.(

JSC-07904
N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

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APOLLO 17 MISSION REPORT

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LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER
H 0 U STON . T E X X S MARCH 1973
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APOLLO SPACECRAFT FLIGHT HISTOE!

Mission PA- 1

!.fission r e p o r t nmber Postlaunch memorandum

Soacecraft

Ces c r i p t i cn

Launch s i t e White Sam& Missile fienge. N. Mex.
Y ! 13, 1964

BP-6

F i r s t pad abort

A-001

KC-A-R-64-1

BP-12

Transonic abort

White Se;i& Missile Rar.ge. N. Mex. Cape Kennea, Fla

AS-101
As-102

ffiC-A-R-64-2

3T-13

Nominal launch a?d e x i t enviroment Nominal launch a?d e x i t envimnment Maxioum dynanic pressure abort
M i croreteoroid

:<ay 28, 1964
S q t . 18, 1964
T'C.

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a?- 15
BP-23

Cape Kexe*, Fla. White S a n d s Missile B&.?ge, N. Mex. Cape K e x e i y , Fla

A-002

8, 1964

As-103 A-003

BP- 16

3 5 . 16, 1965

experinent

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X C-A-R- 65- 2 3

3?-22

L o w a l t i t u d e abor. (planned highaltitude abort) Micmneteoroid experiment and s e r v i c e nodule r e a c t i o n control s y s t e n launch environment
,
I

! < ! r 1 9 , 1965

White Sends Missile ?age, N. Mex. Cape K e x e g , Fla.

AS-iOh

Bot published

~ - 2 6

!.!<< 25,

1965

PA- 2

:,SC-A-?-65-3

BT-23A

Second pad a b o e

2 i l e 29, 1965

k h i t e SazCs Missil- . ? . ~ c g e , N. Mex. Cape xezzeiy, Fla.

AS-105

:lot published

BT-?A

!

M i crone teoroi d

30, 1965

'

experircent and s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n control system launch envi ronment
A-OOL

XSC-A-R-66-3

sc-302

Power-on tumblizc boundary abort Supercircular entr?. with high heat r a t e Supercircular e n t r y wiLb h i & heat load

CLT. 20,

1966

White S a ~ 3 ,Missile R a s e , N . Mex. Cape K e x e t y , Fla. Cape K e x e g , Fla

AS-201

ISC-A-R-66- 4

SC-309

Fob. 26, 1966

AS-2C2

ISC-A-R-66- 5

SC-3I.l

k 3 . 25, 1966

.

(Continued i n s i d e back cover)

APOLLO SPACECFAT FLIEZ SISTDW
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(Continued from i x s i l e f r z n t cover)
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Irissicn m p o n nmbar

Snacecraft sc-017 LTA-1OA

L53.inch daze
NC7.

2 a c h site
7e-xeQ

I C-PA-3-68-1 G

9, 1967

Space Certer, Fla.

U4-1
sc-020 LTA-23

J c . 22, 1453
April 4 , 1962

CM 101 S
C S M 103

hSC-?A-R-69-2

a.1 0 4 !!
L !3 %-

!.!arch

3 , 1959

AFOllC 10

!.sc-oolr6

CSM 106 LV-4
CSN 107

c -5 4

i CM 108 S u.1-6

:

CSM 109 LV-7

E 110 M
LM-a
CSY 112 L\i-10 Agclls 16 !.!si-07230 C S.h!-113 L:.i-ll Fourth bxl6- lzAiiing and first e.r.s:ted science capabili:? lissicn Fifti. lunar I c - i n g a r t s e c c r t e.m,ent=l science
capa-L..',j. 7:* . :

::erne&
:er.:er,

Space
7-8.

Xe=:eQ
.-..-er, - .=

?la.

Space

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CS%114 x11 .-2

Sixth I.z.ar l$LZrlg ~5 t h i r i er.ecS--I science c a p & i l i c y 3is:on. Xral mission of -2e Apollo

Progrm.

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MOLL0

17

M I S S I O N RFPORT

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PmPARED BY M i s s i o n Evaluation T e a m

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APPROVED BY

Owen G. M o r r i s Manager, A p o l l o Spacecraft Program

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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER HOUSTON, TEXAS M a r c h 1973

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iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section
1.0 S U M M A R Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
11 \

2.0 'INTRODUCTION

3.0

................ ..... TMJXCTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 LAUNCH AND TRANSLUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . 3.2 S-IVB STAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
LUNAR ORBIT

2-1

3-1

3-1 3-1 3-8
3-9

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4.0

.................... 3.4 TRANSEARTH AND ENTRY TRAJECTORY . . . . . . . . . . LUNAR SURFACE SCIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 SUMMARY OF LUNAR SURFACE ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . .
4.2
APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE EXPER1I"TS CENTRAL STATION
HEAT

4-1
4-1

4.3

.................. FLOW E~PERIMENT ...............

PACKAGE

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9
4.10

4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14

........ TRAVERSE GRAVIMETER EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT . . . . . LUNAR NEUTRON PROBE EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . COSMIC M DETECTOR EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . Y LUNAR GEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOIL MECHANICS EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LUNAR SURFACE GMVImTER EXPERIiYENT

........ LUNAR ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION EXPERIMENT . . . . . LUNAR EJECTA AND METEORITES EXPERIMENT . . . . . .
LUNAR SEISMIC PROFILING EXPERIiYENT

4-1 4-9 4-11
4-12

4-13 4-13

4-14 4-15 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-40 4-41

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iv
Section
Page

5.0

INFLIGHT

5.1
5.2

5.3

5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
5.8

............ S-BAND TRANSPONDER EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . . LUNAR SOUNDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFRARED SCANNING RADIOMETER . . . . . . . . . . . PANORAMIC CAMERA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAPPINGCAMERA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCIENCE AND PHOTOGRAPHY

5-1

5-1
5-2

LASER ALTIMETER

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5-4 5-5 5- 5 5-6
5-10

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6.0

7.0
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.................... 5.9 VISUAL OBSERVATIONS FROM O R B I T . . . . . . . . . . 5.10 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . 5.11 APOLLO WINDOW METEOROID EXPERIMZNT . . . . . . . . I MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS \AND I N F L I G H T DEMOITSTRATIONS . . . . . I 6 . 1 BIOSTACK EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 BIOLOGICAL COSMIC RADIATION EXPERIMENT . . . . . . 6.3 VISUAL L I G H T FLASH PHENOMENON . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 HEAT FLOW AND CONVECTION DEMONSTRATION ...... 6.5 ORTHOSTATIC COUNTERMEASURE GARMENT . . . . . . . . COMMAND AND S E R V I C E MODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 STRUCTURES AND MECHANICAL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . .
7.2

OPERATIONAL AND COMMAND MODULE SCIENCE PHOTOGRAPHY

5-12

5-15 5-15 5-16

6-1

.6-1 6-1
6-2

6-2 6-5

7-1 7-1
7-2

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7.3 7.4 7.5

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7.6 7.7

.......... CRYOGENICS STORAGE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTRUMENTATION AND DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . GUIDANCE, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . S E R V I C E PROPULSION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ELECTRICAL POWER AND RJEL CEUS

7-2
7-2

7-3 7-3 7-4

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Section
Page

7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 8.0
LUNAR

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 9.0
LUNAR

.............. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . E X T R A V E H I C U L m A C T I V I T Y EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODULE PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURFS AND MECHANICAL SYSTEm . . . . . . . . .
Rl3ACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

7-8 7-8 7-9 7-10 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-4 8-9 8-10 9-1 9-1

. . . . . . . 9-4 9.3 EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY U N I T . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 10.0 P I L O T ’ S Rl3PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 10.1 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -10-1 10.2 LAUNCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 10.3 EARTH ORBITAL F L I G H T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 10.4 TRANSLUNAR I N J E C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 10.5 TRANSLUNAR F L I G H T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 10.6 LUNAR ORBITAL OPERATIONS P R I O R TO DESCENT . . . . . 10-8

9.1 9.2

..................... COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTRUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RADAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESCENT PROPULSION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASCENT PROPULSION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUIDANCE ‘NAVIGATION. AND O N T R O L . . . . . . . . . ’i ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTE.! ........... CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURFACE OPERATIONAL EQUIPbEYT . . . . . . . . . . . LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LUNAR COMMUNICATIONS RELAY UNIT AND GROUND COMNANDED T E L E V I S I O N ASSEMBLY

ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION AVD BATTERIES

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Section

Page

10.7 10.8 10.9

........... LUNAR SURFACE OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . SOLO OPERATIONS I N LUNAR O R B I T . . . . . . . . . 10.*10 ASCENT, FENDEZVOUS. AND DOCKING . . . . . . . . .
POWERED
DESCENT AND LANDING

1 - 1 01

10-12

10-32

10-39
10-42

10.11 LUNAR ORBITAL OPERATIONS
TRANSEARTH I N J E C T I O N

10.12

10.13
11.0

.............. TRANSEARTH F L I G H T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTRY, LANDING. AND RECOVERY . . . . . . . . . .
.................
BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA

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POST-DOCKING T O

19-43

10-44
1 11

BIOMEDICAL EVALUATION 1 . 11 11.2

11.3

...................... 1 2 . 0 M I S S I O N SUPPORT PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 F L I G H T CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 FBCOVERY OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.0 ASSESSMENT OF M I S S I O N O B J E C T I V E S . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 0 LAUNCH PHASE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

11.4 11.5

............... MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PHYSICAL EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VESTIBULAR FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
SKYm MOBILE/LABORATORIES OPER4TIONAL TEST

1 11
11-10

11-16 11-16
11-17
12-1

12-1
12-2

12-3

13-1

14-1 14-1 14-1
15-1 15-1 15-21 15-23 15-25 15-34

15.0

............... 14.2 LAUNCH VEHICLE PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . ANOMALYSUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 . 1 COMMAND AND S E R V I C E MODUIX ANOMALIES . . . . . . 15.2 LUNAR MODULE ANOMALIES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1
WEATHER CONDITIONS

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15.3 15.4 15.5

.... LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT ANOMALIES . . . . . . . . ORBITAL EXPERIMENTS EQUIPMENT ANOMALIES . . . . .
GOVERNMENT-FURNISHED EQUIPMENT ANOMALIES

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Section

...................... APPENDIX A - VEHICLE AND EQUIPMEW? DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . A.1 COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULES . . . . . . . . . . A.2 LUNARMODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 LUNAR SURFACE MOBILITY SYSTEMS . . . . . . . .
16.0
CONCLUSIONS A.4 A.5 EXPERIMENT EQUIPMENT

16-1
A-1
A-1 A-2 A-2 A-3 A- 31 A-31 B-1 C-1
D-1

....... A.6 M S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS APPENDIX B - SPACECRAFT H I S T O R I E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX C - POSTFLIGHT T E S T I N G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D - DATA AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX E - M I S S I O N 'REPORT SUPPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . I APPENDIX F - GLOSSARY' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F8FEmCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHOTOGRAPHIC TASKS AND QUIPIENT

