshmen at Berea College. many of the techniques can be utilized in their own right as kinesthetic and verbal thinking tools. FL: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. stimulated and inspired to meet the class objectives and class challenges.

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constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor. Introduction Nowadays. Department of Elementary Education. motivational. guided and constrained by their learning goals and the contextual features in the environment” (Pintrich. Pintrich’s SRL (self-regulated learning) model is used to find out whether the model was apparent in the learner’s reading comprehension process. SRL models. it was difficult to decide on which strategies were belonging to monitoring or control phases. candidate. In particular. feelings and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals” (Zimmerman. 2003). 2005. No. reading comprehension. Ph. research field: elementary education. p. Mersin 33169.10 (Serial No. but to have an overall idea about how a learner self-regulates. However. Actually. Department of Elementary Education. Turkey. self-regulated learners can be described as proactive individuals “who know how to plan. For successful learning in school. motivation and behavior. From a broad aspect. Middle East Technical University. control and reflection). USA How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading Fatma Kayan Fadlelmula1. Department of Elementary Education.D. Bell & Yetkin. affective. motivational. Fatma Kayan Fadlelmula. 2. Consequently. learning is regarded as “an active. 446). Purposeful sampling was used to obtain an in-depth understanding about how an experienced learner self-regulates and uses different kinds of strategies while reading an academic text. the aim is not to generalize self-regulatory processes for any learning task. ISSN 1548-6613. Yenişehir Kampüsü.October 2010. Ankara 06531. In particular. Department of Elementary Education. self-regulation can be defined as the ability to “develop knowledge. 2005. candidate. 22). Turkey) Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine how a learner self-regulates learning while reading an academic text. Meriç Özgeldi2 (1. The result of the study revealed that all the phases in the model were apparent in the participant’s reading comprehension task. behavioral and contextual). self-regulatory processes are categorized into 4 phases (forethought. Middle East Technical University. 1999). control and evaluate their cognitive. much of the empirical work also does not find much separation on these phases. and become more self-regulated (Boekaerts. behavioral and contextual processes” (Torrano Montalvo & Gonzales Torres. and each phase is divided into 4 areas of self-regulation (cognitive. In this model. It includes “self-generated thoughts. Key words: self-regulation. research field: elementary education. p. videotaping and semi-structured interview. students are required to continually adapt their knowledge and skills to new circumstances (Mohr. case study 1. Mersin University. 2005). The data were collected through observation. p. Self-regulation serves as a comprehensive framework for understanding how students become active agents of their own learning process (Pape. regulate and control their cognition. monitoring. Volume 7. Meriç Özgeldi.D. This might be because these phases are reflecting the learner’s thinking process.71) US-China Education Review. 453). 2004. 14). Mersin University. skills and attitudes which can be transferred from one learning context to another” (Boekaerts. p. Ph. 1999. 22 .

Pintrich. McCaslin & Hickey. Next. changing the atmosphere and structure of the learning environment. learners make judgments and evaluations about their task executions.. within the monitoring phase.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading It is generally acknowledged that powerful learning environments advance the use of self-regulatory skills (Boekaerts. the phases can occur simultaneously forming multiple interactions among the different components. which subcomponents it has. the causes of successes or failures. Table 1 illustrates Pintrich’s model of SRL. The purpose of this study was to examine how an individual self-regulates learning while reading an academic text. Helf & Itoi. educators need to concentrate not only on developing students’ academic skills. the 4 columns in Table 1 illustrate different areas for regulation. within the reaction and reflection phase. and receive appropriate feedbacks for monitoring and adjusting their self-regulatory practices (Torrano Montalvo & Gonzales Torres. 1997. the context column reflects the regulation of different aspects of the task environment and the cultural context where the learning is taking place. Learners go through several planning and activation processes. In addition. For instance. Besides. but also on improving the instructional settings and assisting students to become self-determined individuals (Konrad. 1998. and how this capability develops. Indeed. 2001. Winne & Hadwin. In addition. Then. It is possible to develop students’ self-regulatory skills by creating classroom context where students act as dynamic contributors to their learning (Schunk. motivational. and how they monitor. monitoring. control and evaluate their motivation. however. 2000. Although each model puts emphasis on different constructs about regulation and learning. efficacy judgments. control and evaluate their cognition throughout the learning process. 1989). Zimmerman. self-regulation has become a popular issue within educational psychology. behavioral and contextual). There are a number of different models offering alternative perspectives about how learning is self-regulated (e. As shown in Table 1. In order to promote students’ success both in school and beyond. In recent studies.g. 23 . 1999). 2007). control and reflection). such as self-efficacy beliefs. 2004). this does not imply that they are hierarchically or linearly structured. Boekaerts. In this study. such as goal setting. interests and values for the task. the cognitive column involves learners’ prior content knowledge. Finally. Especially. the goal of this study was to find out which processes of Pintrich’s model was evident in a learner’s reading comprehension task. 1997). Finally. These 4 phases are organized in a general time-ordered sequence. the motivation column includes learners’ motivational beliefs about themselves in relation to the task. 1999. In particular. assessments about the task and the learning environment as well as their choice of future behavior. help-seeking. In this model. have become major topics in educational studies (Zimmerman. such as increasing or decreasing effort. the forethought phase is the beginning of self-regulatory activities. self-regulatory processes are categorized into 4 phases (planning. learners figure out their state of cognition. as well as the strategies they develop to monitor. the authors selected Pintrich’s model mainly because it synthesizes the common frameworks of previous studies and offers a comprehensive model of SRL. understanding what SRL (self-regulated learning) is. within the control phase. motivation and behavior. time and effort planning. know the possibilities and limitations of that environment (Boekaerts. 2000). as well as the changing task and content conditions. and each phase is divided into 4 areas of self-regulation (cognitive. help-seeking and cognitive behaviors. 2005). they possess several features in common. the behavior column reveals learners’ general effort spend on the task as well as persistence. prior strategic knowledge. learners develop different selection and adaptation strategies.

the authors tried to understand the participant’s inner thoughts and figure out which phases were apparent in her reading process. 2004). 2003). the authors checked the traces she made on the reading text. Think-aloud technique is based on the verbalizing of thought processes and strategies. The interview lasted for about 20 minutes. In particular. time use. the authors used a think-aloud approach to follow the participant’s self-regulation process. the authors asked the participant to think in a loud voice while reading an academic text. In: Boekaerts. For data analysis. asterisks or summarizes. She was a doctoral student studying in elementary teacher education program. Handbook of self-regulation. and filled the checklists individually. the authors made an interview revealing the points in the checklist. she had her master’s degree in elementary mathematics teacher education. Prior content knowledge Ease of learning judgments (Time and effort planning) (Perceptions of task) activation (EOLs). and notes and questions written near the paragraphs. After the participant finished reading the text. While the participant was reading the text. need for help of motivation and affect and context conditions cognition (FOKs. regarding cognitive processes that individuals perform while engaging in learning activities (Torrano Montalvo & Gonzales Torres. the authors did not interfere in the process. P. underlined words. Burlington. we transcribed the video tape. thinking motivation and affect Help-seeking behavior (4) Reaction and Cognitive judgments Affective reactions Evaluation of task Choice behavior reflection Attributions Attributions Evaluation of context Note: Pintrich. perceptions of task (Planning for observations of planning and (Perceptions of context) Metacognitive knowledge difficulty activation behavior) activation Task value activation Interest activation Metacognitive awareness Awareness and monitoring of Awareness and monitoring Monitoring changing task (2) Monitoring and monitoring of effort.. During the observation. The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. such as the highlighted sentences. diagrams. JOLs) Self-observation of behavior Selection and adaptation Selection and adaptation of Increase/decrease effort Change or renegotiate task (3) Control of cognitive strategies for strategies for managing Persist. and it provides a useful source of data for examining an individual’s inner thoughts during a learning activity (YANG. such as personal comments. The data 24 . Before observing the participant. the authors triangulated the data obtained from the checklist. P. (Eds. The academic text was chosen from mathematics education context.). In addition. give up Change or leave context learning. 454. R. transcription and interview. Besides. R. Method This study was designed as a case study whereby self-regulation processes were analyzed in a natural and holistic perspective. (2005). Pintrich. Then. footnotes. In this way. MA: Elseiver Academic Press. related with classroom environments that enrich students’ mathematics learning and class interactions. the authors prepared a checklist including questions that reflect each area and phase of the Pintrich’s model. videotaping and semi-structured interview for data collection. 2. M. two qualitative methods were used for data analysis: think-aloud technique and trace methodology. The observation took about 3 hours and was recorded in a video type. trace methodologies are derived from signs and observable indicators. In this study. The authors used observation. M. Also. & Zeidner. The authors chose an experienced reader as a participant in order to obtain in-depth understanding about how an experienced learner self-regulates and uses different kinds of strategies while reading an academic text. and analyzed the process using Pintrich’s model.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading Table 1 Phases Cognition Phases and areas for SRL Areas for regulation Motivation/Affect Behavior Context Goal orientation adoption Target goal setting Efficacy judgments (1) Forethought.

Actually. In the interview. and each phase is divided into 4 areas of self-regulation (cognitive. Then. as well as the changing task and content conditions. After reading the subtitles. she started to prepare a summary paper including the title. After getting a general overview about the task. date and authors of the article in order to remember the context. Before reading the article. As an additional strategy. This might be an indication of time and effort planning for regulating behavior. This strategy can be actually an indication of her metacognitive knowledge activation. learners figure out their state of cognition.2 Monitoring phase In Pintrich’s model. The authors interpreted this as her perception of the task in regulation of context. interest activation and meta-cognitive knowledge activation with respect to the forethought. behavioral and contextual). 3. she looked how many authors contributed in the study. they were indicators of her target goal setting. planning and activation phase. After reading the title of the text. she also preferred to analyze the abstract for getting an overall idea about the reading context. the authors gathered data from the participant’s reflecting time and effort planning. motivational. In the interview. she checked the number of pages and decided how many hours she needed to spend for reading the text.1 Forethought/planning and activation phase During the observation. 3. such as asking herself “How can we integrate instructional scaffolding in mathematics education?” and “How can the coding be implied in a qualitative study?”. Therefore. The authors analyzed the data following the phases of this model in order to get in-depth information about how the participant regulated her learning and to which extend her regulation reflected the processes mentioned in the Pintrich’s model. she expressed that when there is more than one author. target goal setting. the study is more reliable. knowing these concepts might have influenced her motivation in reading the text as well as increasing her self-efficacy for understanding the context. prior knowledge activation. she wondered the date of publication of the article. She said that “I prefer to read the abstract before reading the text. she exposed her feelings. control and reflection). monitoring. such as judgments of learning (Pintrich. perception of the task. In addition. In addition. This can be a rehearsal strategy that she found important both for comprehending the passage and for using in her future studies. she performed self-questioning activities. This is also giving clue about her interest activation for regulating motivation and affect. These can be signs of her task value activation for regulating motivation and affect. such as “It seems interesting and exciting”. 25 . the participant read the title of the article and automatically remembered that she had idea about several concepts. motivation and behavior. she passed over the subtitles and tried to get an overall idea about the reading context. Then. such as “discourse analyzes” and “scaffolding” from a previous course she has taken.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading produced generally convergent conclusions. because I get more idea about what I am going to read about”. the authors asked the participant why she wondered the date and found that she thought that when the publications are up-to-date they include more valuable information. task value activation. For example. within the monitoring phase. 3. 2005). Data analysis Pintrich’s model of SRL is categorized into 4 phases (planning. This can be a clue for her prior knowledge activation in cognitive regulation. She also indicated that “I wonder what kind information I can gather from this passage by asking these questions”. learners can figure out their state of cognition through several cognitive monitoring activities. the answers of these questions were what she targeted to learn. Before the participant started reading the article.

2005). she tried to criticize the ideas and make predictions about the context.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading Judgments of learning may include a number of activities such as becoming aware of not understanding something read or heard. “How does this happen?”. When she completed the entire task. her learning strategies were based on self-questioning and finding answers to them. After refreshing break. while the participant was trying to comprehend a text. Mainly. she could attempt to increase her motivation for learning and reading the article. 3. it was clear that she was always in charge of her learning. she was reading the material again until she feels satisfied about her understanding. before she started reading the article. she used traces and highlights. learners can figure out their state of behavior through several time management and effort regulation activities (Pintrich. she was rapidly asking herself questions like “What is the relationship?”. These examples can suggest the cognitive strategies for reasoning. and put them at the top of the title. she increased her motivation for completing the article and she did not quit the learning task. she read it once more. she said. when she had difficulty in comprehending the text. 2005). In this study. the authors noticed that the participant could control her motivation. These can indicate the cognitive strategies for learning. she only used the asterisk. During the authors’ observation. she honestly indicated that she did not understand. general persistence is used as a sign of motivation (Pintrich. In general. Especially. she revealed the key words. and estimated the future education practice. This can indicate that she was self-observing her behaviors. While the participant did not understand the context at the beginning. “How can the coding be implied in a qualitative study?” and she attempted to find the answer. After reading the article. authors and some expressions that she found important and put new concepts into rectangle. At the beginning. Similar to monitoring cognition. but in this study. for example. but then she decreased the value of the article because she found some deficiency about presentation of the context and the article could not answer her expectations. and for each question she was trying to find reasonable answers. these kinds of learning judgments were observed very frequently. she came back. Similar to monitoring cognition. While she believed that the article was useful for her. and after 10 minutes break. for example. she spent approximately 1 hour. she indicated that it took nearly 2 hours as she predicted earlier. she took nearly 1 hour. they did not detect any kind of attempts from the participant for adjusting her effort or time usage to fit the task. She explained in the interview that she actually used some marks or symbols. not running out of time or showing a need for adjusting her effort level. although she did not obviously show evidence for monitoring behavior. “supportive classroom management” and “math”. From this example. for the second half of the task. For example. which may be an indication that she distinguished the information from content (Winnie & Hadwin. In such cases.3 Control phase The participant controlled and regulated various cognitive strategies for memory. Similarly. she decided to take a small break. At this point. she predicted to finish it nearly in 2 hours. she wrote “definition of scaffolding”. she continued to read the text. Actually. 1998). In a similar vein. She underlined definitions. For example. It is generally seen that she tried to interpret what she understood from the paragraphs and had some notes beside them. Moreover. Parallel with behavioral control. and then she tried to establish the relations with previous knowledge. By the time she completed half of the article. She overviewed the previous title and traced the text. For example. learning and reasoning for controlling cognition. “co-regulation” and “discourse analysis”. During 26 . This can be an evidence of the cognitive strategies for memory. 2005). she compared the situations between Turkey and the other countries. or asking oneself questions while trying to understand a reading passage (Pintrich. “Why did this happen so?”. it is obvious that she was successfully monitoring her learning. such as question or exclamation marks when she found something important.

and persisting on finishing the task. for example. she did not take decisions for possible future behaviors. she did not evaluate her cognitive. Pintrich (2005) categorized self-regulatory processes into 4 phases. the participant regulated her cognition. All these general evaluations can indicate contextual reaction and reflection. However. In conclusion. as well as some part of the task. In general. however. For instance. and planning time and effort for the task. 3. The authors selected Pintrich’s model mainly because it synthesizes previous models and offers a common framework for research in SRL.4 Reaction and reflection phase Finally. the goal of this study was to find out which processes of Pintrich’s model was apparent in a learner’s reading comprehension task. Therefore. motivational and behavioral strategies while she comprehends a text. reading a text is a routine activity in academic life. For example. she did not find the representations of coding remarkable. It might be difficult to differentiate between these 2 27 . it was somehow challenging to distinguish the participant’s self-regulation for the second and third phase. in general. For instance. Furthermore. she did not have any problems in completing the task. The authors observed these 2 phases. while comprehending the text. Actually. in terms of descriptive interpretation. she made various judgments and evaluations regarding the comprehended text. She made evaluations about the article. they decided on the learning task to be reading comprehension. For instance. Indeed. Self-regulation is not an easy task to be analyzed and interpreted. In this aspect. the authors could observe most of the components of this model clearly. they chose an experienced reader as the participant to observe different kinds of cognitive.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading the authors’ observation. motivation and behavior. the authors used Pintrich’s model of SRL to examine how an individual self-regulates her learning while reading a text. all the processes of Pintrich’s model were apparent in the participant’s reading comprehension task. and made descriptive and critical interpretation. she implemented different kinds of monitoring and controlling activities. 4. and divided each phase into 4 areas for regulation. while comprehending the academic material. Pintrich (2005) also suggested that “much of the empirical work on monitoring (phase 2). although she found it disorganized. such as judgments of learning. While she thought that her strategies were sufficient for reading comprehension. planning and activation activities. they perceived that the participant persisted in reading the article. she went through all of the 4 phases as suggested in the model. monitoring and controlling. she interpreted the concepts which were mentioned before and tried to explain their relationships while she was summarizing the literature review. It was hard to explicitly decide on which activities were belonging to monitoring process or controlling process. the expressions were positive and negative. Also. motivational and behavioral strategies. such as activating prior content knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. As a final step. she spent a lot of time on understanding the table. as compound to each other. On the other hand. the participant was successful in reading and comprehending the text. Discussion and conclusion In this study. In particular. the participant attempted to sum up what she understood from the context after reading the article. Pintrich’s model is useful as it offers a taxonomy of different processes and components that can be involved in a SRL. 455). Next. the participant performed several forethought. she thought the examples related to scaffolding interesting. In this study. In terms of critical interpretation. Next. self-observation of behavior. and control/regulation (phase 3) does not find much separation of these processes” (p. the authors tried to find out how self-regulation occurs while understanding a new text. Also.

Computers in Human Behavior.. More bang for the book: Using children’s literature to promote self-determination and literacy skills. Reconceptualizing think-aloud methodology: Refining the encoding and categorizing techniques via contextualized perspectives. R. 31(6). Torrano Montalvo. 64-71. (1998). B. (Eds. J. (2005).. (2000). In: Boekaerts. & Zeidner. J. & Hickey. (2003). (2007). C. (2003). E. P. MA: Elseiver Academic Press. Pape. R. Developing mathematical thinking and self-regulated learning: A teaching experiment in a seventh-grade mathematics classroom. Metacognition in educational theory and practice.. A. Models of self-regulated learning and academic achievement. E. Boekaerts. Studying as self-regulated learning. and students. Pintrich. M. knowledge of geometry. In: Zimmerman. The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. New York: Springer-Verlag. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: A Vygotskyan view. Burlington. Konrad. References: Boekaerts. the authors’ aim is not to generalize self-regulatory processes for any learning task. Pintrich. M. C. & Itoi. P. MA: Elseiver Academic Press. Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers. (2001). I. (2005). P. (2004). Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. & Zeidner. Handbook of self-regulation. D. & Schunk. F. (Eds. Learning and Instruction. Coming to terms with motivational constructs. teachers. J. 277-304.How a learner self-regulates reading comprehension: A case study for graduate level reading phases due to the fact that they are reflecting an individual’s thinking process. multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. YANG. 95-115. 116-119. (2000). Heif. B. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. 92. D. M. M. 179-202. & Schunk. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 28 . V. Self-regulated learning: Where we are today. Dunlosky. Pintrich. A. (1989). Pintrich. (Eds. 2(1). J. 1-34. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Eds. 1-25. they could gather different impressions about how different phases of regulation relate to different areas for regulation in Pintrich’s model. Mohr. B. 53.). Winne. S. 40(1). and gather information about main ideas and an overall conception of SRL. S. if the authors examined how self-regulation takes place in a mathematical problem-solving task. (Eds. Schunk. McCaslin.). 227-252. M. International Journal of Educational Research. In: Zimmerman. Journal of Educational Psychology. D. The impact of logo on pre-service elementary teachers’ beliefs. D. Zimmerman..). M. & Gonzales Torres. Self-regulated learning: Current and future directions. Mahwah. & Yetkin. P. but to look from a holistic perspective. H. In: Boekaerts. & Graesser. and self-regulation of learning. S. R. Mawah. 67(1). In: Hacker. R. For example. 451-502. Multiple goals.). Contemporary Educational Psychology. M. research. & Hadwin. it is important to consider that for different learning tasks. C. 13-39. 544-555. J. Educational Studies in Mathematics. P. NJ: Erlbaum. B. (1997). Dissertation Abstracts International. M. C. (2005). H. Actually. Teaching Exceptional Children. policy makers. 123. Attaining self regulation: A social cognitive perspective. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory. 445-551. D. 25. F. 3202899). Burlington. H. and practice. J. educators.). 19. T. 161-186. M. Finally. (1999). 7(2). D.. Bell. instead of examining how self-regulation occurs in a reading comprehension task. Zimmerman. S. (UMI No. it would be possible to observe different self-regulatory processes and activities. M. Handbook of self-regulation.

71) US-China Education Review. the problems of transition in South-East European countries. By the means of puppetry and dramatic play. In that sense. For effective delivery of prevention programmes. Volume 7. social skills training (assertiveness. Successful school drug-prevention programmes include personal skills training (decision-making. coping and goal-setting). The modern pace of life. 1991. The school is an ideal setting for drug abuse prevention and development of active and responsible attitudes against drug abuse. changes in the dynamics and structure of the family. 41). drug education (knowledge about drugs and the consequences of taking them) and developing attitudes (especially correcting misconceptions about peer group drug use). Prevention in schools does not only focus on drugs alone. Croatia) Abstract: The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drugs abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. the increasing hinger in the Third World countries. opinions and experiences. resisting peer-pressure). These processes create a dynamic and complex social-cultural context in which the young grow up today. the opportunity to consider their attitudes and values. University of Zadar. research field: puppetry. Drug abuse and drug addiction are the primary social problem in many Western European Diana Nenadic-Bilan. Zadar 23000. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention. Puppets help the students engage actively in communicating their emotions. the puppet play could be used as an interactive technique. University of Zadar. assistant professor. Key words: drug abuse prevention. interactive approach. USA Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention Diana Nenadic-Bilan. Department of Teacher and Preschool Teacher Education. the developed countries’ economies under recession. 29 . University of Zadar. The possibilities of functioning of the modern society have also been endangered by the increasing rates of drug addiction. School settings are the focus of most attempts to implement effective prevention programmes. the students may learn about drugs and the consequences of taking them. prevention programme. puppet play 1. interactive teaching is better than didactic teaching alone. The relinquishment of the old and well-established traditional values and the available pluralism of value systems and life-styles seems to lead to the “deconstruction of the phase of youth” (Baacke. Effective drug education programmes incorporate a range of activities which provide students with relevant factual information. research field: pedagogy-drug abuse prevention. No. the ecological crisis and many other negative social issues have averted the much expected improved life quality and world peace. Teodora Vigato (Department of Teacher and Preschool Teacher Education.October 2010. treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. and the values of others. Introduction The process of children’s and adolescents’ growth takes place in an exceptionally dynamic and complex civilizational and social context nowadays. Department of Teacher and Preschool Teacher Education. but also includes personal and social skills. global informatization. ISSN 1548-6613. assistant professor. and learn about the drug abuse problem. p. often with family involvement and involvement of local community.10 (Serial No. Teodora Vigato. the declining birth-rate and demographical problems in many Western European countries.

The literature discussing drug addiction prevention starts from the risk factors and the protection from addiction factors. damage control activities and drug supply reduction activities has been increased. social and hereditary factors with varying intensity of influence during a person’s development. Analyzing drug education over a long period in 146 high-school grades. religious institutions and the media. the social community. The drug addiction phenomenon is being analyzed through sociological. These authors pointed out that the understanding of the normative practice in drug education is the key to improving the results of preventive interventions. public policies. This approach includes a systematic effort on the part of all the educational factors: the family. psychological and pedagogical aspects. 2. the secondary prevention takes place after the occurrence of first symptoms and the tertiary prevention after the disorders are manifested. Since addiction as a global phenomenon knows no national or geographic borders. selective and indicated prevention.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention countries. selection and application of the addiction prevention programs. 2005) stress the need for a coordinated international action. so the measures of primary prevention are taken before the occurrence of problems in the functioning of a person. and also the social community factors. providing joint and organized support to addiction prevention programs and demand and supply reduction programs. planning. Hansen and McNeal’s (1999) works represent a useful analysis of the drug education programs.. According to Ialongo. criminal. partner-like. the recent European addiction prevention strategies (EU Drugs Action Plan (2005-2008). aggressiveness and bad self-control) achieve better results than later interventions aimed to change a child’s behavior toward the positive. their parents. The universal programs for addiction prevention are intended for the general child and adolescent population.9% of total time). it is important that the funding of the addiction prevention activities. Among the important risk factors that can be the targets of education. they lay special emphasis on the formation of the relevant normative beliefs and the development of adequate attitudes concerning drugs. Thus. and another one is addiction-resistant. The aim of universal prevention is to prevent or 30 . a publication of the American National Institute on Drug Abuse (2003) lists 16 principles of addiction prevention that represent the guidelines in the analysis. Hawkins and collaborators (Hawkins. Investigating the risk and protective factors. The national strategies of many Western European countries point out that there is no simple solution of the drug addiction problem. which are the result of long-term research in the field. and in the preventive activities. Considering the rate of risk to become an addict. they stress the principle of the common. Catalano & Miller. early intervention programs intended to reduce the risk factors (e.g. Poduska. Several decades’ research in the field of drug abuse etiology has revealed the complex interactive network of various individual. the authors found out that almost half of the drug-related education focused on providing information on drugs and health-related consequences of drug abuse (actually 45. It is by the concept of risk and protection factors that one aims to explain why a person becomes a drug addict. integrated and integral approach to the prevention of drug addiction. medical. legal. These levels of prevention are also characterized by the temporal dimension. it is possible to speak of universal. In accordance with the above mentioned. Werthamer and Kellam (2001). Drug addiction prevention The prevention of drug abuse and addiction is based on the principles that represent a common element of prevention programs. schools. 1992) considered that prevention programs achieve positive results by influencing the risk and protective factors accountable for drug abuse.

Efficient school prevention programs embrace personal skills training (decision-making. Resnik & Elias. 3. besides the role and one’s own identity. p. Drug education programs include various activities through which students acquire relevant information and analyze their views and their personal systems of values. which is the fundamental characteristic of the doll. safety and life philosophy. education about drugs (facts about drugs and the consequences of taking drugs) and developing attitudes (especially correcting wrong concepts concerning drug use by peers). there is also the animated figure that must exist within all of the 3 dimensions. with the abundant theoretical sources concerning the implementation of the authenticated models of prevention. the split is 3-fold. Beside that. This split often causes “hyper-awareness”. Among the school universal prevention systems. developing skills through interaction with puppets and other children. It seems that stylization. Through simplified situations. family. so school represents an adequate location for addiction prevention implementation. In performing the action in a show or in a dramatic play. A puppet can therefore be used as a confidential mediator in the correlation between the children and their environment (Majaron. the effective ones are the interactive programs based on the model of social influences or life competences (Bühler & Kröger. Puppet play and learning Children easily confide their feelings and wishes to dolls. p. Zins. Universal prevention programs are implemented on large groups of population without prior determining of the rate of risk from possible drug abuse. 2003) expressed satisfaction with the evident progress and a firmer empirical instituting of school addiction prevention. 2006). Utne O’Brien. and they are helpful in the process of making the decisions concerning personal health. school contexts and the contexts of smaller or larger local communities. This is a case of the “double mirror” or “meta-theater”. a significant number of empirically tested prevention programs. peer. School prevention programs embrace a whole spectrum of preventive efforts. The school context is the central application context of many addiction prevention programs (US Department of Education. a puppet makes better contact with children than a pedagogue or a parent could. from formal educational programs to general preventive activities that are integrated into the everyday school life. 2004. Since at the implementation of preventive activities one must make allowance for the principle of active knowledge and experienced acquisition of the practical use of skills. 2004. Concerning the application context. In the animated theater. and it is based on various approach techniques. The learning process with the aid of a puppet is characterized by the esthetic double. 7). it is possible to effectuate an abundance of allegorical games acceptable to children (Majaron. Weissberg. 2001). Animated figures become symbols of persons (Hamre. Preventive activities at school make possible the acquisition of the necessary skills. since doll represents authority. A puppet’s opinion will be accepted with more enthusiasm than a pedagogue’s opinion without a doll. helps children feel. the authors have chosen playing with dolls as one of the possible interactive forms of work in addiction prevention in this paper. p. Greenberg and collaborators (Greenberg. prevention programs can be carried out in various contexts—personal. Children spend a lot of time in the school environment. defining aims). which creates a split. as well as other persons’ systems of values. attitudes and facts. the split is between “being you” and “being a character”. Fredericks. 7). coping with stress. and by using objects as metaphors. accept and understand a symbolical situation.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention delay drug abuse. 2004. Playing 31 . 11). The children themselves construct their ideas.

though. the audiences forget that what is involved here is animated matter. The whole puppet theater. In the play. in the best way possible. the authors started by testing the knowledge on drugs in a 4th grade of a primary school. or in layman’s terms “muppet dolls” from the play by simpler forms. and the other way. 1991. and this is particularly true regarding puppets that are slipped on hands. The play Najveća su šteta droga i cigareta (Drugs and Cigarettes Do Most Harm) performed by the puppet theater in Zadar was envisaged in accordance with an educational model. regardless whether puppets or actors are used. the transition from the fictitious to the real. Next. and it is usually referred to as forum-theater and is very convenient as one of the forms of learning. instead. p. the player does not remain confronted to the world. the puppet theater has unlimited possibilities. monsters and fairies appearing on the puppet stage. when they start believing in the life of the not living. princesses. Everyone exists outside himself/herself. and the usage of slang. the harmfulness of drugs. It is believed that puppet play is the most adequate means to present the theme discussing the harmfulness of smoking in a stylized and metaphorical manner. the very kind that the authors have used. This moment precisely. so they used a puppet sock with no add-ons which they slipped on hands. makes it possible for the children to gradually distinguish the essential and the unessential. The player who creates the world of play and the world of rules enters that world by himself/herself. p. The world does not really change. and after that. and deals with topical problems making real impact through theater. Play implies parallel existence of 2 realities. In playing with puppets or while watching puppet plays. as well as children’s play. has magical elements. Puppet play in the function of addiction prevention In the research into the extent to which an educational theater performance can help prevention. A good choice of puppets and the mode of animation. which erases the difference between the performer and the audience. the authors organized puppet-play workshops in which they used some of the elements from the play. 1969. p. this is a post-modern convention dominating theater today.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention with the dolls. 127). It is well known that. the puppet theater usually starts from where actors’ theater ends. 1969. Depending on the type of puppet. is somehow based on this thin line between imagination and reality (Kovačić. made the performance vivid in a way acceptable to children. Things slowly acquired life and became more real than the audiences. 4. 15) claimed that conventional language in a puppet play acquires a different meaning. or whether the children take part in it or watches it. When children and grown-ups too. Actually. the children can also notice the relations between cause and effect (Misailović. the play acts cathartically. but the fictitious world changes the player. the authors tested their knowledge on the harmfulness of drugs once again. Watching the performance. they become more and more alive as the longer they are being watched. After a while. watch the puppets on stage. together with the teacher. Bastačić (1900. There was a reversal that. so the authors are used to the characters of dwarfs. 130). in order to present a very topical theme with very realistic characters. Anyway. he/she becomes a part of it. a very loose plot is interrupted by commentaries—facts about harmfulness of smoking. the authors saw. the students saw the play. the heroes were neighborhood good guys and the theme was a topical one. is exceptionally mild and easily made. due to its capability of presenting the unreal. children have gained a theater which does not show a story. 18). the necessary and the accidental. the authors used an expression already metaphorical on its own. p. A theater performance. Finally. The authors substituted mimic puppets. however. both the puppets and the children (Kovačić. under the sponsorship of the Ministry of 32 .

