by Clyde A. Winters, PhD Uthman dan Fodio Institute © 2007 C.A.

Winters

The ancient people of Crete are called Minoans or Eteocretans. The Egyptians knew these people as the Keftiu. The Keftiu or Minoans spoke the Malinke-Bambara language. The MalinkeBambara language is a member of the Mande group of languages which belongs

to the Niger-Congo superfamily of languages spoken in Africa. Here is a picture of Keftiu from the Egyptian tombs. They are bringing goods to Egypt in their distinctive ceramics.
Minoans/Keftiu in Egyptian Relief

Men on a boat from Thera

LIBYAN ORIGIN OF MINOANS

Every since Sir Arthur Evans, discovered the hieroglyphics and Linear A writing of Crete there has been a search for the authors of this script. Evans (l921) suggested that the Minoan civilization found its impetus from the arrival of refugees from Libya to Crete. Evans supported this hypothesis by discussing the affinities between Crete and Libya, e.g., l) the writing of Crete and Libyco-Berber (Manding) writing are similar (Winters 1985),2) both groups wore the cod piece, and 3)

they share the identical customs of leaving a lock of hair hanging down in front of the ears. The protruding tuft of hair was associated with an initiatory rite dedicated to the goddess Neith.(Bruson 1985) The goddess Neith or Athene, was a Libyan goddess. Other scholars have also found a Libyan influence an Crete. A.B. Cook (1914), noted that the Libyan ram with horns curved downward occurs in Minoan art. The ram is associated with the goddess Athene (Neith). In addition Pendlebury (l965) postulated a Libyan immigration to southern Crete in the area of Messara (c.3000-2200 B.C.) Hammond (l967), feels that the Libyans settled the plains of Phaestos between 1900-1700 B.C. In addition Dr. Alain Anselin (1984), has done a fine study of the Black Libyans of Crete. LINEAR A WRITING

Linear A writing is a variant of the Proto-Saharan writing, used by the Manding in the Sahara. The earliest Manding

inscriptions have been found at Oued Mertoutek. The Oued Mertoutek inscription has been dated to 3000 B.C. , by Wulsin (1941) The Proto-Manding script has around 200-350 signs and around 40 different forms. It is a syllabic script. (Winters 1983,1985b) Due to the early date assigned to the Oued Mertoutek site, we can infer that the Proto-Saharan writing was invented sometime earlier than 3000 B.C. Up to this day the Manding writing is used by Manding secret societies. (Winters 1977) The hypothesis that the Eteocretans spoke a Manding dialect is supported by a comparison of Minoan Linear A signs and the Manding signs which were used in the Western Sahara. Many of these signs are clearly cognates. To further test this hypothesis that the Eteocretans probably spoke a Manding language we compared Manding and the Keftiu or Cretan names collected by the Egyptians. (Peet 1917) Crete is mentioned in Egyptian documents of

the First Intermediate Period and 18th Dynasty. (Strange 1980 :71-73; Vercoutter 1956:43-45) The Ketiu personal names come from a schoolboy's writing board of the 18th Dynasty. The heading of the writing board now located in the British Museum was "How to Make Names of Keftiu". Although the Keftiu names have been compared to Semitic without success, a comparison of these names with Manding personal names provide startling agreement. In Manding /b/, /f/ and /p/ are often interchangeable. This suggest that the MInoans or Keftiu called themselves Kebe, the name of a leading Manding clan. Or this name may refer to the Keita Mande, the royal family from which sprang the rulers of ancient Mali. Keftiu , is made up by the root kef-, plus the localtive suffix /-i/ used to give the affirmative sense, /-t/ the suffixial element used to denote place names, nationality and personal names, and /-u/ the plural suffix. Thus Keftiu can

be interpreted as "The land of the Kefs". The Egyptians probably pronounced the Minoan /b/ like /f/ . As a result the Eteocretans probably called themselves Kebe (pl. Kebew) and Crete Kebeta. The term Caphor is probably based on the Egyptian work Keftiu. The rulers of Kebeta, were called Mansa (> Manos). On Egyptian writing board BM5647 there are eight Keftiu names. These names agree with Manding names: Keftiu (Kebetiw) 'shr nsy 'ks Pnrt 'dm Rs Manding sye nsye nkyi Pe,Be-ni,Fu-ne Demba Rsa

Of the Keftiu names compared above we find startling results four of these show full agreement, one name has partial agreement and only one name lacks full or partial agreement in both Manding and Keftiu.