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E-1

F-1
R-1

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1-1
1 0 SWJtY .
Apollo 17, t h e f i n a l Apollo mission, w a s launched at 05:33:00 G . m . t . (12:33: 00 a.m. e .s .t. ) , December 7 , 1972 , from Launch Complex 39 at t h e Kennedy Space Center. The spacecraft was manned by Captain Eugene A. Cernan, Commander; Commander Ronald E. Evans, Command Module P i l o t ; and D r . Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Module P i l o t . The launch countdown had proceeded smoothly u n t i l T minus 30 seconds, at which time a f a i l u r e i n t h e automatic countdown sequencer occurred and caused a launch delay of 2 hours and 40 minutes. This w a s the only launch delay i n the Apollo program t h a t was ceilsed by hardware f a i l u r e . A s a, result , t h e launch azimuth w a s adjusted a d an e a r t h parking o r b i t of 92.5miles by 91.2-miles w a s achieved. The vehicle remained i n e a r t h o r b i t f o r approximately 3 hours before t h e t r v l s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n mmeuver was i n i t i a t e d . The t r a n s l u h a r coast time wzs shortened t o compensate f o r t h e launch delay. Transposition, docking, cnd lunar module e j e c t i o n were norm a l . The S-IVB s t a g e was maneuvered for lunar impact , which occurred about 84 miles from t h e pre-planned poizt. The impact w a s recorded by t h e Apollo 1 2 , 14, 15 , and 1 6 passive seismometers. The crew performed a heat flow and convection demonstration and an Apollo l i g h t f l a s h experiment during the translunar coast period. One midcourse correction was performed t o achieve t h e desired a l t i t u d e of c l o s e s t approach t o t h e l u n a r surface. The s c i e n t i f i c instrument module door w a s j e t t i s o n e d approximately 4 1 / 2 hours p r i o r t o lunar o r b i t insert i o n . The Apollo 17 spacecraft initiat;ted the lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver and entered i n t o a l7O-mile by 52.6-mile o r b i t . Approximately 4 1 / 2 hours l a t e r , t h e command and s e r v i c e module performed t h e first of two descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuvers lowering t h e o r b i t t o 59 by 14.5-miles. The command and s e r v i c e module and lunzr module stayed i n t h i s o r b i t about 17 1/4 hours before undocking and separating. After undocking, the command and s e r v i c e module o r b i t w a s c i r c u l a r i z e d t o 70 miles by 54 miles and t h e l u n a r module lowered i t s o r b i t t o 59.6-miles by 6.2-miies by performing t h e second descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver. From t h i s o r b i t , t h e l u n a r module i n i t i a t e d i t s powered descent and landed a t 20 degrees 9 minu t e s 55 seconds north l a t i t u d e , 30 degrees 45 minutes 57 seconds east longitude at 110:21:58. The f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y began at about 114:22. The offloading of t h e l u n a r roving vehicle and unstowage of equipment proceeded normally. The lunar surface experiment package w a s deployed approximately 185 meters west northwest of t h e lunar module. The Commander drove t h e rover t o t h e experiments package d e p l o p e n t s,ite and d r i l l e d t h e heat flow and deep core holes and emplaced t h e neutron probe experiment. Two geol o g i c u n i t s were sampled, two explosive packages were deployed and seven

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1-2 t r a v e r s e gravimeter measurements were taken during t h e extravehicular activity. About 31 pounds of samples were collected during t h e 7 hour and 12 minute extravehicular a c t i v i t y . The second extravehicular a c t i v i t y began at about 137:55. The traverse w a s conducted with real-time modifications t o s t a t i o n stop times because of geological i n t e r e s t s . Orange s o i l w a s found and has been t h e subject o f considerable geological discussion. Five surface samples and a double-core sample were taken at t h i s s i t e . Three explosive packages were deployed, seven t r a v e r s e gravimeter measurements were taken, and all observations were photographed. The crew t r a v e l e d 7370 meters away from t h e l u n a r module, and t h i s i s t h e g r e a t e s t r a d i a l distance any crew has t r a v e l e d away from t h e l u n a r module on t h e lunar surface. About 75 pounds of samples were gathered during t h e 7 hours 37 minutes of extravehicular activity. The t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y began at about 160:53. Specific sampling objectives were accomplished at s t a t i o n s 6 and 7 among some 3t o 4-meter boulders. Nine t r a v e r s e gravimeter measurements were made. The surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s experiment w a s terminated because t h e receiver temperature w a s approaching t h e upper limits of t h e data tape and t h e recorder w a s removed at s t a t i o n 9 .
- - __

A t t h e completion of ithe t r a v e r s e , t h e crew s e l e c t e d a breccia rock, which w a s dedicated t o nations represented by students v i s i t i n g t h e Miss i o n Control Center. A plaque on t h e landiog gear of t h e lunar module commemorating all Apollo l u n a r landings w a s then unveiled. Samples amounting t o about 137 pounds were obtained during t h e T-hour and 15-minu t e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y f o r a t o t & of approximately 243 pounds f o r t h e mission. The lunar roving vehicle w a s driven about 36 kilometers during t h e t h r e e extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s . The t o t a l time of the three extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s w a s 22 hours and 04 minutes.

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Numerous o r b i t a l science a c t i v i t i e s were conducted i n . l u n a r o r b i t while t h e l u n a r surface w a s being explored. I n addition t o t h e pvloramic camera, t h e mapping camera, and t h e l a s e r d t i m e t e r , t h r e e new s c i e n t i f i c instrument module experiments were included i n t h e Apollo 17 complement of o r b i t a l science equipment. An u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer measured lunar atmospheric density and composition, an i n f r e r e d radiometer mapped the thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e moon, and a lunar sounder acquired data on subsurface s t r u c t u r e . The o r b i t a l science experiments and cameras have provided a l a r g e amount of data f o r evaluating and analyzing t h e lunar surface and t h e lunar environment. The command and s e r v i c e module o r b i t did not decay as predicted while 'the l u n a r module was on t h e l u n a r surface. Consequently, a s m a l l o r b i t a l t r i m maneuver w a s performed t o lower t h e o r b i t , and i n addition, a planned plane change maneuver w a s made i n preparation f o r rendezvous.
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Lunar ascent w a s i n i t i a t e d af'ter 74 hours 59 minutes and 39 seconds on t h e lunar surface, and w a s followed by a normal rendezvous and docking. Samples and equipment were t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e ascent stage t o t h e command module, and t h e ascent s t a g e w a s jettisoned f o r t h e deorbit f i r i n g . The ascent stage impacted t h e l u n a r surface at 19 degrees 57 minutes 58 seconds and 30 degrees 29 minutes 23 seconds about a mile from the planned t a r g e t . An a d d i t i o n a l day w a s spent i n lunar o r b i t performing s c i e n t i f i c experiments, a f t e r which t r a n s e a r t h injection w a s i n i t i a t e d .
A 1-hour and 6-minute t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s conduct e d by t h e Command Module P i l o t t o retrieve t h e f i l m cassettes from t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay. The crew performed t h e Apollo l i g h t f l a s h experiment and operated t h e i n f r a r e d radiometer and u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer during t h e t r a n s e a r t h phase. One midcourse correction w a s performed during t h i s phase.

Entry and landing were normal. The command module landed i n the P a c i f i c Ocean west of H a w a i i , about 1 mile from t h e planned location. The Apollo 17 mission l a s t e d 301 hours, 51 minutes, and 59 seconds. The Apollo 17 mission thus brought t o a close t h e Apollo Program, one of the most ambitious and successful endeavors o f man.

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2.0

INTRODVCTION

The Apollo 17 mission w a s t h e f i n d mission i n t h e Apollo program. The mission accomplished t h e s i x t h l u o a r landing and a l s o completed t h e s e r i e s o f t h r e e o r b i t a l - s c i e n c e - o r i e n t e d missions.
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The Lunar Module P i l o t w a s t h e f i r s t Scientist-Astronaut assigned t o an American manned s p a c e f l i g h t mission. H i s academic background includes a Doctorate i n Geology, and he has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many unique g e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . He w a s s e l e c t e d as a Scientist-Astronaut i n June, 1965, and t h i s w a s followed by e year of f l i g h t t r a i n i n g . H i s f i r s t mission assignment w a s as t h e bzckup Lunar Module P i l o t f o r Apollo 1 5 . I n 1972, he w a s assigned es t h e prime Lunar Module P i l o t f o r t h e Apollo 17 mission. The v e h i c l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n w a s s i d l a r t o t h o s e of Apollo 15 and 16. There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e science payload f o r Apollo 17. S p a c e c r a f t hardware d i f f e r e n c e s and e q e r i m e n t equipment a r e described i n Appendix A.
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The mission achieved a l a n d i n g i n t h e Taurus-Littrow region of t h e moon and r e t u r n e d samples o f t h e pre-Inbrium highlands and young c r a t e r s . An assessment o f t h e !mission o b j e c t i v e s i s presented i n s e c t i o n 13. This r e p o r t p r i m a r i l y provides information of t h e o p e r a t i o n a l and e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s of t h e mission. Preliminary s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s and launch v e h i c l e performance a r e reported i n r e f e r e n c e s 1 and 2 , respect i v e l y . A complete a n a l y s i s of all a a p l i c a b l e data i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e time frame of t h e preparation of t h i s r e p o r t . Therefore, rep o r t supplements w i l l be published as necessary. Appendix E l i s t s t h e r e p o r t s and g i v e s t h e i r s t a t u s , e i t h e r published or i n preparation. Standard English u n i t s of measure2ent a r e used i n those s e c t i o n s of t h e r e p o r t p e r t a i n i n g t o s p a c e c r a f t systems and t r a j e c t o r i e s . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l System of Units (SI) i s used i n s e c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o science a c t i v i t i e s . Unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , time i s expressed as elapsed time from range zero ( e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e i n t e g r a l second before l i f t - o f f ) , and does not r e f l e c t t h e time update shown i n t a b l e 3-1. Mileage i s given i n n a u t i c a l m i l e s and weight i s referenced t o e a r t h g r a v i t y .

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3.0

TRAJECTORY

The b a s i c t r a j e c t o r y p r o f i l e f o r t h i s mission w a s similar t o t h a t planned f o r t h e Apollo 1 6 mission. The major differences, aside from t h o s e required t o reach t h e Taurus-Littrow landing s i t e , were those required because of a night launch, translunar i n j e c t i o n being i n i t i a t e d over t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean r a t h e r than t h e P a c i f i c Ocean, descent o r b i t ins e r t i o n being performed i n two maneuvers r a t h e r than one, and the elimina t i o n of t h e o r b i t shaping maneuver and t h e s a t e l l i t e j e t t i s o n i n g event. The sequence and d e f i n i t i o n of events f o r t h e Apollo 17 mission a r e shown i n t a b l e s 3-1 and 3-11. Tables 3-111 and 3-IV contain t h e l i s t i n g and d e f i n i t i o n of t r a j e c t o r y parameters, and t a b l e 3-V contains a summary of t h e maneuvers.