for making one’s own dolls enables the students to begin expressing themselves from the very start. the play warns against an ever more widespread disease of time. The author and director. and in the European puppetry tradition. The authors started with puppet improvisations aware of the fact that children should measure up to the requirements concerning originality and detach themselves from the puppet play stereotypes by the very choice of the puppet. The play Drugs and Cigarettes Do Most Harm uses mimic puppets. Mimic puppets are of recent origin. it creates these experiences as a contestant in the play (Jurkowski. (3) The pace of a puppet play is slow because the idea is repeatedly expounded so that it may be understood and accepted. They first came to understand that any object can be a puppet. It was important to people that they “make” a doll themselves. The play also presents statistic data which are aimed to shock and frighten the young audience. p. p. and the primary interest is focused on the dramatic form. coordination and interaction with the environment. The author and director did not give nuance to the characters of the personage and used typical characters in typical situations. “If I give up smoking I’m sure I will never start doing drugs”. After the play. because the aim was primarily an educative one. and the second one had to do with the particular qualities of puppet expression that uses symbols so that a single boy or girl has all their peers’ traits.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention Health and Social Welfare of the Republic of Croatia. 33 . the use of puppets in the presentation of such a theme is far more convincing than live actors would be. Each finding their own motives against the cigarette. from the moment they choose a character. This is achieved by marked motions of the jaw. Staging the play is less important. best suited to puppet plays in which speech dominates over motion. and (4) Striking examples on the puppet stage have marked consequences in everyday life (Kovačić. 341). Through a story of dropping the habit of smoking. It all had to be captivating and reminiscent of children’s play1. so that the form of presentation by puppets changes the animator and the borderline between the audience and the performers disappears. because puppetry integrates almost all the disciplines important for a child’s development: perception. chosen and slipped on their hands the sock-doll themselves. On the other hand. The difference between a child’s participation in a theatre performance and in the workshops is that. speech and story. That is. there was a different kind of work in dramatic workshops. by opening and closing of the mouth. smoking and drug use. Dražen Ferenčina. song or game make children happy. the characters managed to resist the temptation and pointed at the harmfulness and the negative consequences of smoking in a funny way. the child goes through experiences presented in a parallel world. 134). people came closer to the modern drama education which rejects the conventional ways of theater works at school. so they did not spend much time making dolls. and it was intended to explain all the bad consequences of the vice to young audiences. they had brought. The work is directed to the group and it only serves to teach the facts on the harmfulness of drugs. for 2 reasons: The first reason was to make it easy for the children to recognize themselves. 1969. in the first case. Everyone participates in the play in an equal manner. 2007. Nobody should be left aside as an observer. (2) The puppet is always put in the role of a typical representative who must clearly express uncomprovising views and support them. Puppets of that sort were made popular by the Muppet Show series which gave them their name. which teachers 1 The 4 essential characteristics of playing with puppets are: (1) Comicality of the puppet. Always the same story. otherwise. which is not theatrical only because the possibility of participation of anyone outside the group is either eliminated or negligible. Learning aided by dolls is beneficial. they are usually created when the author wishes to depict man as a caricature. and in the second. That is. it suits the child’s wish for repetition. that is. The first stage of the work. expressed the theme in the strongest manner by a line of one of the heroes. Because of that.

after that the puppet speaks and the child is visible. shared deliberation and mutual understanding. Bühler. then two children talk to the doll. Using puppet plays as an interactive way of acquisition of knowledge on drugs and the consequences of drug abuse is proved to be an attractive and entertaining form of learning. administered after the drama workshop. was simply skipped so they could concentrate on the more important issues2. 50% of the children stated that tobacco is not a drug in the first test. the children talk to their doll-partners. then the two dolls talk to each other and the children are visible. it is noticeable that there were far more correct answers in the final test. starting from the introduction. References: Baacke. The characters needed no special elaboration since they were simply boys or girls. 2 dolls talk to each other as 2 partners and tell each other what they have learned about the harmfulness of drugs. children construct and co-construct knowledge in an intensive interaction with the environment. D. In the second phase. to negotiate. As an illustration. the authors defined the content of the story. and finally. The peak of the action would be when each child tells other children what he/she had learned about the drug harmfulness issue.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention and educators are quite fond of. the authors therefore chose a puppet play and a drama workshop. so that puppet might acquire a magic form in which inanimate matter comes to life. the child talks to the doll. they interpret and construe them actively. are motivated to express and compare diverse opinions. Expertise on the prevention of substance abuse. A characteristic of the puppet theatre is that dolls are types so character peculiarities are lost. Weinheim. 5. to hear other people’s statements and to reformulate initial assumptions. The authors achieved a very dynamic atmosphere that contributed to a vivid and interesting communication. (1991). Individual development is a result of social interaction within which the group members share and internalize common cultural denotations. The authors met the characters and the place of the puppet play. Zagreb. Z. Such an approach to learning is completely different from the traditional approaches and didactic teaching by grown-ups. With this method. both the child and the doll speak to the audience. p. and only 15% gave the same answer in the final one. Comparing the results of the initial and the final tests of the students’ knowledge concerning drugs. 2 Kovačić’s model of child work with puppets (1969. Reflecting upon a possible interactive approach to the construction of school-children’s knowledge about drugs. 137): The child speaks on his/her own first. is in constant interaction with its social and physical environment. as a constructive creator of its own education and development. then dolls talk to each other and the children are hidden. active listening. A puppet has a heart and mind. Then. Children. the doll talks to the audience instead of the children when the characters/dolls introduce themselves and when the audiences learn about the spot in which the plot takes place. (2006). then takes a puppet that speaks while the child is hidden. The authors tried to make a moment of animation. 34 . After that. Instead of a conclusion The children. The authors wanted to develop 3 ways of communication with dolls: First. C. Forschung und Praxis der Gesundheitsförderung. Bastačić. From 13th to 18th years. The plot would be the dialogs among children about the harmfulness of drugs. among other things. and dolls become signs. The emphasis is on free and active participation in common activities. The children do not acquire their experiences in a passive manner. (1900). the children talk to the dolls as a partner when the harmfulness of drugs is discussed. A. and finally. Growing up in a specific social-cultural context. & Kröger.

W. Ochshorn. (Edited by Nicole and Lily) 35 . disciplined. R. 58. & Miller. & Elias. O. (1969). H.. D. (2000). (2003). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. (1999). (2000). A child and a puppet. I. Misailović. R.Puppet play as interactive approach in drug abuse prevention Vol. E. Zagreb: Društvo Naša djeca. 9(3). M. J. Catalano. Zins. (2007). Theater animations-theater utopia and transformation.. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Tobler. DPMP monograph series. Resnik. J. In: Lazić. Journal of Primary Prevention. EU Drugs Action Plan (2005-2008). Hamre. J.). Bethesda: U. W. Soole. Werthamer. E. Washington: Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination. Fredericks. Paljetak. 64-105. In: A puppet … a wonderful wonder. B. Hansen. Propedeutics of puppetry.). American Psychologist. Šibenik.. Official Journal of the European Union. (2005). Monograph No. J... 275-335.. Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung. 85-97. 20(4). and community leaders (2nd ed. US Department of Education. Roona. 146-160. 7-20. The learning process in the theater of paradox.. D. School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. Jurkowski. (2004). Department of Health and Human Services. R. 166-474. (1991). and academic learning. L. S. Preventing drug use among children and adolescents..S. (Ed. A child and theater arts. 127-145. (2003). Safe. The right of the child to the puppet.. Greenberg. Utne O’Brien. Puppet for theater and soul. B. R. a research-based guide for parents. Mrkšić. 57-62. In: Scenic creativity of children and adults for children. J. M. H. S. & Kellam. 168. & Rombouts. 07: School based drug prevention: A systematic review of the effectiveness on illicit drug use. (1975). L.. M. and drug-free schools programs. L. Psychological Bulletin. (1992). Mazerolle. P. 14(1). Ialongo. Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social. S. Zagreb. Drug education practice: Results of an observational study. Hamre. (2005). Cologne. (2007). et al. Subotica: Međunarodni festival pozorišta za djecu. 112. N. Poduska. Fitzroy: Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre. Hawkins.. 29. Jugoslavenski festival djeteta Šibenik. & McNeal. Zagreb: Međunarodni centar za usluge u kulturi. In: Children’s creativity. B. F. The theory of puppetry. N. Beograd. The distal impact of two first-grade program interventions on conduct problems and disorder in early adolescence. Health Educational Research. Majaron. educators. L. T. (2001).. Kovačić. M. Šibenik. Weissberg. (2001). R. I. emotional. Wooden smiles. Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike. (2004). L. M. National Institutes on Health. 1-18. Office of Special Education Research and Improvement. National Institute in Drug Abuse. Y.

and the power and limitations of statistical analysis. Spain) TPF FPT Abstract: Statistics teaching should not be carried out in the same way for all kinds of university students.. tests. Department of Statistics & O.. María Jesús Rosales-Moreno. The approach takes into account the students’ levels and the kind of studies or professional orientation of these students.71) US-China Education Review. The authors address this latter group of students (social. lecturer. The objective for this teaching is to have students learn basic statistics tools and solve real problems that may appear in their future careers. research field: demographic statistical. juridical or economic studies Esteban Navarrete-Álvarez. (3) To understand the application and interpretation of the different chosen techniques to answer correctly real questions. these methods are presented and explained at that time. labor or even economics). University of Granada. lecturer. the authors return to the beginning. research field: survival analysis. teaching statistics should take into account the different fields of study that students have chosen. social. R. to give an interpretation of the results. (2) To incorporate new technologies in support of teaching statistics.. Department of Statistics & O. University of Granada.10 (Serial No. The work has the following objectives: (1) To make learning theory and practice of statistics easier for students to pursue this degree. In today’s society. R. USA Teaching statistics in labor. It is also desirable that students learn statistics by using new technologies at that time. R. when they stimulate the learning to become something educational. The presence of these educational resources in the university Esteban Navarrete-Álvarez. The authors propose a direct approach: beginning with a real situation or supposition with real data. No. María Dolores Huete-Morales. To answer the questions. R. Introduction. University of Granada. Questions of interest are explored and put into the language of statistics. This. Granada 18071. For example.. the kind of questions that an intelligent use of statistics can answer. María Dolores Huete-Morales (Department of Statistics & O. (2) To assimilate and value the statistics method. Faculty of Sciences. Instead. research field: survival analysis. Volume 7. Key words: education. the authors introduce an experience carried out in the framework of the labor relations degree of the university. Department of Statistics & O. related to the possibilities that new technologies will be offered in the teaching field.October 2010. Faculty of Sciences. 36 . students of sciences or engineering have different interests and backgrounds compared to students of any social or juridical field. the basic ways of statistics reasoning. teaching methods 1. there is a greater need to teach statistics to students with only a basic knowledge of mathematics. This is the reason why the authors’ efforts are oriented to guiding their students: (1) To understand and appreciate the role of statistics in their future careers. that is. ISSN 1548-6613. If needed. Faculty of Sciences. juridical. Finally. María Jesús Rosales-Moreno. the necessary statistical methods are used. Faculty of Sciences. lecturer. demands changes in statistics techniques teaching and it is a challenge for the professional teachers. objectives presentation In this paper. University of Granada.

They also propose to generate a large collection of these real suppositions with real data. It will be the statistics method application 37 . The course is summarized in the following points: (1) There are a limited number of hours to explain the theatrical and practical aspects for a basic preparation in statistics. and its interpretation. This practice has been shown not to motivate students. as well as solutions to problems. etc. as basic tool to treat data of labor. The basic difference in teaching statistics to different audiences (engineering. probability and inference). This needs more than 1 or 2 questions for these professionals. 2. etc. social or juridical fields. to a serial of questions to them. and 724 registered this year). the authors’ experience is oriented: (1) To elaborate a teaching material. These students are divided into 6 sections. Next. The authors also emphasize the lack of motivation in the students when faced with a subject they see as unrelated to their chosen degree. the intensity or the kind of applications used. However. engineering. The authors think that the students have to see the real situation from the beginning. and from this to extract and solve relevant questions. the intellectual foundation is also the knowledge of such tools. In relation to the teaching material. The authors extract possible questions that can be observed in the supposition and present a solution interpretation within the context of the supposition. Statistics is considered as a difficult subject for these students. economic or social field. and develop them for use by the students. social. The authors propose to generate all the content of the official program of the subject through suppositions directly related to the labor/juridical world. there is a vacuum in the application of statistics to the labor. (2) There are a large number of students. developing the study of data characteristics and later. comprehensive approach where they do not get lost because of difficult theoretical developments or calculations. (2) To improve teaching and learning using new technologies. For that. social sciences. Normally. Moreover.) that develop the contents at different levels. The statistics course carries 6 credits (1 credit=10 working hours). they present the students with the practical reality throughout a real supposition of a labor/social/juridical/economic nature.Teaching statistics in labor. Taking into account the described reality and the proposed objectives. based on the continuous presence of the image that drives all the teachers new ways of performance and expression. those are logic and interesting to carry out an appropriate analysis of these situations.) is usually in the approach. The authors’ main objective has been to introduce a collection of suppositions involving real live examples from these fields. Students in the labor relations degree program need an intuitive. Experience description All these considerations have been taken into account to overcome the specific difficulties that are present in teaching statistics in the first year of the labor relations degree (there were 683 students registered in this degree program in the previous year. juridical. avoiding the great practice use that they have with the statistics tools. doing examples. there exist many statistical texts oriented to other disciplines (biology. juridical or economic studies teaching is a reality imposed by the practice and a dominant culture. in a direct way. statistic teaching starts by introducing the concepts. The authors show the students the foundations of statistics (descriptive statistics. At the same time. it is possible to look in detail the justification of the existence of this tool discipline (statistics). most of them having no previous knowledge in statistics and low level of mathematics ability.

different websites of public or private organisms (National Institute of Statistics. natural way that related to the future careers of the students. according to a survey of the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS. etc. 80% of unemployed people receive between 300 and 750 euros. at other time. Sometimes. The objective is: (1) To introduce the course material in an intuitive. the object was to answer the proposed questions scientifically and explain the solution by using the conventional juridical. juridical or economic nature. Batanero (2001) and Sirkin (1999).). The authors then classified the suppositions into 3 categories according to the complexity of the statistical methods needed. etc. etc. The authors’ procedure does not consist of creating problems or exercises in the classic sense. they present and study real situations (suppositions). The following is an example of a supposition that includes some questions: A study of unemployment benefits is proposed. They can be considered as original statements. Instead. the solutions were produced by hand. calculation of probabilities. statistics inference. (2) To facilitate the learning of the course material by presenting different statistics methods and their application.Teaching statistics in labor. using a statistical package. the following steps will be followed to reach a resolution to different questions proposed: (1) Translating the questions into statistical. daily press. A lot of suppositions have been collected from sources. 38 . In this way. No statistical package was relied on exclusively. (2001. This has obliged to a following treatment of suppositions and complementary questions. at different levels. etc. which include specific data of the area and may be part of the future careers of students. social. Ideal. the authors start with a collection of real suppositions from the areas related to labor. labor or social language (Finkelstein & Levin. Andalusian Institute of Statistics. Ministry of Labor). 2002).. et al. El Mundo. The result of this work is a packet of suppositions with solutions and comments.) or of general purpose. trying to introduce an important variety of themes and the use of a greater part of the statistics techniques that a future professional of this field has to dominate. tried to show a real and current situation. the following information is known. The task of creating this collection of suppositions has been difficult. The authors translated the subject matter questions into statistical language and justified what statistical concepts and methods were needed. Excel. In these. juridical or economic studies of descriptive statistics. These questions were chosen to coincide with common questions in statistics exercises. 2001. and with real or proposed data. In all the suppositions. instructors’ own research. etc. that cover all the material in the course. social. the authors try to respond in a varied way. statgraphics. the authors made up questions that professionals in the fields would set out to answer. Ramsey. The average benefit that an unemployed person receives is 540 euros each month. et al. At the end. 2002). (2) Justifying the statistical technique that will be used to help answer each question. and 10% receive more than 750 euros. In this process.. First of all. For that. This is carried out so as to increase the motivation and interest in statistical studies. the authors have used other resources for example.. which cover different problems. The authors have tried to include questions. search in websites.. After moving the authors’ questions to the statistics language and justifying the statistics concepts and techniques that could be considered. though are invented or inspired by other sources. (3) Presenting a solution and comment on its interpretation. those that will give answers to the different questions explained. questions were answered by hand or by different statistics packets or programs (SPSS. regression methods or times series. Others. such as national or local press (El País. Abad.

Are there contradictions in the data? (3) Observe and comment on the mixture of different percentages included in this supposition. 69% of unemployed people consider this a low benefit as compared to 19% that consider that benefit for unemployment is enough.Teaching statistics in labor. Vemos que los salarios de menores de 18 años quedan muy por debajo del resto. es decir los salarios han disminuido. (2005). or working sometimes. a situation considered non-acceptable by unemployed people. An example of some Power Point slides appears in Figure 1 and Figure 2. They decided to use Power Point mainly because of its easy operation. try to get the dispersion level that exists among the unemployed peoples’ benefits.ugr.700 people. In regards to the teaching environment and how technology can motivate and facilitate the learning process related to the subject. social. 70% of unemployed people believe that very often people that receive the unemployment benefit continue working. (1) Identify the basic variable that is considered in this supposition. A web site with a clear and simple structure is used to make the material available to students 1 . viewing conditions and the strong support provided for using audiovisuals in the classroom. Comment on the suitability of any probabilistic sample to answer questions related to this TPF FPT Ficha para el alumno Evolución del salario mínimo interprofesional en España Departamento de Estadística e I. juridical or economic studies Sociological Investigations Centre). (2) With the data available. Universidad de Granada Figure 1 Power Point slide 1 Evolución del salario mínimo interprofesional en España Representamos gráficamente la serie de salarios constantes La serie tiene una tendencia descendente. The work developed has been fruitful in the publication of the book whose reference is Navarrete. Figure 2 Power Point slide 2 1 TP PT Retrieved from http://www. 39 . the authors use Power Point to present the suppositions. The survey data were collected in November and December 1996 and January 1997 in interviews of 4. Necessity and the lack of sufficient benefits justify this. et al.

At the end of the course.56 (sample 2) 133 (sample 2) (-0.2675. -0. the authors compare the performance of students in a section of the course before the suppositions were developed to a section of the course who used the materials discussed in this paper.3916. (1) Hypothesis test concerning the difference between the proportions of 2 samples from binomial distributions (registered-attendance) is shown in Table 2. Table 4 Hypothesis test of 2 samples (presented-passed the exam) 0. The data have shown an improvement in the valuation of the subject (see Table 1). -0.45 (sample 1) 139 (sample 1) 0. The focus on this comparison was on class attendance.0697 (3) Hypothesis test concerning the difference between the proportions of 2 samples from binomial distributions (presented-passed the exam) is shown in Table 4. -0.56 (sample 2) 75 (sample 2) (-0.47463 0.0069 Sample proportions Sample sizes Confidence interval for difference between proportions (95%) Statistic value p-value Reject the null hypothesis for alpha 5% 40 . the students completed a survey about their motivation level and their use of the course material.0081) -1. juridical or economic studies 3.7026 0. A higher percentage of students who used the suppositions pass the exam compared to those who did not use the suppositions.01334 (2) Hypothesis test concerning the difference between the proportions of 2 samples from binomial distributions (registered-presented) is shown in Table 3.Teaching statistics in labor. Table 2 Hypothesis test of 2 samples (registered-attendance) Sample proportions Sample sizes Confidence interval for difference between proportions (95%) Statistic value p-value Reject the null hypothesis for alpha 5% 0.2281.0325) -2. Table 3 Hypothesis test of 2 samples (registered-presented) Sample proportions Sample sizes Confidence interval for difference between proportions (95%) Statistic value p-value Reject the null hypothesis for alpha 5% 0. Experience assessment The authors use the exam for the course as an assessment of the students’ progress.43 (sample 1) 63 (sample 1) 0. social. Table 1 Number of registered students Before After 139 133 Impact of the use of the suppositions Presented in an exam from the Attendance Passed the exam from the presented registered students 57 63 21 75 75 42 In order to show the impact of the use of the suppositions.0684) -2.41 (sample 1) 139 (sample 1) 0. attendance at the exam and exam performance.56 (sample 2) 133 (sample 2) (-0.8138 0.

Batanero. Derivation and validation of the automated readability index for use with technical materials. D. and reading speed incorporation on the reliability/validity of a computer-based sentence reading test. References: Abad Montes. Kutsumi. Finkelstein. kamakuranet. P. A. Someya. 104(5). & Harvill. Reprographics in Faculty of Sciences. ne. A model and a hypothesis for language structure. V. Yoshimi. Data analysis for social sciences with SPSS.. 444-466. 323-340. Conclusion The experience in this paper shows that a considerable improvement exists in the students’ results. & Kincaid. M. H. (2001). University of Granada. 457-464. JACET Bulletin. (2002). The effects of stimulus presentation mode. Newton. 12. M. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc. Ramsey. Transactions of Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education. J. juridic or economic problems. J. M. H H (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 41 . (2005). Statistics in labour. T. 24-29. Tono. (2000).jp/someya/wlc/wlc_manual. Sata. F.Teaching statistics in labor. O. A corpus-based analysis of interlanguage development: Analyzing part-of-speech tag sequences of EFL learner corpora.. The elements of statistics: With applications to economics and the social sciences. Vargas Jiménez. T. Vargas Jiménez. A prediction model of sentence reading time based on linguistic features and EFL learners’ reading ability. Statistics teaching should not be carried out in the same way for all kinds of university students. & Abad Montes... CA. C. S. J. (1999). 22(1). Vapnik. B.. 25(3). & Vargas Jiménez. Human Factors. T. social. M. (2009)... Navarrete Álvarez. T. (2002). K. H. Yngve. Kutsumi. I. M. Yoshimi. Rosales Moreno. J. Retrieved from http://www1. & Levin. Kotani... & Isahara. L. A. Berlin. Statistical learning theory. H. L.5. (1998). London: Sage Publications Inc. T. B. Transactions of Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education. E.. 272-281. Proyecto Sur Ed. Smith.. 155-172. 29. MA: Duxbury Press. & Huete Morales. K. (2001). 1999. Newbury Park.. Sirkin. (1998). M. L. (1960). Statistics for lawyers. (1970). (2000). Statistics for social and labour sciences. (2005). R. Y.. Sata. & Isahara. NY: Wiley-Interscience. Proyecto Sur Ed. social. F. North Scituate. H. Word level checker: Vocabulary profiling program by AWK. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) (continued from Page 9) Shizuka. E. the levels that appear in tables confirm this fact. Y.html. A method of measuring reading time for assessing EFL-learners’ reading ability. V. D.. M. Kotani. Didactic of statistics.. PALC. question type. Abad Montes. M. I. (2001). F.. 1. University Publishing Group (Granada). Statistics for the social sciences. some students’ learning is better if the problem appears with real data and suppositions. The American Philosophical Society. S. Huete Morales.. juridical or economic studies 4.

but also to the international companies of universities all over the world. students’ personnel management 1. 42 . stratified and simple random sampling techniques. University of Lagos. Ph. with particular focus on their welfare. Phillips Olaide Okunola. processes and procedures whose primary purpose is to enhance and maintain learners’ physical. University of Lagos. USA Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice Ramoni Ayobami Alani. Using a descriptive survey research design. No. such as curriculum focus. year of establishment. Nigeria.10 (Serial No. Key words: welfare services. ISSN 1548-6613.D. Phillips Olaide Okunola. the learners tend to form the central/focus point. Ph.October 2010. research fields: educational planning and policy. Introduction The university. Nigeria) Abstract: Motivating learners in university depends largely on those services. They are looking for models outside their parents to copy. social. intellectual and emotional well-being. Department of Educational Administration. Within the educational setting. human resources development. as the apex of the educational system and the highest level of human capital development. Ph. Faculty of Education. The study involved public universities in South-Western Nigeria with different characteristics. Faculty of Education. Faculty of Education. Several issues have resulted in a lot of controversies at several academic for over the effectiveness of Nigeria learners in the universities relative to their counterparts in the developed world.D. remain the most precious resources. University of Lagos. universities. personnel management. The major findings among others were that provision of welfare services in all universities was inadequate and seemed to be responsible for learners’ low level of satisfaction and poor motivation to learning. wherever a discussion is thrown open on human resources management.D. Volume 7. Lagos. the target population for the study was the final-year undergraduate students drawn from three faculties and a college using multi-stage. Consequently. as identified by Maduewesi (2005). research fields: institutional planning. This is because the learners. Sikiru Omotayo Subair (Department of Educational Administration. research fields: educational planning. not for use. economics of education... but for moulding. Faculty of Education. those institutions where they learn and those who take care of the students should be concerned with their entire welfare. Ramoni Ayobami Alani. The SWESAQ (students’ welfare service assessment questionnaire) instrument was administered on 800 students that constituted the sample frame. University of Lagos. Much like the school system is a person-processing organization. ownership and residential statuses. has bonds of loyalty not only to the country which supports it. Sikiru Omotayo Subair. Department of Educational Administration.71) US-China Education Review. This study examined the situation of welfare services in the context of university education vis-à-vis students’ perceived motivation to learning. the implications of these findings for students’ personnel management practice were discussed and necessary suggestions were given. Department of Educational Administration..

Institutions of learning should thus have an understanding of the roles assumed by learners. with common rooms. 43 . intellectual and emotional well-being of students. degree marketability and transportation as the basic welfare services that would serve the entire students populace in any higher institution of learning. It is equally important to acknowledge that individuals are unique. and so on. The administration of these welfare programmes in the tertiary institutions. Welfare provision within the school setting can be divided into support services (people you can turn to for help). but the means of it must never violate the dignity of learners. these needs all meant to enable every student to develop self-esteem. Others constitute secondary needs. This concept implies that learners must be treated with respect. bed-sitting rooms. student unionism. Individuals are very much more than a merely productive factor in management plans. social. career information. no matter what their positions. 2. They are consumers of goods and services and thus. they vitally influence demand. Individual learners can be helped to satisfy their own needs and utilize their potentials and at the same time contribute to the aims of an enterprise. status. Subair (2008) conceptualized student welfare service as one of the wide range of services put in place by school authority. They have different needs. the individuality and the personalities of learners. particularly universities. career information. to ensure sound learning of students in the campus. bursary award/scholarship. ambitious. The question is: What is the situation of welfare services in the universities? How have they affected students? What are the implications of these (welfare services) to student personnel management practices? It is against this background that the study examines the state of welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria. black bow ties at all dinners and the high table. He further identified accommodation. Some of these welfare services constitute primary needs. course information. Statement of the problem It is sufficient to say that the early formative years of the first generation universities were a period characterized by the buzzing excitement of academic enterprise. different levels of knowledge and skills and different potentials. with others. hall masters and wardens. such as counselling. including students’ unionism. Achieving results is important. border on the number of persons and activities that are administered through a number of governmental programmes and universities governing policies co-ordinated by the Student Affairs Unit. support from tutor. maintain and enhance the physical. affiliation. processes and procedures whose primary purpose is to motivate. bursary. giving. such as the physiological requirements for water and shelter. accomplishment and self-assertion. support from tutors. and the Personnel Development Programme which is designed to help students devise effective coping strategies for what can be a very high pressure course and career. counselling.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice Welfare issues in the context of university education are those services. Hypotheses The hypotheses formulated for this study were that: Ho1: There is no significant relationship between welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning. attitudes and desires for responsibility. Ho2: There is no difference among students in their level of satisfaction with the available services in the universities. This is in contrast to what obtains today in the universities. to mention only a few. 3. The elitist flavour was palatable. affection.

hence. To test this hypothesis. These are faculties of education.062. The result of the Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient shows that a calculated r-value of 0.31 7. while LAUTECH had no faculty of education at the time of this study. students’ unionism and worship centres). and others (transportation. Findings Ho1: There is no significant relationship between welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning. This implies that there is a significant relationship between welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning. with a check list of welfare services meant to be rated by the respondents. their selection was based on geographical spread and location.60. Fifty final-year students were selected from each faculty and college. the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is upheld. The students sample was drawn from 3 faculties and a college. ownership status. P<0.31 for welfare services than the lower mean ( Χ ) of 66. Methodology The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study.73 Variables Welfare services Students’ perceived motivation to learning Notes: *Significant.05. df 798 SD 8. 5. The results are presented in Table 1. C4. C2. health services. The population of the study comprised all final-year undergraduates in the public universities in South-Western Nigeria.635 is greater than the critical r-value of 0. Consequently. the respondents’ responses on sections C1. Ho2: There is no significant difference in the students’ levels of satisfaction with the available infrastructure 44 . The instrument has 6 parts that covered variables: hostel accommodation. This result is significant. Table 1 Relationship between university welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning N 800 Χ 68. This means that there exists a statistically significant relationship between welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning. security and environment.05 level of significance. the public universities used were the University of Ado-Ekiti (UNAD). year of establishment and curriculum focus. C6 and D2 of the questionnaire were computed into mean ( Χ ) and SD (standard deviation).96 r-cal 0. A research instrument tagged the SWESAQ.60 66. SD=7. For example. given 798 degree of freedom at 0. The multi-stage.96 obtained for students’ perceived motivation to learning. UNAD has no college of medicine. sports/recreation centres. bursary awards/scholarships. Federal University of Technology (FUTA) and Ladoke-Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH). df=798. the Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient statistical procedure was used to determine whether the university welfare services have significant relationship with students’ perceived motivation to learning. stratified and random sampling techniques were used to select the students’ sample.73. However. science and engineering and college of medicine. C3. SD=8. Thereafter. information and counselling centres. but some faculties/college were not available in some institutions.635 * r-critical 0.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice 4. C5. an 87-item questionnaire developed by the researcher to elicit from students’ necessary information about the state of welfare services was used. University of Lagos (UNILAG). FUTA has neither faculty of education nor college of medicine. a total of 200 final-year students comprised the final sample for the study.062 Table 1 reveals a comparatively higher mean ( Χ ) scores of 68. Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU).

SD=9.68* 2. Due to this significant difference. B4. one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to verify whether the significant difference in students’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services exists. P<0.44.18 51.22.05) or those with low level of satisfaction (t=2.26 9. while protected t-values are above the diagonal. followed by students with low level of satisfaction exhibiting slightly higher mean ( Χ ) scores of 45. The results of the one-way ANOVA indicate that the calculated F-ratio of 38. This result is significant.90 Moderate level of satisfaction (N=206) 7.05 level of significance. B2.05).22 Degrees of freedom 2 797 799 Means of squares 602.06 0. C1.06.04A 3. df=592. the analysis of the Fisher’s protected t-test pair-wise comparison of group means ( Χ ) shows that students with high level of satisfaction significantly enjoy higher satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services in the universities than either those with moderate level of satisfaction (t=3. df=2(797).54 15. differences in group means are below the diagonal. C3. C5 and C6 were computed and their mean ( Χ ) scores and SD were found.07 High level of satisfaction (N=352) -0.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice and welfare services in the universities.73 Total 13819. the null hypothesis is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted. C2. This implies that there is a significant difference in the students’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services in the universities.26 than the students with moderate level of satisfaction with the mean ( Χ ) scores of 44.74 F-critical 3. the respondents’ scores were used to categorize them into high.16 44.90.04 44. P<0. However.06 is higher than the critical F-value of 3.83 F-ratio 38.68. SD=7. B5.74. students’ responses on sections B1. This shows that there exists statistically significant difference in the students’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services in the universities.00 given 2 and 797 degrees of freedom at 0. Consequently.44 7. Table 3 Difference across students’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services in the universities Low level of satisfaction Moderate level of satisfaction High level of satisfaction (N=242) (N=206) (N=352) Low level of satisfaction (N=242) 45. To test this hypothesis.98 6. P<0.04.08 (Levels of satisfaction) Within groups (error) 12614. SD=9.05.06 * SD 9. C4.05 level of significance. Table 2 Students’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services in the universities N 242 206 352 Levels of satisfaction Low Moderate High Χ -score 45. A=Group means ( Χ ) are in the diagonal.00 Sources of variance Sums of squares Between groups 1205.81 Notes: *Significant. at 0. The results are presented in Table 2. Variables From Table 3. no significant difference in the 45 . moderate and low satisfaction levels. Also. The results of the Fisher’s protected t-test are presented in Table 3. B3. further analysis of data was done to determine the trend of the difference using Fisher’s protected t-test where pair-wise comparison of group means ( Χ ) was done. Thereafter.22 Notes: *Significant.06 51. df=556. Table 2 indicates that students with high level of satisfaction exhibited a higher mean ( Χ ) scores of 51.