The personal name which shows partial agreement is Pnrt. The root of the name Pnrt, is probably Pe. This name can be easily explained by Manding grammar. If we breakdown Pnrt into its segments we have Pe, plus /-n/ a suffixial element added to Manding words when they are verbalized. The /-r/ (ra), is the suffix of the present participle ;and /-t/ (te) is the suffixial element used for form names. Thus Pnrt, was probably pronounced Penrate.

LINEAR A INSCRIPTIONS

The Eteocretan inscriptions and tablets from the palaces of Crete indicate that these buildings were mortuaries or temples of the dead. The idea that the palaces of Minoan Crete are in reality mortuaries in not new. Oswald Spengler (l935) suggested that the Minoan "labyriths" might be in reality temples of the dead.

Georg Wunderlich (l974) has the same views. He wrote that "[T]he Minoans built genuine tombs for the preservation and care of the dead. Their tombs were allowed to decay when the old cult of the dead was superseded by the "New" heroic method of cremation [introduced by the Indo-Europeans] with its built in insurance against grave robbing". The Minoans practiced communal internment. the earliest clan tombs were developed during the Neolithic; sites such as Chrysolakkas near Mallia,and Arkhanes are examples of this practice of making communal graveyards.The collective graveyard at Arkhanes was replaced by a temple for the dead. Hagia Triada and the sanctuaries such as Iouktas were probably also communal internment centres of the dead dedicated to Neith or Athene the goddess who protected the remains of the dead in their coffins or burial jars. In Greek mythology Athene or Neith took the first olive tree to be planted in Crete, after Libya became arid. (Graves

1980:45) She was a major god in Libya and Lower Egypt. This is significant because one of the pre-Islamic gods of the Manding was called Ni-ya/Nia . This Nia is probably the Neith of the Greeks. The goddess Neith came from Africa. (Bernal 1986) The goddess Neith is frequently mentioned in the funerary tablets of ancient Crete in the form of Nia. A comparison of the Vai (member of the Manding group) signs and Linear A signs, indicate that the sign for Nia/ Neith is na and
___

. This sign is formed by two symbols i. Thus was Nia among the

Manding. Ni-ya/ Nia was a mother goddess, protector of nature and manifestation of life. The association of many Minoan sites with the underworld is evident from the presence of "double shields" frescos, like the one at Knossos. In the ancient world ritual shields were placed in tombs to ward off evil spirits. (Wunderlich 1974:48-49) Among the ancient Egyptians the

emblem of Neith the guardian of the coffins and canopic jars

was a shuttle or crossed shields

. The center

of the Neith cult was Sais in the Delta. In Minoan Crete the double shield motif in tombs and or sarcophagus may have been used to indicate the presence of Neith. H.R. Hall, observed that: "The characteristic Cretan figure-of-eight shield is the same as the shield of the goddess Neith of Sais, which probably goes back to early Neolithic days". (Hall 1927) In Libya and Crete young children wore the uraeus "serpent lock". This protruding tuft of hair was associated with the initiatory rite dedicated to the goddess Neith. According to Cook (l914), this coiffure was associated with young Eteocretan initiates as late as the fifth century B.C. Since many buildings of ancient Crete were temples of the dead, most Linear A tablets, are funerary tablets. The funerary tablets written in Linear A indicate that the people put into these mortuaries were high born.