3.1 LAUNCH AND TRANSLUNAR TRAJECTORIES
The launch t r a j e c t o r y i s presented i n reference 3. The launch a z i muth w a s updated from 72 degrees e a s t of north t o 91 degrees 30 minutes e a s t of north. The t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n d i f f e r e d from t h e o r i g i n a l plan because of a 2-hour 40-minute launch delay. This delay r e s u l t e d i n t h e t r a n s l u n a r coast time \being shortened (zccomplished automatically by t h e launch v e h i c l e guidanie system), so t h a t t h e a r r i v a l time a t t h e moon would remain t h e same as t h a t planned prelaunch. This constant t i m e of a r r i v a l plan s i m p l i f i e d t h e crew t r a i n i n g by providing them with only one l u n a r l i g h t i n g condition and one s e t of lunar groundtracks with which they had t o become familiar, r e s u l t i n g i n a s i n g l e s e t of conditions on which t h e crew could concentrate t h e i r t r a i n i n g . One t r a n s l u n a r midcourse correction of 1 0 . 5 f t / s e c w a s required and performed a t t h e second option point. The s c i e n t i f i c instrument module door w a s j e t t i s o n e d about 4 1 / 2 hours p r i o r t o lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n .

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3.2

S-IVB STAGE

Separation from t h e S-IVB s t a g e and the S-IVB evasive maneuver were completed normally. The S-IVB stage was t a r g e t e d f o r lunar impact by two f i r i n g s o f t h e a u x i l i a r y propulsion system. Lunar impact occurred approximately 87 hours i n t o t h e mission at 4 degrees 1 2 minutes south l a t i t u d e and 1 2 degrees 18 minutes west longitude, about 84 miles from t h e planned t a r g e t p o i n t . The impact w a s recorded by t h e passive seismometers at t h e four l u n a r surface experiment s t a t i o n s . Figure 3-1 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e S-IVB impact on t h e l u n a r surface.

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3-2
TABLE 3-1.- SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

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Events Lift-off (Range zero = 342:05:33:00 G.m.t.) Earth o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Translunar i n j e c t i o n maneuver S-IVB/command and s e r v i c e module separation Translunar docking Spacecraft e j e c t i o n First midcourse correction Mission c o n t r o l c e n t e r time update (+2:40 :OO) S c i e n t i f i c instrument module door j e t t i s o n Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n S-IVB l u n a r impact Descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Lunar module undocking and separation C i r c u l a r i z a t i o n maneuver Lunar module descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Powered descent i n i t i a t i o n Lunar landing S t a r t f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y Apollo l u n a r surface experiment package f i r s t data End f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y S t a r t second extravehidular a c t i v i t y End second e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y S t a r t t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y End t h i r d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y O r b i t a l t r i m maneuver Plane change Lunar ascent Lunar module v e r n i e r adjustment maneuver Terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n Docking Lunar module j e t t i s o n Separation maneuver Lunar module d e o r b i t f i r i n g Lunar module impact Transearth i n j e c t i o n S t a r t transearth extravehicular a c t i v i t y End t r a n s e a r t h e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y Second midcourse c o r r e c t i o n Command module/service module separation Entry i n t e r f a c e (400 000 f e e t ) Begin blackout End blackout Forward heat s h i e l d j e t t i s o n Drogue deployment Main parachute deployment Landing

Elapsed time H r :min :sec

00zoo: 00.6

00:11:53 03:12:37 03:42: 9 2

03:56 :45
04:45:00

35:30:00

65:00 :00 8 :32:40 1
86:14:23 86:59:41 90:3 :37 1 107:47:5 6 109:17:29 109:22:42 1 0:09:53 1 110:21:57 114:21:49
117 :21zoo 121:33:42

137:55 :0 6
145:32:02 160:52:48

168:07 :5 6 178:54:05 179:53:54 185:21 :37 185:32:12 186:15:58 187:37:15 191:1 :31 8 191:23:31 192:58:14 193:17:21 234:02:09 254:54:40

256:00:24
298:38:01 3O1:23:49 301 :38 :38 3 1 :3 :55 8 301 :42:15 301: 6:20 4 301 :46:22 301:47 :13 301:51: 9 5

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3-3
TABLE 3-11.- DEFINITION OF EVENTS

Events Range z e r o Lift-off Earth o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Translunar i n j e c t i o n Paneuver S-IVB/canmand module s e p a r a t i o n , t r a n s l u n a r docking, s p a c e c r a f t e j e c t i o n , s c i e n t i f i c instrument module door j e t t i s o n , l u n a r module undocking and s e p a r a t i o n , docking, l u n a r module J e t t i s o n , and l u n a r landing Spacecraft maneuver i n i t i a t i o n S-IVB l u n a r i n p a c t Beginning of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y End of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y Apollo l u n a r s u r f a c e experiment package first data I

Definition F i n a l i n t e g r a l second before l i f t - o f f Time of instrumentation u n i t umbilical Cisconnect as i n d i c a t e d by launch v e h i c l e t e l e n e t r j

S-IVB engine cutoff time plus 10 s e c x d s as i n d i c a t e d by launch v e h i c l e telenetrj
S t a r t s when tank discharge valve ocens, allowins -%el t o be pumped t o t h e S-IVE engine Tne t k e of t h e event based on aneljsis of timing d a t a on air-to-ground voice t r s n s c r i p z i c n s

Eugine cn time as i n d i c a t e d by onboard c d f o r ground computers Time based upon loss of s i g n a l
5-03

telezetry

me

t i r e cabin pressure reaches 3 g s i s d-A-ing depressurization i n d i c a t e d by tele=e'.rf d a t a

Tne tile cabin pressure reaches 3 p s i a & r i n g zepressurfzation i n d i c a t e d by t e 1 m e y . - *eta The r e c e i p t of f i r s t d a t a considered v d i d f r c n t h e Awllo l u n a r surface experinents gackage t eleDetzy The ti=e of s e p a r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by l o s s of telemetry d a t a from s e r v i c e module The ti=e t h e connand module reaches a geodetic a l t i t u d e of 400 000 feet indicated by grsund r a d a r tracking data Tne tine of S-band cclmrmnication is 1s. 0' entry during

Command module/senrice module s e p a r a t i o n
Entry i n t e r f a c e

Begin blackout End blackout Forward heat s h i e l d j e t t i s o n , drogue deployment, and main parachute deployment Earth landing Time update

The ti-e of a c q u i s i t i o n of S-band c c m i c a t i o n s follok-hg blackout T h e of first telemetry i n d i c a t i o n of system e c t u e t i o n by t h e r e l a y The t k e t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s observed t o touch t h e water
A give= increment of time change made t o onboard

timers t h a t sets timers t o f l i g h t plan time.

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TABLE 3-111.

-

TIWECTORY PARAMF,TERSa

Event

Reference bady

Space-fixed conditions

Tine.
hr:min:sec

Latitude. deg:min

Longit&, deg:dzz

*Irit&e, lile

Velocity ttlsec

Flight-path angle. deg

Eeadiw mgle, deg E oi A

Translunar PhMe
Translunar i n j e c t i c a cutoff
Command and service modulellunar module eJection from S-IYB Earth

03:18:28

5.14 N 21.91
S

53.86 Y

162.b 13 393.6

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35 589.6 16 012.8

6.9117 61.80

118.0110 83.U5

Earth

04 :45 :00

31.68 B

First midcourse correction Ignition cutoft
Scientific instrument uedule d w r jettison

Earth Earth Moon

35:M:OO 35 :30:02
81:3?:40

11.04 s 17.04 s 0.4 N

22.82 Y 22.82 Y 69.50
Y
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2 3 c. 11
2 2U.g

b058.1 4066.8 3114 .6

76.48 -79.90

16.bo

66.11 258.16

c

370.6

Lunar o r b i t phase Lunar o r b i t insertinn 1e;lition cutoff
Moon

Moon Moon

86:1b:23 86:20:56 50:31:31 50:3:59
107:h7 :56

11.33 6.81
11.40

S

s

117.38 0 151.a 3 164.16 3 163.a 3 135.91 3

16.8 51.2 51.1 50.9 41.2

8110.2 5512.1 5512.1 5322.1 5342.8

-9.90 0.k3 -0.39 -0.89 -.6 12

213.10

288.89 286.50 2ffi.w 269.k1

First descent o r h i t insertion 1gr.ition cutoff
Command and service moduleflunar module separation C o m d and service module circulariratian Ignition cutoff Second descent o r b i t insertion Iation cutoff Pwered descent i n i t i a t i o n Crbital t r i m m e u v e r ignition Command and service module plane change (cutoff] Ascent ( i n s e r t i o n ) Vernier a41w t m n t w e u v e r Terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n

Moon
Mmn

u.06 5.02

s s
S

Mmn Moon
Moon

109:11:29 1?9 :17:33 1d9:22:42 1?9:23:04 ll0:09:53 178:54:05 179: 54 6 4 185:28:56 1 8 5 :P :12 186:15:58 181:31:15 191:18:3 192:58:14 193:00 :10 29:02:09 234 :Ob :33

20.03 20.02 19.22 19.12 19.13

S

s
S S
A

149.11 Y 149.30 Y 165.18
Y

58.6 58.8 59.6 59.6 8.1 G.9 60.5
8.0

5219.9 5349.9 5214. 5 52667.0 5550.3 5315.1 5341.1 55'12.3 559.7 5333.3
53kl.T

0.45

0.47
00 .4 0.02

210.13 210.11 275 .7k 216.6 216.07 285.74 250.09 271.58 213.2k 252.U
262.1b

Moon Moon Mmn Moon Mmn Moon Mmn
Moon

1 6n Y 6.
48.75 3 124.26 3 57.38 Y 19.60 E 8.22 E 129.53 Y

-. 09
0.08 -0.001

12.31 S 12.01 N 21.91 N 22.54 N 15.12 S 21.81 19.41 N
0.2b S 2.02 11

0.9 0.54
0.29

9.k hb.6 60.6 60.6 60.5 58.9 62.1 63.1

mcking
Lunar m d u l s J e t t i a a n Lunar aodule ascent stage deorbii Ignition cutorr

a.bo

Y

0.03 0.03 -0.03 -.4 21

Mmn Moon Won Moon Mon

3.23 3

5343.b 53b3.1 5133.1 5331.1 8314.3

282.69 293.ll 293.61 251.32 259.41

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86.97 E
81.68 E 170.02 119.69
Y Y

Translunar i n j e c t i o n Ignition cutoff

19.65 8 21.52 S
rnsearth 1

-0.18
2.116

Second midcourse w a c t i o n Isnition Cutoff

Earth Earth

298:38:01 298:38:10

45.61 11 45.68 A

78.b9 t

'18.46 E

25 Ol6.3 Zb 999.7

12 021.1 12 025.8

-68.b)
-68.42

9.63 34.63

btry b a n g

Earth

Earth

301:38:38 3)1:51:59

0.71 I lT.88 S

173.3b Y

16U 6.