Cafeteria services were not available in some institutions where hostels were present. bursary awards/scholarships and worship centers. P<0. analysis of Ho1 shows that a significant relationship between university welfare services and students perceived motivation to learning exists. thorough understanding and wholesome development of learners can be achieved. provision of accommodation facilities will not only influence the 46 .05). at the time of this study. the researcher found as many as the 8 original occupants. good laundry rooms. the analysis revealed that the higher institutions of learning operate off-campus system except for the University of Lagos and Federal University of Technology. there were 14 hostel blocks. the more he/she wants to learn. information/counseling centers and health services. “build and operate system” was embraced.000 (120. This aspect took into consideration some areas of welfare services such as hostel accommodation. University of Lagos had about 20 hostel blocks. Discussion of findings On welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning. In other institutions where there were no hostels.66 sq. Most rooms’ sizes ranged from 12 by 12 to 16 by 16 (3. This. the learning environment should be enriched to stimulate students’ wholesome development. universities should be adorned with good hostel facilities that are learner-friendly and challenging as to maintaining one’s individuality and physical and mental health and forming relationship with others. the researcher assumes. and UNAD had 4 hostels of 8 blocks. The resultant effect of which is to cook inside the rooms already shocked. In rooms where there were only 4 double bunks which should have been for 8 students. Such principle was obtained in LAUTECH and FUTA. sports and recreation centers.000 naira only) per bed space. a good example is in FUTA. Others include security/environment. It also may be worrisome to see that not enough security was made available in the hostels. therefore. However. there were more than 90 privately owned and operated hostels where students pay N8. such as emergency health unit.000 (12. Above all. For example.000 naira only) to N60.m). Going by the assertion of Taylor and Winkle quoted by Ayodele (2003).000 naira only) depending on the taste of the students. with 8-16 squatters. will offer an opportunity to grow to help students become more effective individuals both at personal and at societal levels. in Federal University of Technology. in UNAD.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice level of satisfaction was found between students with moderate level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure and welfare services and low level satisfaction (t=0. For instance. Most of the hostels lack some basic facilities. and the more a child is comfortable.07. single and double bunks with mattresses that were naked and full of bed bugs. all owned by the institutions and situated within the campus. putting the figure at 16-24 students in a room. The number of occupants was another issue of concern. The same system was noticed in OOU. transportation. the accommodation conditions of universities still require some improvement. It is. where students pay N12.000 (8. It was very pathetic to see the conditions of some of these hostels in terms of comfortability. The nature of bed commonly found was iron-bed.87 sq. 6. where conspicuous hostel accommodation was found for both the undergraduate and postgraduate students. This can simply be demonstrated by saying that the essence of any institution of learning is to make for a conducive environment where effective learning.000 naira only) to N120. the researcher’s opinion that apart from the emphasis on academic work.m to 4. This is evident from the way the researcher met these hostel blocks as at the time of this study. On hostel accommodation.000 (60. adequate toilets and kitchen facilities considering the number of students resident there-in. df=446.

provide pastoral support. In UNILAG. so says the adage. the analysis shows that students did not want to acknowledge that medications have been free.7% of the respondents disagreed that there were functional information centers allocated at different points in the universities under study. it may be taken that this disagreement is traceable to the respondents’ ignorance of the available centers on campus. all students were eligible to attend. this is pathetic. who will counsel on choice of pathways and options. cricket pitch. differences were noticed in the areas of medical personnel. and liaise with the institution or authorities on the students’ behalf.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice students’ academic achievement positively. FUTA sports center was being given a face lift with the construction of a pavilion at the time of this study. On sports and recreation. If this is done. However. laboratory tests and over-the counter medications.. From the researcher’s observations. ambulance services and information in case of epidemics or endemics. medical attention given to students. a standard athletics field with good pavilion under which were offices and changing rooms. Knowing fully well that students stayed around the school environment. student handbooks) should be welcomed. This could be based on the premise that every student was charged to pay medical fees along side with their tuition during registration. No restrictions was noticed. it will serve both academic needs and also enable any information required to be discovered early on and handled within the university counseling networks. the researcher attributed this to the level of seriousness of the reported health cases. hockey field and basketball pitch. The finding here indicates that the provision of much more written information (e. For instance. example is UNAD. Further analysis reveals that the wards for admission in serious cases were nothing to write about. where it is durning 8:00 am-4:00 pm and not available on weekends. with coaches available for almost all games and sports. the findings show that sports/recreation facilities were sufficiently provided for students’ use in the various universities studied. where did they run to in cases of emergency? Further observation shows that no university could boast of adequate medical equipment. However. professional. Furthermore. handball and volleyball pitches and tennis courts were common. However. while 18. where there were wards for students’ admission for even days. In UNAD. remains integral to the academic experience within the universities. admission in serious cases. in FUTA. This is confirmed with the establishment of health centers in different higher institutions of learning. it was observed that some institutions did not have enough trained and qualified counselors. These were responsible for the differences noted in the responses of the respondents. each undergraduate should have the personal support of a cohort adviser and professional counselors. 81. there were 2 wards with 4 beds each and were meant for the male and female students. It was observed that students were not always given immediate attention when taken to the health centers. gymnasium could be found in FUTA and UNILAG. It was pathetic to discover that medical personnel were not sufficient at the health centers. it is sad to see that the sports center turned to a toilet ground.3% agreed. LAUTECH and OOU. On information and counseling centers. but also make the undergraduates improve to attain the moral. However. The well-being of learners in the universities has been a thing of paramount importance to the university officials. Health is wealth. particularly the cohort adviser. drugs dispensed. competitive and socio-political values. It is important here to state that health services were not given for 24 hours in all universities. But.g. It was interesting to see that in the 5 institutions facilities like football pitch. differences were noticed in the areas of operating hours. It is worthy to note that all universities studied had medical centers. but individual contact between all students and those who teach them. Thus. the reverse is the case with UNILAG. arrange and in most cases give tutorials. while UNAD had just 2 wards with no room for either male or female students. Others included swimming pool. This is one of the major reasons the 47 . This justifies the need for counseling in the universities.

the researcher is of the opinion that if all universities can embrace this idea.500 (2. analysis shows that institutions like UNILAG. came at a time when the general economic situation in the country dictated that students must look for ways of augmenting their finances. This however may create security threat to students who may want to trek out of campus later in the evening. bursaries and difficulties in obtaining educational loans. Planning for a people calls for adequate knowledge of the characteristics found in the population. different levels of knowledge and skills and different potentials.000 naira only). access roads. the issues of health services and information/ counseling were not given for the priority in the scheme of things. it was no doubt that in every institution studied there were several religious congregations holding at different points and classrooms in the faculties apart from the major church and mosque buildings for the Christian and Muslim students respectively. and so on. the road network on campus in UNILAG. On scholarship and bursary awards. FUTA. its presentation must take into consideration the differences in learners’ cognition and affective and psychological powers. Learners are unique individuals who have different needs. students may see more prospects in higher education and make them have access to it without tears. there is need for concerted efforts to be made by such service providers. Implications Arising from the findings are a few theoretical and practical implication for students’ effective personnel management practices. This work study programme was under the work study unit. electricity. a programme that was first of its kind in Nigeria. Apart from this. perception and levels of satisfaction with the available welfare services for their wholesome development. LAUTECH and OOU were not too bad but no street light was noticed in OOU permanent site major road. moral and spiritual imperatives are equally recognized. attitudes and desires for responsibility. It is sad to have discovered further in the analysis that the values of scholarship and bursaries being given to students in Nigeria universities ranged from N2. On worship centers. 7. to get adequately committed to both the ideals and the provision. At this point. Without these things. This simply is an indication that apart from emphasis on academic works in the universities. In management. not to mention doing one’s academic work. bursary. From the findings. The need for water. a university system can hardly be over-emphasized. Some may involve going through series of aptitude tests before one can become a beneficiary. they are also found as essential ingredients upon which the pillars of university education service delivery are founded. it will be very difficult to live a healthy life. However.500 naira only) to N10. as a result. information flows for daily operations. Students’ personnel managers are expected to think of learners’ behavioral changes as being dependent on their levels of cognition in terms of awareness. with increases in the cost of living index and resultant increases in the cost of tertiary education. FUTA and UNAD was good because of the drainage system. coupled with limited number and value of scholarships. which all determine 48 . the observation shows that students were made to pay a token of N10 and N40.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice Ekiti state government had to scrap the UNAD’s College of Medicine. OOU and LAUTECH did give recognition to best students in the departments and faculties. UNILAG had a scheme designed to help students to reduce the burden of financing their education (work-study). What measures are put in place in the early years of university education to filter out learners with emerging special needs? Welfare services are key motivating factors to human success in life. As regards transportation. apart from the problem of infrastructure. ambitious. Some concerns are still unattended to. Therefore.000 (10.

since universities will tend to give priority to basic mainstreams provision before resourcing special needs. This will reflect the ability to love and be able to sustain affectionate relationship with other persons. not to mention other sporting pitches or fields. (3) On security matters. The findings in this study revealed that some universities cannot boast of a standard athletics field. Good road network is necessary.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice the mode of reception and the audience. 8. because of some noticeable signs of erosion. standards should be maintained in the provision so that “disturbing” power generators are not put in circulation. some lectures should be set aside to encourage students’ participation in sports. This would aid earlier discovery of talented sportsmen and women who can do the institution and the country at large proud. Universities should install cameras possibly on some strategic positions along the streets and outside the schools (at the gates) because of earlier detect crimes. If possible. Drugs should be regularly supplied with enough wards and beds put in place for students’ admissions. This should be supported with well networked drainage system. If possible. Good portable water is a necessity. pipe-borne water and road network should be improved. This is to solve earlier detect water problems. (4) There should be a regular sanitation exercise and review of school facilities-maintenance planning so as to make the learning environment clean. The implication of this is that such an institution has failed to consider the need for physical and mental health of the students. too. 49 . Adequate sporting facilities need to be put in place to enhance socialization. orderly. Given that professional values of students’ affairs units in the universities. social. mental and emotional well-being of learners should be given priority in the scheme of things. Sporting and recreating call for interpersonal relationships. instructionally supportive and motivating. Since the goal of education is to promote optimal function that the amount of opportunities available to the individual learner should be exposed to determine their requests. This should not just be provided but periodic test of water should be done to ascertain safety by putting in place “school officials for health care facilities”. The constant erratic power outages in the universities call for immediate attention. cost-effective. (2) Health care delivery system in the universities should be improved. which will serve as security threat to those students with criminal tendencies. if universities are to improve institutional effectiveness. This will however include developing a plumbing profile and developing a drinking water testing plan. Therefore. hygienic. security corps (task force) may be raised among the students. they must impact on the available welfare services on ground. students with special needs are not disadvantaged by the management but the inadequate funding. Creating refuse dump sites within the university premises is uncalled-for. safe. This notwithstanding. The much needed publicity on welfare services was absent in the universities. However. universities should be concerned about unruly visitors sneaking into the premises and students’ hostels (where accommodation facilities are provided). It is recommended that each faculty and department (if possible) has alternative source of power supply so that the faculty and/or departmental staff members are not delayed unnecessarily from carrying out their routine administrative and academic works. sportsmanship and leadership qualities. Recommendations (1) Basic infrastructure like electricity. Students’ personnel managers should therefore be concerned with efforts meant to maintain emotional stability and maturity of character and also the strength to withstand stress inherent in academic rigors. universities need to beef-up security to make schools safer. (5) The physical.

J. E. Learners are stakeholders in any educational system and at the same time they constitute a crucial input in that they are the “raw materials” which school processes are intended to transform. Some thoughts on educational services in the National Policy on Education. University of Lagos) (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 50 . 2003. B. outstanding and talented in sports and best students in the departmental and faculty courses. University of Ibadan. Moreover. (2003). Benchmarks and global trends in education. 1. Appreciating the “global village” nature of the world now. (1971). Individual institution should encourage partnership with private groups on build. efforts should be made to reduce the number of occupants per room for health reasons. Lagos: Macmillan & Co. enough publicity should be given to the available welfare services to students coming into the university environment during orientation. S. Ayodele. There is the need for institution to show concern for improving quality of learners’ lives which appear to be widespread in the world. A higher education history of Nigerian. operate and transfer (BOT) basis. The effectiveness of the school is judged in relation to the values it adds to students in the way of knowledge. evidence abound that the universities used in this study had something to show for this. A paper presented at the Annual National Conference of the Nigeria Association for Educational Administration and Planning. thereby making learners motivated through inclusion and consultation. B. References: Alani. The role of head teachers in school plant management and maintenance. 3(1). Journal of Applied Research in Education. Moreover. (8) A disciplined and virile student representation should be encouraged at all levels. A. R. They can channel their grievances through the right route and enjoy immediate feedback. most of the decisions taken are on issues concerning them as a body (learners). there is the urgent need to harmonize the current bursary award/scholarship being given to Nigerian university students. In universities where there are provisions for accommodation facilities. (2008). Fafunwa. Thesis. (Unpublished Ph. Subair. October 28-31. Necessary policies may need to be put in place with stringent disciplinary measures to reduce the number of inmates in the hostels. This makes the students’ voices heard and attended to. (1998). skills.D. welfare services and students’ perceived motivation to learning in universities in South-West Nigeria. there is the need to intensify efforts to ensure adequate provision of these facilities. (7) There should be reduction in the number of occupants per room.Situation analysis of students’ welfare services in universities in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for students’ personnel management practice (6) Bursary award and scholarship should be improved. These may serve as challenges for aiding their academic performance. Maduewesi. they can be part of some. J. A. T. (2005). Considering the economic realities of this present in Nigeria.. behaviors and attitudes. since it gives them the attainment of democratic principles. but considering the students’ population and the e-learning opportunities. therefore. physically challenged students. Benin City: Dasylva Influence Enterprises. the need for ICT (information of computer and technology ) in the universities can not be over-emphasized. this should be done with caution to prevent the private groups from exploiting the students. However. Infrastructure. Though. Particular attention should be given to students with demonstrated financial problems (indigent students).

51 . Context and developed discourses on neo-liberalism are analyzed before examining the related policies in England. The boundary of public and private sector of running education. social work.. especially under New Labor’s authority. the pros and cons scholars of educational marketization all refer to the enormous influences affected by neo-liberalism. Ph. Meiho University. it has been through an ingenious change in terms of spreading processes. it reveals the phenomenon of “state commercialism”. 2. Based on the involvement of public sector in manipulating serial privatizations. This will change the Robin Jung-Cheng Chen. The recently serial discourses focused on “devolution” or “autonomy” education reforms are coming from this point as well. main stream values. research fields: public service study. education policy 1.D. cultures and ideologies. though neo-liberalism still firmly wins its high value in running education. especially in secondary education. Department of Social Work. Under New Labor’s authority. research fields: policy sociology. Giroix (2004) indicated that the market-oriented discourse would drive public education leave a whole new space to the private sector for nurturing the education participation energy. Key words: neo-liberalism. state commercialism. it occurs to the related researches that the function and characters of market will create a decisive impact on education development. Department of Social Work. Meiho University. USA The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education Robin Jung-Cheng Chen. Taiwan. the value and changing of ideology affecting education is the main theme of this paper.D. assistant researcher. Shu-Fen Chiu.. Ph. The state is no longer the rolled back actor as a small government following the original neo-liberalism context. the rising value of educational marketization has been strengthening its influences since 1980s. technologies. Taipei 23703.October 2010. comparative education. From a holistic point of view. Introduction The development of education has its historical interactions among social trends. Shu-Fen Chiu (1. ISSN 1548-6613. Pingtung 909. No. then knowing the role of the state apparatus will be at the first priority. according to this authors’ study. Institute for Research on Educational Policy and System. neo-liberalism is not the way as it was. This change has turned England into a new type of “neo-liberalism” territory. The result of the research argues that. many researches raise neo-liberalal thought to a vital position and treat it as a great impact while discussing education policy-making and developing. This study has taken England for an example to review the spread of marketization in education. If it has to know the concept of this development.10 (Serial No. has been redefined. Exploring the latest trend. National Academy for Educational Research. serial legitimate discourses from public sector were released and formed another new ideology. National Academy for Educational Research.71) US-China Education Review. As Apple (2003) argued. Institute for Research on Educational Policy and System. assistant professor. but becomes an invisible hand behind serial discourses and standards making. it is because the role of the state has been shifted from shrinking back to swelling out in terms of the ways of manipulating policies. Nevertheless. adult education. Without doubt. Taiwan) Abstract: Recently. Volume 7.

knowledge producing and education beliefs. it has been through an ingenious change in terms of preading processes. the boundary of public and private sector of running education will be reshaped. 2003. From critical pedagogists’ opinions. from industrial countries to developing countries. role of the state and the related policies will be further discussed as following. Therefore. Thinking of educational reforms stressed on competitiveness and accountability. holding the same view and having analyzed relevant economic. Role of the capitalist state According to Harvey (2005). Codd. Theisens (2004) also pointed out the fact that sociologists had long neglected the analysis of the state role. Gordon and Harker (2001) also indicated that even though the power of the state had taken root in modern society. will this ideology last its dominant influence or will it be changed/replaced by another discourse? This study will find an answer to it. Under the influences of neo-liberalism. The influences of neo-liberalism are not only on economic and political activities. beating the shore of education. that is. Hill (2001) had further explanation on this and pointed out that the state apparatus had already controlled the source of education—teachers education. MacLaren & Kincheloe. This study will argue that. With such change. this paper highly holds the expectation towards what Kuhn suggested. On the other hand. 2007) worried the discourse of market based on neo-liberalism will spread as a wave. 1996) suggested is. p. though neo-liberalism still owns its stable status in education with promoting the value of marketization. The point is. after stepping into the 21st century. England will be taken as the context to analyse by exploring the change of education during last decade. then they can breakthrough the limitation to a new scientific discovery. Many scholars (Apple. a new way for educational reform will be formed. 1962. but also on the transformation of school management. 1996. What Kuhn (1962. neo-liberalism to education is as a tsunami to the embankment. To follow up the above description and demonstrate the development of neo-liberalism. it always goes with the role of the state while having discussion on neo-liberalism.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education original public educational system and create a new managerial mechanism. 2. Adams (1998) had brought up his idea that neo-liberalism might be the shiest illuminate on political spectrum in western countries. “Any new scientific finding or theory comes from one or few researchers’ close observation” (Kuhn. even though it might do harm to the spirit of social justice. the meaning of education management has come to a turning point. It is because what neo-liberal focus on is how the state abdicates its legitimate power from the market operation. 2004. Furthermore. Giroix. 1996) also forced this study to find out the “next move” of neo-liberalism. it has permeated various of organizations and forms a new type of power. and regretted that researchers overlooked the 52 . The state apparatus also has legitimized the need for catching up global economic competition and root it in the value of pedagogy. the concept of “paradigm change” from Kuhn (1962. people need to constantly examine the existed paradigms or theories with every possibility. the research findings on education were scarce. value of capital and wealth has overrode the civic virtue as it was. In fact. political and social discourse. All the student teachers had been controlled and moulded and took all the related norms and reforms for granted. pointed out that there was still not a systematic educational discourse. Skocpol (1985) argued that the state should be brought to the central position and serve as the basis when analyzing policy-making and social changes. focusing on the development of neo-liberalism and its connection with education. Following the dominance of neo-liberalism. In the 1990s. the public education has been invaded by private sectors and turns education into profit-making oriented. 144). Dale (1990).

role and functions. people need extra attention when dealing with the existing and prospective facts. As to the role of the state.. As he further said. Dahrendorf (1959) argued that only by using the term “industrial society” could people cover the development in the modern western society. He thought that democracy was an acceptable though unsatisfactory method during this process. He thought. followed and developed out of the Marxist discourse on the economic production model. Later. therefore. Marx and Engels (1952) thought that the conflicts aroused by the possession of production instruments. the class-division resulting from this production relation would cause changes in the state’s structure. therefore. in Marx’s viewpoint. the problem was not what Marx and Engels (1952) suggested. thinking how to build an adequate bureaucracy. Although the views of the connection between the industrial society and capitalist society remain divergent. employment relation and distribution of goods made up the vital factors for the civil society and the state. 1952. p. As a result. was an instrument of the bourgeois class. He pointed out that all of these originated from the system. it can be learnt that according to Weber 53 . in which they attempted to seek out a popular analytic pattern for their political views. including economic activities. political power was the source of dominance among all human relations. therefore. 1978). made up of different social classes. including class interest. but a social relationship. Both descriptions. From this. the authors think it is vital to carry out a systematic exploration of this issue. was nothing but a social composition pursuing economic interest. it can be seen that the state’s role. e. for example. The authors’ research shows that many ideas about the state proposed by later scholars were based on Marx’s criticism on capitalist society. The laboring process under the bureaucratic system was a monotonous functioning. and were results from the bureaucratic operation. Weber argued that the state should be built upon a system reform. From this. Therefore. This was not merely an economic model. The same thing happened to the entry-level workers in large agencies. The above “economic” factors. “There were many types of power relations in social action. They drew up The Communist Manifesto. The above social actions actually had different power relations. 44). they provided a simpler interpretation: “The state is merely a committee that governs bourgeois affairs” (Marx & Engels. who dominated productive instruments. 283). They argued that in a capitalist society. colleges and government departments. and capitalism was merely one of the many elements for the industrial society.g. in the authors’ opinion. ideology. family tradition. The exercise of political power after the interactions of these factors affected many considerations of social action in return. he thought the bourgeois class did not deprive the working class only in the capitalist society. By this. which helped lift restrains and open up the bureaucracy. a deprivation of productive instruments (Weber. About Marxist productive instrumental determinism. such as hospitals. however. Although Weber (1978) admitted that economic factor was the driving force for a state. This organization. social-power sharing. Thus. and so on. the authors would begin with this characteristic and follow up with relative explorations. became the essential content in his social analysis. These relations put political power in a highly complex situation. among which the political power played the decisive role” (Weber. for the democratic system was at least capable of maintaining public involvement to some degree.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education importance of it. 1978. social-class distribution. thus. Weber (1978) brought up a different point of view. and so on. Miliband (1973) suggested that people had to use the concept of “capitalist society” to cover the western social model. p. there are also scholars. Marx and Engels (1952) got deeply involved in political activities and formed the communist league as the realization of their ideas. he showed that political power was just the final outcome of various forms of power competing.

as he wrote: I can give no general answer—not. which held that the state was a ruling instrument under the control of the ruling class. a “relative autonomy” in the state. who sought an unstable equilibrium among conflicts.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education (1978). he reaffirmed. 44). to some degree. the fundamental understanding of the state should begin with aspects. type of dominance. more taxes were apparently in conflict with capitalists’ interest. solely by Marxist ideas. it refers to the class struggles within each social formation and its corresponding State forms. However. in different stages or among various members in the same stage. and even avoided questions like: What was this autonomy based on? How “relative”? How to define the other relative object? These questions remained unanswered. (Poulantzas. people come to realize that this analysis has never expanded its scope further. The former resulted from capitalist and corporated operation. Therefore. was obviously a mixture of political organizer and integrator. 1973). the state was an executive committee that exercised bourgeois will. 1973. p. They thought that there did not exist a totalitarian “ruling class”. Giddens did not bring out his view on how the state operated. The capitalist state. the role of state to keep the coherence was based on the fact that there was continuity in the social productive relations. such as the nature of power. He thought that the state was facing the dilemma of economic growth and social welfare. the outcome of which was 2 contrasting public-service orientations: commercialization and anti-commercialization. He suggested that the “relative autonomy” of the state was a role with the function of “constituting the factor of cohesion between the levels of a social formation” (Poulantzas. and the state was responsible for keeping this continuity. However. but precisely because the term “relative” in the expression “relative autonomy” of the State here refers to the relationship between the State and dominant classes. According to Poulantzas. 72) Poulantzas (1973) also pointed out the limitation of this autonomy: It could only be associated with the ruling class’s political interest. the latter was the requirement which could only be met through taxation. He threw out the questions: How could a state possibly achieve the so-called “relative autonomy”? How did the autonomy form? He thought that Poulantzas did not clearly lay out the developmental context. Marx’s viewpoint generated further discussions. But his contemporary Offe (1984) suggested that it could not correctly explain. p. as Miliband believes because I take no account of concrete individuals or the role of social classes. Offe pointed out that these would form a long-term opposition in the state. it was a composition of elites. However. Giddens (1986) questioned Poulantzas’s relative autonomy. Poulantzas also pointed out that the state’s role for coherence did not suggest that the state was the mediator. 1973. this view was later revised by many Marxist scholars. But now. he came up with the idea of “relative autonomy”. and he thought that the dictatorship by the ruling class would concentrate the wealth on a minority and duplicate the ruling by this class dominance (Miliband. The development of this role came with a relative autonomy. basis of political power. Poulantzas’s (1973) was the representative. instead. He argued that there was. Among other related discourses. In other words. 54 . and trend of rationality and bureaucracy in human social action. He further clarified that his theoretical position in the capitalist state was mainly on the emphasis of the state’s relative autonomy. These 2 were in conflicting arenas. The instrumentalism held by Miliband (1973) was based on the same reason. it can be told that the discussions were based on the subject of class. Nevertheless. the circumstance the capitalist state was in. Concluding from the Marxist’s view on state’s operation in a capitalist society.

in the second half of 19th century with modifications in Locke’s classical liberalism. thinking that liberty meant not only unconfined freedom. people were tired of the 2 parties’ prolonged dispute over political issues. And the major issues of the operation of a capitalist society were based on the ownership of productive instruments. 2004). capitalism and social net-earnings were able to cover government expenses under any circumstance. Because of her economic environment and change in government’s attitude toward policy-making. she made proactive adjustments. free market. and it supported social justice by means of a free market and reduced restrictions on business activities and economic development. This thinking deeply influenced Keynes. and financial revolution. p. the “Schumpeterian state” generated wide discussions. which intensified their dissatisfaction. The neo-liberalism was different from Keynes’s “new liberalism”. which was also recognized as the new right (Offe. This view became an important analytical focus when the western countries faced the globalization. his “entrepreneur”. New liberalism was born. rich capitalists and middle class kept on reaping benefits from political kickbacks. according to Jessop (1991). 2002). Coined from Schumpeter’s (1994) economic theory in the 1980s. The last straw was the economic and global crises. the government-dominating welfare services were drowning in the de-government appeals. included the technology that boosted productivity in traditional industries. getting rid of the Fordism and moved to an open.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education 3. The policies then did not include the “Keynesian” great-government investment. Schumpeter (1994) brought in a new point of view. Britain had gone through a process of reflection upon her stance on welfare state and brought in the spirit of marketization. but also included self-realization and developing personal talents. from Conservative Party’s rein in 1979 to New Labor Party’s taking over in 1997. but the “Schumpeterian” market-oriented flexibility and innovation (Jessop. 4) was the representative figure. which was a passive kind of liberty. Although Schumpeter did not introduce the idea of globalization. which did not confine in high-tech only. Thus. The de-government appeals. was considered as the core of neo-liberalism. came from people’s dissatisfaction with government efficiency. He was not satisfied with the narrow understanding and passive explanation of classical liberalism. or the new right. free trade. most sociologists maintained Marxist thoughts. Jessop pointed out the “Thatcherism”. market-driven neo-liberalism. 1997). As Jessop (2002) argued. within the fervent callings for anti-government and anti-regulation all over the world. Giroix. leading him to propose the abovementioned idea of the equal social-welfare state (Keynes. globalization brought 2 main changes in the nature of economy: technological revolution. and this 3 factors became the core viewpoints in economic mainstream discourse. “creative destruction” and “innovation” in the 1940s were viewed as the catering and adjusting model in a capitalist society in the process of globalization. Before Schumpeter. The forming of neo-liberalism and the change Take England for an example. 1984. The former appeared in the 1970s and gradually gained its ground in the 1980s as a political-economic philosophy. supported the innovation of technology. which. and even regarded the 2 as impotent governments. People could not tolerate the 2 parties’ economic policies anymore. developing when Thatcher was in power (1979-1990). The progress somewhat echoed 55 . He pointed out that although the economy was stagnant. out of which came the post-Fordist society. In neo-liberal thoughts. Mill (1844. holding that entrepreneurs and market demand played the leading role. together with socialism and anarchism. Moreover. Neo-liberalism despised or was against government’s direct economic intervention. with extremely high transparency and vitality. deprivation and social classes. after Thatcher’s inauguration in 1979.

received more benefits than others. Offe (1984. under the economic influence of “rational decision” and “efficacy”. education underwent a transformation. When educational implementations moved away from the welfare state spirit to the new right post-welfare state climate. While the state policies were realizing economic rationalism. but deep down the state still took control. effective agency. which roused a questioning of the values of the socialist welfare state.. Facing these managerial thoughts of increasing competitiveness and strengthening effectiveness. involvement and capital from the private sector and other relative factors were legitimized as part of policy-making. Thus. With empirical research findings.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education the market-oriented “Schumpeterian state”. the state would split because of class inequality. seeking methods that boosted technology and efficiency. Corrales (1999. 88) argued that in the trend of global competition. without welfare services. However. He argued that rational decision was a major feature of neo-liberalism. Therefore. p. 1999). and moved towards an economic and rational characteristic. driven by economic forces. as Archer (1984) suggested. the state should react with a skill-oriented and labor-division method to strengthen her competitiveness in different arenas. which could be interpreted as “education under the economic rationalism”. Corrales (1999) thought that it should be viewed from the macro political-economic perspective. In this context. the state’s educational policies developed a homogenous quality. (1999) suggested that the major driving force for the shift of the state’s role was globalization. Having examined modern political-economic situations. On the face. In terms of global thinking. p. capitalists were an important element in policy-making. through getting involved in policy-making and gaining financial support from government contracting. As Devine (2004) indicated. International entrepreneurs and capitalists who shaped up the economic conditions teamed up with the state apparatus. Daun (2002) pointed out that. i. Offe (1984) suggested that the state should progress to the “Weberian” state. because they played the decisive role in the continuity of government’s reins. which emphasized a bureaucratic. when dealing with competitive pressure from globalization. Carnoy. Capitalists. it was division of labor. moving towards privatization in the market mechanism to increase efficacy. 19) indicated that this act had equated capitalists with “political privileges” in the process of educational policy-making. with the discourse to justify global competition getting hotter. It can be seen that the changes globalization brought on education was a transition from the state providing educational service to the consumer-oriented thinking with the features of an economic market. and link the changes with the 56 . the nature of state’s provision and intervention in education was also changing. All these appeals and slogans originated from the new right political terminology and gradually formed a global educational policy discourse (Klees. et al. among which the privatization came to the foreground to achieve the goal of marketization. the provision of educational services gained the feature of market determinism. a “state-technical” under the guidance of Schumpeterian economic guidelines. rational decision was the enhancement of competitiveness. If the welfare services kept on expanding. When examining the relationship between globalization and education. western countries faced the conflict of national competitiveness and welfare provision. the state exercised substantial control over curricula by the appeal to returning back to fundamentals and lifting standards. under the new right influences in the 1980s.e. For example. and their partnership showed in policy-making. It can be learnt that scholars holding this view thought that the state apparatus changed to an indirect way. Facing this dilemma. Morrow and Torres (2000) pointed out that more and more semi-official agencies shooting up were to implement state’s key policies. it would jeopardize the capital accumulation in a state and threaten her global competition. the state apparatus showed a shift towards indirect control. Daun even suggested that the state became the major broker in the market mechanism. Regarding the marketization of education.