In addition, their character appears to have been morally sound because the documents speak of the deceased as "becoming an amulet/object effective for its virtue". Thus when these Cretans died they probably were deified as first suggested by the remarkable scene discussed by Anta Diop (l991) preserved on the Hagia Triada sarcophagus. This indicates that people visited these tombs so they could btain a blessing from the 'righteous dead'. Due to our decipherment of the Minoan script, it has become clear that the Minoans used Linear A to write religious text. The corpus of Linear A inscriptions on tablets and libation vessels show considerable repetition. The sacred uses of the Linear A script is evident from the numerous votive inscriptions found on stone objects of art from the numerous Minoan sanctuaries excavated in Crete, especially those found at Iouktas.(Karetsou 1985)

LANGUAGE OF MINOAN INSCRIPTIONS

Since the Eteocretans were Manding speakers we can read the Minoan inscriptions by comparing the Vai and Minoan scripts to discover analogy in the shape and form of the Linear A characters and the Vai characters. Once this is done we give the Linear A sign its value in the Vai script, and then use Malinke-Bambara to read the signs. Each Linear A sign is monosyllabic. They are of the consonant (C) vowel (V) class.

The key to the decipherment of Linear A were: 1) the evidence of Manding migration to Crete; 2) repetition of certain signs on Cretan libation vessels; and 3) this regularity of inscriptions led to the assumption that the inscriptions found in the sanctuaries are votive prayers. The assumption that the inscriptions on sacred objects from Crete were votive prayers made it possible to hypothesize that the wish or desire requested in the inscriptions would be addressed to a particular deity. This assumption proved to be the correct one. Because a study of Linear A text led to the discovery that a common sign in many of the text was the sign, or the double axe of the votive vessels which in both text represent the name Nia. This sign usually appears once or twice in most Linear A documents and votive inscriptions. This implied that name of the major Eteocretan deity. In the funerary tablets from Hagia Triada and Arkhanes and votive prayers of Iouktas there is frequent Nia, was the

mention of the dead inhabiting a place where they were "in the company of Nia (Neith)" In an inscription from Iouktas published by Karelsou, Godart and Oliver (1985):

Ni po-tu

i-fe Yu-i

I-gyo Nia

"This soul / is obliged to the order/ (his) breath of life/ the vital spirit/(it is) thou in the company of the divinity of the cult/(the Great) Nia". (See figure 18IOZa8) In another interesting inscription from Iouktas we read that:

Nia Yu tu-kpe fe-i po tu

Nia/ the life blood/ the Ruler of Moral sweetness/ (she) is the breath of life/ the Pure Ruler".(See figure

IOZa2 Godart, et al 1985) Nia is also mentioned many times in the Haghia Triada documents published by Carralelli (l963). These tablets as all Linear A tablets are read from right to left. In these texts it is made clear that the dead reside in the company of Nia, in a state of retreat. This is best illustrated in Carrotelli (l963) illustration no. 12:

Nia ita-pa ta bu "[You] exist with Nia in a unique state of retreat".

In Carratelli (l963) illustration no.7 side B, we find the following:

I Nia ita-pa i-fe pa-i "In the company of Nia, thou exist in a most unique state. Now you are very much empty". It appears from the inscriptions that Haghia Triada was the home of Neith. In Carratelli (l963) illustration no. 13 we read the following:

Se gyo ta Nia lu. “A [fine] Supporter of the Diety (lies) here in Nia's House".

Our decipherment of the Linear A writing proves that the Eteocretans came from Africa not the Middle East. It also shows that even before rulers of the 18th Dynasty conquered Keftiu, the rulers of this land were from Libya. These Linear A tablets give us valuable information about the Minoans.Although the entire corpus of Linear A tablets are concerned with statistics on flocks of sheep, harvests of wheat and olives, and etc.; the Linear A tablets provide us with a distinctive view of Eteocretan religion and devotion to the goddess Nia or Neith.