65.6

Y

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3-N lor traJectory p a r m t e r definition.

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3-5

TABLE 3-1v.- DEFINITION OF TRAJECTORY AND ORBITAL PARAMETERS

T r a j e c t o r y parameters Geodetic l a t i t u d e

Definition The s p h e r i c a l coordinate measured along a meridian on t h e e a r t h f r o n t h e equator t o t h e p o i n t d i r e c t l y beneath t h e spacecraft, deg:min The d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e same as t h a t o f t h e geodetic l a t i tude except t h a t t h e reference body i s t h e moon r a t h e r than t h e earth, deg:min The s p h e r i c a l coordinate, as measured i n t h e e q u a t o r i a l plane, between t h e plane of t h e reference body's prime meridian and t h e plane o f t h e spacecraft m e r i d i m , deg The distance measured between t h e spacecraft end t h e r e f erence radius of t h e e a r t h along a l i n e from t h e c e n t e r of t h e e a r t h t o t h e spacecraft. When t h e reference body i s t h e moon, it i s t h e d i s t a n c e measured f r o m t h e s p a c e c r a f t along t h e local vertical. t o t h e s u r f a c e of a sphere having a r a d i u s equal t o t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r of t h e m o n t o t h e landing s i t e , f o r miles X Magnitude of t h e i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y vector referenced t o t h e body-centered, i n e r t i a l reference coordinate system, ft/sec

Selenographic l a t i t u d e

Longitude

Altitude

Space-fixed v e l o c i t y

Space-fixed

f l i g h t - p a t h angle

i

Flight-path a p e measured p o s i t i v e upward from t h e bodycentered l o c e l h o r i z o n t a l plane t o t h e i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y v e c t o r , deg Angle of t h e projection o f t h e i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y v e c t o r onto t h e body-centered local. h o r i z o n t a l plane, measured p o s i t i v e eastward from n o r t h , deg The point o f reximu=! o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e o f t h e spacecraft above t h e center of t h e e a r t h , miles The p o i n t of n i n i m u o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e of t h e spececraft above t h e center of t h e e a r t h , miles The p o i n t of n a x i m u c ! o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e above t h e zoon as measured fro= t h e redius o f t h e l u n a r landing s i t e , m i l e s
me p o i n t of ninimun o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e above t h e noon as measured fros t h e radius of t h e l u n a r landing s i t e , m i l e s

Space-fixed heading angle

Apogee Perigee Apocynthion Pericynthion Period Inclination Longitude o f t h e ascending node

Time required f o r spacecraft t o complete o r b i t r o t a t i o n , min

360 degrees o f

The true angle between t h e Spacecraft o r b i t p l m e and
t h e reference body's e q u a t o r i a l plane, deg

The longitude a t which t h e o r b i t plane crosses t h e reference body's e q u a t o r i a l plane going fYom t h e Southern t o t h e Northern Hentisphere, deg

. .._.

3-6
TABLE 3-V.MANEWER SUMMARY

syst~
Maneuver Tra?sh?ar i d e c t i o n F i r s t d d c o u r o e correctlon

I g n i t i o n tiae, hr:min:sec

F i r i n g time, sec

" ~- & ~ nlsec
L-.ir.ie.

Resultant pericynthion conditions Velocity, ftlsec Latitude, deg:nin Longi?ade.
deg.di

51es 351.0 1.7 10 376.0 10.5

Arrival ti=, kr:win:sec

6-IVB
Service propulsion

3 :l2 :37 35'30:OO

52.1

8393 8203

10:21 9%

S S

173:s E 159:k8 Z

83:110:52 83:38:1L

(b)

Lunar o r b i t

Ik7euver

System

I g n i t i o n time, h r :min:sec

>mar o r b i t insertion

Servfce propulsion S e r v i c e propulsion Beaction c o n t r o l S e r v i c e p-opulsion Lunar m d u l e r e a c t i o n control Descent propulsion ?+action c o n t r o l S e n n c e pmpul$ion Ascent propulsion Feaction c o n t r o l Ascent propulsion 3eaction c o n t r o l 3eaction c o n t r o l

86 :14 :23 sQ:u:37 107:47:56 109 :17:29 109:22:42 ll0:09:53 178: 5h:05 179: 53:5& 185:21:3l 185:P:lZ 186:15:58 191:23:3l 192 :58 :lb

39% 2 22.3

First descent o r b i t insertion
Connand and s e r v i c e module s e p a r a t i o n Lunar o r b i t c i r c u l a r i z a t i o n
Second descent o r b i t

-.jl .

3.:
E.5
725 x.3

1
I

I
I

59
::: 2

1k.5 ll.5 5'1 6.2

1.0 70.5
7.5

61.5
TO

59.6

insertion Powered descent i n i t i a t i o n Orbital t r i m Lunar o r b i t a l plane change Ascent Vernier a u s t m e n t m e u v e r Terminal giase i n i t i a c i o n Separation maneuver Lunar madule d e o r b i t meuve:

6698 9.2 66 6075.7 10 53.8 67.3 62.8 48.5
48.5

62.j 62.5 9.1 9.i

I

23.1
Lkl

10
3.1

6L.7
63.9

L6.5
61.2

Event

System

~ g n i t i o nt i m e , br:pin:sec

Firing time.
sec

ch=,g. lsec

.:____ .--=-. Velocity,
: L S :

Pesultant e n t r y i n t e r f a c e c o n j i t i o n ftlsec Latitude, deg:nin Longitude, deg:dn A-dval tint, hr:li.n:sec

Transeaeh inJection Second l i d c o u r s e

S e r v i c e propulsion Reaction c o n t r o l

234:02:09 298:38:01

lb3.7 9

30b6.3
2.1

I

c g e . ieei

-6.3 G.3

36 093 36 090

2:09 N 0:4b N

173:83 Y 173:20
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3-8 3.3
LUNAR ORBIT

3.3.1

Orbital Phase

The l u n a r o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver placed t h e Spacecraft i n t o an orb i t having a 170-mile apocynthion and a 52.6-mile pericynthion. About four hours l a t e r , t h e spacecraft o r b i t was lowered t o one having a 59-mile apocynthion and a 14.5-mile pericynthion. After spending 1 7 hours i n t h i s lower o r b i t , t h e command and service module separated from t h e lunar modu l e a f t e r which t h e command and service module o r b i t was circularized i n t o one having a 70-mile apocynthion and a 54-mile pericynthion. 3.3.2 Descent

Five minutes after t h e c i r c u l a r i z a t i o n maneuver w a s i n i t i a t e d by t h e command and service module, t h e lunar module performed t h e second descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver. This lowered i t s pericynthion t o within 6.2 m i l e s of t h e lunar surface. A hour l a t e r , the lunar module powered descent n was i n i t i a t e d and t h e lunar module landed on t h e moon a t 110 hours 21 minutes 58 seconds. A manual t a r g e t update of 3400 f e e t w a s incorporated e a r l y i n t h e powered descent. Later i n the descent maneuver, t h e Commander made e i g h t landing point redesignations. These redesignations r e s u l t e d i n t h e spacecraft landing at 20 degrees 9 minutes 55 seconds north l a t i t u d e and 30 degrees 45 minutes 57 seconds east longitude on t h e 1:25 000-scale L u n a r Topographic Photomap of Taurus Littrow, F i r s t Edition, September, 1972.

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3.3.3

Ascent and Rendezvous

The planned decay of t h e command and service module a l t i t u d e t o match t h e l u n a r module t r a j e c t o r y at rendezvous w a s not realized. This was similar t o t h e experience of t h e Apollo 1 5 mission. Because of t h i s , an o r b i t a l t r i m maneuver was performed t o change t h e command and service module apocynthion t o 67.3 miles and the pericynthion t o 62.5 miles. A n hour l a t e r , a plane change maneuver was perforned t o provide the proper o r b i t a l plane f o r rendezvous with t h e lunar w d u l e . The lunar module ascended from the lunar surface at 185 hours 2 1 minutes 37 seconds after having been on the lunar surface f o r almost 75 hours. Approximately 7 1 / 2 minutes l a t e r , t h e ascent stage was i n s e r t e d i n t o lun a r o r b i t . The achieved o r b i t required a vernier adjustment maneuver of 1 0 f t / s e c t o r e t u r n t h e o r b i t t o the planned conditions f o r rendezvous. The rendezvous w a s then completed normally, and t h e two vehicles were docked at 187 hours 37 minutes 1 5 seconds.

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3-9

3.3.4

Lunar Module Deorbit Maneuver

The lunar module was j e t t i s o n e d four hours af'ter docking. The lunar module deorbit maneuver began about an hour and a h a l f a f t e r j e t t i s o n i n g and impact occurred at 19 degrees 57 minutes 58 seconds north l a t i t u d e , and 30 degrees 29 minutes 23 seconds east longitude, about 9.9 kilome t e r s from t h e Apollo 17 landing s i t e , and about 1.75 kilometers from t h e planned impact point ( f i g s . 3-1 and 4-1).

3.4

T A S A T AND ENTRY TRAJECTORY R NE R H

The command and service module reaained i n lunar o r b i t approximately 43 hours a f t e r t h e lunar module w a s jettisoned. The t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n maneuver was i n i t i a t e d at 234 hours 2 minutes 9 seconds. The maneuver w a s so accurate t h a t only one midcourse correction w a s required during t r a n s e a r t h c o a s t , and t h a t was at three hours p r i o r t o entry with a d i f f e r e n t i a l v e l o c i t y of 2 . 1 f t / s e c . The command and service modules were separated 1 5 minutes before e n t r y i n t o t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere. The command module entered the atmosphere 1200 miles from t h e landing point and the landing occurred 1.3 miles short of the; t a r g e t e d point. The e a r t h landing coordinates, as determined from t h e spacecraft computer, were 17 degrees 52 minutes 48 seconds south l a t i t u d e and 166 degrees 6 minutes 36 seconds west longitude.

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4.0

LUNAR SURFACE SCIENCE

The Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package f o r t h i s mission cons i s t e d of t h e heat flow experiment, the lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment, t h e l u n a r atmospheric composition experiment, t h e lunar e j e c t a and meteorites experiment, and t h e l u n a r surface gravimeter experiment. Other l u n a r surface experiments included the t r a v e r s e gravimeter experiment, t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s experiment, t h e l u n a r neutron probe experiment , t h e cosmic ray d e t e c t o r experiment, the l u n a r geological investigat i o n , and t h e s o i l mechanics experiment. Descriptions of t h e experiment equipment or references t o documents i n which t h e descriptions may be found a r e contained i n Appendix A. A comprehensive discussion of the preliminary s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s of the mission a r e contained i n reference 1.