Turner. 2005. this was a series of privatization. many of the Party’s policy-practices were mainly based on the economic priority. based on their consecutive victories. Dorey (2005. 2007) also pointed out that under the impact of globalization. The education policy at that time was the Party’s major force to boost the economy. He argued that the latter was to shape Britain as a “cosmopolitan” country. the government would merge with these “agencificated” organizations and form a great “regulatory body”. many legal acts after 1997 have put great emphasis on offering access to the private sector. Thus. Neo-liberalism and education The New Labor government deviated from their leftist socialist stance in the late 1980s. emphasizing an economic society with equal opportunities. it is understandable 57 . the Party established many semi-official agencies to serve as the platform to increase efficiency and draw the private sector’s engagement in public affairs. they also agreed that the state should step aside from education. This approach solved the difficulty of running the giant state apparatus and flexibly took advantage of resources from the private sector. He even suggested that. 254) thought that the notion formed as early as the early 1980s. When the New Labor Party came in power. Regarding the importance of lifting the quality of labor. the New Labor government dealt with the pressure from global competition by carrying out decentralizations and privatizations. the state was trying to create a “permissive framework” for the educational system. he thought the reason why the state showed such interest in education was the link between education reform and economic development. the Party replaced education with the economy boom as the priority. As a result. Since their seizing power in 1997. When the New Labor Party seized power. their goal would be to lead Britain from the Thatcherite society to a social democratic society. hoping to improve schools’ efficacy and raise the quality of economic manpower. by keeping up the trend of semi-official agencies. the interest came from the need to respond the global economic competition by enhancing educational quality. In this context. and expanded in the Party’s third phase in power. He pointed out that the establishment of the semi-official agencies assisted in “regulation” in the public sector. it has turned into widely-implemented policy thinking for the New Labor Party since 1997. Probing deeper. The establishment of these agencies. secondary and higher education. p. But many scholars (Dorey. Table 1 shows these semi-official agencies that carry out official policies. was the way the state tried to adapt to the outer changes. Turner (2007) suggested that. Accordingly. Despite a notion originated form the Conservative Party. 2007. which can be seen in their 2005 slogan: “Britain forward. such as QCA (Qualification and Curriculum Association). Ball. the country needed a sound and effective public sector to induce opportunities for economic exuberance. evolved from the New rightist thought since the 1980s. because the idea of free market. has gradually took root in primary. including education. not back”. In addition to capitalists’ will. So. the New Party’s educational policy-making was closely connected with their economic developmental discourse. instead of the confined Thatcherite national state. they added the “More children making the grade” slogan (Labour Party. 2005) to their major appeal of lifting learning standards.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education self-sustaining needs within the global competition. under the influences of globalization. it can be seen that Blair’s leadership and the third way merging old left and new right actually helped the New Labor Party gain recognition. As to the implementations. Giddens (2004) pointed out in an interview before the general election that if the New Labor Party got to continue their reins in the third phases. 4. business management strategies were incorporated into their school management. In their 2005 campaign manifesto. In practice.

Table 1 Semi-official agencies for policy-implementations P. for example. Because of these agencies. faculty training.S. as shown in Figure 1. evaluation. and so on. pp. 254-255).The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education why the New Labor Party set up many semi-official agencies as regulating bodies stimulate the education market. p. Name Advertising Standards Authority Consumers’ Association Financial Services Authority General Consumer Council for Northern Ireland Funding Agency for Schools Higher Education Funding Council for England Higher Education Funding Council for Wales National Consumer Council Office for Standards in Education Office for the Regulation of Electricity and Gas Office of Communications Office of Gas and Electricity Markets Office of Telecommunications Office of Rail Regulation Office of Water Service Police Complaints Authority Postal Service Commission Postwatch Quality Assurance Agency (Higher Education) Press Complaints Commission Specialist School and Academy Trust Trading Standards Institute Walsh Consumer Council Source: Compiled from Dorey (2005. curriculum design. the government could transfer the policies to the private sector for implementations. 101) 58 . An important feature was that every agency was responsible for one single target. Department for Education and Skill Education Education Education Education Education Education Agency for Standard Establishment Semi-Official Agencies Agency for Evaluation Agency A Agency B Agency C Learners Figure 1 Quasi-market organizations in the United Kingdom Source: Turner (2007.

one thing deserves people’s attention: All the discussions about policy-making and implementations covered only how private sector was introduced into the failing schools and the justification of the approach. teaching audit. since the 1980s. LAs and policy-feedback. That is. other fields have adopted the term to show a practice that stressed professional evaluation for results. which was heavily promoted by the Conservative Party in the 1980s. with the increased influences from globalization. for example.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education According to Whitty (2002). the New Labor Party has redirected the UK to an “audit society” that focused on performance and standards. and so on. Education Act 2005 delegated more power to the OFSTED (Office for Standards in Education) and LAs (Local Authorities). with the control of these agencies. under the Conservative government’s fervent calling in the 1980s with the neo-liberal thinking to boost the slow economy by marketization.g. capitalism surpassed socialism. the mode of public-private partnerships for school management has become a vital part in policy-implementations. it can be seen that. The LAs could outsource the administration of the failing schools to privately-owned firms or trust. The “audit” trend prevailed in the British society. The educational policy under this influence. according to the authors’ analysis. However. would be adopted partly by the New Labor Party. From this. but there was no mention of the newly-formed interactions between semi-official agencies. as to the educational policy-making and promotion. marginalized pupils due to their socio-economic status and schools dropouts. Therefore. problems the British government encountered were no longer domestic welfare problems or a better economy only. audited educational standards. 2005). They had the right to forcibly intervene the failing schools. and stressed more and more on performance. Regional and inter-continental competition brought by globalization forced the government to face the urgent needs of enhanced quality of human resources 59 . e. The birth of state commercialism This paper pointed out that the neo-liberal thoughts could no longer fully explain the state’s role during the educational marketization. Though Whitty did not pinpoint the difference from the Conservative Party after the New Labor Party seized power. the “rolling back the state” principle was the norms. he would like to point out that the difference lies in the fact that the New Labor Party subtly differentiated power into diverse semi-official agencies to pursue the traditional values. The state hoped to better the services in the public sector by bringing in private sector’s efficiency. This adjustment in policies actually eased the economic hardship and became a useful device in the post-welfare state era. Education Act 2005. the idea of “rolling back the state” to create free market. aiming to play down the state’s influences to revive the market economy. Green (2005) indicated that in the era of globalization. in the third phase of the New Labor Party’s reins. As a result. The state wanted to take advantage of private corporations’ edge to improve education.. as Power (1999) indicated. However. people need another approach for explanation. people’s expectations from the government differed from the past because of the change of economic competition mode. The term “audit society” originated from the financial profession. the state’s role in the marketization process was no purely the weakened role as the neo-liberalists deemed. The regulatory body formed by official and semi-official agencies. Therefore. shifted its focus to school inspection (DfES (Department of Education and Skill). 5. medical audit. environment audit. The fact fully showed the realization of the nature of audit. Though most scholars still worshiped the neo-liberalism. In retrospect. technology audit. heightening its market-driven quality. The measure was known as “PPP: Public-Private Partnerships” and “PFIs: Private Finance Initiatives”. due to the increasing highlight on performance. However.

the government intervened in standard setting and supervising implementations. The marketization led by the state apparatus was the core value of state commercialism. seek social recognition. Therefore. have gained wider and wider acceptance through the government’s well-crafted discourse. This pattern responded to the shift and dynamic qualities of the state. with the help from the government. To ensure that nothing goes wrong during this process. and they were not even Giddens’s Third Way. Consequently. the government strived to consolidate the quality of commoditized public services. it can be seen that the education under the influences of state commercialism was a relay of the marketization values from the Conservative’s Party’s time by the New Labor government to realize and expand. Table 2 shows the differences between state commercialism and other liberalist thoughts. and it reflected that the barter characteristic which stressed market competition has rippled its influence into policy-making. as this paper found out. was of state commercialism. The widespread impact has directed education towards a business trading mechanism that focuses on free trade and competition. Therefore. developing out of this aura. Even non-outsourced authorities viewed the contract as the major criterion for achievement.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education and education standards. through the power of the state. based on the neo-liberal marketization but going beyond the neo-liberal implementations. the The state should more state. The values of market competition. and with the values brought by marketization. Though the market under the influences of state commercialism did not show any sign of the state’s existence. The arrival of the state commercialism era not only proved that the market competition kept on heightening. In the efficacy-above-all reform. raised the new power of the private corporations and changed the face of public services. but also opened up a new arena for the international educational consultancies. 60 . the goal of which was to direct public services toward privatization. The state to prevent intervention state’s obligations to actively protect controlled indirectly to for a lively free guard them people’s freedom promote market values market and competition Rise of the Public-private Free market and Welfare state marketization of partnership for public democracy public services services Source: Compiled by the authors. this research suggests that the state’s role. Table 2 Comparisons between state commercialism and others Schools of thoughts Classical liberalism New liberalism Neo-liberalism Thomas Hobbs (1588-1679) John Locke (1632-1704) John Mill (1806-1783) John Keynes (1883-1946) Government of Margaret Thatcher Features State commercialism Originator or promoter This research Argument Influence Did not roll back the Rolling back the state Natural rights. It was a highly-monitored and interfered state model. as an active-intervener leading the planning of market scale and functions. the private corporations became the endorsement of the quality. the authors would like to argue this trend. was the rise of “state commercialism”. its invisible powers could be felt. The mode of the state. that is. But these interventions have gone astray from the neo-liberalism. standardized contracts have become the guideline for the local authorities’ school management. Its influences resulted in the privatization and contractual practices of public services. was the operating pattern of the state within economic structural changes. Seen from the outsourced local authorities.

H. but has been shifted into a manipulating position to dominate the privatizations. Jessop. In order to secure the practice of marketization. In: Burrows.. DfES (Department of Education and Skill). Harvey. Hill. The state has become a positive role in making this change via delivering serial legitimate discourses of marketization. Hants: Edward Elgar. London: MacMillan. Devine. Benveniste. The terror of neoliberalism. the rise of the international firms in running education will be worth of being observed in the coming future. & Rothstein. (1984). (1999). In: Jessop. (Eds. British Journal of Sociology of Education. R. (2004). London: Palgrave MacMillan..). O. The purpose of the state commercialism is to bring public service being privatization oriented. P. Nielsen. London: Routledge. Social origins of educational system. Globalization and national education system. Hill. Klees. Dale.. & Well. Education PLC: Understanding private sector participation in public sector education.C. London: Polity. Press.2/12klees. 135-155. London: Sage. economy and society. (2005). C. L. A brief history of neo liberalism. S. Privatization and neo-liberalism: Ideology and evidence in rhetorical reforms. Education act 2005. British government got involved in making various of standards and inspection criteria and has formed a steering power in deciding the facets of privatizations. The state and education policy. It also proves that the state role has been always shifted and moved with the change of the economic structure. Corrales. (1999). I. This study is trying to fulfill the need of explaining this new situation. D.. (1994). from http://www. A. 22(1). State theory and the neo liberal reconstruction of schooling and teacher education: A structuralist neo-Marxist critique of postmodernist. (1998). 4(2). (1990).. Can public schools learn from private schools? Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute. & Pedersen. Milton Keynes: Open Univ. Ideology and politics in Britain today. (2001). J. The privatization of state education. London: Paradigm. Ball. & Harker.pdf. Daun. (2004). (Eds. (2002). (1998). (2003). London: HM Stationary Office. A. Keynes.The amoeboid neo-liberalism and the rising state commercialism in education 6. J. S. M. H. and culturalist neo-Marxist theory. J. (2005). (1998). B. Washington D. & MacLaren. Education: Culture.). Educational restructuring in the content of globalization and national policy.). The future of the capitalist state. Class and class conflict in industrial society. and money. (2004). D. (2002). Education and public choice. Press. Towards a post-Fordist welfare state? London: Routledge. H. Dorey. R. Retrieved February 23. The politics of flexibility: Restructuring state and industry in Britain. & Loader. (1999). interest. M. Kastendiek. (2005). R. Brown. N. The transition to post-Fordism and Schumpeterian workfare state. Giddens. Manchester: Manchester University Press. (2005). Policy Future in Education. Codd. (Eds.columbia. London: Prometheus Books. Archer. This is not neo-liberalism. B. Critical pedagogy: Where are we now? New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Giroix. Apple. In: Halsey. Green. banks and bullets: Controlling our minds—The global project of imperialistic and militaristic neo-liberalism and its effect on education policy. London: Sage. Connecticut: Praeger Publisher. P. Dahrendorf. The third way. The general theory of employment. H. Carnoy. (2001). J. Books. Kincheloe. It is a whole new paradigm in running education—the state commercialism. (2007).: The World Bank. London: Routledge. Giddens. K. German and Scandinavia. it is obvious that neo-liberalism has its limitation to explain the complexity of the state during the process of marketization.. Lauder. 2007. A. M. & Pierson. B. The politics of education reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). quasi-postmodernist. (Eds. C. (Ed). The state and the politics of knowledge. P. (1959). Oxford: Oxford Univ. D. Stanford: Stanford University Press. B. Ellison. Education and the role of the state: Devolution and control post-picot. (1991). Sociology: A brief but critical introduction. A. Conclusion To sum up. Cambridge: Polity Press. Gordon. New York: Routledge. H. (to be continued on Page 69) 61 . though many researches might still remain the focus on it. N. Developments in British social policy. (1997). According to this study. Thatcherism and flexibility: The white heat of a post-Fordist revolution. Jessop. Policy making in Britain. In: Daun. role of the state is no longer the shrunk one. References: Adams. Jessop. nor the third way. R. L. (1986). R. (2007). B. 504-523. London: Furthermore.

continuous monitoring and prompt evaluation in order to obtain an overview of the reform intervention and implementation. notes and suggestions.10 (Serial No. which is the integral segment of the current education reform in the Bosnia and Herzegovina: its position in various proclamations and in primary school teachers’ reality. Bosnia and Herzegovina) Abstract: This paper deals with 2 focal points of inclusive education. The results obtained have indicated exactly the lack of the mentioned as the main issues of the implementation of inclusive education within compulsory primary schools in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. derived directly from the teachers’ everyday experiences. relevant professional education. Introduction The education reform is a dynamic. one among them is particularly complex and delicate—inclusive education implying the well-being for both children with and without special needs. No. Department of Education Science. as a consequence. complex.e. Pavlovic Slavica. i. problems. this paper gives a kind of guidelines for the improvement of the inclusive education. education reform. This paper is based on a broader survey research made in the HNC in the first half of 2009. education reform. pre-primary education. The survey research was carried out through the 5-level Likert scale. research fields: special education. with particular reference to: teachers’ acquaintance with inclusive education requirements. delicate and creative process. the author focused on the inclusive education as the integral part of the current education reform in HNC (Herzegovina-Neretva Canton). Divided and fragmented approach to the primary school reform in FBiH (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the lack of adequate pedagogical standards and criteria still have. Therefore. proclamations. In this paper. requesting prior screening of the current situation within education. Key words: inclusive education. specific for the start of the education reform in * The case of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (the part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). level of partnership with relevant subjects. teachers’ reality. their involvement in its designing. Mostar 88000. Faculty of Sciences and Education. legislative aspects vs.71) US-China Education Review. a number of issues to be solved. primary school teachers. and evaluation of the inclusive education implementation. Faculty of Sciences and Education. 62 . school preparedness for inclusive education. proposals. University of Mostar. planning and organization. The aim was to examine the attitudes of the direct implementators of the education reform and the inclusive education (2003-2009)—primary school teachers. MSE. ISSN 1548-6613.. University of Mostar. primary education. on the sample of 105 primary school teachers working in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (specific for its education reform implementation). Volume 7. everyday situation in primary schools. USA Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view)* Pavlovic Slavica (Department of Education Science.October 2010. partnership 1. divided in 2 parts.

Here are some parts of that law: Equal access and equal possibilities imply the assurance of equal conditions and opportunities for all. to begin and continue their further education… (Art. …develop and implement a program of pre-and in-service-teacher training for children with special needs at all levels of education… (deadline: 2003-2004). teachers. profile. organisational. 63 . but rather present the results of a survey research on attitudes of primary school teachers in HNC. staff and other prerequisites should have been accomplished in a year only.e. issued by the 1 Therefore. 3). the author is not going to talk about it here. But. it introduces inclusion. 2002)2. The same is more or less stressed in the so-called Concept of the Nine-year Primary Education.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) 2004 and 2008 respectively and. training.planning and working methods. 2 As far as the author knows. The Framework of Law on Primary and General Secondary Education in BiH3 (passed in June 2003) also emphasised that the implementation of this as well as single cantonal laws should begin not late than June 2004. i.. thus. …revise the current classification system for children with special needs to ensure that contemporary principles of inclusive education are followed… (deadline: 2003) (Council for the Peace Agreement Implementation. Inclusive education in proclamations Bearing in mind that many studies and books have been written on what inclusion and inclusive education mean and what benefits they bring not only to the children with special needs. the law emphasizes the co-operation of all for the children’s/pupils’ well-being. adapted to their possibilities and abilities shall be made for each student…. inclusive education in the schools. the promised has never been accomplished in HNC. but also to all the children in general. the education reform issues are interwoven in this paper in the context of their relevance to the inclusive education implementation in HNC. 37) (Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) document entitled Education Reform (2002) had been brought. Furthermore. school reality says something else. So. The school promotes and develops permanent and dynamic partnership of school. interests and student’s needs (Art. The author hereby will summarize the points relevant to the inclusion issues. 3 The law points out 2 main issues: Compulsory primary education lasts nine years and children start it with 6 years computed. 4 As it can be seen. 19). 2003)4. The three documents represent the core of the education reform legislation in HNC. cantons… (Art. parents and local community…concerning all the issues important for realization of school’s function. as it always does. An individual program. Prior to passing the Framework of Law on Primary and Secondary Education (2003). The underlined (by author herself) syntagmas speak for themselves. with precise deadlines for accomplishment of the promises and many proclamations listed in it: … incorporate the principle of inclusive education for children with special needs in all aspects of legislative and pedagogical reforms… . …including children with special needs at all levels of the education system…assess the number of children with special needs…in order to determine the challenges that impede their inclusion into the general classroom (deadline: December 2003)…develop a plan to educate community (including school boards. parents and students) with respect to the inclusion of children with special needs at all levels of the education system… (deadline: August 2005). inclusion process1. 2. and that will be evident from the results of the author’s research. Children with special needs shall be educated in regular schools and according to their individual needs. professional development of personnel working with children with special needs shall be regulated more closely by entity. carried out in 2009. The law clearly lists the requests.

) of 105 primary school teachers (N=105) in HNC. Many promises had been given. Any further comment would be unnecessary. equipment. in 2004. Table 1 shows that more than 80% of primary teachers in HNC are neither prepared nor educated enough for the implementation of the inclusion in their schools7. Pehar. 1997. thus. teaching personnel. Methodology The aim of the author’s research5 was to examine the attitudes of primary school teachers in HNC towards the implementation of the inclusive education. through the 5-point Likert scale (35 items). p. professional assistants for pupils with special needs.09%) of teachers who attended seminars and workshops. organisational and legislative). The same can be said for the inclusive education in HNC. 1985. the inclusive education itself.52%) strongly agree that schools are not prepared for the inclusive education. being its integral part. 7 “I don’t think that the prerequisites (in-service training of teaching staff. contracts. There are many questions yet to be posed regarding the written in proclamations and done in school/educational reality. especially when reflecting on inclusive education. Therefore. 120). Inclusive education on the crossroad of the written and done in HNC When reflecting on education reform through “should-is” comparison.) have been accomplished to make inclusive education successful”. Different researches (Henderson.. etc. p. “today rules statement of integration” which comprises individual (“What is desired”). through their everyday experiences in school setting. they can be easily transformed into many obstacles to the reform at different levels (educand. etc. This becomes even more indicative when more than a half (58. Bevanda. etc.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) Ministry of Education of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Monsen & Haug. Minima paedagogica (Hentig. it should be a setting for living. so. The survey research was carried out on the strata sample (teachers in urban. people of the reform tends to forget that education reform and hence the inclusive education. people should pose a question that whether those who had signed many declarations. infrastructure. length of working in school. 1994. 1994. said a teacher. Their opinion is So far there has not been any research focused on the attitudes and opinions of the primary teachers on inclusive education in HNC. 4. teachers of the first. The integral research is available by the author of this text for all the interested. However. The author will hereby present just a few of the most indicative issues resulted from this research6. learning and experiencing. it is important to study what is happening in schools in order to understand how they are coping with education (and political) changes and how they are succeeding to overcome everyday challenges and difficulties they face with every day. suburban and rural schools. People still have been implementing top-down instead of down-top model of education reform. claim not to be prepared for the inclusive education. second and third classes. Were they realised?—It is still a rhetorical question. 119). 1994) said that primary school cannot and must not be “just a teaching place. collaboration in a broader societal setting. Gudjons. Gudjons (1994) emphasized that. held in the last 6 years. institutional (“What is used”) and political (“What is required”) component. as well” (Richtlinien. had taken this into consideration. one of the author’s respondents. according to the results of this research. thus giving an insight into the inclusive education quotidianity in the primary schools in HNC. 2007) show that many prerequisites are indispensable for the education reform and. “reform of the whole structure failed” (Gudjons. 3. 1998. It is also indicative that almost a half of primary school teachers in HNC (49. 6 5 64 . If they are not created. 2004. does not imply revolution but rather evolution of education system.

00 Table 3 shows that slightly more than 40% of teachers agree (42.47 education implementation.85%) and other 40% strongly agree that they have been neglected in the planning and implementing the inclusive education in the schools.57 0 0.57 organised in the last 6 years. There is no wonder that more than 90% of teachers clearly say that they need additional education and training to be able to work with pupils with special needs8. The author opens Pandora’s box when talking about collaboration representing another crucial issue in the inclusive education implementation within regular school system in HNC.14 24 22.00 (educated) enough for the inclusive 49 46. Although 90% of teachers need appropriately qualified assistants in their classroom.00 organisationally prepared for the inclusive 52 49.33% do not have at all).90 18 17. I regard school is neither materially nor 39 37.57 5 4.33% agree with this).57 6 5.80 indispensable in the classes where there is a pupil with special need. Partnership between school and parents is 33.09 11 10. More than a half of primary school teachers have no support or help by educational advisors and Institute for Education in the implementation of inclusive education (35.85 31 29.04 6 5.33 19 18. Table 2 shows that 46.76 0 0.33 9 8. Table 1 Teachers’ education and school preparedness for the inclusive education implementation Attitudes of primary school teachers Neither agree Strongly Strongly agree Agree Disagree towards the inclusive education nor disagree disagree f % f % f % f % f % I think that teachers are not prepared 41 39.23 35 33.52 education implementation.33 49 46. I am completely prepared for the inclusive education through seminars and workshops 2 1.33 39 37. Table 2 Cooperation of the primary school teachers and the relevant subject Attitudes of primary school teachers towards Neither agree Strongly agree Agree Disagree the inclusive education nor disagree f % f % f % f % I have no support by educational advisors and Institute of Education in inclusive 37 35.85 not sufficient in the inclusive education 35 implementation. A third of the participants in this research strongly agree with them. The appropriately qualified assistant who would be helping the teacher is 56 53.14%). more than 80% of them do not have such a support in their everyday work with pupils with special needs (among them. I need additional education in order to work with pupils with special needs in regular 46 43. “We need more practical education to work with children with special needs …”.95 0.19 3 2.00 1 0.66% of teachers claim that partnership between schools and parents is insufficient.57 5 4.14 9 8.76 special needs.57 35 33. A half of the 8 The respondents of this research said: “We need additional education through practical training and visiting other similar schools …”.71 9 8.66 17 16.66 education implementation.85 0. 53. I have no assistant although he/she will be indispensable in my work with pupils with 51 48.71 4 3.95 school. 65 .23% strongly agree and 33.14 6 5. Strongly disagree f % 3 1 1 2.95 0 0.52 30 28.71 0 0.8 51 48.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) also shared by more than a third of teachers (37.

71 27 25. “No one has ever asked us—teachers or parents.57 Table 5 shows that 82.19 17 16.76 f 36 % 34.85 11 10. Table 3 Teachers’ involvement in the inclusive education preparation Attitudes of primary school teachers towards Neither agree Strongly agree Agree Disagree the inclusive education nor disagree f % f % f % f % Teachers have not been asked about the 42 40.00 Disagree f 3 % 2. Therefore. Table 5 Inclusive education and middle school Attitudes of primary school teachers towards the Strongly Neither agree Agree inclusive education (generally) agree nor disagree f % f % f % I am worried about what will happen to the pupils with special needs when they begin to attend 46 43. teachers evaluate the inclusive education implementation in regular schools with passing grades (see Table 4): good (3) (44.71 34 32.04 15 14.28%). needs. one of many similar notes of the respondents. It has been imposed by some people who are too far from children’s reality.57% gave: insufficient (1). more than 40% of teachers regard that some individuals misuse the concept of inclusion for the purpose of their own interests and profit10.52 f 47 % 44. who cannot understand children’s abilities.80 41 39. while 8. and all of these in order to make a kind of the experiment …”.85 “Inclusion is imposed onto schools and teachers. 1 % 0.95 However.80% strongly) are worried about what will happen with pupils with special education needs when they get into higher classes (second and third cycle of primary education) where the teachers within individual subjects are neither informed nor prepared/trained to work with this pupils’ population. 10 “Let’s be honest: Children with special needs and schools have been used for profit of certain individuals in our country”. I think that inclusive education has been used for a purpose of personal interests of certain 17 16. since middle school teachers are not trained to implement inclusive education.47 38 36.00 2. I regard that ministers and Institute for Education have imposed inclusive education 27 25.95 f 10 % 9. without concerning current situation in schools.0 45 42.84% of primary teachers (of which 43.28 middle school. Table 4 Teachers’ evaluation of the inclusive education implementation Attitudes of primary school teachers towards Strongly Neither agree Agree Disagree the inclusive education agree nor disagree 5 4 3 2 f I would give the following mark to the inclusive education implementation in our regular schools.85 1 0.61 inclusive education implementation at all.38 14 13.19 32 30.76%) and sufficient (2) (34. do not want to do so”—notes made by the respondents. it has been implemented too fast. Strongly disagree f % 0 3 0. or at least. 66 9 . how to plan and carry out inclusive education.47 8 7.28 Strongly disagree 1 f 9 % 8. being in direct contacts with children.19 individuals thus neglecting crucial issues of school and pupils with special needs. Strongly disagree f % 0.33 onto us.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) teachers claim that inclusive education has been imposed by ministers and Institute for Education9.

(continuous) evaluating and feedback. Although inclusive education has its raison d’etre in the education reform in BiH (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and in general. at the level of the educand (including his/her family). counsellors) having mere notion of its complex.e. inadequate facilities. in the HNC there has not still been any methodology. Inclusive education implies the appropriate screening. inclusive education was offered as a protest. the school adjusts to the child. Moreover. who had never started from the children’s needs and who had not considered teachers’ opinions on school everyday issues. showed that statistically significant difference (p<0. not a school)? Or rather. 12 Education remains under the cantonal authorities. it is being used as a means for explaining and protecting the status quo. school. … . monitoring.. It was imposed onto them over the night. interdisciplinary and holistic approach. prompt and synergic performance at micro. have more negative attitude towards this issue. Therefore. On the other hand. teachers from smaller towns as well as those with over ten-year professional practice in school. implementing. quite a negative public attitude. as well). Each canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina has its own Ministry of Education and the differences in governance. personnel and material resources. modalities or criteria fixed to detect children with learning disabilities.e. gradually. lack of cooperation and fragmentation in laws12. it is being used as a means for explaining and protecting the status quo (Graham & Slee. not a child) or a kind of integration education (viewing a child as a problem. dialogue and meeting. mutual acceptance and respect of all the relevant subjects represent “sine qua non” of the education reform and inclusion as well. planning. preparing. 2008). with inclusion. delicate and thorough meaning. teachers’ gender. mezo and macro level. On the other hand.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) 5. 13 For example. Therefore. Barriers to its implementation are: lack of qualified staff/assistants at school level. while the teachers and relevant subjects still remain on its margins. organising. and the entire society is “conditio sine qua non” for the inclusive education improvement.and in. Discussion Originally. the legislation in vigor as well as other documents relevant to education reform and thus to inclusive education. should they move. profound. laws and education standards can be noted between each. teaching staff. and last but not the least. This also implies that people should reflect upon the regular classroom not as it is but as it should and could be. Increasingly. On the other hand.05) appears in negative attitude. did not show any statistically significant difference. lack of pre. the child fits into the school.service training of teachers to work in inclusive setting. many children with special needs13 still remain isolated and marginalised in the country despite different projects implemented in this field. understanding and collaboration. partnership with the relevant subjects). Increasingly. i. gifted children and autistic children. did not correspond to the real situation in the primary schools throughout the Canton (and even the country. Therefore. 2008) The concept of integration and inclusion are often used interchangeably without their clear understanding in the school and legislation. they did not correspond to or take into consideration the true situation at the time when they were passed by those who had never entered the schools and classrooms. it is often misused by those (“armchair” ministers. Dare they talk about the inclusive education (viewing a school as a problem. who had not had a sheer notion of the basic guidelines of education science.. a call for a radical change to the fabric of schooling. local community. 67 11 . (Graham & Slee. i. Primary schools in HNC were not prepared for the inclusive education (in terms of their internal organization. As the research showed. degree of education and identification with school they work in. are they aiming at inclusive education or at mere integration? With integration. overcrowded classes. through chi-square test (χ2). There is no wonder that primary school teachers in HNC have negative attitude towards the inclusive education11. from integration towards inclusive education?! The message is rather clear—More attention should be paid to children and their needs as well to those working Crossing the relevant variables and teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education.

(2008). Educational Philosophy and Theory. Brussels: Eurydice. H. without the commitment of all the involved subjects. Haven’t people been doing the same with the inclusion process in the regular school system? Has inclusive education still been just a proclamation or reality internalised in people’s hearts and minds? References: Bach. without partnership. Hentig. 40(2). (2007). Dyson. (2007). the extent and the success of its implementation will be critically uttered in the years still to come. H. (1994). (1994). p. Crane. the policy and the curricula as well. Graham. Education reform: A message to the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Logan Page: London. the author of this paper takes freedom to add it). Instead of the conclusion You can only see things clearly with your heart. Contemporary Issues. Inclusive education (creating success). Bases of special pedagogy. H. 14 The author quoted here the entire Crane’s poem A Man Said to the Universe. Brussels: Council for the Peace Agreement Implementation.e. Council for the Peace Agreement Implementation. Zagreb: Educa. Inclusive education: World yearbook of education. In: Daniels. (2007). most of all. Gudjons. teachers. EDU/EDPC. Zagreb: Educa. S. Ph. (2000). An illusory interiority: Interrogating the discourse/s of inclusion. (1995). Inclusion and inclusions: Theories and discourses in inclusive education. H. the crucial issues of the implementation of the inclusive education within the regular schools in HNC result from the lack of many of the mentioned previously in this paper. either. When a grown-up man addressed to the Universe. Furthermore. However. (2002). Education science—basic knowledge. 68 . but the community itself. i. EACEA/Eurydice. 6. without school and teachers’ prior preparation. without staff (in-service) development. H. (Eds. (1996). It is clear that inclusive education without appropriately trained teaching staff. Oxford. The life (not) so ordinary—pedagogical essays. CEDEFOP. parents and. J. Structures of the education and initial training systems in the member states of the European community.. 21. 72) When met the adults for the first time. opinions and experiences. replied the Universe.Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) directly with teachers. 277-291. What is essential is invisible to the eye. This is a kind of metaphor of the current situation of the inclusion education implementation within the primary school reform in HNC. L. I exist!”. As the research has showed. “pro formae”. However. (1999). New York: Penguin Books. & Garner. A. M. 1990. Education between reforming and deforming. (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. it seems all is done in a hurry. Mostar: Matica hrvatska.). 3(2). through the benefits for the schools. (2004). War is kind and other poems. 9-20. without clear vision and free division of the ideas. in the well-known poem of Stephen Crane14: “Sir. & Garner. P. children with and without special education needs. Sarajevo: Croatian Society for Science and the Arts. The grown-ups are really strange especially when dealing with children. the point is not to evaluate the children only. Routledge. cannot work. Daniels. the Little Prince wondered “grown-ups are decidedly very odd … and will never understand the significance of this …”. Time will show whether it is possible to achieve it successfully. R. “The fact has not created in me a sense of obligation” (responsibility. without support. Zagreb: Educa. Human school. & Slee. M. Education policies for students at risk and those with disabilities in South Eastern Europe. Bevanda. Bevanda. “However”.