Linear A Inscription

References:
Anselin,A. 1982. LE MYTHE D'EUROPE DE L'INDUS A LA CRETE. Paris. _________ 1984. "Zeus Ethiopien Minos Tomoul", CARBET REVUE MARTINIQUE

DE SCIENCE HUMANINES, 2:31-50. Andah, B.Wai. 1981. "West Africa before the Seventh Century". In GENERAL HISTORY OF AFRICA. VOL.II. UNESCO: Paris. Andersson,T.G. 1934. CHILDREN OF THE YELLOW EARTH:STUDIES IN PREHISTORIC CHINA. London. Aravaanan,K. 1977. DRAVIDIANS AND AFRICANS. Madras. Bagchi,P.C. 1955. INDIA AND CENTRAL ASIA. National Council of Education :Calcutta. Barich,B.E. 1978."Lo scavo di Uan Muhuggiag (Teshuinat) en altivita di survey nell 'Acacus settentrionale". LIBYA ANTIQUE, XV: 1-12. Barker,G.W. 1989. "From classification to interpretation : Libyan Prehistory 1969-1989". LIBYAN STUDIES, 20:31-43. Behrens,P. 1984. "Language and migration of the early Sahara cattle herders, the formation of the Berber branch".In LIBYA ANTIQUA. (UNESCO Report:Paris) Pp.30-50. Bellwood,Peter. 1991. "The Austronessian Dispersal and the zorigin of Language". SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. July. Brenjes,B. 1983. "On 24(2):240-. Bernal,I. 1969. THE OLMEC WORLD. University of Calif. Press:Los Angeles. Bernal,M. 1986. "Black Athena:The African and Levantine roots of Greece",JOURNAL OF AFRICAN CIVILIZATION,7(2):66-82. Bradley,M. 1981. THE BLACK DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. Personal Lib.:Toronto. Proto-Elamite Iran". CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY,

Brice,W.C. 1983. "Notes on Linear A". KADMOS 22(2):51-106. Burrow,T.& M.B. Emeneau. 1961. A DRAVIDIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. London. Bynon,T. 1977. HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS. Cambridge Univ. Press: London. Caldwell,R. 1974. A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE DRAVIDIAN. Delhi. Camps,G. 1974. LE CHEVAL ET LA CHAR DANS LA PREHISTORIQUES DE L'AFRIQUE NORD ET DU SAHARA. Doin: Paris. Camps,G. 1974. LES CIVILIZATION PREHISTORIQUES DE L'AFRIQUE DU NORD ET DU SAHARA. Doin: Paris. Carratelli,G.P. 1963. LE EPIGRAFI DI HAGHIA TRIADA EN LINEARE A. Universidad de Salamanca. Close,A. E. 1988. "Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from Northern Africa". JOURNAL OF AFRICAN HISTORY, 29:145-176. Chang,K.C. 1980. SHANG CIVILIZATION. Yale University Press: New Haven. _________ 1987. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ANCIENT CHINA. YALE University

Press:New Haven. Cook,A.B. 1914. ZEUS A STUDY IN ANCIENT RELIGION. CAMBRIDGE. Delafosse,M. 1901. ESSAI de MANUEL PRACTIQUE MANDE AU MANDINGUE, Paris. ___________ 1899. "Vai leur langue et leur systeme d'ecriture",

L'ANTHOPOLOGIE, 10. Diop, Cheik Anta. 1974. THE AFRICAN ORIGIN OF CIVILIZATION ,MYTH OR REALITY .(Trs.) by Mercer Cook. Lawrence Hill Pub. :Westport Conn. ________________ 1977. PARENTE GENETIQUE DE L'EGYPTIEN PHARANIQUE ET

DES LANGUES NEGRO-AFRICAINES. NEA: Dakar. ________________ 1978. THE CULTURAL UNITY OF BLACK AFRICA. Third World

Press: Chicago. ________________ 1984. "Formation of the Berber Branch". In LIBYA

ANTIQUA (UNESCO: Paris) Pp.69-72.

