Bonophool Banerjee

( 4th Semester)

CHARCUTIERIE I. SAUSAGE

A. INTRODUCTION TO CHARCUTIERIE : INTRODUCTION : In French , the word characteristic is derived from chair cuite, meaning cooked meat. It usually centers around pork products , including some of the prides of French cuisines . Pate’s and terrines ranging from simple pureed liver to textured real Pates or rustic country mixtures studded with hazelnuts or pepper corns and a selection of stuffed galantines and ballontines coated with aspic. Ham, bacon, sausages and cured meats are the staple of charcuterie, found world Wide in innumerable guises. Traditionally, charcuterie consists only of completely or partially prepared pork dishes , but now a days it also includes game or real and ham pies, as well as pork pies and pate en croute . Fish and vegetable terrines and mousselines as well as the famous pate de foie gras and even prepared salads are also included in the range. B. SAUSAGES-TYPES & VARIETIES Any mixture stuffed into a casing (traditionally the large or small intestines of domestic animals) is known as a sausage. In practice most sausages are porkbased though beef and real feature in a few types and game can add a ripe flavour. While sausages are some times made with chicken or real white fish or shellfish sausages are a gastronomic conceit often based on luxury ingredients such as lobster or sea scallops .They usually take the form of fish mouisselines stuffed in a casing . Additions to sausages fall into two that lighter the meat and make it go further , as in the British “Banger “and seasonings , Commonly hot red peppers in sage and thyme ,spices such as the pensable salt. Small casings are used for fresh sausages so heat penetrate easily to the center. As fresh Sausages may contain raw ingredients ,they have a short shelf life although this may be extended by additional cooking processes such as smoking , drying blanching or boiling .Both the delicate bondin blance of France , made from pore , chicken or real and sometimes eggs and cream and the heartier bondin noir or German slutwurst made of blood ,spices and onions are examples of semi cooked sausages that has been blanched to firm their feature and extend their shelf life by a few days. Seasoned with spices and garlic , the famous Polish Kielbasa and German Knack wurst are both slightly smoked. Like all pork , fresh and semicooked sausages must be thoroughly cooked before eating to avoid any danger of trinchinosis infection. Distinct from fresh and semi cooked sausages are those that are sold ready to eat These may be fully cooked ,sometimes by hot smoking or completely cured by drying included in this wide category are the familiar Mortadella

belogna and liver sausage. Some liver sausages are soft enough to spread ,they may be flavoured with onion ,herb, garlic, anchovies or spices and resemble Pate packed in a anchovies or spices and resemble Pate packed in a Casing .The distinctive French andouille made of Pig’s intestines stuffed one inside the other combines smoking , drying and cooking in its fabrication. The third general category is the sausages that are uncooked but are totally presented by drying .They are eaten without further cooking ,often thinly sliced and served cold with cheese ,veg and salads. Although these sausages do not require cooking , some varieties notable Italian Pepperoni and a dried version and stews. The second type Salami style sausages are drier and more highly spiced . Since they may be dried for up to six months , they have a harder texture pork and beef are often combined in salami ,and frequently wine is added to the mixture , giving the sausage a characteristic tangy flavour. Sausage History • Sausage production is one of the earliest forms of food preservation • The word sausage is derived from the Latin word “Salsus” which means salted meat Role of Salt • Salt plays a more limited role in sausage preservation today • Present day salt levels provide less of a preservative effect than the higher levels of the past • Most sausage recipes contain 1-3% salt • Salt levels are usually adjusted for taste Sausage Definition A mixture of ground or chopped meats combined with spices and other ingredients and usually formed or shaped in casings of various sizes Primary Sausage Types • Fresh Sausages • Cooked Sausages • Fermented Sausages • Meat Loaves and Jellied Products Fresh Sausages • Raw/uncooked meat product • Does not contain the “curing” ingredient nitrite or nitrate • Examples are: fresh pork sausage, fresh bratwurst, and fresh Italian sausage Cooked Sausage • Fully cooked ready-to-eat sausages • Most are also smoked but may be water or steam cooked as well • May be eaten without reheating • Examples include: wieners, smoked sausages, bologna, cooked bratwurst Fermented Sausages • Have a characteristic “tangy” flavor

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Produced through fermentation by lactic acid producing bacteria or the direct addition of encapsulated acids These sausages can be shelf-stable with the proper amount of drying and acidification Semi-dry: summer sausage and snack sticks Dry: pepperoni, hard salami

Meat loaves and Jellied Products • Loaves: Mixtures of chopped meat that are usually “formed” and cooked in pans or metal molds • Examples: pickle and pimento loaf and honey loaf • Jellied products: consist of a cooked mixture of meat chunks placed in gelatin • Examples: jellied roast beef and head cheese