Offe. N. Bringing the state back in: Strategies of analysis in current research. Theisens. 2003). 2005 labor Party manifesto. Baltimore: Brookes. (1997). Excellence in schools. Turner.mcmaster. Oxford: Oxford Univ. & Thousand. S. (1994). T. (2004). (2002). D. D. second or third way? Journal of Education Policy. Privatization. Curriculum considerations in inclusive classrooms. C. In: Zajda. (1999). & Engels. Mill. A. The state in capitalist society. London: NLB and Sheed Ward. and democracy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. decentralisation and education in the United Kingdom. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) (continued from Page 61) Kuhn. Evaluating the Norwegian educational reform 97—Theory of evaluation. M. Capitalism. Concept of the Nine-year Primary Education. (2005). (1985). 535-546. Retrieved December 25. 412-426. Skocpol. Poulantzas. The structure of scientific revolutions. L. Bringing the state back in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Making sense of education policy. J. Netherlands: Univ. (2000b). K.). New labor’s education policy: First. Inclusive education: Readings and reflections. M. Saint-Exupery. G. 2006. The state of change. 18. Netherlands: Spring. (2000). (1999). Spain. Marx. S. S. Baltimore: Brookes. P. socialism.. (1998). Sarajevo: Official Gazzette of BiH. Pehar. (2004).org. Ministry of Education of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. from http://www. Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. W. The audit society: Rituals of verification. Treasury. Rado. Transition in education. Labor Party. Whitty. Decentralisation and privatization in education. & Vaughn. (1952). (2001). Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. J. Teacher perceptions of supports and resources needed in regard to pupils with special educational needs in Sweden. October. Monsen. J. In: Rueschemeyer. C. (1844). from http://socserv2. The little prince. L. challenges and dilemmas. New York: SUNY Press. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 69 . Setting the context: History of and rationales for inclusive schooling. London: Labor Party. (Eds.html. Moscow: Progress. (1990). (2004). (Ed. R. & Evans. T. Social theory and education LA critique of theories of social and cultural reproduction. (2002). 42-54. L. 1996). (2007). (2007). Political power and social classes. Contradictions of the welfare state. In: Villa. R. Presented at EES Conference. Roll-Pettersson. Zagreb: Mladost.). & Steinback. Berkeley: Univ. Weber. Elements of political economy. (1973).uk/directory/ prof_issues/eis. J. London: ugcm/3ll3/milljames/elements. P.). 2006. Steinback. Seville. Psychological consequences of the primary school reform. Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together. (2000). (1984). London: Hutchinson. G. Thomas. 36(1). London: Sage. (2003). Framework law on primary and secondary education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (1992). Sarajevo: Official Gazette BiH. London: Quartet. & Haug. Economy and society. Education in a post-welfare society. Skocpol. M. of California Press.socsci. Power. H. R. Berkshire: Open University Press. Bihać: Institute for Education. London: HM Stationery Office. 14(5).Inclusive education: Proclamations or reality (primary school teachers’ view) Ministry of Education of Norway. R. Tomlinson. (2005). G. (1978).html. Power. Morrow. 7-37. F. Miliband. Manifesto of the communist Party. (1999. Oslo: Ministry of Education of Norway. T. Villa. (Eds. (1962. Public private partnerships. 28: A national strategy for evaluation and quality development in Norwegian schools. & Torres. & Thousand. Schumpeter. (1973). Press. 425-431. Report to the storting No. & Whitty. of Twente Press. Sarajevo: Official Gazzette BiH 26. Berkshire: Open University Press. Retrieved August 25. The Library Association.

a lot of surveys have been used in many schools. Many children have such difficulties. Irena Shehu2 (1. research fields: special education. Irena Shehu. or by other people who surround them. Department of Educational Sciences. questionnaires have been addressed to Margarita Hido. or by the other people who surround the child. among many others. so that they can progress the same as other children. It is called “difficulty”. why this secret dropping out of school happens is also difficulty in learning that quite a few number of pupils have. USA Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning Margarita Hido1. comprehensive culture. the causes of these difficulties. neither gender discrimination. The children who drop out of school are by far less numerous compared with those who start school. MSC. at least those depending on people can be avoided by offering a favorable environment.October 2010. Proceeding from this phenomenon. learning difficulties 1. lecturer. they have been abandoned and have dropped out of school. 70 . University of Gjirokastër. so that they can progress the same as other children. MSC. No. condemning them to school failure having slim chances to succeed later in life. One of the reasons. lecturer. phonetics. But there is one big discrimination and injustice towards children. condemning him to a school failure and slim chances to succeed later in life. Gjirokaster 6001. Albania. 2005). but there exists a discrimination. teaching and learning methodology. and consequently are not treated by all the teachers. to know and be able to do this as parents and precisely as teachers.10 (Serial No. Above all. A large number of factors intermingle bringing about the hell of learning for some children. Department of Educational Sciences. Department of English Language. University of Gjirokastër. Department of English Language. among many others. One of the reasons. Albania) Abstract: In the Albanian schools settings does not exist religious discrimination. the authors can talk about unequal opportunities within a class of pupils (Llmbiri. Gjirokaster 6001. why this secret dropping out of school happens is having difficulties in learning. ISSN 1548-6613. Volume 7. phonology of English language. which are not known to everyone. which are not known by everyone. This is the problem the authors will talk about in this paper.71) US-China Education Review. but who are not properly treated. even though not physically. showing fondness towards them and making efforts to help these children. Key words: comprehensiveness. University of Gjirokastër. The children who drop out of school are by far less numerous compared with those who start school but are not properly treated. research fields: language teaching and learning methodology. as unfair against children called “difficulty”. For this reason. The object of this article is the children with learning difficulties. 2. As a consequence these are not treated by teachers. practice and policies. University of Gjirokastër. Introduction There is neither religious nor gender discrimination in Albanian schools settings. Actually. the authors have to be willing. It has often been pointed out that to define the causes of these learning difficulties it is not an easy task. If it is impossible to intervene in different organic damages (even they in many cases can be prevented though).

it is a developing dynamic state which asks for a multidimensional definition. children with learning disabilities have been included in the group of the children with limited abilities or mental deficiency. as results of the malfunctioning of the central nervous system that can appear during the whole man’s life. principals and regional educational directorate inspectors. Actually. (2) to avoid the discriminating attitude to children with limited abilities. writing. If the difficulties in learning are not known (unfortunately. too. 71 . as well as the conviction that. In many studies. The results of many projects carried out in Albania on limited abilities and comprehensiveness in education. have been consulted. They fail to understand that everything has its own limitations and the lack of results might speak for a variety of reasons. it is acknowledged that 5%-10% of the children have difficulties with learning. mathematics abilities. the teachers have to try hard to help the integration and comprehensiveness of the children with learning disabilities. In Albania. such as reading. perceiving. because most of the time. memory. from a didactic assertion of deficiencies to a didactic assertion of abilities. it cannot speak of an exact figure of diagnosed cases. there are studies speak for normal intellectual ability over children with difficulties in learning. Through a different approach to the problem of the learning disabilities beyond the static understanding as a learning issue. in particular. Though their results are lower than those expected. To avoid this. Comprehensiveness is considered to be the most favorable means: (1) to create equal chances for the education of the children. it happens not rarely). There has been written and said a lot concerning the treatment of the children with difficulties in learning. in reading. The learning disability is not a static phenomenon that the students have or not. the authors pass to a didactic form of assessment. They have also been interviewed along with the parents of pupils with little progress at school and the pupils themselves. and the children with learning disabilities will not be accepted and helped (see Figure 1) this will lead to the phenomenon that a certain difficulty in learning will be the cause of serious difficulties bringing about new bigger problems continuously. the difficulties with learning have nothing to do with the mental deficiency. have the same rights to be educated like other children.Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning teachers. In this way. This overview of the problem and a complete ignorance on the part of the teacher are the reason that many children though physically present among other children. these children. etc. 2.. such as the lack of the student’s involvement in the learning process. mathematics. The difficulties in learning are consequences of a series of shocks which appear as difficulties in language acquisition and use. etc. writing. are left behind at the bottom of the classroom. They never think further to find out what exactly prevents their children or the students to achieve high results in school subjects. Children with learning disabilities in all inclusive education He/she is lazy—This is the most common expression frequently uttered either by the parents or the teachers when the child does not achieve the desired results at school. his inability. besides their limited abilities to learn (part of their own problem). it is required that all those around the children. On the contrary. parents and teachers are convinced that it is enough for the child to try harder and this can bring good results.. his necessary maturity to succeed as well as a talentless teacher or the inappropriate family or school environment. they reveal inability in one field and ability in another. but what they share according to their expressed thoughts and ideas is: There must exist the will to help these children.

According to the Normative Provision: (1) The comprehensive activity of the school in all aims at the possibility of equal chances given to every student. In a declarative level. and it is given to help fight better against inequality and better take into consideration these differences starting with the legal framework. A difficulty in learning More learning difficulties Failure at school Greater abandonment Efforts quitting New problems Parent’s and teacher’s disappointment Student’s abandonment Figure 1 Vicious circle of learning difficulties Comprehensiveness is an example of the resources of the democratic societies including Albania as well. benefit a reduction of 3 students in their class. A question rises: At what rate does this legal framework put into practice in the Albanian educational terrain. Despite the efforts made so far. it is still far from a complete real quality of the learning chances and far from the creation of a school for all. a reduction of 2 teaching classes in their week teaching load and an extra payment for every 4 classes. Though rather late. In this provision. (5) The teachers.Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning (3) to bring into evidence personal values of everyone. the Normative Provision of the year 2002 marked an achievement and freed the passage to the comprehensive education in Albania. a school that teaches A school for all is a school which receives all the students without being selective. None of the children must be expelled from the compulsory education despite their abilities. (4) to facilitate their social integration as adults in the future. too. A school for all. 3. an emancipated society needs so much. the contemporary tendency is revealed for the integration of the children with learning disabilities in common schools and the comprehensive education is proclaimed a necessity. for the first time and clearly. who work in classes part of which are students with learning disabilities. (4) The teacher has to know and value well the psychology of every student and cooperate with a psychologist and social worker. 72 . the legal framework the Normative Provision in power represents is valued as advanced and democratic and compared with the standards of the developed countries. (3) The educational work at school should take into consideration the difficulties and the learning pace of each child. yet there is a lot to be done. (2) The students with limited abilities have the right to be educated in public schools for 1 to 2 persons per class.

Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning

A school for all is the place of global education aiming at the development of the students’ capacities at their maximum. A school for all helps realize a real integration of different children by managing differences, putting forward objectives not identical for all, getting rid of the normative system and implementing a flexible system in conformity with the individual pace. A lot of work has been done so far to help the transformation of the Albanian school into a school for all. The idea of all inclusion is embraced, objectives referring to different levels are being used with the aim to include and help everyone achieve success. However, here and there still exists the influence of the normative system and people have to accept the fact that not all the teachers know and are able to realize the all inclusion. To achieve this, to acknowledge the differences and help the students overcome them, first of all, the teacher should know and diagnose the differences, in collaboration with different specialists. According to Ainscow and Twedle model, the helping model has to be as follow (see Figure 2):
Goal planning Situation valuing Teaching objectives selection Didactic models and methods Performance check

Diagnosing estimation to diagnose every student profile Figure 2

Measurable, achievable matching the problem Ainscow & Twedle model

Based on the achieved results, other alternative trainings are offered. World literature offers various tests to estimate students’ abilities in reading, content understanding, word relation, mathematics abilities, etc.. It is worth revealing that whether the teachers in general to define students abilities in different fields base it only on experience. Recently, the authors have obtained good results in diagnosing children with learning disabilities with the help of the non-governmental organizations “Save the Children” and “Help the Life”, supported by the Ministry of Education. The implementation of these projects almost all over the country resulted in: (1) Identifying 247 children with learning disabilities in 6 regions during 2008-2009; (2) 82 children have been identified within schools and they have been helped through individual educational programs; (3) During 2008-2009, 242 children with learning disabilities are attending, making progress, being promoted to higher classes in schools where the methods of all inclusion have been used; (4) During 2008-2009, 113 children with learning disabilities attend the kindergartens assisted by individual educational programs. The achievements of these projects are evident but they do not give solution to the problem of diagnosing and in particular the comprehensiveness of all the children since they have been implemented in about 50 schools and only 500 teachers have been part of them. 3.1 Teacher formation, the main goal of a school for all One of the most important goals for an effective school to be open to differences is the teacher formation. The teachers act as interlocutors between the learning environment and the families, they support and help children to achieve success in compliance with their peculiarities, aiming at obtaining the basic habits and skills and above all helping them to be self-valued and accepted by others.


Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning

In her effort to analyze the personality distinctions of a successful teacher concerning the children with learning disabilities inclusion, Olson and her collaborators have stressed: Children’s acceptance for what they are, their ability to observe, their awareness of their role, the cooperation with other supportive factors, the devotion to help all in inclusion, the creation of the possibilities for suitability, the ability to use strategies, methods and techniques matching everyone’s peculiarities (Olson, Chalmers & Hoover, 1997). According to the studies committed so far related with teachers’ attitude to the issue of all inclusion, it has been noticed that the teachers of the comprehensive education are of the opinion that the inclusion of the children with special needs in their classes is of great responsibility, because the knowledge of difficulties in learning is limited and the cooperation with the teachers of special education is not realized properly as well as the lack of other support factors (Cornoldi, Terreni, Srugs & Mastropieri, 1998). Through talks organized with teachers of different levels concerning the issues of all inclusion, it has been noticed that: The teachers of primary schools are more willing to help; the opinions in favor and against are not defined by the gender; the most successful teachers are more inclined to accept all inclusion; but there still exist problems concerning the large number of students in classes, for example, the lack of the supportive personnel and all inclusion training, as well as the non-accepting attitude of parents. The authors think that the theoretical and practical training of the teachers in dealing with the problems of inability and learning disabilities is crucial. It is now 10 years since the subject of special education has become part of the curricula of the Albanian universities, which train pre-school and elementary school teachers. The University of Vlora has recently established a special branch of the differentiated pedagogy. But this is not enough to meet the needs in knowing, diagnosing and training all the children with learning disabilities, besides a small number of these graduated teachers are employed in the education system. Their involvement in projects will be of great value. It is for this reason that the young teachers and other trained in-service have answered positively the questions “Do you know the legal provisions for children with learning disabilities?” and “Are you in favor of children with learning disabilities comprehensiveness?”. Many in-service teachers have answered positively to the question “Do you have the necessary knowledge to work with children with learning disabilities?”, 69 out of 80 thus 86.2%, only 11 that is 13.8% gave a negative answer to the above question (see Figure 3).
100 80 % 60 40 20 0 Yes No

Figure 3

Answers to the question “Do you have the necessary knowledge to work with children with learning disabilities?”

While to the question “What has helped you to deal with children with learning disabilities?” ((1) professional experience; (2) collaboration with families; (3) collaboration with different specialists), the answers were as follows: 70% professional experience, 62% collaboration with families and 25% collaboration with different specialists (see Figure 4).


Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

professional experience collaboration with families collaboration with different specialists

Figure 4 Answers to “What has helped you to deal with children with learning disabilities?”

As it can be seen that, it is obvious that they do not ask sufficiently for the help of the specialists, and consequently, their effective presence at school is almost inexistent (As for the role of the psychologist at school, many of the teachers confess that they have met several times to talk about his role, others confess to have invited them to talk about drug use, while some of them had no idea of him) (Save the Children, 2005). The answers to the question: “What are the possible causes that not all the children achieve good results at school?”, ((1) the child himself; (2) his family; (3) curricula and text compiling; (4) insufficient time to help the children with learning; (5) the large number of students per class; (6) lack of knowledge concerning students’ individual peculiarities to match; (7) the teaching load), are respectively (see Figure 5): (1) 85%; (2) 87.5%; (3) 23.7%; (4) -; (5) 16.2%; (6) 7.5%; (7) 8.2%.

Figure 5

Answers to “What are the possible causes that not all the children achieve good results at school?”

Judging from the above figures, the teachers consider the children’s families as the cause for their low results, their socio-cultural level and their indifference. A high percentage lays blame on the children themselves (lack of concern, responsibility, low intellectual capacity, etc.). A few of them see that the problem was linked with curricula and text compiling as well as their insufficient work. Only 6 of them were of the opinion that the lack of knowledge and incompatibility with children’s peculiarities influenced them. Even only these answers show that many of the teachers blame “the child pathology”. Meanwhile, many studies conducted in this scope show that appropriate planning of teaching, programs, methods and school settings enhance obviously the possibilities for the children with learning disabilities to achieve satisfactory results bringing into focus on the “Pathology of teaching”. It is necessary to give priority and consider as main goals of an effective school, the teachers’ formation, their new mentality to accept differences and help every child to exist with their cognitive, emotional, physical characteristics, etc.. 3.2 Role of the support teacher The following responsibilities are suggested as appropriate to the support teacher:

This would lead to a proper specialized treating of the children. has not been given yet. people are far behind concerning the possibility to provide classes with support teachers (even those included in comprehensive educational projects). (5) To develop a variety of methods which individual pupils may be offered to enhance their learning (finding pathways to learning). (5) The qualification of the teaching staff.. In the education system. In addition. supportive personnel. great help related to all inclusion would be the training of coordinators for special needs. financially supported by non-governmental organization. such as difficulties in learning intellectual delay. Conclusions and recommendations To achieve an organized and simultaneous effect which leads to a satisfactory result related to children with learning disabilities. (3) The creation of the school catalogue for the students’ special needs and the implementation of principals concerning children with difficulties in learning. methods and materials being offered to all the class and especially for the pupils with special learning needs. time and money have been spent recently to re-assess the schooling services. precisely. the class-teacher. The conclusions and recommendations are as follows: 76 . problems of behavior. not all of them have been treated with the defined alternatives. This can be realized in 1-2 year specializations of experienced teachers (or according to Bologna system) in different fields. To achieve good results. (2) To assist in identifying individual pupils’ needs in order to help them over their learning obstacles and set appropriate objectives. (2) The communication and counseling at teacher level. etc. In the Albanian reality. a learning community which will serve the abilities of all the students. (4) The relation between the parents and other supportive factors. such as pay-rise. coordinator should be appointed a teacher who is responsible for: (1) A daily implementation of the school policy for the children with learning disabilities. but the support to the main “actor”.. (8) To help find ways to provide individual tuition when needed. 4. even in the cases when teachers specialized for the differentiated pedagogy have been made part of the classes. dealing directly with the changeability. It is crucial that the teachers should create together with the parents. extra payment up to 170 classes per year and the reduction of the students’ number in classes as well. the principal thing is the sensitiveness on the part of the teacher considering either a child or a group of these children as “his/her owns”. (3) To help provide effective learning strategies which can be incorporated into the work of particular pupils. assessment and recording which can be practiced by both teachers. they have not been welcomed properly by the class teachers. (7) To assist in the continual evaluation of the approaches. (4) To assist in developing resource materials to meet individual needs. According to English model in the code of practice (1994). etc.Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning (1) To work in collaboration with the class/subject teacher to make the curriculum accessible/understandable for all pupils in the class and help with planning of the supported lesson. It is indispensable to help the formation of specialist teachers for the special education. community. (6) To assist in providing methods for making.

urge them to act and encourage them to believe that they can cope and get over any difficulties. (2009). develop more flexible programmes. Srugs. (12) There should be supporting services for the teachers such as the reduction of the teaching load. (10) The improvement of the subject curricula at the universities of education which prepare and train teachers in adding subjects concerning the comprehensive education and the rights of the children with learning difficulties. students with learning disabilities are part of. References: Cornoldi. the teachers should not forget that they are the key to success. & Hoover.. (13) The Ministry of Education has to cooperate with the NCTQ (National Center of Training and Qualification) to help know the credits of the specific training for the comprehensive teaching and motivate the teachers included in the process. Secret abandonment. (14) Headmasters should be part of training activities with regard to children with learning disabilities. H. C. (11) The qualification of the in-service teachers should also include knowledge on children with learning difficulties. Teacher attitudes in Italy after twenty years of inclusion. and altogether they should make children feel well. M. Remedial and Special Education.. A. Analysis of the legal framework guaranteeing the education of disabled children under the inclusive education. Olson. (9) The organization of a reinforcing teaching by the teacher of the class or by a specialized teacher paid for that. 350-356. assistant teachers even some are already on pension. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 77 . Analysis of the results of project “Inclusive Education”.Beyond stigmatization of children with difficulties in learning (1) Not all the teachers know the peculiarities of learning difficulties. 19(6). Publishing House “Erik”. (7) The specialization and qualification of teachers concerning the difficulties in learning. All those near these children should see beyond this labeling. the experts of different fields with their knowledge should help too. 28-35. Parents too should be involved in these activities as well. a better payment and other rewards. (3) There must be a reduction in the number of students of the classes. (4) The increase of the professional freedom of the teachers to help a curricula and text matching.. Tiranë. The parents should remember that there are no experts who know more than them about their children. 18(1). M. Llmbiri. Terreni. Chalmers. Publishing House “Erik”. (1998). (5) The involvement of supportive teachers along with the main teachers of the class. S. & Mastropieri. consequently not all of them are able to help the children. L. J. R. Remedial and Special Education. (2005). Attitudes and attributes of general education teacher identified as effective inclusionists. (15) Children with learning disabilities are part of all mainstream classes. Tiranë. (6) The preparation of coordinative teachers to help the comprehensiveness. (2) School in fracture must change in favor of students with learning disabilities. (2005). (1997). will be of a great help. Simply labeling them as children with learning disabilities does not say much. A. Save the children. efficient strategies and methods as well as alternative texts and standards of subject achievements for students with learning disabilities. Tiranë. T. (8) The compilation of curricula to meet the requirements of the comprehensive education. Save the children. Publishing House “Erik”.

Knowledge competitiveness has become the foundation of the all-round competitiveness of individual countries. HEIs should aim at the innovation of HE. Introduction The concept of “knowledge competitiveness” is used internationally to label the ability of changing knowledge capital and human capital into the production of a knowledge-based economy 1 and social wealth of a region. education has become a basic instrument to develop human resources. 78 * . Besides. Theodore W. HEIs are so important for people’s It is one of the periodical outcome of the project titled Research on Resource Construction of Funding Information and Key Technologies for Tertiary Education in Yunnan Province sponsored by Social Development Plan for Science and Technology in Yunnan Province (No. Yunnan University. They thought that this theory has two central viewpoints: (1) In the progress of economic growth. School of Software.e.10 (Serial No. Ph. Key words: knowledge competition. The system of HE (higher education) has become the “axial structure” in the society. in this era of knowledge-based economy. research field: higher education..D. research field: system science. professor. Kunming 650091. in the tussle of knowledge race in East Asia. the three familiar missions of “training capable persons”. “doing research” and “serving the society”. Without any doubt. The American economists. LIAO Hong-zhi. distribution and usage of knowledge and information”. politics. 2. ISSN 1548-6613. Volume 7. To attain this target. China.2009CA011). 1 Knowledge economy is short for “knowledge-based economy”. supervisor. called “the post-industrial society” by Daniel Bell. LIAO Hong-zhi2 (1. Higher Education Evaluation Center. Research Institute of Higher Education. USA Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education* ZHANG Jian-xin1. Ph. culture and many other aspects of these countries. Yunnan University. Becker created the theory of human capital in the 1960s. visiting scholar of UNESCO APEID in 2008. ZHANG Jian-xin. director of RSHE in Research Institute of Higher Education. exploitation of human resource. In the report of “Knowledge-based Economy”. The basis of this wealth is human capital and knowledge capital. Schultz and Gary S. and this has tremendously influenced the countries’ competitiveness in military affairs. professor. Indeed. accumulation of knowledge capital. social development and progress are much more relying on HEIS (higher education institutions) than ever before. education has attained a key position. higher education innovation 1. in which economic transformation as well as economic growth are warp and weft.. No.October 2010. School of Software. the effect of human capital is huger than that of material capital. As “axial organizations”. i. Yunnan University. Yunnan University. assessor of Yunnan Higher Education Evaluation Center. China) Abstract: In the era of knowledge economy today.D. the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) gives following definition: “The economy directly rely on the production. and HEIS (higher education institutions) have become the “axial organizations” in this society. and (2) The main part of human investment is the promotion of the quality of the population and education investments.71) US-China Education Review. upgrading knowledge competitiveness. ability-building of human resources and blossom of boundless HE. vice editor-in-chief of the journal ACADEMY. Kunming 650091. a new mission for HE (higher education) has been added.

Professor Smith from the University of North Texas (USA) discerned the following four modes of a university: “I endeavor to put forward the following 4 university modes: as a company. Answering the question “How HE should shoulder the important historical mission of promoting knowledge competitiveness” is a key issue for the author’s HE research. that all countries have paid more attention and offered more support to them than ever before. development and prosperity. the functions of HEIs have evolved. from the education value of “training capable persons” to the double ideal of Alexander von Humboldt’s focus on both scientific research and teaching. In the early 1990s. as a social service organization and as a scholar consortium”. too. universities have influenced the society to a certain extent. As everybody knows. scientific research and social service are the major recognized HE missions at present. science and technology as the engine. as an ideology agent.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education existence. showing the universities developing from singularity to diversity. With the social progress. the training of capable persons. Since the founding day. educational human resource as the first resource. classroom-based teaching as undergraduates’ education. living on campus. and then finally directly to the idea of serving the society learned from Wisconsin University in the USA in the 1960s. which is the symbol of the evolvement of the HE function. innovation as the motivity. the connotations have been continuously extended. In the 21st century—the era of knowledge-based economy. graduates’ education differentiated in academic fields and colleges. These 4 modes of a university make clear that the traditional description of a university: a 4-year long education system of students. knowledge economy with the characteristics of knowledge as the foundation. and at the same time has determined the development of HE: promoting knowledge competitiveness as the new mission of HE. from scholasticism to socialization. teaching staff mainly engaged in training capable persons by teaching. various new paradigms have presented themselves in the system of HEIs and at the same time the connotations have changed. Kernel: Ability-building of human resources Motivity: Innovation of HE as the producer of motivity Promoting knowledge competitiveness Scope: Blossom of boundless HE Foundation: Accumulation of knowledge capital Figure 1 The 4 basic ideas of HE’s upgrading knowledge competitiveness 79 . has brought for HE many opportunities and challenges. With the gradual progress of HE’s entrance into the center of society. doing scientific research and service to society—is not enough to describe HE.

only 85 survived. which shows that a university might be a stable and ever-lasting organization. Though today’s university still has its stability and relatively independence. work as brainpower in decision-consultation for the whole society. The re-construction or the creation of this HE function at least consists of the following 3 aspects (XIE. along with the production and expansion of intelligence and knowledge. among which 70 are universities. (2) accumulation of knowledge capital. At the beginning of the knowledge economy. while the other 15 are religious organizations. HE must take an active part in society.1 HE as the source for motivity of intelligence Intelligence is the most fundamental and deep-seated motivity source in the human society. often called as a “tower of ivory”. is not only the “source of knowledge creation”. the innovation function should be added to the HE agenda. In the knowledge economy. 2007). 80 . BIE. During the historical development of higher education. and gradually universities contributed to the social economic development of society. (3) ability-building of human resources. will play a much more important role. A university. especially in key universities. The main difference between humankind and animals is that humankind has the ability to create. and constituted a new function of HE. making HE the think tank for social economic development. the “bank of capable persons”. technology and economic development. Only with the ability of creation. and (4) blossom of boundless HE.2 The function of HE as an “incubator” and “engine” HE. the “disseminator of culture”. it is no longer the “tower of ivory”. 2. universities have become the source of innovation and have contributed to social progress. Clark Kerr. is one of the most conservative organizations. catalyzing the development source of social production. The education function is an expression of the present and future need of individuals for education. there was a “re-construction of the function system” of the university. a former president of University of California (USA). did the same things the same way at that time. 2002). found that among those organizations that still used the same names. made a survey on all the organizations before 1520 AD all over the world. science and technology. and (2) A lot of industry parks are scientifically supported by universities and flourish and develop very fast. 2. nor is it living outside society. WU & HUANG. In order to attain a position in the knowledge race for East Asia. but also the “incubator” and “engine” of the development of high-tech production (XIA. growth and utilization. As a consequence. 2. with the development of a new-generation industry of information. provide technology service and intelligence support for economic and social development. universities make incessantly choices and embark on innovation. it needs to support 4 basic ideas: (1) innovation of HE as the producer of motivity. as a very intelligent brain that can engender incessantly new ideas and integrate efficiently various resources.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education This paper will show that the new mission of HE is the upgrading of knowledge competitiveness. In the knowledge-based economy. but also expressing people’s “Utopia” complex to a university. Innovation of HE as the motivity of knowledge competitiveness Probing into HE’s function is an old but ever-lasting topic. Incessant creation is the inherent need of humankind’s self-existence and development. impelling at the same time the development of the knowledge economy. can humankind incessantly evolve and continually make progress. The function of HE as an “incubator” and “engine” has 2 characteristics: (1) HEIs have become the cradles and seedbeds of high-tech’s innovation. Innovation is the soul of a knowledge-based economy. not only showing a university’s grandeur and holiness like “macroscopical narratation”. along with the need of science.

a university which “seeks new thinking and new knowledge”. and the higher the social development. emphasizing the succession of time. which means “hand-on” the predecessors’ knowledge. but they are also one of the composing parts of the HE system. HE realizes the target of knowledge transmission. the president of the University of California at Berkeley (USA) said that. emphasizing the broadness of space. As one kind of 81 . labs and multimedia. In modern society. Training these “knowledge workers” implies specialized vocational education. the more need there is for decision-makers and managing staffs. the other is “cheng” (承). Capable persons’ acquired knowledge in HE directly enters such domains as social politics. The accumulation of knowledge capital: The premise of knowledge competitiveness A knowledge society is a knowledge-based society. HEIs have the important function of preserving knowledge. 3. One of the roles of education is creating and innovating knowledge. no doubt. Without the tacit knowledge of the scholars’ brains in HEIs. The knowledge-creating function benefits from the typical university structure where new information and academic thinking is exchanged. 3. the “heritage of knowledge”. which is necessary for high quality teaching and research. They are not only the organizations that preserve a wealth of knowledge. transmission and creation of knowledge capital (YAN. an educator in Chinese Tang Dynasty). economy. which means “transmission” of the present culture and researches in order to be shared in the world. telling students the way to live and answering students’ questions” (a famous sentence from the article of On Learning from Others by HanYu. namely. as a place where deep learning is discussed. the stronger the marketization will be. knowledge in society is incomplete. It transmits the best cultural production that is accumulated in human civilization for ages. Explicit knowledge is usually preserved by such means as libraries. track and others. “the expansion of knowledge”. Education plays important roles in humankind’s cultural development. Therefore.2 Transmitting knowledge Knowledge transmission has two meanings in Chinese: one is “chuan” (传). Knowledge has gradually changed from the exterior to the internal of social development and from the brink to the center of the society. Teaching in HEIs is the most important manner of knowledge transmission. the innovation of knowledge is an important function of HE. HE still has the main functions of preservation. Universities are composed of learned experts and scholars whose tacit knowledge cannot be preserved in libraries.3 The bridge function of HE The obvious characteristic of modern high-tech economy is that high-tech staff have become the main labor force. 2003). thinking and cultural production that is passed down from generation to generation. while tacit knowledge is mainly preserved in the scholars’ brains. culture and other fields. So it can be said that knowledge exists both in life carriers and non-life carriers. By training capable persons.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education 2. always “stands in the most anterior line of criticism” and is a “foreland with creation ability”. which provides the explanations to the world’s modes in social origin. University libraries have played a crucial role in the preservation of knowledge.1 Preservation of knowledge Because scientific knowledge is often seen as “value-free”. namely. which is often considered true. in the knowledge society. motivity. and public wealth should be cherished and shared. and enthusiasm for innovation and openness for academic freedom may be found. The faster the economy increases. 3. No doubt. factor. by teachers’ “teaching students’ knowledge. nor do they only fulfill the indispensable task to communicate knowledge in the communication chain of knowledge. and the more important the contribution of HE is to train three staff.