________________

1988. NOUVELLES RECHERCHES SUR L'EGYPTIEN ANCIEN ET

LES LANGUES NEGRO-AFRICAINES MODERNES. Presence Africaine: Paris. ________________ 1991. CIVILIZATION OF BARBARISM. Lawrence Hills Pub.:

Westport Conn. Drucker,P. et al. 1959. EXCAVATIONS AT LA VENTA,TABASCO, 1955. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 170. Washington,D.C. Dzierzykray-Rogalski,T. 1978. "On the Black variety at Kadero,Sudan". CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY, 19(2):406-407. Ehret,C. 1979. "On the antiquity of agriculture in Ethiopis", JOURNAL OF AFRICAN CIVILIZATION, 20:161-165. _______ 1988. "Language change and the material correlates of language

and ethnic shift". ANTIQUITY 62:564-572. Ehret,C. & M.Posnansky.1982. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND LINGUISTIC RECONSTRUCTION OF AFRICAN HISTORY. BERKELEY. Evans,A.1921. THE PALACE OF MINOS. McMillan: London. Fairservis,W.A. 1962. THE ANCIENT KINGDOMS OF THE NILE. London. ______________ Press: Chicago. Fu Ssu-Nien.1935. "Yi Hsia tang Hsi Shuo". In PAPERS PRESENTED TO MR.Ts'ao Yuan Pe'i on his Sity-fifth Birthday'. Institute of History 1975. THE ROOTS OF ANCIENT INDIA. Univ. of Chicago

and Philosophy ,Academia,(Sinica: Nanking)pp.88-129. Gadd,C.J. 1924. A SUMERIAN READING BOOK. Clarendon Press: Oxford. Galand, Lionel. 1968. INSCRIPTIONS LIBYQUES. Paris. Gostony, C.G. 1975. DICTIONNAIRE D'ETYMOLOGIE SUMERIENNE ET GRAMMAIRE

COMPARES. De Boccard: Paris. Greenberg,J.H. 1970. THE LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. University of Indiana :Bloomington. _____________ 1987. LANGUAGE IN THE AMERICAS. STANDFORD UNIVERSITY

PRESS: Standford.

Graves,R. 1980. THE GREEK MYTHS. London. ________ 1982. THE WHITE GODDESS. Pelican Books: New York.

Hall,H.R. 1928. THE CIVILIZATION OF GREECE IN THE BRONZE. London Hammond,N.G.L. 1967. A HISTORY OF GREECE. Oxford. Harlan,J.R.1976. ORIGINS OF AFRICAN PLANT DOMESTICATION. New York. Hoffman, Michael A. 1979. EGYPT BEFORE THE PHAROAHS. Alfred A. Knope: New York. Holl, Augustin. 1989. "Social issues in Saharan Prehistory". JOURNAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 8:313-354. ______________. 1985. "Subsistence patterns of the Dhar Tichitt Neolithic Mauritania". THE AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL REVIEW, 3:151-162.

______________. 1985. "Background to the Ghana Empire: Archaeological investigation region on the transition to statehood in the Dar Tichitt

(Mauritania)", JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY ,4:73-115.

Homburger,L. 1951. "Le Telugu et Mende dialects",JOUR. LA SOC. AFRICAINES . ___________ 1964. "Sibilants en Sindo-Africaine", JOUR. DE SOC.

AFRICAINES. Jelinsk, J. 1985. "Tilizahren, the key site of the Fezzanese Rock Art". ANTHROPOLOGIE, 23(3):223-275. Kabusiewicz,M. et al. 1976. "The Prehistory of the Egyptian Sahara", SCIENCE, 913: 103-4. Kao Chih-Hsi. 1986."An Introduction to Shang and Chou Bronze Nao excavated in South China. In STUDIES IN SHANG ARCHAEOLOGY,(ed.) by K.C. Chang. New Haven. Karetsou,A.,Godart,L., et J. Poliver.1985. "inscription en lineaire A du sanctuaire de Sommet Minoen du mont Iouktas", KADMOS, 24(2):89-147.

Ki-Zerbo,J. 1979. "The Cradle of Mankind". UNESCO COURIER, Aug./Sept.:42-44.

Krzyzaniak,L. 1978. "New Light on early food production in the Central Sudan". JOURNAL OF AFRICAN ___________ HISTORY, 19(2):160-167. TRAVAUX, 8:364-368.