4.1

S M A Y O LUNAR SURFACE ACTIVITIES U MR F

The landing point w a s i n a cratered valley between two massifs. Figure 4-1 i s a panoramic camera photograph of t h e Taurus-Littrow landing s i t e . The v a r i e t y of itopographic features at t h e Taurus-Littrow landing s i t e provided a valuablle a s s e t i n t h e exploration of t h e lunar surface. The crew completed t h r e e periods of extravehicular a c t i v i t y during the 75 hours on t h e surface. The events of each of t h e t h r e e periods are summarized i n t a b l e 4-1 and t h e routes traversed a r e shown i n figure 4-2. The arrangement of t h e experiment equipment i s shown i n figure 4-3. More d e t a i l e d descriptions of t h e l u n a r surface a c t i v i t i e s are provided i n sections 4.12 and 10.8. 4.2
APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS P C A E CENTRAL STATION AKG

The s i t e s e l e c t e d for deployment of the Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package w a s l o c a t e d approximately 185 meters west northwest (beari n g of 287O) of t h e l u n a r module ( f i g . 4-3). During preparations f o r t h e t r a v e r s e , t h e L u n a r Module P i l o t had d i f f i c u l t y removing t h e dome from t h e f u e l cask where t h e f u e l capsule i s stowed. I n s e r t i o n of the domeremoval t o o l and dome r o t a t i o n t o t h e unlocked position went smoothly; however, t h e t o o l e x t r a c t i o n p u l l r e s u l t e d i n a separation of the t o o l from t h e dome. Using t h e c h i s e l end of the geological hammer, the dome w a s p r i e d from t h e cask. (Section 15.4.4 contains a discussion of t h i s anomaly. ) Removal of t h e f u e l capsule from the cask and i n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e generator w a s completed normally. During the t r a v e r s e t o the deployment s i t e , one of t h e two c e n t r a l s t a t i o n leveling blocks was knocked o f f ; however, t h i s d i d not adversely a f f e c t the deployment.

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4-2 TABLE

4-1.-

LUNAR SURFACE EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

EVENTS&

Elapsed t i m e , h r :min :sec 144 :15 :58

Event Departed f o r t h e lunar module with a short stop t o deploy seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 8 documented with photographs, and a stop at t h e l u n a r surface experiments s i t e t o allow t h e Lunar Module P i l o t t o r e l e v e l t h e lunar surface gravimeter experiment. Arrived a t t h e l u n a r module and s t a r t e d extravehicular a c t i v i t y closeout. Traver s e gravimeter experiment re adin g obtained Lunar module cabin repressurized.

144:32:24 145 :l9 :24

145:32 :02

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Third Extravehicular Activity 160:52:48

161:02:40
161 :16 :15
161 :19 :45 161:20 :17 161 :36 :31

1 6 ~ 4 :36 2 162 :u.:24

163 :22:1O 163:29:05

163 :51 :09
164 :07 :40 ,

164 :55 :33

Beginning of t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Traverse ;gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Lunar roving vehicle loaded f o r t r a v e r s e , and performed panoramic and 500-mm photography. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Cosmic r a y experiment retrieved. Departed f o r surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment s i t e . Arrived at surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment s i t e . Activated t h e experiment, gathered samples , and performed documentary photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 6 with two short stops t o gather enrout e samples Arrived at s t a t i o n 6. Traverse gravimeter reading obtained, gathered samples including a single core tube sample and a rake sample, and performed documentary, panoramic, and 500-mm photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 7. Arrived at s t a t i o n 7. Gathered samples and performed documentary and panoramic photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 8 with one short stop t o gather enrout e sample s Arrived at s t a t i o n 8. Two traverse gravimeter experiment readings obtained, gathered samples including rake and trench samples, and performed documentary and panoramic photography Departed f o r s t a t i o n 9.

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4-3
TABLE 4-1

.- LUNAR SURFACE EXTRAVEHICULAR
Continued

ACTIVITY EVENTS

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Elapsed time, hr:min:sec

Event Arrived at s t a t i o n 9. Seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 5 deployed, two traverse gravime t e r experiment readings obtained, gathered samp l e s including a trench sample and a double coretube sample, and performed documentary, panoramic, and 500-mm photography. Removed data storage elect r o n i c s assembly from surface e l e c t r i c a l properties receiver. Departed f o r t h e lunar module with two short stops, one t o gather enroute samples and the other t o deploy seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 2 and perform documentary and panoramic photography. Arrive? at lunar module md s t a r t e d extravehicular a c t i v i t y closeout. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Final t r a v e r s e gravimeter experiment reading obtained Apollo lunar surface experiments package photography completed Lunar neutron probe experiment retrieved. Lunar roving vehicle positioned t o monitor lunar modu l e ascent. Seismic p r o f i l i n g experinent explosive charge 3 deployed. Lunar module cabin repressurized.

165 :13 :10

166:09:25

166 :37 :51 166 :55 :og 167 : 1 1 1:1 167 :33 :58 167 :36 :43 167 :39 :57 167 :44 :41 168 :07 :56

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TABLE 4-1.- LUNAR SURFACE EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY EVENTS Continued

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Elapsed t i m e , h r :min’:sec

Event Second Extravehicular Activity

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137 :55 :06 138 :04 :08 138 :39 :00 138 :44 :02 138: 47 :05 138 :51 :43 140 :0 1:30

141:07 :25

141:48 :38

142 :25 :56

142 :42 :57

143 :19 :03 143:45 :15

Beginning of second extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Lunar roving vehicle loaded f o r traverse and a t r a v e r s e gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Departed f o r surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment s i t e . Arrived at surface e l e c t r i c e l properties experiment s i t e . Activated experiment, gathered samp l e s , and performed panormic photography. Departed for s t a t i o n 2 with four short stops; one t o deploy seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 4, and t h r e e t o gzther enroute samples. Arrived at s t a t i o n 2. Traverse gravimeter experiment r e k n g obtained, gathered samples including a rake sample, and perforned documentary and panoramic photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 3 with one stop t o obtain a t r a v e r s e gravimeter experiment reading, gather samples, and perform panoramic and 500-mm photography. Arrived at s t a t i o n 3. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained, gathered samples including a double core-tube sample and a rake sample, and performed panoramic and 500-mm photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 4 with two short stops t o gather enroute samples. Arrived at s t a t i o n 4. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained, gathered samples including a trench sample and a double core-tube sample, and performed documentary and panoramic photography. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 5 with one stop t o deploy s e i s mic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 1, gather samples, and perform panoramic photography. Arrived at s t a t i o n 5. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained, gathered samples, and performed documentary and panoramic photography.

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Concluded Elapsed time, h r :min :sec Event F i r s t E x t rave hiculzr Activity

114:21: 49 114:51 : l o

115 :13:50
115 :40 :58
1 5:50 :51 1

115 :54 :40 115 :58 :30 116 :06 :01 116:11:54 116 :46 :17 118 :07 :43
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Beginning of first extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Lunar roving vehicle offloaded. Lunar roving vehicle deployed, t e s t drive performed and documented with photography, gathered sanples and performed 500-m and panoramic photography. United S t a t e s f l a g deDloyed and documented with photographs and stereo photography. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Cosmic r a y experiment deployed. Apollo l u n a r surface experiment package offloaded. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package deployment c4mpleted and documented with photographs and panoramic photography. Deep core sample obtained and lunar neutron probe experiment deployed. Traverse gravimeter eceriment reading obtained. Departed f o r s t a t i o n 1. Arrived at s t a t i o n 1 uld deployed seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 6 , obtained traverse gravimeter experiment reading, and documented rake samples and performed panoramic photography. Departed f o r surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment s i t e with a stop t o deploy.seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive charge 7, and perform panoramic photography. Arrived at surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment s i t e . Deployed antennas and the t r a n s m i t t e r , gathered samples, and performed documentary and panoramic photography. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Departed f o r t h e lunar module. Arrived a t lunar module and s t a r t e d extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s closeout. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Traverse gravimeter experiment reading obtained. Lunar module cabin repressurized.

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a A l l times a r e completion times unless otherwise noted.

4-6

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4- 8

Heat flow experiment

7

Deep core and neutron probe meters (from radioisotope thermoelectric generator)

37.7

-5.7

meters Probe

1

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12.3 meters

Lunar surface gravimeter

7.8 mete
Lunar seismic profiling experiment geophone module

Geophone 2

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Geophone

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Geophone 3

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Figure 4-3 Apollo lunar surface experiments package and neutron probe deployment.

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4-9
During t h e antenna alignment, centering of t h e east/west bubble l e v e l w a s d i f f i c u l t , and near t h e end of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e antenna l e v e l s e t t i n g s were rechecked. The east/west bubble w a s against t h e east edge and t h e north/south bubble was centered, and no changes were made. This amount of misalignment causes a somewhat g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n s i g n a l s t r e n g t h during t h e lunar l i b r a t i o n cycle, but it w i l l not impact system commands or t h e transmission and reception of telemetry data. I n i t i a l d a t a were received a t 0254 G.m.t. on December 12 and t h e received s i g n a l s t r e n g t h , radioisotope t h e m o e l e c t r i c generator power, reserve power, and temperature s t a t u s were d l near the pre-mission predict i o n s . The power output s t a b i l i z e d a t 75.8 watts during the f i r s t l u n a r day and increased t o '7'7.2 w a t t s during the f i r s t l u n a r night. The automatic power management c i r c u i t i s maintaining the average t h e r n a l p l a t e temperature of t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n betveen 270.1' K and 324.8' K. The telemetry s i g n a l power l e v e l , 2s received at various Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network s i t e s , varied kl.5 dBm i n a sinusoidal manner around t h e normal l e v e l and t h i s had no a f f e c t on t h e data. This variat i o n w a s probably caused by a multipath phenomena produced by an antenna side-lobe r e f l e c t i o n from the South Massif.
i

iI 4.3

HEAT F O EXEilIMENT LW

Two heat flow experiment (S-037) bore stems were d r i l l e d i n t o t h e l u n a r surface t o t h e planned depth of 254 centimeters and the probes were i n s e r t e d during t h e f i r s t extravehiculzr z c t i v i t y ( f i g . 4-4).
The t o t a l power-on time required t o & r i l l bore stem 1 i n t o the s o i l w a s 3 minutes 46 seconds. The penetration rate was variable with a part i c u l a r l y low penetration r a t e (40 centineters per minute) occurring a t a depth of about 80 t o 100 centimeters. Between 120 and 200 centimeters depth, t h e penetration r a t e w a s 84 centimeters per minute, and i n t h e f i n a l 50 centimeters, t h e r a t e slowed t o about 60 centimeters per minute. Based on crew comments and t e l e v i s e d v i s i b l e sudden torques on the d r i l l handles, some rock fragments were probably encountered during the d r i l l i n g operations. The f i r s t meter of probe hole 2 was d r i l l e d more rapidly than t h a t of probe 1 and below 200 centimeters, a r e s i s t a n t l a y e r was encount e r e d which slowed progress t o about 60 centimeters per minute. Rock fragments were frequently encountered during t h e d r i l l i n g of probe hole 2 which required a t o t a l power-on time of approximately 3 minutes. The heat flow experiment w a s turned on at 0302 G.m.t. on December 1 2 and v a l i d temperature d a t a were received from all sensors. The operation

4-10

thermorneter:Reference; tc+ si ; e c

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4-4.-

Relative locations of heat flow probes.

of t h e experiment has been s a t i s f a c t o r y . Probe 2 w a s operating before being i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e bore stem and a bore sten-and-probe temperature of about 300' K was indicated immediately a f t e r insertion. From December 1 2 t o January 3 , t h e experiment w a s operated i n t h e normal gradient mode, which samples each sensor every 7.2 minutes. Between January 3 and January 24, e i g h t low-conductivity experiments were conducted with a heater power of 0.002 w a t t . One high-conductivity experiment w a s performed on January 26.