are research universities that focus on scientific research and promote science. The whole world is struck on them and praises them for their important influence on the economy and the development of international relationships. “ability building of human resources” can be considered as opening up persons’ potential. international finance and international trade. Hong Kong and Taiwan).3 Creating knowledge Of all times. mobilizing their enthusiasm. Not only these countries but also the individual citizens invest a tremendous sum of money in education in order to raise the level and quality of education. 4. However. influenced by the von Humboldt’s university type. 3. which makes social progress possible and promotes cultural development. Singapore. bringing persons’ potential into play. these four countries and regions are “inborn undernourished have-nots”. huge support to and fast development of education. encouragement and employment. diplomas acquired by learning have become the passports to society. Much knowledge does not attain a complete or a final conclusion. international affairs. This means that they become a social knowledge colony or a knowledge stratum that takes care of knowledge expansion or knowledge radiation. technology. as well as the creation of culture and knowledge. New knowledge is created by discussing. It is clear that the knowledge accumulation and intelligence support from highly-trained citizens guarantee this economic development and fast-growing affluence. Seeking for knowledge is the self-evident goal of an academic career. The usage of human resources is the best approach to increase economic efficiency and add social wealth. increasing the ability of knowing and changing nature for both an 82 . To some degree. they become “knowledge nodes” which can naturally converge into a mass and at last into a “knowledge source”. Consequently. and each in his/her own position is engaged in all kinds of activities that “radiate” knowledge in society. they have reached economic prosperity and grown up in the Orient for only a short period of time after World War Two. by means of education. Based on such aspects as population. communicating and understanding various cultures and thinking. Generally speaking. In this way. observers came to the same conclusion: The main reason for the economic prosperity of the “Four Asian Tigers” can be found in their special attention for. area and natural resources. In the era of fast development of science and technology along with an explosion of knowledge. HE all over the world has put the function of knowledge transmission on its shoulder. open-up and use human resources.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education “knowledge intensiveness”. training. The neoteric universities. once “capable persons” step into society. they build the citizens’ ability to store-up. the impelling force of the knowledge society continuously and vividly expands the function of knowledge creation in universities. HE trains students’ character and improves their capacities by transmitting specialized knowledge. knowledge creation is the most energic and vital function of higher education in a knowledge society. but for the majority. teachers and students have to continue researching and creating knowledge. since the founding of HEIs. In the era of a knowledge society. academic and scientific research activities have been conducted. “ability building of human resources” is still a new and unacquainted concept. The best known example of this phenomenon is found in the fast growth of the economy of the “Four Asian Tigers” (Korea. Seeking for the reason of this wonderful achievement. people are no more unacquainted with such concepts as human resources and exploitation of human resources. raising persons’ quality. No doubt. Later on. The ability-building of human resources: The kernel of knowledge competitiveness The economic development all over the world proves that human resources are the most valuable resources to promote economic development. In recent years. HE delivers these capable persons to society. The university is a place of knowledge production.

adventure spirit. the word “study” is often related to the activities in school or learning in order to pass some exams or quizzes. and both dispersive and convergent thinking are needed. acquiring knowledge and information by Internet is one of the study abilities that are specially strengthened. Individual adaptation mainly consists of two aspects: (1) Individuals should be aware of competition consciousness. but they might have very different ideas about it.4 Students’ competition ability Competition is an instinct that is inherently injected into mankind’s blood by biologic evolution. the width and the effect of the interpersonal communication. In this paper. Ability building of human resources emphasizes particularly the ability of humans. a circular process of dispersion—convergence—redispersion—reconvergence. innovation thinking has a special feature: both logic and non-logic thinking. keystones and perspectives are different. collaboration. but their goals. in order to promote the social progress and the all-round development of an individual. synthesis. sees them as a substantial resource (such as the products made in a factory).. mainly 83 .3 Students’ adaptation ability The adaptation ability is the self-adapting ability in order to adapt the environment and social ability to the habitation and environment.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education individual and a group. 4 abilities should be supported. For most people. but comparing with other thinking activities. Adaptation ability is the guarantee for ability building of human resources. or you will be eliminated cruelly. self-study ability and modern ways of living (WEN. collaboration consciousness. 4. Crocodiles’ species imperishability and chameleons’ color-changing self-protection are some examples of the adaptation ability of animals. team spirit. a new ideal of exploitation of human resources. the ability of acquiring new knowledge and carrying on new practical actions by various study measurements. 2007). comparison. pay close attention to various problems in nature and in society. and (2) Individuals should also have knowledge of individual behavior as frustration. abstraction. It is very similar to “exploitation of human resources” in its broad sense. competition. while ability building of human resources considers human resources as persons and their main goal is increasing persons’ ability. i. 4. In the current stage of economic development. The exploitation of human resources takes an economic standpoint and considers persons as objects. the depth.e. To attain the most important objectives of ability building of human resources. the word “study” not only refers to exams in schools and all that is related to. and go-ahead incessantly and seek for new founding. Environment adaptation mainly consists of information collection. 4. Building students’ creation ability should focus on a 3-dimensional target: (1) the dimension of “knowledge techniques”: The techniques of innovation should be numerous and of high quality. but also refers to the process of mastering discipline knowledge. The evaluation index of adaptability mainly includes environment adaptation. 2008). Interpersonal adaptation mainly consists of the connotation. information discrimination and survival ability. 4.1 Students’ study ability People refer to the word “study” almost every day. interpersonal adaptation and individual adaptation. the methods. embodiment and systematism. Innovation ability is the kernel of ability building of human resources (JIANG. The process of ability building of human resources is one of the methods to train a person’s ability. Students’ study ability is the foundation of ability building of human resources. combat spirit. generalization. The message is: adapt to the society. (3) the dimension of “innovation personality”: An innovating personality should have the strong willpower to overcome difficulties.2 Students’ creation ability Innovation ability means the ability to innovate knowledge. (2) the dimension of “innovation thinking”: Innovation activities still need adopting such thinking methods as analysis.

Today. 2005). getting across both the traditional institutional and regional borderlines in the traditional mode in space as well as in concept.1 Boundlessness of HEIs Boundlessness of HEIs emphasizes the cross-national and cross-campus cooperation of HEIs. let them know the cruelty of competition and engage them actively in competition. Living in a competitive society. Competition ability is the strategy of ability building of human resources. exchange of capable persons in the world. In the first Global Forum of Quality Assurance of Higher Education in 2002. Only this way. etc. especially some private and commercial education services that want to make profit. but often a “win-win” competition based on the methods of cooperation.. namely. a branch campus in the Australian Curtin University of Technology. People have to find a balance between “haves” and “have-nots”. and the James Cook University in 84 . knowledge and innovation. and (4) HEIs cross the border of time and space by offering long-distance education. but means that people do not allow the border as an unchanging partition to petrify HE. are all in the transition to “boundlessness”. This shows that “boundless higher education” encompasses a wide variety of items. can students survive in the modern society. and a lot of problems will emerge. 5. boundless HE at least covers the following 4 aspects. it will block the mobility of such factors as information. Therefore. they broke the borderline of the concept of traditional HE as a “public product”. The blossom of boundless higher education: The scope of knowledge competitiveness On the macroscopical background of globalization. 5. the cooperation programme between the University of Warwick in the UK and Chulalongkorn University in Thailand. for example. whether national or regional. which makes HE’s borderlines become much more confused and penetrable. “Boundless higher education” refers to an opening-up HE ideal.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education referring to the strategies and methods of competition. mainly including 3 types: (1) branch campuses. where exchange and communication of ideas cross the border of the institutions. online study activities and various virtual universities (ZHANG. a branch campus in the British Nottingham University. Robin Middlehurst from the University of Surrey in the UK pointed out that “boundless higher education” referred to the following 4 aspects: (1) from the perspective of the education type: the appearance of such non-regular education as adult continuing education. whether institutional or idealistic. At present. for example. competition can be found everywhere. with the fast development of ICT (information and communication technology) as well as the advancement of the tidal wave of education marketization. The word “border” refers to the boundary between countries or regions. mainly accentuating the acquirement of the opportunity of lifelong education. whether mental or physical. Malaysia has a branch campus in the Australian Monash University. people should train students to acquire competition consciousness. especially the competition idea of establishing a “win-win” situation. the reform of HE has gradually entered a new stage of “boundlessness”. (2) a twinning program. public departments and HEIs. lifelong education broke the borderline of studying in regular and non-regular HEIs. teamwork and alliance. It does not mean completely removing the border and being in a state of boundlessness. education services at home and abroad supplied by cross-national associations and various cooperatives. (3) HEIs cross the border of countries and regions. new company universities established by enterprises. (2) from the perspective of the public and private HEIs: the appearance of private HEIs. for example. If the HE border is like a fixed and stiff wall. hoping that HE organizations will efficiently work. because modern social competition is not always a “life-and-death” competition. various borders of traditional HE.

etc.. and an “International MBA Cooperation Project” in China. and it focuses on mankind’s life and experience. In his own home country. namely.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education Australia has established a joint-school in Singapore. the students studying in their home country for some time and later in one or more guest countries for a period of time. listen to a series of lectures given by a guest professor on a virtual campus. The final target is to establish a new-type of borderless HE whose bound of institution. but supported by Internet technology. HEIs were only the social antennas and decoration.3 Boundlessness of curriculum Boundlessness of curriculum refers to the cross-boarder mobility of a curriculum. they use Latin as teaching language facilitated this mobility. etc. 6. Monash University in Australia has founded an off-shore institution in Malaysia and provide education service in South Africa for the local students. which have already appeared early in the Middle Ages. and “online” curricula are developed by information technology. namely. etc. society and students’ living. including the students who enjoy education in their home country provided or recognized by a guest country. In the era of the knowledge 85 . It exceeds the traditional study space. In this form of boundless HE. This is an obvious and peculiarly mobile phenomenon of boundless HE. 5. having special rights. for example. education types and education organizations at home and abroad. may choose parts of the curriculum of higher grades or others according to their own needs. 5. a student can study the curriculum provided or recognized by a guest country. the production and transmission of knowledge was difficult and rather small. Students can apply for cross-grade courses. when students studied at foreign universities. Today.4 Boundlessness of study Boundlessness of study refers to the expansion of the learning contents and the scope of learning. the students studying far away from the campus in the home country. Today. and brings students much closer to society. time and space is becoming permeable and merged in order to make East Asia take up a common position in the knowledge race. Independent HEIs.. It emphasizes the ideal of the learners as the center. dissociated itself from the social development and did not have to satisfy the social needs. The role and orientation of HE was only “higher education in the society”. people should adopt “boundless HE” as an important concept to explain the penetration and transcension of the various education spaces. Conclusion In the traditional society. At that time. the production and transmission of knowledge. could implement their duties. and (3) off-shore institutions. nature. the physical position of the students remains unchangeable. the position and the role of HE were relatively independent in the society. Twinning programs and branch campuses are established in a foreign country. A good example of this is flexible study. the curriculum has been exchanged between countries.2 Boundlessness of learners Boundlessness of learners refers to students’ cross-boarder mobility. whose role is to transmit high and deep knowledge. recomposes students’ individual “biography experience” and promotes students’ self-construction. many sorts of students join in the range of boundless HE. time and contents that have been disconnected subjectively in the traditional teaching methods. nature and living by observing their essences and upgrading their quality to reach the education target of multiple development. 5. Therefore. all these will become the main tendency of the future development of boundless HE. It is a study method in which the binary structure of “in class” and “after class” teaching and learning in the traditional curriculum is merged. HE was “the tower of ivory”. It combines specialized disciplines.

(2008). concerning “knowledge”... there were never “knowledge-based economy” and “knowledge activity-based education” that have been so closely connected and naturally combined. BIE. R. (2005). H. The change of higher education in the era of knowledge economy. all kinds of activities in HEIs are carried out focusing on teaching and learning.. & HUANG. i. Foreign Country Education Research. (2007). X. D. (in Chinese) ZHANG. “doing research” and “serving the society”. (in Chinese) WEN. On the four economic function of higher education. Boundless higher education: The new ideal of higher education the developed western countries. J. Z.Upgrading knowledge competitiveness is the new mission of higher education economy. H. In the knowledge society. 5. (in Chinese) (Edited by Nicole and Lily) 86 . 1(3). things are reversed: The order of society. a new mission for HE has been added. R. L. Besides the three familiar missions of “training capable persons”. in the tussle of the knowledge race in East Asia. It is very difficult for HE to deny the social needs and put itself free from society. and the role of HE is not any more the role of “higher education in the society”. (in Chinese) XIA. L. F. Y. Z. In history. Modern University Education. R. References: JIANG. (2002). X. knowledge and HE has been re-ranked. (in Chinese) XIE. HE must satisfy and adapt to the needs of the social development. 12. The evaluation index system of students’ society adaptation in curriculum of physical education. 6. Three-dimension goal of training students’ innovation ability. upgrading knowledge competitiveness. B. Y.e. but “higher education of the society”. WU. 2. (2007). & LU. Education Science. Journal of Physical Education. Journal of Xianning Teachers College. and the degree of social dependence of HE has greatly risen.

Faculty of Education. This study provides further groundwork to assist existing education managers to improve work quality and deliver the maximizing usage of TEC teaching and learning towards the excellence in secondary education. Ed. The Ministry of Education has architect to promote various ICT and computer-based teaching and learning application projects such as the application and * This paper has previously presented in the 23rd World Conference on Open and Distance Learning including the 2009 EADTU Annual Conference in Maastricht.71) US-China Education Review. University of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur 50603. senior lecturer. The Netherlands.. MARA University of Technology Malaysia (UiTM). senior lecturer. Johor 85009. leadership quality.D. Department of Language & Literacy Education. University of Malaya. the school and teaching staff are another two essential factors found to be the strong fundamental of maximizing the usage of technology in TEC teaching and learning with towering quality. research fields: education. No. In addition. Introduction The Malaysian government has emphasized on the importance of ICT and interactive computer technology teaching and learning process in education system since 1986. there is a significant difference among factors stated above with maximizing usage of TEC in teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program. on June 7-10. Malaysia) Abstract: This research is attempting to examine the effectiveness in the application of ICT (information and communication technology) and standardize courseware in ETeMS (English for Teaching Mathematics and Science) or PPSMI (Pengajaran and Pembelajaran Sains and Matematic dalam Bahasa Inggeris) in English program in the Malaysian secondary school system.10 (Serial No. Chew Fong Peng. Malaysian secondary school system 1. This study represents an addition to the extant literature on maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning towards the excellence of education in the secondary school system. ISSN 1548-6613. Faculty of Business Management. Lee Tan Luck. Faculty of Education. and teachers’ personal and working experience) were examined to determine the maximizing usage of TEC (technology-enhanced classroom) in the learning program. Malaysia. The maximizing usage of TEC teaching and learning environment within the secondary school system is pivotal towards achieving high quality human capital and improving the efficiency and integrity of technology-enhanced learning of science and mathematics in English program. Department of Language & Literacy Education.. USA Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system* Lee Tan Luck1. MARA University of Technology Malaysia (UiTM). 2. In general. 87 . The learning culture is also closely related. Five dimensions of secondary school (type of school. Volume 7. Faculty of Business Management. Chew Fong Peng2 (1. 2009. Ph. Malay literature. Key words: technology-enhanced teaching and learning. demographic.October 2010. M. research field: management. teaching and learning culture. English for Teaching Mathematics and Science (ETeMS/PPSMI).

Internet and intranet. whereas rural students and parents show lukewarm respond (Sharifah Maimunah.. 2000). This mega project runs from 2002 to 2008 and covers the primary and secondary schools in the country stages by stages (Curriculum Development Center/Ministry of Education. the inception of English for Teaching Mathematics and Science Program (ETeMS/PPSMI) which cost the government RM6 billion is on-tract to success. i. After realizing the importance of English language and upgrading the standard of English language among Malaysian students in the era of information technology. Indefinitely. the uses of ICT would be able to reach 80. Study conducted shows that the Malaysian secondary students’ acceptance of English language in the teaching of mathematics and science were good in the urban schools. the growth of language. 2004). However. open and distance learning in the upper secondary and tertiary education system in Malaysia. where computer literacy is the main concern in the CAI and CIE. understanding and achievement of mathematics and science through ETeMS (PPSMI) from 2002 until 2004 is unsatisfactory (CDC/MOE. 2008). LCD (liquid cristal display) and courseware of mathematics and science in English by the mathematics and science teachers in the secondary school system in Malaysia.e. the above-mentioned ideas need to be followed. Therefore. the process of socio-culture. Technology-driven teaching and learning process in the curriculum is due to the emerging digital technologies. the acceptance towards the usage of TETL process in classes has been very successful (Chew & Lee.. 2003). academia and cognition. Today. 2000). However.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system management of CIE (Computer in Education) and computer-assisted teaching and learning. this forms the basis for the ongoing and future of collaborative. the Malaysian government’s mega initiative will be proven as a catalyst towards ICT and TETL application and management in the education system of the country. in which about 15% of the total is for the developing world (Stacey. Malaysia (CDC-MOE) on students.e. collaborative and distance learning in the education system. Related literature The success in the implementation of the CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction). whereas rural students needed a longer time frame to acquaint the new concept. The mastering of English language in the ETeMS (PPSMI) was the booster of the usage of technology enhancement in the teaching and learning process. If any of the technology-driven learning is to be successfully implemented. 88 . i. Certain quaters are vocal against the continuation of this project. Alexander (2001) noted that using technology in learning would produce advantages like improving the quality of learning and access to education and training.000 people worldwide (Sbarca. laptop. Malaysia. the divided acceptance of ETeMS/PPSMI program after 8 years of implementation has been noticed. 2. reducing cost of education and improving the cost-effectiveness. the staged forums and demonstration lately. CIE and TETL (Technology Enhance of Teaching and Learning) programs in the Malaysian education system forms the basis for the open. Malaysians’ expenditure in the technology-based teaching and learning in education ranges from the equipping to the commissioning of all primary and secondary schools with state of art ICT infrastructures. 2004). the Ministry of Education. It is estimated that the global expenditure on education and training is at over US$2 trillions. But the most important concern in this study is maximizing acceptance and application of the usage and enhancement of technology in teaching and learning process. it has increased the interest in the computerized delivery of education that led to e-learning through electronic mail. Even the study carried out by Curiculum Development Center. By doing so. Educational change and acceptance toward a new language took place based on 4 components. World Wide Web (www) and multimedia. Students and parents from the urban fully accept the implementation.

1995). A committed leader will see to the successful implementation and maximizing utilization of ICT project in school. which govern the machine’s activities (Terry. There are 5 main factors that contribute to the maximizing usage of TETL of mathematics and science in English in the Malaysian secondary school system. Otherwise it will fail because of not just lack of resources but also human factors. The successful and maximizing usage of the technological application depends on the school administrators and teachers who must be well-versed with some characteristics of computer application. types of school. which describes the organization based upon the grouping of various activities into departments. School administrators and teachers’ leadership quality and style in technology enhancement in teaching and learning is also an important aspect that has to take into consideration in the maximization usage of technology at school level. The general problems addressed here were how tasks are organized into individual jobs. 2000). They have to utilize much time on the management perspectives as to maximize the usage of the facilities in school. rather than maintaining the traditional hierarchical structures because many of them will increasingly make use of alliances among people and organizations (Lewis. flexible organization. Pasternec & Viscio. leadership quality. Furthermore. School administrators and teachers are entrusted with duties in restructuring organization structure to manage the maximizing usage of ICT in schools. contingency perspectives. contemporary applied perspectives and their various models. 1998). teachers’ personal and working experiences. School administrators should look into its feasibility and they could well be used in the school environment to determine the successful implementation of TETL and could also determine the efficiency in managing ICT in school.e. even though the government has supplied the entire basic necessary ICT infrastructure to schools throughout the country since 1980s and further supply and commission laptops and LCDs as additional units to facilitate the success of TETL in ETeMS/PPSMI program. demographic characteristics. Would it be adaptive organization. lateral organization. It would be the departmental approach as “top-down” organization. most of the management practices of today followed the system perspectives. Quality and cost-effectiveness in application and management of ICT and TETL depends very much on the school administrators and teachers. and it targets by offering the learners a resource that seems to be appealing. and how these are combined into departments. So it is of utmost important for school administrators in managing the application of ICT at school level to have some direct managing experiences and formal training in ICT management. i. School administrators are persons appointed to manage and discharge duties in managing the application of ICT at school levels with the incorporation of technology enhancement in the teaching and learning in ETeMS/PPSMI program. 2001). The result is the structuring of departments within an organization and each department containing a set of tasks to be performed by personnel in that department. It requires the same management commitment as other mission-critical organization-wide initiatives.000 employees across 225 offices in 80 countries (Gill. Goodman & Fandt. This will move from classroom teaching and learning towards virtual class of distance and collaborative e-learning. 1997. the horizontal corporations and/or the virtual organization because technology will enable a person to communicate with others without being physically located near them (Overholt. It includes 5 dimensions of secondary school system in the country.. valuable and productive 89 . it needs to be compelling to the audience. teaching and learning cultures.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system Even Cisco system indicated that application of ICT learning was used for 38. because organization is a large machine that develops laws and principles. how jobs are organized into administrative units. An administrator has to choose the best management models to manage ICT at school level.

hardware. as resources are needed for carry outing the ICT laboratory project. 2002). sources. a strong and well-respected leadership with a clearly defined task would get the best result by fairly directive (Lucey. All the resources and curriculum formulated by the Center of Curriculum Development Division of the Ministry of Education are based on the mission of the Ministry of Education with the mission statement formalized in 1995. infrastructure and curriculum. infrastructure. “To develop a world class quality education system which will realize the full potential of the individual and fulfill the aspirations of the Malaysian nation” (Malaysian Smart School Implementation Plan. 1997). 1990). but the Selangor state government had also invested at least RM10 million in ICT in 2003 to boost the ICT literacy among states community and workforce (Ahmad.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system to their goals and aspiration (Henri. 2001). which will exceed US $2 trillion worldwide (Sisco System IQ Atlas. Supports of the education process are all in the way with key elements including providing learning materials and facilities for practical work or simulations. namely. As leaders in the school system. The government plays its pivotal roles in terms of cost and sources. This allocation is just part of a RM50 million allocation under the Eighth Malaysian Economic Plan (2001-2005) to ensure that ICT continues to play a vital role in moving the state ahead in terms of economic and social development (Computime. 2000).000 ICT laboratories for schools nationwide inclusive of provision of ICT. which reflects clearly the Ministry’s commitment towards achieving the goals of Vision 2020. time frame. 2002). The outcome and monetary waste will be tremendous as Morgan and Keegan had estimated that world expenditure on all forms of education especially in ICT. So the huge expenditure put forward by the government is of utmost importance for the educational course of the country. Money spent by government to facilitate all the resources and conduct in-service courses such as the ETeMS/PPSMI program (2003-2008) is amounting to RM6 billion. Computer-based learning market will expand to US$11 billion and world total spending will have risen from US$6 billion in 1998 to US$17 billion in 2004 (Little. Further setting up of 4. Global expenditure on education and training is over US$ 2 trilion (Clarke & Hermens. As school administrators who have to carry out the implementation stages in the school system. 1995). management process and curriculum are of ultimate important because they are significant towards the implementation of ICT in the school system. Leaders’ will plays its leadership role by helping everybody include himself/herself in the organization to gain more insightful views of current reality and this is also in-line with a popular emerging view of leaders as coaches. The government has supplied and commissioned the basic ICT infrastructures to schools. Not only that. Therefore. software. 2001). administrators should also be the teachers to the extend that at least could guide the other teaching staff in the application and management of ICT towards the maximum usage in the teaching and learning process. 2002). opportunities and identifies courses of action and makes choice (Senge. operating system and ICT human resources shows that education sector in Malaysia is a big winner in terms of ICT allocation under the Budget 2003 (Computimes. They not only need to make full use and application of the technology but also must educate the students in their schools and offer innovative programs (Gunasekaran. The cost. 2002). guides or facilitators. McNeil & Shaul. 2001). The completion of the first phase and the starting of the second phase of ETeMS/PPSMI program in all schools nationwide whereby students are taught subjects like mathematics and science in English using laptops and LCDs with common software in class are progressing. 1998). enabling questions and discussion and assessing and providing student-supported services (Alexander & McKenzie. It is assumed that leaders who carry in their heads in the mental pictures of how the world works have a significant influence on how one perceives problems. All these elements could be found in the education 90 .

teachers are the agent for change. Internet is beginning to significantly elevate the whole concept of learning by bringing together richness and extensive reach and developing a move from “point-driven” learning to learning that supports change and transition (Fry. Therefore. it will be able to turn changes into advantages and allow people and organization to keep up with dynamic changes in the global perspective. and non-physical like time and people.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system system through government fund as well as private vendors throughout the country. 2001). advanced animation technologies and virtual scientific laboratory. To date. mathematics and science also show progressive improvements. students. The conceptual framework for teachers’ development calls for an integrated approach to the problems. that is. teachers in school system could carry out the function to create new learning and teaching culture in preparing students to face the challenging world with fast paced technology. The effective change towards the school culture. Therefore. but also in the achievements by the students from other forms in subjects like English language. the various forms for teacher training and continuing support are combined with activities aimed at influencing the system in which the teachers work daily (Nikolave. the country’s implementation of ICT and computer-based learning application perspective favor to be generating success because the results from students show that the upgrade of achievement has been encouraging not only in the information technology subject sat by the year 3 and year 6 Malaysian secondary school students. difficulties with a piecemeal approach. Sometimes traditional methodology could still be used. School culture can be analyzed through the relationships between people. to conclude the cost. In order to get rid off the existing conventional school culture. All these will add values to the existing technology in schools for changing especially the education system which has already faced the fast-paced culture. teachers and parents. provided and commissioned in the school system to upgrade themselves towards the usage and applications of the ICT not only to the teaching and learning process of their students but also to their own learning process by continuing to upgrade themselves in life-long learning concepts and practices. Students in the 91 . change for the better needs to transform towards the technological challenge of the information age. namely. technical difficulties and lake of infrastructures. the availability of broadband technology in the country now will increase the active learning options by making use of video conferencing. By providing Internet and intranet facilities or e-learning solutions to the students. because of the challenges from the outside world. and of course through the management of resources which includes physical space. teachers in the school system also play the pivotal role in being responsible to bring change in the teaching and learning culture of schools. 2001). where teachers must involve themselves in using the present advancement of ICTs. Another significant aspect in the application and the management of ICT and CAL (Computer Assisted Learning) is the school culture. culture. however. Due to the fact that ICT and CAL are the core of education for future citizen and the kinds of changes designed in each school. sources and resources. In fact. Therefore. standards and application. time frame and infrastructures and its significance towards the application and management of ICT in the school system. 2001). the question posed here is whether the school community especially students are prepared for the change. a more moderate development model has to be proposed likewise to eradicate the problems of implementation at the school level such as bandwidth. how the changes modify the school culture and the changes that happened in the way teachers actually used ICT and CAL in their teaching and learning process (Azinian. Electronic books have become more prevalent instead. Even though there is a drastic change in terms of transforming school to a more technological centered one. change is needed.

section A which contains questions on the respondents’ demographics and section B on the dependent and independent factors. Methodology 3. 2008). ICT. Parametric statistical and non-parametric tests were used to analyze the data. attitudes and changes) School (urban/rural) technology-enhanced teaching & learning in ETeMS (PPSMI) Teachers (personal and working experience. Theoretical framework dependent variable Independent variable (5 contributing factors) Demographic Maximizing the usage of School culture and practice (perception. prior knowledge qualification.2 Theoretical framework The theoretical framework of this research is shown in Figure 1. 3. computer coordinators and teaching staff from two selected states in west Malaysia (60 from urban schools and 60 from rural schools). courses attended) Leadership quality (management experience) Figure 1 The theoretical framework 3. A 6-point measurement scale was used for the questions in part 2. namely. This study also looks into the possibility and feasibility of establishing the maximum usage of the TEC in the teaching and learning process in the secondary school system rather than furnishing teachers with laptops and LCD which are found to be difficult and ineffective in delivering the curriculum in schools. The questionnaires contain 2 sections. knowledge. and success or failure in the maximizing of technology enhancement in curriculum and students’ achievement lies with the teachers (Chew & Lee. Therefore.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system urban were also eager to learn due to their fascination towards the new techno-education curriculum as well as acceptance of English language as a medium of instruction in the teaching and learning of mathematics and science subjects.1 Research objectives The objectives of this study are to determine the proper and effective managing of ICT in school system and attempt to examine the effectiveness in the maximizing application of technology in the technology-enhanced school environment and standardize courseware in ETeMS/PPSMI program in the Malaysian secondary school system. technology-transfer. background. teachers are the agent of change in this perspective.3 Research method A survey questionnaire was given to 120 school administrators.  literacy. 3. Another set of questionnaire was given to 120 students from 2 states in west Malaysia (60 from urban and 60 92 .

3 66. i. Item 2 shows the respondents’ position in the school which is for 20 school administrators (16.7 25.1 Reliability of instrument Cronbach Alpha statistic is found to be 0.2 Descriptive statistics Item 1 in Table 1 summarizes the respondents’ characteristics. the ETeMS/PPSMI program in Malaysia has been successful towards the urban and rural students. The maximum utilization of technology-enhanced teaching and learning in the classroom is at doubt especially in the rural schools. Rural=60). Results and discussion 4.7 25. The questionnaires were on the acceptance of ETeMS/PPSMI program and the teachers’ usage of technology to enhance teaching and learning.5 26. whereas teachers that they seldom utilization of technology-enhanced teaching and learning are shockingly at 75% (see Table 2). In surveyed students.2 27.3 31.5 32.2%).8%) and 35 females (29. 4. LCD and courseware to teach mathematics and science.5% possess postgraduate degree.3%). Overall. 93 .7 Items Genders Male Female Respondents’ position held in school School administrator Senior teacher Teacher Race Malay Chinese Indian Academic achievement Bachelor Master/PhD Experience in teaching 0-3 years 4-6 years 7-9 years >10years Experience in using technology enhanced environment Yes No Note: N=120 (Urban=60. which consists of 80 Malays (66.0 58.7%). 30 senior teachers (25%) and 70 teaching staff (58.3 67.8 29.845..Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system from rural schools respectively).7 68. Item 3 summarizes the composition of race. 4. Table 1 Summary of respondents’ characteristics (school administrators and teachers) Frequency 85 35 20 30 70 80 30 10 81 39 20 35 33 32 82 38 Percentage (%) 70. 30 Chinese (25%) and 10 Indians (8. Item 6 shows that 68.5% of the administrators possess bachelor degree and 32. Item 4 shows that 67. laptop. the reliability of the questionnaire is acceptable.0 8. only 47% students from urban schools respond towards teachers seldom use technology-enhanced teaching and learning. They are 85 males (70.2 16.3%).7%). therefore.5 16.7 29.e.3% of teachers have experienced using ICT and technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in their curriculum. And Item 5 shows that more than 80% of the administrators have more than 4 years experiences in teaching.

the knowledge and application of technology should be first. the teaching of mathematics and science in English program is the right move in the secondary education system Note: N=120 (Urban=60. N=Total respondents. 10 LCDs and courseware of mathematics and science in English to every school according to the population of students.785 programs in secondary schools Notes: α=0.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system Table 2 Items I am happy with the usage of English language in the teaching of mathematics and science Implementation of ETeMS (PPSMI) program helps to upgrade my understanding in mathematics and science Teachers’ teaching of mathematics and science in English is beneficial to me It is interesting and good in the teaching of mathematics and science session in school Teachers seldom use technology enhanced learning in class (laptop. Table 3 Results of Pearson correlation tests on management of ICT for maximizing usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) programs in secondary schools r 0.01.001 N 120 Students acceptance towards ETeMS (PPSMI) Location Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Total (Percentile) 50 (83%) 10 (17%) 38 (64%) 22 (36%) 42 (70%) 18 (30%) 37 (61%) 23 (39%) 36 (60%) 24 (40%) 47 (78%) 13 (22%) 42 (70%) 18 (30%) 38 (64%) 22 (36%) 28(47%) 32(53%) 45(75%) 15(25%) 50 (83%) 10 (17%) 40 (67%) 20 (33%) Item Management of ICT for maximizing usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) programs in secondary schools Notes: α=0. Table 3 shows that there is positive relationships in management of ICT for maximizing usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS/PPSMI program in secondary schools. N=Total respondent. Table 4 Results of Pearson correlation tests on school administrators leadership quality in the management of ICT for maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) programs in secondary schools p-value <0. the supporting infrastructure secondly and. However. The number of teachers sent for the teaching of mathematics and science in English program course prior to the program has increased. the empowering workers through professionals development thirdly (Szabo. Therefore. Table 4 shows that there is a strong relationship in school administrators’ leadership quality in the 94 . the setting up of the Technology Enabled Classrooms (TEC) is more cost-effective and reliable as well as maximizing the usage by teachers in the teaching and learning process in the secondary schools. Rural=60).001 N 120 Item r School administrators leadership quality in the management of ICT for maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) 0. so there should be an increase of population of students and decrease of funding and teachers’ sharing of the laptops. The supply of laptops to primary and secondary school teachers is for the teaching of mathematics and science in English for year 1 to year 3 of the primary schools and year 1 to year 5 of the secondary schools students.01. 1996).777 p-value <0. r=correlation coefficient. r=corrélation coefficient. LCD and courseware) In my opinion. The government-funded technology application for the ETeMS/PPSMI program in schools by providing and commissioning 30-50 laptops. for the factors for a successful innovation in school.

etc. Table 5 shows that there is a moderate relationship between teachers’ personal and working experiences in achieving the maximum usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS/PPSMI programs in secondary schools.003 N 120 Item Teachers’ personal and working experiences to achieve the maximum usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) programs in secondary schools Notes: α=0. There are signs of inefficiency in the application and managing of ICT in schools especially in the rural schools. intranets. mismanagement. where students are able to learn better when teachers teach by using the enhanced technology in their curriculum. desktop. demography. The effective deployment of ICT facilities in schools has to be properly planned because it comprises of laptops. For example. A successful and effective management of ICT to maximize the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS/PPSMI programs in secondary schools depends very much on the tactfulness of the school administrators and teachers. Therefore. extranet and LCD. malpractices. digital presenter SDP-6500.01. 5. Teachers’ usage of laptops and LCDs in ETeMS/PPSMI program teaching and learning process could be carried out in the proper manner. overhead projector. their challenges are to choose the best management models to manage the technology enhancement facilities by the incorporation of ICT and technology enhancing teaching and learning in school. Many of the secondary school teachers and ICT coordinators who are also teachers themselves with minimal knowledge of computer technology.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system management of ICT for maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS/PPSMI program in secondary schools. improper handling of equipment. Administrators manage not only the school as a whole but also other units in the school. A nationwide and in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness in the application and management of ICT facilities and technology enhancement in the teaching and learning process in the Malaysian secondary school system has to be carried out to check its maximum utilization of ICT and its teaching and learning enhancement especially in the teaching and learning process of ETeMS/PPSMI program. Teachers and students are the users of technology in their teaching and learning process. Table 5 Results of Pearson correlation tests on teachers’ personal and working experiences to achieve the maximum usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS (PPSMI) programs in secondary schools r 0. which comprised of types of schools. wastages. is all equally important. leadership quality. Therefore. teachers would not face any problems in conducting their curriculum. N=Total respondents. which offer a very capable platform for delivering a comprehensive 95 . stereo. less acceptances of English language usage and teachers’ reluctance to use English language to teach mathematics and science subjects even though the teachers were paid critical allowances. misuse of facilities. teaching an learning culture and the teachers’ personnel and working experiences. The success or failures of the technology in education inception in teaching and learning process in the secondary school system of Malaysia until to-date. rely on the personal and working experiences and skills of the teachers and coordinators. r=correlation coefficient. Futrell and Geisert (1984) quoted that school administrators and teachers are entrusted with duties and responsibilities.. DVD player. Conclusion and recommendations The 5 dimensions of maximizing usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning process in ETeMS/PPSMI programs in secondary school system.691 p-value <0.