1975. "Kadero". ETUDES ET

Kan, Yang. 1985. "The Bronze culture of Western Yunnan". BULL. OF THE ANCIENT ORIENT MUSEUM, (Tokyo) 7:47-91. Kramer,S.N. 1963. THE SUMERIANS. University of Chicago Press:Chicago. Labat,R. 1950-51. STRUCTURE DE LA ELAMITE. Conferences de l'Institut de Linguistique de l'Universite de Paris IX: 25-42. Lacouperie,Terrien de. 1887. THE LANGUAGES OF CHINA BEFORE THE CHINESE.PARIS --------------------1889. "Origin from Babylon and Elam of the early

Chinese Civilization. A summary of the proof" BABYLONIAN AND ORIENTAL RECORD 3(5): 97-111. _____________________ 1892. THE YA-KING AND ITS AUTHORS. London

Navarrete,C. 1976. "The Olmec rock carvings at Pijijipan , Chiapas, Mexico and Other Olmec Pieces, from Chiapas and Guatemala", NEW WORLD ARCHAEOLOGICAL FOUNDATION, NO.35. BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PRESS.UTAH

LAHOVARY,N. 1957. DRAVIDIAN

ORIGINS AND THE WEST. Longmans:Madras.

Lawrence,H.G. 1962. AFRICAN EXPLORERS TO THE NEW WORLD. Aquarian Spiritual Center Los Angeles. Lal. B.B. 1963. "The only Asian expedition in threatened Nubia: Work by an Indian mission at Afyeh and Tumas". THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON TIMES, 20 April. Langdon,S. 1911.SUMERIAN GRAMMAR AND CHRESTOMATHY. Paul Geuthner:Paris. Li Xueqin.1986. EASTERN ZHOU AND QIN CIVILIZATION. New Haven.

Lord,Robert. 1974. COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. St. Paul's House: London.

Maglangbayan,S.& C. Moore. 1976. "BBB Interviews Dr. Chiek Anta Diop", BLACK BOOKS BULLETIN, 4(4):30-37. Marks,A.E., Muhammad-Ali,A. & R. Fattovich. 1986. "The Archaeology of the Eastern Sudan: A First Look". ARCHAEOLOGY , Sept./Oct.: 44-50. Mc Cauley,J.F., G.G. Schaber,C.S. Breed, M.J. Grolier, C.V. Haynes, B. Issawi, C. Elachi and R. Bloom. 1982. "Subsurface Valleys and Geoarchaeology of the Eastern Sahara Revealed by Shuttle Radar", SCIENCE ,CCXV11: 1004-20. McIntosh,S.K. & R.J. McIntosh. 1979. "Initial perspectives on prehistoric subsistence in the Inland Niger Delta (Mali)", WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY 2(2):240. ____________________________. 1981. "West African Prehistory", AMERICAN SCIENTIST, 69:602-613. ____________________________ Mali",EXPEDITION:38. ____________________________ 1986. "Arcaeological Research and dates 27:413-42. 1983. "Forgotten Tells of

from West Africa",JOURNAL OF AFRICAN HISTORY ____________________________

1988. "Fron stone to metal: New

Perspectives on the later Prehistory of West Africa" .JOURNAL OF WORLD PREHISTORY 2(1):89-109. ___________________________ 1988b. "From sciecles obscurs to

revolutionary centuries on the Middle Niger". WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY, 20(1):141-165. McAlpin,D.W. 1981. PROTO-ELAMO DRAVIDIAN: THE EVIDENCE AND ITS IMPLICATION. Trans. of the Am. Philosophical Society 71, Part 3. Philadelphia. Meenakshisundaran,T.P. 1965. A HISTORY OF TAMIL LANGUAGE. Poona.