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4-11

The r e f e r e n c e thermometer a t t a c h e d t o t h e experiment e l e c t r o n i c s package r a d i a t o r p l a t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e package reaches a m a x i m u m temp e r a t u r e o f 328' K at l u n a r noon, and rezmins at 290' K throughout t h e lunar night.

4.4

LUNAR SEISMIC PROFILISG EXPERIMENT

The l u n a r s e i s m i c p r o f i l i n g experiment (S-203) geophone a r r a y w a s deThe experiment ployed at t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e experiments s i t e ( f i g . 4-3). w a s commanded on t o verify instrument o p e r a t i o n at 0358 G.m.t. on December 1 2 . The e x p l o s i v e packages were deployed as shown i n f i g u r e 4-2 d u r i n g t h e t h r e e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y p e r i o d s . A l l o f t h e e x p l o s i v e charges were d e t o n a t e d by command and each of t h e geophones responded t o t h e deto n a t i o n s . The d e t o n a t i o n o f e x p l o s i v e peckage 7 w a s observed through t h e t e l e v i s i o n camera. The c e n t r a l s t a t i o n w a s commanded t o t h e high-bit-rate mode a t 2229 G . m . t . on December 1 4 t o r e c o r d t h e impulse produced by t h e l u n a r module a s c e n t . A s t r o n g s e i s m i c s i g n a l response from t h e geophone array I was recorded. I The l u n a r s e i s m i c p r o f i l i n g e x p e r i r e n t w a s again commanded t o t h e h i g h - b i t - r a t e mode at 0636 G . m . t . on Decez?jer 1 5 t o r e c o r d t h e l m e r mod. d e a s c e n t s t a g e imoact. The i n p a c t occl;rred a t 19 degrees 59 ~ c u t e s 24 seconds n o r t h arrd 30 degrees 30 minut5s 36 seconds e a s t a t 0650 G . n . t . on December 1 5 . The i n p a c t p o i n t was ori t h e south s l o p e of Soauh N8ssif, about 8.4 k i l o n e t e r s southwest of t h e A ~ a L l o17 l a n d i n g s i t e .
Tne r e c o r d i n g of t h e seisrnic s i g n a l s produced by t h e d e t o n a t i c i of t h e e i g h t e x p l o s i v e packeges, t o g e t h e r k f c h t h e s i g n a l from t h e l w a r module a s c e n t s t a g e i m p a c t , have enhanced t 3 e knowledge o f t h e Pmar s t r u c t u r e . A t t h e Taurus-Littrow s i t e , t h e 1zm.r near-surface m a t e r i a l has a ? average s e i s m i c v e l o c i t y o f 250 meters rer second t o a depth of 248 met e r s . There i s an i n d i c a t i o n of i n c r e a s e d apparent v e l o c i t i e s w i t h i n t h e l u n a r near-suri'ace material , s u g g e s t i n g -,he presence o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d material, perhaps t h i n lava flow. Beneath t h e 250 ineters p e r second m a t e r i a l , t h e s e i s m i c v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e s t o 1200 meters p e r second, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a competent lava flow. The t h i c k n e s s of t h e 1200 meters p e r second material i s about 925 meters. Underlying t h e 1200 meters per second l a y e r i s material o f an undetermined t h i c k n e s s which p o s s e s s e s a seismic v e l o c i t y o f about 4000 meters p e r second.

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4-12 When t h e Apollo 17 data are combined with d a t a from t h e e a r l i e r miss i o n s , it should be p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e lunar c r u s t t o a depth of approximately 1 0 kilometers.

4.5

LUNAR ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION EXPERIMENT

The l u n a r atmospheric composition experiment (S-205) deployment i s shown i n f i g u r e 4-3. All a c t i v i t i e s associated with t h e deployment were completed as planned. The dust cover w a s opened on December 18 at approximately 0420 G . m . t . a f t e r t h e l a s t lunar s e i s a i c p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive package w a s detonated. After allowing t h e r a d i a t o r temperature t o decrease from a peak of 340.8O K (before cover removal), t o 327.5' K , nine hours of ion source outgassing w a s a c c o q l i s h e d t h e following day with a temperature of 523O K having been reached. The f i r s t a c t i v a t i o n of t h e experiment occurred on December 27 at approximately 1800 G . m . t . The instrument resgonded w e l l t o commands and w a s operating normally except f o r a background count ramp i n the low- and mid-mass channels. The presence of t h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i l l not cause t h e l o s s of d a t a , but it w i l 1 : i n c r e a s e t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n reducing t h e data from t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e spectrum. This anozzly i s discussed i n section

15.4.5.

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Operation throughout t h e f i r s t lunation w a s characterized by good performance of t h e instrument except f o r two occasions during lunar sunrise when t h e instrument switched i n t o t h e high-voltage-lock mode, which stopped t h e stepping of t h e sweep voltage. "wo l o g i c system noise b u r s t s , which occurred j u s t after s u n r i s e , m a y have caused t h e sweep high voltage t o be commanded i n t o lock. O both occasions, t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s properly n r e c t i f i e d by commanding t h e sweep high volt2g2 back on. Many r e s i d u a l peaks were observed i n the spectrum, but only t h e hel i u m peak i s c l e a r l y n a t i v e t o t h e moon. The remainder are at l e a s t parC i a l l y due t o outgassing of t h e instrument, the l u n a r module, and t h e Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package, as evidenced by t h e peaks decreasing i n amplitude throughout t h e l u n a r night. Sunrise brought a l a r g e increase i n all peaks i n t h e spectrum except helium which decreased as would be expected if it were a native noncondens i b l e gas. Operation was c u r t a i l e d 24 hours a f t e r s u n r i s e because of t h e very high gas d e n s i t i e s i n t h e ion source chanber (approximately l o 9 m o l ecules p e r cubic centimeter) from material outgassing. A 15-minute period of operation w a s performed at lunar noon. Full-time operation was begun again a few hours before sunset on January 23. There was a marked decrease i n gas d e n s i t i e s about t h e t i m e of s m s e t .

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Daytime o p e r a t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d t o those times when t h e outgassing l e v e l s a r e t o l e r a b l e . A s i n d i c a t e d by t h e d a t a from previous missions , t h e i n s t r u m e n t , s i t e , and o t h e r a r t i f a c t s will e v e n t u a l l y be s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e e of o u t g a s s i n g contaminants t o enable t h e lunar atmospheric composit i o n experiment t o produce high q u a l i t y data.

4.6

LUNAR EJECTA AND METEORITES EXPERIMENT

The l u n a r e j e c t a and m e t e o r i t e s eGeriment (S-202) deployment i s shown The r a d i a t o r mirror w a s uncovered at 0957 G . m . t . on Decemi n f i g u r e 4-3. b e r 21, a f t e r detonation of t h e l a s t explosive package and when t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l temperature had decreesed t o 344' K. The experiment was o p e r a t e d f o r about 1 5 hours on December 22 but w a s turned o f f because of r i s i n g temperatures. The experiment WES turned on again on December 23 t o r e c o r d t h e background n o i s e r a t e f o r t h e instrument. The sensor covers were not removed u n t i l December 28, a f t e r conpletion of continuous operat i o n which encompassed about 60 hours of l u n a r day and about 50 hours of l u n a r n i g h t . The instrument data i n d i c z t e t h a t t h e background noise r a t e was e s s e n t i a l l y zero. The instrument is: i n t h e full o p e r e t i n g mode from sun angles of 20' b e f o r e s u n s e t through 20' a f t e r s u n r i s e because of a thermal c o n t r o l problem d u r i n g t h e lunar day. Section 1 5 . 4 . 3 contains a discussion of t h i s anomaly. F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e instrument neasurenents of e j e c t a a r e b e s t performed during t h e l u n a r n i g h t when t h e y i m a r y p a r t i c l e impact r a t e s a r e n e a r zero. The instrument w i l l remain o f f during most of t h e l u n a r day u n t i l t h e s c i e n c e o b j e c t i v e s which can be achieved during l u n a r n i g h t a r e f u l f i l l e d or u n t i l s a t i s f a c t o r y thermal c o n t r o l can be a t t a i n e d . The measurements i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e detected number of l u n a r e j e c t a p a r t i c l e s compare w i t h i n an o r d e r of magnitude t o t h e number of primary p a r t i c l e s . The measurements a r e v e r i o i n g t h a t t h e bulk of cosmic dust m a t e r i a l comes from t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i c n of t h e sun which agrees w i t h t h e r e s u l t s obtained from similar i n s t r m e n t s c a r r i e d on Pioneer 8 and 9.

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4.7

LUNAR SURFACE GRAVIXETER EXPERIMEmT

The l u n a r s u r f a c e gravimeter experiment (S-207) ( f i g . 4-3) was a c t i v a t e d a t 0523 G.m.t. on December 1 2 , and following a c t i v a t i o n , t h e d a t a ( s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g ) i n d i c a t e d n o m a l operations. However, t h e add i t i o n of a l l masses a p p a r e n t l y set t h e sensor beam a g a i n s t t h e lower s t o p and removal of one mass a p p a r e n t l y moved t h e beam against t h e upper s t o p . Operation o f t h e adjustment screws f a i l e d t o n u l l t h e beam and t h e second adding o f all masses f a i l e d t o move t h e beam t o t h e lower s t o p . "his anoma l y i s discussed i n s e c t i o n 15.4.1.