Kuala Lumpur: New Strait Time Press. the weighs. Fry. Computer-assisted 96 . Computimes. K. The failure of e-learning. (2002). Technology usage in classroom and distance learning in Gunasekaran. International Conference on the Bookmark of the School of the Future. & Shaul. 44-53. 34(2). Langkawi. Clarke. Education & Training. D. confident and committed school administrators.). E-learning markets and providers: Some issues and prospect. (2001). Therefore. 2008. T.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system technology-enhanced teaching-learning and performance support environment and this will incorporate traditional methods as well as technology-led learning (Kevin. September 2002 and November 2002 issues. Special task force need to be set up to supervise the implementation and application of teaching and learning to the fullest. (2008). J. Chew. D. In: McLaurin. The successful and maximizing usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning in education especially the ETeMS/PPSMI program requires a team of honest. Corporate developments and strategic alliances in e-learning. The technology-enhanced teaching and learning classroom which connected the whole secondary education system could be very useful in term that the school administrators concern can organize uses in delivering the collaborative. December. Alexander. The possibilities of introducing and implementing. 34(2). L. which have not been equipped with the facilities. 256-267. Futrell. Industrial and Commercial Training. Schools. M. K. 43(4). P. school of the future. S. R. S. 43(4/5). (2001). ICT management in school entrust with duties. (Ed. Boosting ICT literacy in Selangor. They will champion the technology-enhanced teaching and learning in students’ learning and postulate that competency in delivering effective instruction is a function of teachers’ knowledge and skill. Alexander. skillful. as well as maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning throughout the school system in the country under the future governmental plan. August 2002. References: Ahmad. (2002). The Curriculum Development Center of the Ministry of Education has to scrutinize the maximum utilization of technology-enhanced facilities in teaching and learning facilities provided to schools. 233-239. School administrators concern could initiate themselves by organizing a continues in-house training program for their new teaching staffs in the basic usage of TEC and the proper handling of the commissioned sophisticated technology in the teaching and learning process. E-learning: Research and applications. K. Proceeding in the National Semianr on Teachers’ Education. Journal Education and Training. A. ICT coordinators and teachers. Azinian. have to initiate themselves to facilitate the technology-enhanced teaching and learning environment. It could further utilize in the introduction of distance and collaborative learning in future secondary school system. & Lee T. (1998). A. dynamic. F. (1984). Kuala Lumpur. The government has put forth tremendous efforts in supplying the basic and advanced ICT infrastructures as well as formulating the ICT curriculum of the second school system that to be equipped into the technology-enhanced teaching and learning. 2001). (2002). Teachers need to be given in-service courses to facilitate proper handling and usage of the technology-enhanced teaching and learning. (2001). Malaysia 13-15. New Strait Time Press. & McKenzie. Industrial and Commercial Training. In: McNeil. the teaching of social science and science in English should not have any problem of acceptance and application. its acceptance and effects towards the status of Malaysian National Language. (Science Direct. experienced. & Geisert. problems and constraints on the structure that the technological advancements already exist have to be accurately dealt with. & Hermens. P. Teaching Mathematics and Science in English (ETeMS/PPSMI). (2001). Dissemination of ICT and changes in school culture: Information and communication technology in education. distance education not only for the secondary school students concern but the local youth and adults who need education to upgrade the society during the off hours of the schools. 44-53. H. Com). G. 35-41.

Management: Challenges in the 21st century (3rd ed. M. & Antoine. (Master in Education Dissertation. Sciencedirect. McNeil. (2001). Organizational design in the 21st century. International Conference on the Bookmark Pt the School of the Future. L. (2003). Teacher development in ICT: Vision and implementation ICT in education. (2001). 33(6). MOE (Ministry of Education. Overholt. Lewis. (1995). Journal of Business Strategy. 2000). B. Industrial and Commercial Training. Implementing reform in science and mathematics education: The teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English. Malaysian smart school implementation plan. (1998). Morgan & Keegan in Sisco System. & Shaul. July). H. MOE (Ministry of Education. (Edited by Nicole and Lily) 97 . A. & Viscio. 33(1). Industrial and Commercial Training. International Conference on Science and Mathematics Educations: Which Way Now? University of Malaya. Gunasekaran. G.). Corporate developments and strategic alliances in e-learning. 203-207. USA. Global expenditure of ICT. Northwest Missouri State University) Gunasekaran. The effective development of e learning. B. Education & Training.. Stacey.. Government of Malaysia. (Eds. & Patricia. (1997. 50-60. & Dennis. Kuala Lumpur: EduComp. L.). 5-11. Z. (1998). Malaysia. Sharifah. 33-35. Pamela. (2000).. 256-267. (2001). 44-53. Industrial and Commercial Training. Interactive multimedia as faculty renewal and change agent: A three-pronged approach to successful implementation in Malaysia. 43(4/5). Malaysia). May/June 1998. In: Thomas. M. Terry. Y. S. I. A. 34(2). S. F. New York: Doubleday. R. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Education. Szabo. (2002). New York: Simon & Shuster. Channel Island: The Guernsey Press. M. A.Maximizing the usage of technology-enhanced teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English program in the Malaysian secondary schools system instruction and its effects on reading comprehension of special education students. M. Thompson Learning. P. Ltd. (2001). Little. (2001). 34(2). Co. E-learning: Research and applications. Achieving high performance through e-learning. 71-82. July). Stephen. Management: Challenges in the 21th century. 44-53. The fifth discipline: The arts and practice of the learning organization. Smart school flagship application. Senge.. Random House. (1997. P. World ICT expenditure in education (Sisco System IQ Atlas. Goodman. (1990). Ohio: South Western College Publishing. & Fandt. school of the future. P. Journal Industrial and Commercial Training. S. The centerless corporation: A model for transforming your organization for growth and prosperity.). M. D. Malaysia). (1996). C. South-Western College Pub. Pasternec. S. Management information system (7th ed. (2002). Nikolave. Ronald. Kevin. E-learning: Research and applications. (2000). H.

No. The purpose was to determine what types of information sources M and D students at TUT use most. and to what extent the LIS (Library and Information Services) keeps or provides access to the journals that are mostly used by M and D students. USA What 37. and to what extent does this change from year to year? (2) Which journals do M and D students of different faculties use most and least. how the patterns of use differ across the 7 faculties of the university. and (5) analyzing bibliographic citations..2 Method Library science has developed a number of methods for evaluating the use of information resources. was described elsewhere by this author (Swanepoel. with its advantages and disadvantages. The study found several similarities but also some distinct differences in the use of information sources across the 7 faculties of TUT. However. Tshwane University of Technology. Adriaan Swanepoel. and how it was applied in this study. Some of the more popular methods include: (1) studying circulation statistics and in-house use of information resources.10 (Serial No.000 citations can tell Adriaan Swanepoel (Library and Information Services.October 2010. citation analysis. Although it is generally recognized that no one method alone provides a complete picture in assisting with collection development decisions. Tshwane University of Technology. 2008).71) US-China Education Review.D.641 different journals cited. (4) doing shelf-availability studies. Library and Information Services. South Africa) Abstract: A longitudinal study at the TUT (Tshwane University of Technology) used citation analysis to analyze the reference lists of 480 Master’s and Doctoral (M and D) theses and dissertations submitted at TUT between 2004 and 2007. (2) surveying user opinions. Volume 7. and to what extent does this change from year to year? (3) To what extent does the TUT LIS keep or provide access to journals that are mostly used by M and D students? 1. collection development. this study used citation analysis as the preferred research method to achieve its aims. 98 . The aims of the study were to identify: (1) Which types of information sources do Master’s and Doctoral (M and D) students of different faculties use most and least. most journals were only cited once over a period of 4 years. research fields: library and information science. use of information resources 1. a small percentage of journals were highly and/or frequently cited. This method.000 citations were analyzed over the 4-year period. It is nevertheless necessary. Ph. the study found that out of 3. theses and dissertations. Introduction 1. It also identified more than 60 different information sources used by M and D students. With regard to journal use.1 Aims The TUT (Tshwane University of Technology) started in 2004 with a longitudinal study to obtain information that would assist its LIS (Library and Information Services) in making sound collection development decisions. Key words: citation analysis. More than 37. (3) analyzing interlibrary loan patterns. ISSN 1548-6613. Pretoria 0001.

the researcher collected the following data: number of citations per information type. However. Being aware of the limitations of citation analysis and acknowledging that the method is sensitive to the skill with which it is applied. including Loree (2007). All the data collected were captured on Excel worksheets. In this regard. language of the thesis. It is also flexible in terms of the size of samples. The assistant then captured the following data from the title pages on an Excel worksheet: author. Citation analysis is also a well-studied method in university library environments. title. one thesis from the Faculty of Science was not included because its extreme number of citations (3. date. or a single collection or a library collection supplemented with external information sources. including the following: (1) Researchers are more likely to use information sources to which they have local access. and whether it was a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. and cited periodicals owned or provided access to by the library. to repeat some of that information in this paper.3 Data collection Data were collected from the reference lists of all (480) theses and dissertations submitted by M and D students and accepted by TUT from 2004 to 2007. Sylvia (1998) highlighted several limitations. 2005).4 Data analysis With regard to Aim (1): The different types of information sources used by M and D students in each of the 7 99 .What 37. No sample was taken. A library assistant photocopied the title pages and reference lists of all theses and dissertations and provided each data source with a sequential number. (2) Researchers may add citations to increase a manuscript’s length and scholarship. (4) Researchers may not cite all works used to prepare a manuscript. Furthermore. because it has been proved by many as a valid. frequency of journal titles cited. department at the faculty.750) would have skewed results. Jacobs and Levy (2006) serve as examples. it can be used to focus on the type and number of information sources that researchers or library users use in a specific discipline over a period of time. Citation analysis is also a flexible method: It can be applied in the assessment of data sources of a group of libraries. Zipp (1996) found that “The most heavily cited journal titles in theses and dissertations can be used as a surrogate for the titles most heavily used by faculty in their publications”. While many studies have reported on the uses and usefulness of citation analysis. number of citations per thesis. This is because the research interests of graduate students often reflect the research interests of their faculty advisers.000 citations can tell for the sake of comprehensiveness. Not only do citations play an important part in the scholarly communications process. some writers. Rensleigh & Du Toit. because they serve as a convenient source of in-house research. faculty. Furthermore. (3) Manuscripts may include citations of marginal importance. 1. 1. the research of Peritz and Sor (1990) and Allen. it was nevertheless decided to use citation analysis as method for this research. In this regard. Concerning citation analysis of students bibliographies. Griscom (1983) and Ching (2002) have acknowledged the limitations of the method. Citation analysis is known to be a low-cost method whereby researchers can gather and study citation data in an unobtrusive and non-invasive way. 2002). and (5) Handbooks and textbooks often do not receive citations because those sources are taken for granted by students. types of citation sources (whether a standard list or a specific collection in a library) as well as the manner of citation selection (Ching. but “citations and the composition of bibliographies reflect changes in the information-seeking behavior of academics” as well (Naudé. reliable and practical tool for comparing a library’s holdings to an authoritative list for the purpose of evaluating the quality of a library collection. number of theses per department. theses and dissertations have proved to be particularly appealing to use for assessing library collections. Subsequently.

This indicated that. One should. Together. were classified as “websites”. Figure 1 presents a more complete picture of the number of citations to electronic sources. this study found that M and D students used more than 50 types of information sources that are generally regarded as “grey literature”. reference librarians and collection developers should take cognizance of the wide variety of so-called grey-literature that M and D students use. technical publications. However. a citation to a government publication on the web was classified as a government publication and not as a website. The data were also sorted and ranked to identify which types of information sources M and D students in different faculties use most and least. Furthermore. this changes from year to year.What 37. it shows the number of citations to all websites regardless of content. Citation analysis studies usually refer to less cited information sources as “other” information sources. This process resulted in identifying to what extent the LIS keeps or provides access to the journals that are mostly used by M and D students. Although M and D students of TUT used 64 different types of information sources from 2004 to 2007. The researcher then counted the number of times each title was cited per annum. With regard to Aim (2): A list was made of all the different journal titles that were cited by M and D students in each faculty. especially in-house documents. However. the pattern changes from year to year. course material. seeing that there was a slow but gradual increase of electronic formats over 4 years.. the ratio between citations to paper formats versus electronic formats may seem significantly different over the next 4 years. as well as citations to electronic databases and CD-ROMs. citations to books and journals add up to almost 70% of all citations. the top 9 sources are typically those that are readily accessible in or through libraries. In doing so.1 Types and number of information sources cited To put the findings of this study into context. For instance. and to what extent. and to what extent. it is necessary to present an overview of the types and number of information sources cited by the students under discussion. etc. user manuals and newsletters/bulletins. Regardless of the way citations to websites were classified.000 citations can tell faculties were counted and the numbers obtained per type were summarized per annum. Only citations to websites that were not clearly identified as either a journal on the web or a government publication on the web. Findings and discussion 2. although M and D students predominantly use books and journals. Although this study also used the term “other” to group information resources that individually received less than one percent of all citations. 2. In the process of classifying citations into different types of information sources. 100 . citations were first classified by content and then by form. it is clear from Table 1 that they largely relied on books and journals for research purposes. not ignore the fact that several other information types play an important role in the research activities of M and D students. it went a step further to actually identify those information sources and rank them according to the number of times they were cited (see Table 1). This enabled him to determine which journals M and D students in different faculties use most and least. With regard to Aim (3): Each journal title cited by M and D students was compared against a list of journal titles that the LIS makes available either by keeping those journals in stock or by providing online access to full text versions of the journals. however. this study showed that M and D students of TUT still make far less use of electronic formats for research purposes than librarians and faculty members generally suspect. It should be noted that the number of citations to websites was slightly higher than that reported in Table 1.

What 37,000 citations can tell

Table 1 Information sources Books and chapters in books Journals and magazines Websites and electronic databases Government publications Conference proceedings and papers Reports Newspapers Theses and dissertations Personal communication Other Total

Types and number of information sources cited Total citations 2004-2007 14,617 11,503 3,740 1,387 1,158 956 676 601 571 2,169 37,378 Percentage (%) 39.11 30.77 10.00 3.71 3.10 2.56 1.81 1.61 1.53 5.80 100.00

Notes: **Consisting of unidentified types (234), in-house documents (205), course material (200), technical publications (176), operating manuals and user manuals (169), newsletters and bulletins (158), videos (116), standards and test methods (102), policy documents (70), planning documents (65), manuscripts and drafts (61), working papers (48), event programmes (47), statistical data (46), discussion and position papers (45), software and computer files (38), comic books (33), fact sheets (33), speeches (29), surveys and questionnaires (29), patents (27), pamphlets and brochures (25), codes of conduct (19), radio and television programmes (16), briefing documents and position papers (16), case studies (16), specifications (14), media releases (13), trade literature (12), maps (11), photos (11), rules and regulations (11), prospectuses (9), circulars (8), staff lists (8), logbooks (7), company profiles (6), abstracts (5), catalogues (4), kits (4), proposals (4), exhibit captions (3), event invitations (2), microfilm (2), posters (2), graphics (1), sound recordings (1), calendars (1), drawings and diagrams (1), instrumental reviews (1), mathematical models (1), memorabilia (1), notices (1), simulation tools (1) and testimonials (1).

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Paper 704 1019 1143 1571






Figure 1 Citations to paper formats versus electronic formats

Figure 2 shows some similarities but also distinct differences in the use of information sources by M and D students in the so-called SET (science, engineering and technology) Faculties, specifically regarding to books, journals and electronic formats. The Faculty of Science clearly uses journals most, followed by books and electronic formats, conference papers and reports. Compared to all other faculties, this faculty uses journals most by far. The Faculty of Engineering also used journals primarily, followed by books, electronic formats, conference papers and reports, but its students use journals far less than students from the Faculty of Science. Engineering students also use electronic formats and conference papers more than science students. Students in the Faculty of Information Communication and Technology (ICT), on the other hand, first and foremost use web sources, with books and journals respectively the second and third most used sources. It is also worth noting that ICT students were the only students that use websites and electronic databases more than any other faculty’s M and D students. Contrary to this is the relative low use that students of the Faculty of Science made of websites and electronic databases. Their use of electronic formats was not only the lowest in the SET faculties but also the lowest in all faculties. The patterns showed in Figure 2 did not change much over the 4 years of investigation.

What 37,000 citations can tell

100% 90% 80%

Other Personal communication Theses & dissertations

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Science Engineering ICT Newspapers Reports Proceedings & papers Govt publications Web & e-databases Books Journals

Figure 2 Types of information sources cited most by M and D students of SET Faculties, 2004-2007

Figure 3 shows a different pattern from the one in Figure 2. M and D students in the Social Sciences and Humanities Faculties clearly use books most. They also use noticeably fewer journals than students in the SET faculties. This is especially noticeable in the Faculty of Arts. In a list of most cited information sources, the use of journals in the Faculty of Arts ranked only fourth, next to books, electronic formats and newspapers. It is also clear from Figure 3 that the Faculties of Economic Sciences, Humanities and Management Sciences contributed greatly to the fact that government publications ranked fourth in the list of most cited information sources (see Table 1).
100% 90% 80%

Other Personal communication Newspapers

70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

Reports Proceedings & papers Government publications Web & e-databases

20% 10% 0% Economics & Finance Management Humanities Arts

Books & chapters Journals & magazines

Figure 3 Types of information sources used by M and D students of SSH Faculties, 2004-2007

2.2 Journals used by M and D students One of the aims of this study was to determine which journals M and D students in different faculties use most and least, and to what extent, this changes from year to year. The results produced a surprisingly large amount of data. Authors of the 480 theses and dissertations cited altogether 3,610 different journal titles in 2004 to 2007. The 3,610 journals received 11,533 citations. The average number of citations to individual journal titles was 7.49 and the average (mean) citations to journal articles were 23.93 over the 4-year period.


What 37,000 citations can tell

2.2.1 Highly cited journals Because of the large amount of data involved, this paper will display only a list of the top 10 most cited journals. A list of journals, across all 7 faculties, that received 20 citations or more is available from the author.
Table 3 Journal Harvard Business Review International Journal of Pharmaceutics Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry Journal of Controlled Release Journal of Applied Physiology Spectrochimica Acta Part B South African Journal of Higher Education Human Reproduction Pharmaceutical Research Ten most cited journals over a 4-year period 2004 9 20 5 25 11 2 11 4 0 14 2005 73 52 51 38 45 67 39 12 14 27 2006 3 25 25 7 19 4 10 11 47 19 2007 24 5 0 8 3 0 7 37 0 0 Total 109 102 81 78 78 73 67 64 61 60

When the researcher listed and ranked the journals cited in each faculty, it was observed that the vast majority of journals had only been cited in 1 or 2 of the years concerned. For instance, of the 50 topmost cited journals across all 7 faculties, only 24 journals had been cited in the 4 years of investigation. This is probably an indication that the majority of journals that M and D students cited were used by a particular student only for a particular research topic. This tendency is more noticeable among some of the SSH faculties. For instance, of the 138 different journals that M and D students of the Faculty of Arts used during the 4 years of investigation, 133 (96.4%) journals were used only once. Five journals were used in 2 of the 4 years but no journals were used more than that. Contrary to this pattern, the M and D students in the SET faculties have shown a more consistent use of journals. Such consistent use will enable the LIS to identify a core list of journals that M and D students in those faculties frequently consult. 2.2.2 Journals that received few citations Table 4 presents the number of journals that received 4 or less citations. It is noted that the numbers in the columns do not overlap. In other words, if a journal was only cited once in 2004, it was not cited again in 2005 or in 2006 or in 2007.
Table 4 Journal Journals cited only once Journals cited twice Journals cited three times Journals cited four times Number of journals that received fewer than 5 citations per year 2004 488 110 49 26 2005 999 271 105 67 2006 665 143 64 36 2007 819 172 57 39 Total 2,971 696 275 168

The majority of journals (2,971 or 82.3% of the total) were only cited once over a period of 4 years. Due to the fact that many journals were cited only once, the median and the modus for each of the 4 years was only one citation per journal title, notwithstanding that the mean was 8.28 in that period. The results in Tables 3 and 4 confirm results from other citation studies that a small number of journals generate the majority of journals cited, and vice versa.

This confirms the outcome of other citation studies: A small number of journals generate the majority of journals cited. The continued replication of this study will enable the LIS to determine even more reliable usage trends that will assist it to make informed decisions regarding which information resources to make available to M and D students. it can be concluded that M and D students of TUT are far greater users of paper-based information sources than of electronic information sources. Although TUT libraries own only a few of the most cited journals. It revealed what types of information sources M and D students use more frequently than others.000 citations can tell 2. Across all faculties. however. Since many of the lesser used information sources were not part of the LIS collection. A continuation of this research will also assist librarians and academics to better understand the research interests of M and D students at TUT. should not detract attention from the fact that several other information types play an important role in the research activities of M and D students.3 The availability of highly cited journals in TUT libraries A third aim of this study was to determine to what extent the LIS keeps or provides access to the journals that are mostly used by M and D students. In addition. It is reassuring that TUT libraries are to a large extent able to provide most of the journals that are highly cited by M and D students. reports. they provide web access to most of the others. especially as Internet and electronic technologies evolve. it can therefore also be concluded that rather than confining their research to what was available in TUT libraries. This study provided information that was previously unavailable to librarians and academic staff of TUT. the LIS either subscribed to or provided online full-text access to a total of 58 titles. Citations to electronic formats therefore had no real impact on the composition of reference lists. This indicates that the LIS should consider separate collection development strategies for its 7 faculties. reference librarians of TUT should recognise the need for such sources and become proficient in searching and retrieving them. it had back copies available in some of its libraries of a further 8 titles of which it recently cancelled the subscriptions. the majority of journals were only cited once over a period of 4 years. This. there was a gradual increase in citations to electronic formats but not as much as one would have expected. how the patterns of use differ across subject disciplines and faculties. Even if lesser used information sources do not qualify to be included in the LIS collection. 3. However. especially that of government publications. Over time. The research found that of the 87 journal titles that received 20 citations or more. 104 . a small percentage of journals were highly cited and/or frequently cited. theses and dissertations and personal communication. several M and D students made use of sources elsewhere. Conclusion From the findings of this study. and it showed to what extent the LIS keeps or provides access to the journals that are mostly used by M and D students. newspapers. conference proceedings and papers.2. M and D students of TUT rely to a large extent on books and journals for research purposes. This confirmation can be used as a rationale for cancelling subscriptions of less-used journals or allocation of funds to faculties who consistently make high use of specific journals. With regard to paper-based sources.What 37. This study revealed clearly distinguishable patterns between the information sources that M and D students in different faculties of TUT use most and least.

A. Collection Management. interlibrary loan records and usage statistics for collection development purposes in a special library. Peritz.7nr3. 398-405. 2007 from (1996). Theses and dissertation citations as indicators of faculty research use of university library journal collections. R. M. Library Resources and Technical Services.sajim. 7(3). 206-220. 5. S. F. Naudé. Collection Building. A.. J. Singapore. 2008 from http://etd.. The use of libraries by graduate students in psychology as indicated by citations. (1983). 1-14. Analysis of the citation of web-based information resources by UNISA academic researchers.pdf. Collection evaluation through citation analysis techniques: A case study of the Ministry of Education. & Du Toit. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 105 . Mapping the literature of nursing: 1996-2000. Y. & Sor. Periodical use in a university music library: A citation analysis of thesis and dissertations submitted to the Indiana University School of Music from 1975-1980. & Levy. Retrieved March bitstream/1901/369/1/saraloree. Zipp. Swanepoel. Ching. The Serials Librarian. T. (Master’s thesis. 17(1). University of North Carolina) Griscom. S. (2006). L. (1990). 7(3).asp?print=1. 51(8). R. citations can tell References: Allan. 40(4). Retrieved January 8. 22(5). (2008). 12(3/4). C. Rensleigh. J. South African Journal of Higher Education. 20-28.ils. Journal of the Medical Library Association. 94(2). J. A. J. Is citation analysis worth it: A comparison of local citation analysis. (2002). M. South African Journal of Information Management. Citation analysis as an unobtrusive method for journal collection evaluation using psychology student bibliographies. S. Sylvia.What 37. Library Review. (2007). 11-23. Loree. Jacobs. (1998). B. S. 335-342. 35-52.unc. D. C. Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the Tshwane University of Technology: 2004-2006. (2005).

Specifically. Therefore. provisions for modification are almost nil. history subject 1.October 2010. which is a form of narative subject in nature. Penang 11800. T-test. technique. One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and descriptive statisticsal analysis were used to measure the effectiveness of instruction assisted with multimedia materials. 106 . On the whole. it is to study the viability of multimedia materials in supporting active learning for subjects which are in narative form. Volume 7. research field: ICT in education. Therefore. associate professor. The presentation of history lesson in narrative form makes students feel bored Rossafri bin Mohamad. Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia. this study proposes the use of multimedia courseware template for the teaching of subjects that are in narative form. Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia. Due to the scarcity of interactive multimedia materials in the market for subjects in narative form as compared to mathematics. Collection and analysis of data were carried out quantitatively and qualitatively. No. method and quality of instruction. Balakrishnan Muninday. Key words: interative multimedia courseware templat. ISSN 1548-6613. The findings also showed that all respondents unanimously agreed that the use of multimedia learning materials is able to improve the style. Balakrishnan Muninday. in order to create an active learning environment that impacts and stimulates students’ thinking skill as well as to create provisions for growth in parity with science and technical subjects. Malliga Govindasamy. however.10 (Serial No. Universiti Sains Malaysia. Form One students. which is one of the core subjects in secondary schools. USA Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students Rossafri bin Mohamad. senior lecturer. Universiti Sains Malaysia.D. there is a need to question whether these courseware in reality meet the varying teaching and learning styles of teachers and students respectively. Universiti Sains Malaysia. Malaysia) Abstract: This article presents a study on the use of multimedia technology for the teaching of Form (Grade) One history. Introduction The development of multimedia courseware to support the teaching and learning processes are overwhelming. subjects in this form are generally taught using traditional approach. Sample for the study consists of students from Form One in secondary schools. Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia. Malliga Govindasamy (Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia. in order to compensate for the lack of modifiability. Ph. As almost all courseware developed are in the proportion of “ready to use”. all null hypotheses of the study were accepted. candidate. creating an imbalance in the use of technology supported learning environment between science and non-science subjects. Universiti Sains Malaysia. research field: ICT in education. this study produces a courseware template in which the content of the courseware and the learning objectives determined by the teachers can be adjusted to suit students’ varying cognitive levels without any reliance to the learning content as provided by the developer. thus promoting motivation to learn and active learning environment. research field: ICT in education. The proposed template was tested with history. science or technical subjects.71) US-China Education Review.

Learning of history promotes inetelectuality among students. students generally find history a boring subject because: (1) It invloves a lot of rote memorization of facts. Students are able to conceptualize abstract knowledge.Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students in history classes. Historical events are antecedents and as such. 1990). Effective teaching of history relies largely on teachers’ attitude towards the subject as well as the knowledge and skills acquired. Wearne & Taber. web portals and presentation software are some of the instructional platforms that are dominated by multimedia materials. increase their cognitive ability and influence their attitudes (Dynneson & Gross. students are unable to visualize them clearly in their mind. The courseware template created for the purpose of this study. Rational This study was carried out during the teaching of one history lesson to verify the effectiveness in using courseware template for instructional purposes. This warrants for an active learning environment for the teaching of subjects which are in narrative form in nature. 3. Empirical evidences documented that teachers can make history lessons more interesting and exciting by using multimedia materials. visuals and animation paves way for an interactive and non-linear learning. Multimedia materials which combine more than one media in computer environment are believed to facilitate students’ learning. Interactive courseware. digitalized audio-video packages. paving way for a better comprehension of the lesson presented. evidences and dates. skills and techniques of teaching history further inhibit active learning in history classes. websites. Research problem History is one of the core subjects students sit for in PMR (Lower Certificate Education) and SPM (Malaysian Certificate Education) examination. present and future events. (2) Avenue for the application of knowledge acquired in day to day life is almost nil. History lesson also nurtures patritosime amongs students. In this context. which are inherent with the potential to exploit the verbal and visual channels of learning (Hiebert. Findings from an interview session carried out with teachers and students in local educational settings on the factors that impede learning of history revealed that. multimedia materials with images. History as one of the core subjects in national curriculum and as a subject in the narrative form fulfilled researchers’ rational for the selection of the subject for study purposes. Text presented in combination with audio. yet the limited interaction time (3 lessons of 60 minute each) to cover a vast scope entails time constraint factor. generalize. utilizes all multimedia elements thus providing an enriched learning experience for students. graphic. Teacher’s unenthusiastic attitude and lack of interest in improving their own knowledge. 1999). However. Teachers are more concerned about completing the designed syllabus before examination rather than creating an engaging learning experience for the students. (3) Traditional teaching with no variance in teaching method and style practiced by teachers decreases students’ motivation to learn. (4) Though a core subject. video. 1991. visual and graphics depicting the historical events can bring to the life students experience. hypothesize and make inferences on past. Mayer & Gallini. Researchers reported that the learning of history can stimulate students’ thinking. These findings were substantited by Weiner (1995). who reported that the unpopularity of history as a subject is 107 . traditional teaching methods and monotonous teaching style practiced by teachers becomes a barrier in nurturing an active learning environment in history classes. The use of multimedia material for instructional purposes has become a trend in current educational settings. 2.