Sausage Ingredients • Meat • Salt • Spices • Cure • Reducing Agents • Binders and Extenders • Water • Casings Meat • Use only fresh meat in good condition and from an approved source. • Maintain all meats at a temperature of 41°F or less during storage and production prior to cooking. Salt • Salt is a necessary ingredient for flavor • It aids in preserving some sausages • It is essential for extracting the “soluble” meat protein that is responsible for binding the sausage together when the sausage is heated • Most sausages contain 1-3 % salt Spices • All spices and seasoning should be fresh to achieve maximum and consistent flavors Store seasonings at 55°F or below in air tight containers to maintain freshness Meat Curing Ingredients • Nitrates and nitrites are the common “curing” ingredients used in the production of sausage • Nitrite is the compound that distinguishes fresh products from cured products • Nitrate is converted to nitrite during the fermentation and cooking process Function of Cure • provides protection against the growth of botulism

extends shelf life stabilizes the flavor of the cured meat used to achieve the characteristic flavor and color Cure: Caution !! • Too much: can be toxic to humans! • Too little: can result in the growth of harmful bacteria! • Federal regulations: • maximum of 2.75 ounces of sodium or potassium nitrate per 100 pounds of chopped meat, or • 0.25 ounces of sodium or potassium nitrite per 100 pounds of chopped meat • • •

Cure Rates are Critical! • Most cures are added in the form of commercial premixes • Use the cure premixes according to labeled directions only • Any use other than according to labeled directions will produce an unsafe and illegal product Addition of Cure Ingredients • Today we use injection, tumbling and direct mixing of cure ingredients • Tumbling forces the cure into the muscle under vacuum • Other methods include: • Dry rubbing • Artery pumping • Soaking in brine containing cure Curing Accelerators • Speed up the curing process, reduce the holding time • Examples are ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbic acid) • Must be used according to labeled directions

Binders and Extenders Binders • Help to improve flavor and retain natural juices. Extenders • Can reduce the cost of sausage formulation. • Examples: nonfat dry milk, cereal flours, and soy protein products Water • Added to rehydrate the nonfat dry milk and to replace the expected moisture loss during smoking and cooking • Up to 10 percent by weight of water may be added to most sausages • No water is added to sausages that will be dried Casings • Casings are either natural or synthetic

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Natural casings are from sheep, hog, or cattle intestines or manufactured from collagen (an animal protein) Synthetic casings are usually made from cellulose

Casing Label Requirements • Beginning Sept. 5, 2001 FSIS regulations require sausage manufacturers to label the source of natural sausage casings if they are derived from a different type of meat or poultry than the meat or poultry encased in the sausage. • Sausage products encased in regenerated collagen casings will have to have a statement on the label disclosing the use of regenerated collagen. (The processing of regenerated collagen casings renders the detection of the species proteins impossible). Product Identity and Standards • Processor must be familiar with the Standard of Identity for the products produced. Federal regulations are very specific in limiting the fat content, the amount of water added, the presence of extenders and variety meats in sausages C. CASINGS-TYPES & VARIETIES Casings vary in size from the ½ in /1.25 cm diameter of small pigs intestines to the 3-4 in /7.5-10 cm of large beef intestines, and each sausage calls for a specific type. Synthetic casings are commonly used for fresh sausages .Bladder or stomach living may also used. STUFFED SAUSAGE CASINGS Before use, soak the casings for 1-2 hours in cold water to remove salt and make them pliable .Drain but do not dry them. Steps : 1). Clean and open each casings by attaching one end to a tap and running cold water through it. 2).Tie each casing with string at one end. Attach the open end to the base of a funnel .Slide the casing up the funnel until the closed end of the casing is reached. 3).Work the sausage filling through the funnel into the casing .Do not pace the filling too tightly or the sausages will burst as they cook. 4).Twist the casing at intervals as you go to make a string of sausages .Tie the casing with string at the end.

WORLD FAMOUS SAUSAGES AT A GLANCE

1. Polish Kaszanka 2, Boudin noir 3. Haggis 4. Morcille 5.Andouillete 6.English Slack Pudding 7.Frankfurter 8.Bock Wurst 9.Knack Wurst 10.Cervelat 11.Boudin 12.Pork Chipolata 13.Luganeyhe 14.Cumberland 15.Venison 16.Merguez 17.Beef 18.Pork 19.Northampton Pork 20.Brat Wurst

21. Toulouse 22. Dried Chorizo 23.Andouille 24.Cotechino 25. Crepinettes 26. Pepperoni 27. Zampone 28.Genoa 29. Napoli 30.Milano 31.Jesu de Lyon 32.Hungarian 33.Finocchiona 34.French Hers 35.Chorizo 36.German Cervelat 37.Primavera 38.Strasboung liver 39.Mortadella 40. BierWurst.

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