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On January 3, 1973, t h e experiment was re-configured, and t h e s e n s o r beam w a s c e n t e r e d by a d j u s t i n g t h e mass change mechanism t o o b t a i n longterm s e i s m i c and free-mode s c i e n c e d a t a . I n t h i s r e v i s e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t i d a l d a t a are n o t b e i n g o b t a i n e d , but t h e experiment i s c o l l e c t i n g longt e r m s e i s m i c and f r e e mode i n f o r m a t i o n . The l u n a r s u r f a c e g r a v i m e t e r experiment s e n s o r ' s i n i t i a l on-scale t e m p e r a t w e of 321.5' K o c c u r r e d at about 2054 G . r n . t . , December 1 4 , some 63 hours after i n i t i a l turn-on. The experiments senso-: temperature now remains s t a b i l i z e d at 322.323' K . The i n s t r m e n 5 s subsystem compor-ents c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e normally p r o v i d i n g e n g i n e e r i n g st ztrs d&a.

4.8 TRAVERSE GFUIVIMETER EPZRIMENT
The traverse g r a v i m e t e r experiment (S-1% ) ?lade an earth-moon gav! ;, t i e and o b t a i n e d t h e v a l u e o f g r a v i t y at varicis s t o p s along t h e travers-s, r e l a t i v e t o t h e v a l u e of g r a v i t y at t h e l a r d i n g s i t e . Using a b s o l u t e gravi t y neasurements on t h e E a r t h , a preliminari- v d u e o f 162 694 (ts) m i l l i g a l s w a s o b t a i n e d at t h e Taurus-Littrow l z n d i n g s i t e . The nuqber cf stat i o n s ( 1 2 ) a t which d i s c r e t e g r a v i t y measu_rere.its %-ere made ( f i g . 4-2 and t a b l e 4-1) w a s about as pl$nned w i t h an e x t r a ?ezsurernent beinq m d e n-t s t z t i o n 2 A and no measuremhts t a k e n a t s t a z i c n I_ 'Decstuse of t a e coal straints. The h a r d v a r e p e r f o r x e d s a t i s f a c t o r i i y .:=:zs; - f o r d i f f e r e n c e s betwees measurements made OLI t h e l u n a r roving vehLcL.1- 5r-l r?Esurerr.ec%s mile w i t h t The v a l u e s EX?ZS-t h e experiment r e s t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e a t tht ~ - 1 -s;tes. u r e d OI? t h e s u r f a c e were dws.ys lower. Yc? L ? ' - r e n c e ir, t h e g r a v i t y masu r e a e n t a t t h e l a n d i n g p o i n t w a s 4.6 m i l l i g r l s . IS s t z t i o n 8 it was 6.? The reason f o r t k i s m i l l i g a l s , md a t s z a t i o n 9 it w a s 6.2 r C i : g ? - - s . discrepancy i s n o t k n o m . I n i n i t i a l postf;ig3t c a l c u l a t i o n s , &I e z g i r i T c a l c o r r e c t i o n of -6 m i l l i g d w a s e s t a b l i s h ? 3:-a l l v a l u e s neasxred vhen t h e experiment w a s mounted on t h e l u n a r r o v i r g v e h i c l e .
A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of' t h e data has &$r, mzde by p r o j e c t i n g it t o a northwest-southeast p r o f i l e and by making t-$9 S m e n s i o n a l a p p r o x i n a t i o n s f o r all t h e r e d u c t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F r e e - a i r and Bouguer c m r e c t i o n s were a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t a t Bouguer c o r r e c t i o n s shows v a l u e s at s t a t i o n s 2 A and 8, n e a r t h e South North Massifs, r e s p e c t i v e l y , which a r e more t h a n 20 m i l l i g a l s lower t h m t h e v a l u e a t t h e l a n d i n g s i t e . The v a r i a t i o n of Bouguer v a l u e s i n t h e c e n t r z l p a r t of t h e v a l l e y are r e l a t i v e l y small, a l t h o u g h t h e value at s t a t i o n 4 i s a few m i l l i g a l s h i g h e r and t h e value q t s t a t i o n 5 i s a f e w m i l l i g a l s lower t h a n t h e value a t t h e l a n d i n g s i t e . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e gross features of t h e g r a v i t y p r o f i l e i s a model w i t h basalt flows having a p o s i t i v e d e n s i t y c o n t r a s t of 0.8 gram per c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r and a t h i c k n e s s o f 1 k i l o m e t e r buried under t h e v a l l e y f l o o r .

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The surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment (S-204) w a s deployed as shown i n f i g u r e 4-2, and w a s u t i l i z e d during portions of both t h e second and t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y periods. During t h e t r a n s m i t t e r deployment, a problem w a s encountered i n keeping the s o l a r panel open because of memory i n t h e s o l a r panel wiring harness. The crew resolved the problem by t a p i n g t h e panel f u l l y open. Also, during t h e deployment of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r antennas, t h e two s e t s of dipoles were reversed from the planned o r i e n t a t i o n . The e f f e c t of t h e reversal w a s corrected i n the data reduction process with no l o s s of data.
A thermal c o n t r o l problem with the surface e l e c t r i c a l properties receiver caused the premature termination of the experiment. This problem i s discussed i n d e t a i l i n section 15.4.2.

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Despite t h e s e problems, when the surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment recorder w a s returned t o e a r t h , 1 hour and 42 minutes of data had been obtained.

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' LUNAR NEUTRON PROBE EXPERIMENT
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The lunar neutron probe experiment (S-229) w a s deployed as shown i n f i g u r e 4-3 and emplaced i n t h e deep d r i l l core hole during t h e f i r s t ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y period. The 2-meter probe was r e t r i e v e d and deact i v a t e d a t t h e end of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y period, accruing 49 hours of exposure. The s i t e was approximately 38 meters north of t h e Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package radioisotope thermoelectric gene r a t o r ( f i g . 4-3). Corrections required because of t h e proximity of t h e generator, which i s a s t r o n g source of neutrons, should be s m a l l ; although experimentation i s necessary t o determine the s i z e of t h e correction.
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The probe w a s returned, disassembled, and the t a r g e t s and detectors were i n e x c e l l e n t condition. The background due t o t h e d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e fast neutrons from t h e radioisotope thermoelectric generator with t h e p l a s t i c w a s measured, and appears t o be n e g l i g i b l e . Only t h e mica d e t e c t o r s have been completely examined. Analysis of t h e remaining d e t e c t o r s and d a t a i s continuing and w i l l be completed after p o s t f l i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n of t h e probe. Although t h e c a l i b r a t i o n data have not been completely processed, t h e t r a c k d e n s i t i e s are i n t h e expected range. The neutron capture r a t e s appear t o be within a f a c t o r of two of those estimated from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l calculations.

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4.11

COSMIC RAY D T C O EXPERIMENT EET R

The cosmic ray d e t e c t o r experiment (S-152) w a s deployed by p u l l i n g t h e s l i d e cover open and hanging t h e cover i n t h e shade while t h e box w a s i n t h e sun on t h e lunar module. I n both cases, t h e nuclear p a r t i c l e det e c t o r s faced outward from t h e l u n a r module. The detectors were exposed t o t h e lunar environment f o r approximately 45.5 hours. N degradation of o any of t h e d e t e c t o r surfaces w a s found. Microscopic examination of t h e detector surfaces showed very l i t t l e dust. The maximum temperature o f approximately 400' K (as shown by temperature l a b e l s ) was well below t h e critical l i m i t . The t r a c k s of heavy s o l a r wind ions a r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , as a r e t h e t r a c k s of intermediate-energy heavy p a r t i c l e s . The flux of t h e l a t t e r i s s u r p r i s i n g l y high (approximately 6 x lo3 tracks per square centimeter) and i n d i c a t e t h a t the sun emits an appreciable flux of p a r t i c l e s i n t h e range of 1 0 keV p e r nucleon t o 1 0 meV per nucleon, even at times of quiet sun. These p a r t i c l e s were found i n both t h e shade and sun detectors and thus a r e not d i r e c t l y associated with t h e s o l a r wind. The t r a c k s have been seen i n t h e mica, g l a s s , and p l a s t i c detectors. The energy spectrum i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of s o l a r f l a r e s . This intermediate energy component i s possibly associated with a v i s u a l l y a c t i v e sun spot area t h a t was present during t h e e n t i r e jApollo 17 mission. This experiment i s the f i r s t flown t h a t could have detected the presence of t h e intermediateenergy p a r t i c l e s . The presence of t h e intermediate-energy p a r t i c l e s w i l l l i m i t t h e degree t o which t h e radon atmosphere can be established at the Apollo 17 s i t e , but t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s no degradation of the basic experiment.

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4.12 4.12.1 LUNAR GEOLOGY Sample Collection

Areas sampled f o r t h e l u n a r geology investigation (S-059) during the extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s included all of the mapped units at t h e s i t e ( f i g . 4-2). The v a r i a t i o n and Iocation of t h e 110.405 kilograms of rocks and s o i l s c o l l e c t e d a r e presented i n the following t a b l e . Type of material
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Dark mantle

Stations U , 5 , 8 , 9 , landing s i t e , and lunar roving vehicle stops 1, 3, 7 , 8, 9 , and ll. Stations l A , 5 , 9 , landing s i t e , and lunar roving vehicle stops 3 and 9. S t a t i o n s 2 , 3, lunar roving vehicle stops 2 , 4 , 5, 6, and possible s t a t i o n 4. S t a t i o n 2. Stations 6 , 7 , and possibly at lunar roving vehicle stop 1 0 . Stations

Sub f l o o r Bright mantle
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a Figure 4-2 shows t h e l o c a t i o n s of a l l s t a t i o n s and sampling stops.
Most of t h e rocks c o l l e c t e d were described as c r y s t a l l i n e , with b a s a l t s and blue-gray breccias being the dominant rock types. The breccias exh i b i t a very complex multi-cycle h i s t o r y , and breccias apparently occur as inclusions i n t h e a n o r t h o s i t i c gabbro. A v a r i e t y of compositions was obvious among t h e s m a l l c l a s t s i n the breccias. Only s t a t i o n 1 0 w a s deleted from the preplanned s t a t i o n s . The crew drove p a s t t h e s t a t i o n 1 0 a r e a and verbally reported t h e rock types. The s t a t i o n 4 sampling t a s k s on t h e b r i g h t mantle were deleted because of t h e s h o r t t i m e at t h e s t a t i o n i n preference t o sampling t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y t a r g e t - Shorty Crater. Sampling at all other s t a t i o n s was as planned. A 3.2-meter core was obtained at t h e Apollo lunar surface experiments package s i t e . Single cores w e r e collected a t t h e l u n a r module and a t stat i o n 6. Double cores were collected at s t a t i o n s 3, 4 , and 9 ( t h e lower stem from s t a t i o n 3 w a s placed i n the core sample vacuum container). The

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4-18
s p e c i a l environmental sample container w a s used f o r t h e f u e l products contamination sample a t t h e lunar module. Rake samples were collected a t s t a t i o n s lA, 2, 3, 6, and 8. Sampling of permanently shadowed areas were attempted at s t a t i o n 2 and 6, but were probably successful only at stat i o n 6. Samples from t h e t o p &nd bottom of a boulder and the s o i l under it were c o l l e c t e d at s t a t i o n 8. Documented rock and s o i l samples were collected at a l l s t a t i o n s and most l u n a r roving vehicle sampling stops. Panoramic photographs taken from t h e v i c i n i t i e s of s t a t i o n s 4 , 5 , and 6 are shown i n f i g u r e s 4-5 through 4-7. 4.12.2 Summary of Geology