Merely blaming the teachers for this persisting problem is not right. 108 . a concrete solution for the problem is yet to be defined. (4) Null Hypothesis 4 There is no significant difference in terms of students’ cognitive level and learning style (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning) between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the history courseware template. 4.Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students mainly due to its nature which involves tedious memorization of facts. (3) Null Hypothesis 3 There is no significant difference in terms of students’ cognitive level and motivation towards learning history between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template. Teachers seldom integrate ICT technologies in the teaching of history simply because of the inavailability of courseware for this subject as compare to science and matematics that are developed and distributed by the Ministry of Education. (2) Null Hypothesis 2 There is no significant difference in the learning style (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning) between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template. and has lost its standard in school curriculum (Howard & Mendenhall. however. In an earlier study. As such. 1972). evidences and dates and also the knowledge acquired could not be related to present situation. Research hypotheses (1) Null Hypothesis 1 There is no significant difference in motivation towards learning history between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template. Research questions The research questions are as follows: (1) Does the use of courseware template increase students’ motivation towards history? (2) Does the use of courseware template improve students’ methods. techniques and style of learning history? (3) Does the use of courseware template improve the quality of instruction for history from traditional to computer-assisted instruction? (4) Does the use of courseware template promote self-accessed learning among students for better comprehension of History lesson? (5) Is the use of courseware template able to address the time constraint factor exists in the teaching and learning of History? (6) Does the use of courseware template nurture thinking skills and morale among students? 5. History lesson is also unpopular among students (Bryant. 1982). This shows that the wearying nature of history lesson has long been discussed by researchers. motivation and quality of instruction in history classes. the development of this courseware templat is believed to provide an alternative for promoting interest. School Council (1968a) reported that students generally regard history lessons as boring with no cognitive value.

a t-value of 0. For the anaylisis of descriptive ststistics. As shown in Table 1.784 Item F Courseware template increased my motivation 2. was accepted. The results show that both 109 . Collected data were analyzed using dscriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviations and inferential statistics such as t-test and one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance).50 was set as the median for the analyses of strength and effectiveness of corseware template. All of the statistical analyses tests were computed at 0.404 towards learning History Note: Significant at p<0. Following this. As shown in Table 2.124 df 118 Sig. The results show that both the boys and girls agreed that the use of the courseware template increased their motivation towards history lesson.287 was obtained from the analysis and as such hypothesis 2. was accepted. was analyzed in relation to the dependent variable which was the students’ learning style (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning). Discriptive data were collected through questionnaires. All data analyses were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. which states that there is no significant difference in the learning style preference (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning) between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template. Forty students responded to the preliminary study to establish the relibility and validity of the instruments used.893. (1) Hypothesis 1 Independent-samples t-test procedure was used to establish hypothesis 1.(2-tailed) 0.Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students 6. The independent variable of the study were particinats’ gender and cognitive level. a t-value of 0. (2) Hypothesis 2 Independent-samples t-test procedure was used to establish hypothesis 2. 7. 0. which was the gender of the participants. which was intended to test the effectiveness of courseware template in the teaching and learning of history. which was the gender of the participants. Particiants responded to a questionaire that sought their opinions on the effectiveness of courseware template in promoting teaching and learning.05. was analyzed in relation to the dependent variable which was the motivation towards learning history after using the courseware template.124 was obtained from the analysis and as such hypotheses 1. Methodology A survey was carried out to address the research problems and research questions. a preliminary study was carried out. 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls) were selected randomly to participate in the actual study.05 (p<0. The independent variable. checklist and interview to identify problems inherent in the design and development of courseware template.05) alpha level of significant. Findings from hypotheses This section discusses the results obtained in relation to research hypotheses. which states that there is no significant difference in the motivation towards learning history between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template. Table 1 Independent-samples t-test showing relation between gender and motivation Sig. Research questionnaire was distributed to 120 students from Form One. Prior to that. Data from the preliminary study were analysed and computed an alpha value of 0. The independent variable. a min value of 3.

Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students

the boys and girls agreed that the use of courseware template improved their learning style, i.e., from being teacher dependent for input, they moved towards self-accessed learning.
Table 2 Independent-samples t-test showing relation between gender and learning style Sig. 0.287 df 110.07 Sig.(2-tailed) 0.784

Item F Courseware template reduced my dependency on 2.404 History teachers Note: Significant at p<0.05.

(3) Hypothesis 3 One-way ANOVA procedure was used to establish hypothesis 3. The independent variable, which was participants’ cognitve level, was analyzed in relation to the dependent varibale which was the motivation towards learning history. As shown in Table 3, a significant value of 0.928 was obtained from one-way ANOVA analysis and as such hypothesis 3, which state that there is no significant difference in terms of students’ cognitive level influencing their motivation towards learning history between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the courseware template, was accepted. The results indicate that the students’ cognitive levels (high or low) did not influence their motivation towards history. The high F-value of 0.075, shows a high strength of this courseware in promoting students’ motivation to history lesson regardless of their cognitive ability.
Table 3 One-way ANOVA showing relation between students’ cognitive level and motivation Item Between group In group Total Note: Significant at p<0.05. F 0.075 117 119 Sig. 0.928 df 2

(4) Hypothesis 4 One-way ANOVA procedure was used to establish hypothesis 4. The independent variable, which was participants’ cognitive level, was analyzed in relation to the dependent varibale which was the learning style (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning). As shown in Table 4, a significant value of 0.610 was obtained from one-way ANOVA analysis and as such hypothesis 4, which states that there is no significant difference in terms of students’ cognitive level influencing learning style (teacher dependent for input compared to self-accessed learning) between the Form One boys and girls after being exposed to the history courseware template, was accepted. The results indicate that students, regardless of their cognitive level, improved their learning style, i.e., from being teacher dependent for input, they moved towards self-accessed learning. The F-value of 0.497, shows the strength of this courseware in promoting students’ self-accessed learning style.
Table 4 One-way ANOVA showing relation between students’ cognitive level and learning style Item Between group In group Total Note: Significant at p<0.05. F 0.497 117 119 Sig. 0.610 df 2


Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students

8. Findings from research questions
(1) Research question 1 A Likert style questionnaire with 8 items was administered to answer research question 1 (see Table 5), “Does the use of history courseware template increase students’ motivation towards history?”. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.60, which indicates that students generally enjoyed learning from the courseware template.
Table 5 Mean and standard deviation in relation to students’ motivation (N=120) No Items S1 I enjoy using the multi-media courseware template. S3 The multimedia courseware template help me to acquire more knowledge. S4 The use of images and video promotes my interest to explore for more information. S5 The background music stimulates my learning. S7 I rewarded when I could answer the questions correctly. S8 Feedback was when I answered wrongly. Total mean value N 120 120 120 120 120 120 4.60 Min. Max. Mean S.D. 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.72 4.48 4.56 4.68 4.49 4.53 4.66 4.67 0.45 0.66 0.56 0.47 0.61 0.52 0.48 0.47

S2 The multimedia courseware template increase my motivation towards history lessons. 120

S6 The integration of text, images, animation, audio, video and graphic makes learning. 120

(2) Research question 2 A Likert style questionnaire with 8 items was administered to answer research question 2 (see Table 6), “Does the use of history courseware template improve students’ method, technique and style of learning history?”. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.66, which indicates that students can improve their learning style, technique and method when using multimedia courseware template.
Table 6 Mean and standard deviation in relation to learning style (N=120) No Items S15 This courseware gives me a new approach in my learning. S16 This courseware helps create two-way interaction between me and the courseware. S17 This courseware helps me work cooperatively with my peers. S18 I’m able to self-access all information learned whenever I like. S19 The information presented helped me understand Historical facts better. S20 This courseware contains multimedia elements that promote my learning. S22 This courseware help me acquire more knowledge. S25 This courseware reduces my teacher dependency. Total mean value N 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 4.66 Min. Max. Mean S.D. 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.52 4.57 4.60 4.78 4.72 4.60 4.59 4.87 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.41 0.45 0.49 0.49 0.34

(3) Research question 3 A Likert style questionnaire with 5 items was administered to answer research question 3 (see Table 7), “Does the use of history courseware template improve the quality of instruction from traditional method to computer assisted instruction?”. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.35, which indicates that teachers can improve the quality of their instruction with the use of multimedia courseware template.


Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students

Table 7 Mean and standard deviation in relation to quality of instruction (N=120) No S9 S10 S11 Items N This courseware help teachers achieve learning objectives. 120 This courseware makes teachers’ instruction more interesting. 120 The use of this courseware shows that the teachers use varied teaching technique. 120 The use of this courseware shows that the teachers are able to use current S12 120 technology for instructional purposes. S13 Teachers are not tied down with the old traditional method of teaching. 120 Total mean value 4.35 Min. 4 3 3 3 3 Max. 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 4.67 4.41 4.47 4.08 4.13 S.D. 0.47 0.63 0.52 0.74 0.63

(4) Research question 4 A Likert style questionnaire with 4 items was administered to answer research question 4 (see Table 8), “Does the use of History courseware template promote self-accessed learning among students for better comprehension of History lesson?”. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.43, which indicates that the use of multimedia courseware template promotes students’ self-accessed learning for better comprehension of history lesson.
Table 8 No Items S14 This courseware help me access information independently. S21 It is easy to explore the materials in this courseware. S24 The navigations guide are organized for easier learning. Total mean value Mean and standard deviation in relation to self-accessed learning (N=120) N 120 120 120 4.43 Min. 3 4 4 4 Max. Mean S.D 5 5 5 5 4.15 4.48 4.53 4.57 0.71 0.50 0.50 0.50

S23 This courseware allows repetitive reading of facts that have already been studied. 120

(5) Research question 5 A Likert style questionnaire with 7 items was administered to answer research question 5 (see Table 9), “Is the use of history courseware template able to address the time constraint factor exists in the teaching and learning of history?”. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.65, which indicates that the use of multimedia courseware template can address the time constraint factor that exists in the teaching and learning of history.
Table 9 No Items S26 I can interact wit this courseware fast and easy. S27 This courseware help me easily understand every topic. S28 The content delivered is simple, compact and easy to understand. S29 I can explore the contents in this courseware fast and easy. Mean and standard deviation in relation to time constraint factor (N=120) N 120 120 120 120 Min. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Max. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 4.57 4.50 4.68 4.69 4.57 4.73 4.78 S.D. 0.50 0.50 0.47 0.46 0.50 0.45 0.41

S30 I can access the information at any time. 120 The search for information can be done at any time without teachers’ S31 120 assistance. S32 This courseware is suitable for use at any time. 120 Total mean value 4.65

(6) Research question 6 A Likert style questionnaire with 8 items was administered to answer research question 6 (see Table 10),


Mayer. School Council. D. Weiner. Descriptive analyses of the data collected showed a mean value of 4.63 9. 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 Max.53 Courseware strength Excellent Therefore. J. R. S40 I can strongly understand the objectives of history education from this courseware.47 0. (Edited by Nicole and Lily) 113 . New Jersey: Prentice Hall.. History: Teaching and methods. 91(4). 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 4.68 4. E. This value is close to the 5. (1999). Development in history teaching.78 4. E.70 0. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.51 0. Table 11 Total and average mean value for 40 items Total mean for 40 items 181. Designing effective instruction for secondary social studies.). & Gross.05.67 4.D.Testing the effects of interactive courseware template for the learning of history among Form One students “Does the use of history courseware template nurture thinking skills and morale among students?”. G. S35 The Quiz help me develop my knowledge. Washington: Council for Basic Education. (1982). (1995). J.05 Average mean for 40 items 4. (1968). S37 This courseware instills moral values through the screen display. S. S39 I can assimilate patriotic elements and value from this courseware. & Mendenhall. T. which indicates that the respondents were agreeable to the notion that the history courseware template is able to address problems that inherent in the learning of history such as overcoming students’ boredom.53 as shown in Table 11. which indicates that the use of multimedia courseware template can nurture thinking skills and morale among students. T.38. J. I.). with an average mean value of 4. S38 Patriotism is instilled through the information display screen. Fourth grades gradual construction of decimal fraction during instruction using different physical representations. M.68 4. & Gahlini. this study proposes that traditional teaching method should be replaced with technology-assisted learning environment specifically mutlimedia-based materials in order to create an interesting and engaging learning experience to students. R. London: Open Books.13 S. Development in history teaching.68 4. R.41 0.79 4. Where is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Education Psychology. 715-726.62 4. London: Open Book. No wild rush to the present in five installment’s. L. time constraint factor and students’ learing style that are from being teacher dependent to self-accessed learning and the quality of teachers’ instruction. Elementary School Journal. Table 10 Mean and standard deviation in relation to nurturing thinking skill and morale (N=120) No Items S33 Quiz is given at the end of every lesson. Dynneson. In: Steele.47 0. Conclusion The mean value obtained for all 40 items from the questionnaire was 181. I. The findings from this study can also be used by future researhcers and developers to design and develop multimedia materials that are robust and error free. Making history come alive: The place of history in schools.50 0. Upper Saddle River. (Ed. & Taber.00 mark. S34 The Quiz tests my knowledge and skill. Wearne. Total mean value N 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 4.65 Min. (1990). (1972). (Ed. 0. S36 I’m rewarded when I answer the questions correctly. Teachers also should empower themselves with knowledge and skills in compuetr technology to be in current with the evolving computer technology. Howard. K. Enquiry 1: Young leavers. 321-341. ED 387402). 82(1990). (1991). In: Steele. References: Bryant. Hiebert.47 0.

University of Pannonia. equally. sexual suppression and the prohibition of the masturbation yield anxiety. according to which children may not offend the freedom of others with their freedom and may not jeopardize their and the others’ corporal integrity on the one hand. since he declared that the sexual taboos. Volume 7. Zoë grew up as a self-adjusting child). assistant lecturer. 1. research field: reform and alternative pedagogy. He is often mentioned during public debates. ISSN 1548-6613.1 Neill’s pedagogical conception Neill’s pedagogic concept is defined by psychoanalytical tendency represented by Sigmund Freud and Wilhelm Reich. the reception in theory of education and press 1. Papa 9700. on the other hand their negativities and unique features are emphasized and criticized.October 2010. 114 . they have an opportunity to be allowed to be themselves on the other hand. University of Pannonia. Before revealing Neill’s reception. are existing as subject of the debates. as Neill’s critics do misinterpreting Neill’s freedom concept often. others criticize him while emphasizing the concept’s drawbacks and unique features. where mostly the “three S”—“sex. Key words: reform pedagogy. due to his pedagogical concept and its practical realization. USA Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press Judit Langer-Buchwald (Department of Education. Hungary) Abstract: Arthur Sutherland Neill is one of the most debated personalities among the representatives of the classic reform pedagogy. though Neill’s educational aim was the realization of the children’s self-adjusting (his own daughter. No. however. Summerhill.10 (Serial No. it is important to present shortly in detail the entire concept though the school’s practical function. naturally. which has deleterious effect on the children and causes the development of the aggression and the violence. Department of Education. and his Summerhill School.71) US-China Education Review. Neill stood upbringing by free. He believed that children are originally good. but the upbringing and the society make it. it should not to be mixed up with the laissez fair upbringing. The freedom does not mean libertinism. Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School One can pay attention to a kind of attitude which can be tracked in appeared exaggerates relating to the concept and the school in the Hungarian and German pedagogical special literature and press writings on Summerhill: On the one hand talks are admiring. a kind of polarized attitude has been realized towards the conceptions and school: Some talk about him admiringly. Judit Langer-Buchwald. swearing and smoking”. Children must grow up in freedom. While analyzing publications about Summerhill School appearing in Hungarian and German pedagogical special literature and press. and nobody is born for evil or aggressive one.

because of this. workshops. but he studied pedagogy and worked for “Orszagos Pedagogiai Kozpont” (National Center for Pedagogy). his own child would have attended this school if it would not be in England (Foti. the adult management and suggestive influence in the upbringing (in a religious and ethical look. 28-37). pp. He is an electrical engineer. as it can be experienced in the schools).. researchers and educators. which would be typical of Summerhill School. this school is a boarding institution. His aim of founding the institute was to tailor the school to the children. This reflects his enthusiasm and criticizes neither the concept. they are equal and both have the right to vote. where the topic is the free schools. 1.1 Peter Foti’s papers on Summerhill in Hungarian Peter Foti. Unique methods. and the local government brings them on the base of voting. 115 . by his own acknowledgement. After Neill’s publication of his book Summerhill—A Radical Approach to Child Rearing in Hungarian. 75-87. There are approximately two hundred rules. even so.g. which Neill founded in Leiston. which influences his reputation largely in the field of pedagogy among experts. 2005). gives lectures and attends radio talks. Foti in his writings (2004. As it is usual in England. members of which are children and teachers. which concern equally the children and adults. writes in Hungarian. riding and dramatic society). Reception of Neill’s pedagogical conception and Summerhill School in Hungarian pedagogical special literature and press Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School exist among the less negotiated and researched reform-pedagogical concepts in the Hungarian pedagogical literature and press. It worked as an experimental school of antiauthoritarian upbringing when started.2 The Summerhill School The Summerhill School. but it works as a demonstrational school today. This assembly decides the questions concerning the school (except the teachers’ uptake and dismissal and the financial affairs).Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press The adults and the children are equal. He lived in Austria and dealt with alternative pedagogic movements (Foti. 2005). Neill emphasized the significance of acquisition through free games instead of the curriculum. in which they are for interest than for learning—in the traditional sense. Because of this. 2006. his writings cannot be enumerated to the pedagogical special literature. in the childhood learning. are not applied on the lessons. 2008). pp. not to tailor the children to the school. nor the school. the education renounces the authoritarianism. England. 2. recently. The assembly decides what should be the punishment in case of the contravention of valid rules in the school (Neill. In Foti’s papers on Neill’s conception and Summerhill. who is one of Summerhill enthusiastic fans. 2005. Summerhill is Foti’s kind of beloved school and. 2. 2005. gardening. one may face expressions often like. it is not obligatory to attend school lessons. The lessons are obligatory only for teachers. is the first free school. The children have a number of opportunities to take part in activities apart from the lessons (e. due to this. which is attended by young people at ages of 5-16. One of the most characteristic elements of the school’s function is the local government. so the students have right to decide what and when they want to study. there is no failings in the oral assessment at all. 2006). Similarly to other reform-pedagogical conceptions. mainly focus is on Summerhill School. as well) (Neill. radio talks (2005) and lectures (2007) talked about Summerhill and Neill’s pedagogical concept with ecstasy. in 1921. in the real sense of the word (not an unreal equality rules between the teachers and pupils. they disregard the gradation.

as to the school works as a boarding institution. It is important to emphasize that Foti. Accordingly to Bettelheim’s opinion. “Schools do not go away in radicalism to Summerhill” (Foti. and its consequence will be chaos. freedom without libertinism is a revolutionary conception”. due to its individuality and radicalism. she stressed that. The author of the study confronts the objectives of the traditional pedagogy. 2. although who is not a Hungarian author. 1998).3 Bruno Bettelheim: Summerhill: For and Against However. as a radical scholar of theory of education”. he criticizes it on some points: “The explanation of the ‘big clinician of the upbringing’ is inaccurate and naïve. certain expected knowledge and lessons (Majzik. “(school) isolation and the compelling strength of implementation of the concept”. it can be less assigned into the usual reform-pedagogy categories. school. and calls the readers’ attention to that. Neill errs into extremities in connection with his theories of learning: He rejected the course books. 1998). He justified this hypothesis by Neill’s considerable deficiencies regarding to the psychoanalysis. Bettelheim also presupposed that it would not lead to success if a man with a smaller format would try to apply Neill’s educational method.2 Valeria Majzik: Summerhill—What We Shall Do With It? Majzik’s (1997) paper entitled “Summerhill—What We Shall Do With It?” appeared in a Hungarian pedagogical journal School Culture (Iskolakultura) eight years before the publication of Neill’s (2005) book Summerhill—A Radical Approach to Child Rearing. which he could counterbalance with his child respect (Bettelheim. “On Neill’s opinion. 1997). it can be read in the study of Hungarian Bruno Bettelheim which appeared in 1973. 1997). She interpreted Neill’s pedagogy as a radical turning against the traditional pedagogy which causes its isolation (“pedagogical island-existence”) (Majzik. On Majzik’s views. does not affect Neill’s views on childhood’s sexuality and masturbation. 2005. Commenting Neill’s activity. he avoids theoretical questions”. the title itself “Summerhill—What We Shall Do With It?” shows a sort of perplexity: Place of Summerhill can be found difficultly in the row of the reform-pedagogy concepts. 2005). too. In the study. Opposite to Peter Foti’s views. views and how they interpret the readings. since “Summerhill is nothing else than extension of his own (Neill’s–author’s comment) personality”. Bettelheim emphasized the fact that many people misunderstand Neill’s thoughts and apply his educational principles. Bettelheim disagreed with Neill’s views on sexuality. Acknowledging advantages of the Neill’s notion of school. his teachings inadequately. it is necessary to improve it—with Neill faith in children’s original goodness. “Which is taking aim at fixing the child”. when it presupposes that the child is bad. and on his opinion. 2. “It is necessary to apply Neill teachings flexibly since if we take it according to a word we make a fool of him”. the prohibition of the masturbation. 2006).Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press “Neill. Valeria Majzik’s approaches about Summerhill and Neill’s concept are with objectivity and critical outlook. nor the remorse derived from this are the agents of violence and aggression (Bettelheim. because he wants to reform not only the teaching. in the anthology named “Pedagogies on the Turn of the Millennium”. in his writings. Bettelheim saw the reason of this in Neill’s readers’ lawsuit concept. however. Bettelheim accepted Neill’s hypotenuse educational concept. entitled Summerhill: For and Against. but the entire school” (Foti. “Neill differs from the rest of the reform educators. He considered that the school’s successfulness depends on a person. neither the repressed sexuality. 116 . “It is not possible to use it fully (the concept) for the school’s reformation”. Already.

primarily in the national sheets and journals. The doctrine supervision has disapproved of the state of the buildings and the preparedness of the teachers’ teaching at the school in 1990 already (Der Spiegel. “Summerhill School presumably is the world’s most cheerful school”. to the accentuation. She undertook the clarification of misinterpretations and misunderstandings around the taboo-free treatment of sexuality. the abortion and the questions of the homosexuality (Hunger. 1994). they study playing what does learning mean. according to this. appeared in time of the scandals around the school’s doctrine supervision examinations in more considerable journals in Germany. 2007). From 1990. for example. One may have read about Summerhill in 1994 in several German newspapers. in connection with the beginning term of the September. 3. it is possible to play with interest or to take part in an interesting activity. “For this.1 Doreen Hunger: “Sexual Pedagogy in Summerhill (Sexualpädagogik in Summerhill)” Doreen Hunger’s paper entitled “Sexual Pedagogy in Summerhill” appeared in 2004 deals with questions affecting the sexuality in Neill’s educational concept. 2000). in German press The obvious difference among the appeared writings and articles in Hungarian and German is that the repeated doctrine supervision examination concerning Summerhill School created any kind of stir in Hungary while it found a considerable interest in the German press.2 Reflections on doctrine supervision examination concerning Summerhill School. Benda considered the school’s only drawback that it is a private institution and it is necessary to pay tuition fee. but contrasts it with the rest of the alternative schools. Reception of Neill’s pedagogical conception and Summerhill School in the German pedagogical special literature and press There is much more interest towards Neill’s pedagogical concept and his school in Germany than in Hungary. 3. The entirely different from usual school practice. only the wealthier families’ children may be given the utopia” (Benda. etc. 3. the pregnancy.. the emphasis is always on the learning yet though. received bigger publicity. the sex education. the treatment of masturbation in Summerhill. She emphasized the school’s main characteristic is not only opposite to the traditional sense of learning. She dyed an idyllic and positive picture about Summerhill for the reader. she negotiated questions like Neill’s ideas on sexuality. when the doctrine 117 . Summerhill really aroused OFSTED interest and the doctrine supervision examination was made almost annually (Coiplet. The England Office for Standard in Education (OFSTED) was established for controlling the execution of the detailed central curriculum. the importance of learning through activities selected freely. where to go on lessons is not obligatory. The articles. the children may decide freely. After the short presentation of basic principles of anti-authoritarian upbringing in Summerhill. 2004). if not”. The office examined—in case of non-state schools (These do not receive a state support in England)—whether the children receive suitable treatment and study in proper circumstances. including his thoughts on childhood sexuality in comparison with Sigmund Freud’s views about childhood psychosexual development.Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press 2.4 Judit Benda: Where Freedom is Not a Utopia Benda’s (2007) article entitled “Where the Freedom Is Not a Utopia” appeared in the 1st number of a daily newspaper Nepszava (People’s Voice) in September of 2007. OFSTED is independent from the state office concerning former teachers and non-educators. if I like it. “They only sweeten the bitter pill. according to which. the nakedness. They entrusted the schools of choosing the philosophical bases of the education and the educational methods.

manifests from the other writings. “most radical”. Readers get a picture from both negative and positive sides and the editorial goes into detail about doctrine supervision scandals and the lawsuit. the free school visit (Jammers. An article entitled “Die Freiheit ist das rascal” (The freedom the best one). 2007). A. which appeared in issue 16 of the daily newspaper Der Spiegel in November of 1998. Der Spiegel. It makes people see Summerhill through eyes of visitors and entrusts the parents. which was visible in the increasing number of the articles appeared in press on Summerhill. The school received serial examinations under the Blair-government’s time from 1997. writes at a more tactful voice. the school’s closure was ordered with reason of neither upbringing nor education is fruitful in the school. The doctrine supervision disapproved the foulmouthed speech. An article. 3. the lag of the students’ school successfulness from state institutions’ students.. dyeing an idyllic and harmonic picture about Summerhill. Their criticism was directed against Summerhill’s fundamental philosophy. related to the school and its educational concept. the doctrine supervision has not had the school closed and decreased the illegally frequent examinations onto the usual visits in every fifth year (Coiplet. Due to OFSTED’s recommendations. “the children dowdy. and what is interpreted by them as education (Ehlers. The report objected that the children have been confusing the idleness with the practice of the personal freedom. the reader. writings. The judgment of the school’s educational principles and practice depends absolutely on individual. 1998). and that the children were absent too much from the lessons (Der Spiegel. she have applied to the courts. 1994). most radical. liberal”. the empty classroom. showing a distressing and negative picture of the institution: The school’s buildings are “lived barracks”. where “the imposed punishment is paprika-cutting in the kitchen. The article presents the local government’s work in an ironic key. as it was visible in Hungarian. Present headmaster (Neill’s daughter. revolutionary. where she gained a lawsuit. dominate and in those works with a scientific claim. or lesson held for an only student frustrates them. 1994.3 Summerhill in German press The most often-used attributes. According to the decision. 1994. 1999).. A further common feature is that. The teachers “earn half of their colleagues teaching at other schools. “revolutionary”. Reporting articles on Summerhill can be divided 2 groups in Germany. where Neill’s (2005) views and his school are dealt with a 118 . are “the radical one. 2000). R. dpa-Dienst. presenting Summerhill’s activity positively. in fair weather” (Zuber. to shape own opinion based on their views and experiences. too. in 2007 about Summerhill School. The school got an ultimatum in 1999 as the result of the doctrine supervision’s examinations. and their knowledge of that was fractional. Zoë Readhead) is in the interest of keeping school from closure. The students’ achievement was low. they are bored and they do not know what to do with themselves”. they live in caravans”. 1994. Summary The common features of writings both in Hungarian and in German literature are using of attributes “radical one”. 4. The bigger part of the writings. Z. what they expect from education and the school. also appeared in German newspaper Der Spiegel on May 7th.Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press supervision—according to the expectations of conservative educational policy tendency (they wished to return to the good old school)—made a newer examination in Summerhill (Welt. Frankfurter. Frankfurter. informs about the school life and children admiringly. 1994). pale. the usage of word “liberal” in connection with Neill educational concept and Summerhill School. 1994. in writings in German. they do not make a career as an adult but some kind of creative work. independently from date of appearance.

(3). 17. Coiplet. References: Bettelheim. Retrieved November 16. Publisher: Ketezeregy. F. W. B. Hunger. (2000). Summerhill—What we shall do with it? Iskolakultura.). Summerhill and Neill. (2004. Iskolapelda. Foti. Retrieved June 4. to identify is presumably heavy. Von.html. (2005). (Ed. A. In: dokument-druck. Pedagogies on the turn of century. P. 2006). from http:www. (1998). N. (2007). from http://wissen. V.html?id=13684636&top=SPIEGEL. (2007). [Radio series]. from http://wissen. Retrieved February 21. A.00. berlinonline. 1-3.Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill’s pedagogical concept and his Summerhill School in Hungarian and German pedagogical literature and press critical outlook. 2007. 1999.html. 1998. Dunakeszi. dpa-Dienst für Kulturpolitik. Neill. (1997).spiegel. P. D. A. A. Additionally. Retrieved May 7. Zuber. P. November 21). Retrieved March 23. J. Der Spiegel. 99-103. There is a dissimilarity between the German and Hungarian press materials that in Hungarian—only with the exception of Peter Foti’s sentence referring to Summerhill lawsuit in a single writing—It cannot find indications concerned the continuous doctrine supervision affecting school examination. Closing threatens the legendary Summerhill School. (Edited by Nicole and Lily) 119 .). (1999). (1994). 106. 1994. Benda. (1998). H. which is connected with negative manifestations. Der nor in German language (exception Hunger’s (2004) Sexual-pedagogic in Summerhill) mentioned Neill’s views on childhood sexuality. Foti. S. the not-obligatory education. Teaching and (4). P. B. Grin Verlag. People’s Voice. as well as those of concepts that concern elements like taboo-free of sex education. To-Teach. its closure. 28-37. living in the Christian-European culture. S. (2007. it is worthy to examine henceforward how the educators’ attitude is forming toward a kind of reform-pedagogy concept like this. (2004). 2005). a wholehearted emancipation between children and adults.481792. Budapest. About summerhill in hungarian. from http://www. from http://www. Judit. ( 75-87.). (1). bin/dumpf. the judicial lawsuit keeping it from.1518. Summerhill gains a lawsuit. Where freedom is not a utopy. Neither though writings in Hungarian. N. Ehlers. Summerhhill: For and against. The world humanize instituotin. Freedom is the best. N. In: Dreigliederung (Ed. J. Foti. A radical approach to child rearing. dreigliederung. S. with which for persons. Z. N. Eotvos József Konyvkiadó. (2005. its positive results and his features are emphasized and acknowledged.html?. Majzik. Sexual-pedagogy in Summerhill. Foti. attacks. (1994).de/spiegel/ (2005). In: Pukanszky. Der Spiegel. Due to anarchy. Der Spiegel. To-Teach. wissen/dokument-druck.fcgi/1999/0604/feuilleton. & Zsolnai. Direct democracy and autonomy in summerhill school in England. January 9. Let everybody be just like that. Special Education and Elementary Education etc. This journal is regularly published by China National Publication Import & Export Corporation on an on-line inquiry can be triggered with its publication number ISSN1548-6613 as key words in “Basic Search” column.S. and published across the United States by David Publishing Company. US-China Education Review David Publishing Company . abstract and key words should be prerequisite. David Publishing Company is strived to provide the best platform for researchers and scholars worldwide to exchange their latest findings and results. Educational Policy and Administration. and how delighted you would be when communicating with global professional peers. Vocational Education. & OCLC.Call for Papers US-China Education Review is a professional journal sponsored by American Sino-US Association of Entrepreneurs. In addition. on whose official website (http://catalog.R. P. (3) English title.C. 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