Meggars,B.T. 1975."The Transpacific origin of Meso-American Civilization", AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST ,77:10-11. Meillet,A. 1926. LINGUISITIQUE HISTORIQUE ET LINGUISTIQUE GENERALE. Paris. Monod,Theodore. 1938. CONTRIBUTIONS A L'ETUDE DU SAHARA OCCIDENTAL:GRAVURES ,PEINTURES ET INSCRIPTIONS RUPESTRES. Fascicule l. Serie A. Du Comite D'etudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l'Afrique

Occidentale Francaise. Librairie Larose:Paris. Munson,P. 1976. "Archaeological data on the origins of cultivation in the southwestern Sahara and their implications for West Africa". In ORIGINS OF AFRICAN PLANT DOMESTICATION,(ed.) J.R. Harlan.Paris. Muttarayan,K.L. 1975. "Sumerian, Tamil of the first OF TAMIL STUDIES, 7:41-61. Nayar,T.B. 1977. THE PROBLEM OF DRAVIDIAN ORIGINS, LINGUISTIC, ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH. Madras. Neil,P. 1980. "New Light on China's Oldest Civilization",ASIA (May/June):16-21. Obenga,Th. 1988. "Esquisse d'une histoire culturelle de l'Afrique par la lexicologie". PRESENCE AFRICAINE: 1-25. Cankan". JOURNAL

__________ 1973. L'AFRIQUE DANS L'ANTIQUITE. Presence Africains:Paris. Osing,J. 1980. LIBYEN BIBYE. Paris,M.E. 1953. "Recherche sur l'Origine des Marques di Tribus", Bulletin de l'IFAN , ser. A: 1632. Peet,T.E. 1927. "The Egyptian writing Board BM5647 bearing Keftiu Names".In ESSAYS IN AGEAN ARCHAEOLOGY PRESENTED TO SIR A. EVANS,(ed.)

S. Casson ,(Oxford 1927) Pp.90-99. Pendlebury,J.D.S.1965. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF CRETE. New York. Quellec,Jean loic Le. 1985. "Les Gravures Rupestres du Fezzan (Libye). L'ANTHROPOLOGIE (Paris), Tome 89(3):365-383.

Rafinesque,C.S. 1832. "Second letter to Mr. Champollion on the Graphic Systems of America and the glyphs of Otolum or Palenque in Central America--elements of the glyphs". ATLANTIC JOURNAL 1(2):44-45. Renfrew,Colin. 1987. ARCHAEOLOGY AND LANGUAGE. Jonathan Cape:London.

Rensberger, B. 1981. "Black Kings of Ancient America", SCIENCE DIGEST 9:73-77 and 122. Roset,J.P. 1983. "Nouvelles donnees sur le probleme de la Neolithisation du Sahara meridional: Air et Tenere au Niger",CASHIERS O.R.S.T.O.M. 13(2):119-142. __________ 1987. "Paleoclimatic and cultural conditions of Neolithic Develop Tenere). In -ment in the early Holocene of Northern Niger (Air and PREHISTORY OF ARID NORTH AFRICA,(ed.) by A.E.

Close,(Dallas)pp.211-34. Smith,A.B. 1974. "Preliminary report on excavation at Karkarichinkat", WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 4: 53-55. Sjoberg,A.W. 1984. THE SUMERIAN DICTIONARY. Vol. 2. The University Museum:Philadelphia. Spengler,Oswald. 1935. ZUR WELLGESCHICHTE DES ZWEITEN VOCHRISTLICHEN JAHRTAUSENDS. Munich. Strange,J.L. 1980. CAPHTOR,KEFTIU:A NEW INVESTIGATION. Brill:Leiden. Soustelle,J. 1984. THE OLMECS. Doubleday & Company:New York. Swadash,M.1953. THE LANGUAGE OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HUASTECS. Carnegie Institution Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology,no.114. Talbot,M.R. 1980. "Environmental Responses to Climate change in the West African Sahel over the past 20,000 Years". In THE SAHARA AND THE NILE, (ed.) by M.A. Williams and H. Faure ,(Balkema: Rotterdam) pp.3762. Ting Shan, "Yu san-tai tu-yi lun Ch'i in tsu, wen-hua", BULLETIN OF THE INSTITUTE OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY,(Academia:Sinica) 5:89-129.

Vamos-Toth,Bator.1983. TAMANA. Honolulu. von Wuthenau,A. 1980. UNEXPECTED FACES IN ANCIENT AMERICA. Second Edition.Humanitas Americana Foundation:San Angel ,Mexico. Upandhyaya,U.P. 1971. "Dravidian and Negro-African". INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL DRAVIDIAN LINGUISTICS, 5:32-64. Webster,B. 1980. "African Cattle Bones stir Scientific Debate", NEW YORK TIMES, 27 August. Wendorf,F. 1983. "Use of barley in the Egyptian late Paleolithic", SCIENCE, 205:1341-1347. Welmers,Wm. 1971. "Niger-Congo Mande". CURRENT TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS, 7:113-140. __________ 1973. AFRICAN LANGUAGE STRUCTURES. Univ. of Calif. Press .

Wiercinski,A. &R. A. Jairazbhoy. 1975. THE NEW DIFFUSIONIST,5(18):5. Wiener,Leo. 1922. AFRICA AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. PHILADELPHIA. 3 vols. Wilson,J.V.K. 1974. INDO-SUMERIAN. Oxford. Winters,Clyde Ahmad. 1977. "The influence of the Mande scripts on ancient American Writing Systems", no.2:941-967 ____________________ 1979. "African scripts in the New World Part l", JOURNAL OF AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS VOL. 1. ____________________ 1980. "The genetic unity of Dravidian and African languages and culture". Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Asian Studies (Proc. ISAS) 1979 , (Asian Research Service: Hong Kong) vol.5: 1105-1120. ____________________ 1981. "Are Dravidians of African Origin?", PROC. 2ND ISAS,1980, vol.3:789-807. ____________________ 1981b."The African influence on Indian Agriculture", JOURNAL OF AFRICAN CIVILIZATION 3(1):100-111. BULL. DE L'IFAN, t 39 ser B,

____________________ 1981c. "Mexico's Black Heritage", THE BLACK COLLEGIAN ,12(3):76-85. ____________________ 1983. "The Ancient Manding script". In BLACKS IN SCIENCE :ANCIENT AND MODERN, (ed) by Ivan Van Sertima (Transaction Books:London), Pp.208-214. ____________________ 1983b. "Les Fondateurs de la Grece venaient d'Afrique en passant par le Crete", AFRIQUE HISTOIRE, no.8:13-18. ____________________ 1983c. "Blacks in ancient China, Part l: The Founders f Xia and Shang", JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES,1(2):8-13. ____________________ 1985. "The Proto-Culture of the Dravidians, Manding, and Sumerians ", TAMIL CIVILIZATION 3(l):1-9. ____________________ 1985b. "The Indus Valley Writing and related scripts of the 3rd Millennium BC", INDIA PAST AND PRESENT ,2(1):13-19. ____________________ 1985c. "The Genetic Unity between the Dravidian, Elamite, Manding and Sumerian Languages". PROC. 6TH ISAS 1984, vol.5:1413-1425. ___________________ 1985d. "The Far Eastern Origin of the Dravidians". JOURNAL OF TAMIL STUDIES, no.27: 65-92. __________________ 1986."Blacks in Ancient America", COLORLINES 3(2):26-27. ___________________ 1986b."The Rise of Islam in the Western Sahara", THE TOPAZ, 2(1):5-15. ___________________ 1986c. "The Migration routes of the Proto-Mande", THE MANKIND QUARTERLY, 27(1):77-96. ___________________ 1988. "The Dravidian and Manding Substratum in Tokharian, CENTRAL ASIATIC JOURNAL, 32(1-2):131-141. __________________ 1989. "Tamil, Sumerian, Manding and the Genetic

Model",International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18(1):67-91.

Wulsin, F.R. 1941. THE PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY OF NORTHWEST AFRICA. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol.19. Wunderlich,H.G. 1974. THE SECRET OF CRETE. New York. Zahn,D. 1974. THE BAMBARA. Leiden.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.