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To provide a context f o r t h e individual sample location descriptions, a b r i e f description of t h e geologic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each sampling stat i o n i s included. The s t a t i o n s and lunar roving vehicle sample stops a r e described i n the sequence i n which they occurred on t h e t r a v e r s e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e s e summaries a r e t e n t a t i v e and some w i l l almost cert a i n l y be modified a f t e r more information on the samples i s available.
4.12.2.1 S t a t i o n at landing s i t e area.- The landing s i t e s t a t i o n i s located i n t h r e e general areas ranging f r o n 200 meters e a s t t o 200 meters west of t h e lunar module y d covering approximately 0.5 square kilometer. The s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d near t h e center of Taurus-Littrow valley i n an a r e a where fine- t o coarse-grained subfloor b a s z l t s are overlain by a r e g o l i t h t h a t may contain or be overlain by dark mantling material. The v a l l e y f l o o r at the s t a t i o n i s smooth, l o c a l l y f l a t , and only gently r o l l i n g . The abundance of surface rocks i s higher than the regional average f o r t h e v a l l e y f l o o r and rvlges from 2 t o 7 percent a t t h e l u n a r module and experiments package s i t e s t o l e s s than 1 t o 2 percent a t t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s transmitter/antenna s i t e . Blocks range up t o a m a x i m u m of 4 meters i n t h e experiments package area, and rock burial and f i l l e t i n g i n t h e s t a t i o n a r e a i s pronounced on some meter-sized blocks. Rock types a t t h e s t a t i o n a r e extremely l i m i t e d and consist predomi n a n t l y of coarse-grained subfloor basalt with l o c a l fine-grained varia t i o n s . Clods of s o i l b r e c c i a associated with impact events a r e a l s o present. Rock sample types c o l l e c t e d at the three areas of t h e s t a t i o n include : L u n a r module s i t e (1 glass-coated breccia; 2 coarse-grained b a s a l t s ; 1 fine-grained b a s a l t ) ; Experiments package s i t e (1s o i l b r e c c i a ; 1 coarse-grained b a s a l t ; 1 fine-grained b a s a l t ) ; Surface e l e c t r i c a l prope r t i e s antenna s i t e (possibly 3 fine-grained b a s a l t s ) . There i s evidence t h a t t h e fine-gyained basalts a r e more common a t t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties antenna area e a s t of t h e l u n a r module s i t e . Other samples include a deep core sample (3.2 meters) and a single core tube.

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4-23
S o i l s a r e comonly medium dark gray and more cohesive with depth t o a depth of 25 t o 35 centimeters. The s o i l consists of l a y e r s of d i f f e r e n t d r i l l i n g r e s i s t a n c e judging from t h e a l t e r n a t i n g zones of easy t o d i f f i c u l t d r i l l i n g t h a t were encountered i n all holes, with t h e most r e s i s t a n t zone being at about 2 meters. There are no consptcuous surface lineaments i n t h e s t a t i o n are.. "Raindrop" texture i s common over t h e a r e a but most pronounced at t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties antenna s i t e . Exotic feldspar-rich components from t h e North and South Massif u n i t s do not appear t o be abundant i n t h e r e g o l i t h a t the s t a t i o n . The surface i n t h e s t a t i o n area contains many s u b t l e 20-centimeter t o 2-meter c r a t e r s , t h e l a t t e r probably representing t h e current steadys t a t e l i m i t of c r z t e r s i z e . The nearest large c r a t e r s t o t h e s t a t i o n a r e Rudolph (80-meter diameter), 70 meters t o the north of t h e experiments package , and highly subdued Poppy (100-neter diameter) , 70 meters south of t h e lunar module s i t e . Most of the observable surface blocks a r e associated with l a r g e r c r a t e r e j e c t a such as Camelot (600-meter diameter and t o t h e west a distance of about 1-crater diameter). The samples collected at the s t a t i o n represent v a r i e t i e s of coarse t o fine-grained b a s a l t s t h a t make up the sub-regolith v a l l e y floor. A d i s t i n c t l a y e r o f dark mantle material overlying r e g o l i t h was recognized n e i t h e r on photographs from the mission nor by t h e crew during the miss i o n , suggesting t h a t lthe upper part of the dark mantle, i f it e x i s t s as a separate e n t i t y , ha2 been gardened i n t o a normal r e g o l i t h overlying t h e subfloor b a s a l t s . The deep core sample taken a t t h e experiments package s i t e should provide t h e best s t r a t i g r a p h i c data on t h e postulated dark mantle material. However, gardening of dark mantle and normal r e g o l i t h m a y have destroyed o r i g i n a l dark mantle depositional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4.12.2.2 S t a t i o n 1A.- Station 1A i s located about 1 kilometer southsoutheast of t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties antenna s i t e and about 150 meters from t h e northwest r i m of Steno Crater. Steno i s not v i s i b l e i n any of t h e s t a t i o n photographs, but i t s north r i m i s apparently the blocky a r e a t h a t r i s e s t o t h e south i n the photographs. The s t a t i o n i s on t h e subdued e j e c t a blanket of Steno Crater t h a t has been covered by dark mantle. The s t a t i o n a r e a i s gently r o l l i n g , a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e influence of t h e e j e c t a blanket o f Steno Crater, a 70-meter very subdued c r a t e r t o t h e e a s t , and other hunmocks t h a t are remnants of older c r a t e r forms. The s t a t i o n i s characterized by a s c a t t e r i n g of rQcks t h a t range up t o 1/2 t o 1 meter. Some d i s t a n t boulders on t h e rim of Steno range up t o several meters. Boulders a r e concentrated around smaller c r a t e r s only near t h e 10-meter s t a t i o n c r a t e r . Other concentrations do not seem t o be r e l a t e d t o c r a t e r r i m s . Fillets are not w e l l developed; b u r i a l of blocks ranges from perched t o almost t o t a l l y buried.

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The major sampling areas are a 10-meter blocky r i m c r a t e r and a rake sample from a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t area f r e e of blocks 15 meters east of t h e blocky c r a t e r . The sample areas represent the extremes of rock concent r a t i o n s . Sampling of t h e 10-meter blocky c r a t e r yielded only subfloor b a s a l t fragments from t h e two l a r g e boulders t h a t were sampled. Sampling of t h e i n t e r c r a t e r area yielded some subfloor b a s a l t samples plus some fragments t h a t no doubt represent exotic material. The fine-grained s o i l seems t o be the sane gray tone everywhere i n t h e s t a t i o n area. There are no obvious lighter-toned zones, and no concentration of raindrop impressions or lineanents. Craters i n t h e s t a t i o n a r e a range from several centimeters up t o t e n s of meters. Most are moderately subdued t o very subdued. Ejecta i s r e a d i l y apparent only around t h e 10-meter blocky c r a t e r t h a t i s the prime sampling area. The fragment samples are important because they a r e examples of subf l o o r b a s a l t , derived from t h e c r a t e r f l o o r or possibly re-excavated Steno e j e c t a . The s o i l samples a r e s i g n i f i c a n t as examples of material t h a t probably represents dark mantle. 4.12.2.3 F i r s t lunar roving vehicle svnDle stop.- The f i r s t lunar roving vehicle sample stop i s l o c a t e d d o n g the route from t h e lunar modu l e area t o s t a t i o n 2 , bet!ween Horatio and Bronte Craters. Like t h e l u n a r module a r e a and s t a t i o n 1, t h e sample stop area i s i n the dark mantle u n i t shown on premission photogeologic maps; the surface appearance, however, i s quite different. Both t h e l u n a r module area and s t a t i o n 1 are within a c l u s t e r of l a r g e (0.5- t o 0.7-kilometer diameter) c r a t e r s , and t h e landscape i s chara c t e r i z e d by boulders and smaller blocks probably e j e c t e d from those crat e r s . The v i s i b l e younger c r a t e r s more than a few meters i n diameter a r e a l s o blocky, probably because of re-excavated blocks from the e j e c t a blank e t s of t h e l a r g e c r a t e r s . The block-studded dark mantle of t h e lunar module a r e a extends t o t h e v i c i n i t y of Horatio Crater. West of Horatio, t h e dark mantle surface appears s t r i k i n g l y smooth; l e s s than one percent of t h e area i s covered by rock fragments, and t h e s e a r e noticeably smaller than those t y p i c a l of the lunar module area. Crat e r s more than one meter across are widely separated, and some c r a t e r s as l a r g e as 20 or 30 meters i n diameter are block f r e e . Craters with e j e c t e d fragments of s o i l b r e c c i a are a l s o present.
This difference i n t h e nature of t h e c r a t e r e j e c t a and t h e general block population i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e dark mantle west of Horatio, where t h i s sample w a s obtained, i s l i k e l y t o be less mixed with material der i v e d from t h e subfloor u n i t .
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The f i r s t l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop a r e a was selected by t h e crew on a ray from one of the r a r e , blocky rimmed c r a t e r s i n t h i s genera l l y block-free area. The c r a t e r i s 1 0 t o 1 5 meters i n diameter, and t h e sample was taken from about three-fourths of a c r a t e r diameter out from t h e r i m . The rocks are i r r e g u l a r and jagged, but some have rounded tops as if e a s i l y eroded. A l l t h e blocks from t h e c r a t e r are l e s s than 1 meter i n diameter with t h e l a r g e s t r e s t i n g on the c r a t e r r i m . B u r i a l seems i n s i g n i f i c a n t , f i l l e t s a r e not present, and dust i s not seen upon t h e rocks. The s o i l of t h e a r e a appears t y p i c a l of t h e dark mantle region. Other c r a t e r s i n t h e a r e a are e i t h e r block-free o r have ejected what seem t o be clods of s o i l breccia. The rock fragment sampled from t h e c r a t e r e j e c t a i s a piece of hard rock, probably subfloor basalt.

4.12.2.4 Second lunar roving vehicle sample stop.- The second l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop w a s made on the tongue of l i g h t mantle about 3.6 kilometers west of t h e lunar module. The sample w a s scooped from t h e b r i g h t r i m of a c r a t e r . The location of the sampled a r e a i n the photographs taken along t h e t r a v e r s e route i s very t e n t a t i v e .
Rock fragments up t o s e v e r a l centimeters across a r e sparse, but t h e driving photographs, which were taken downsun, are not adequate t o determine t h e population of rock fragments i n d e t a i l . The crew reported t h a t t h e population of fra+nts l a r g e r than 1 centimeter across i s l e s s than 1 percent. They a l s o reported a few l a r g e r blocks t h a t look l i k e subf l o o r material but noted t h a t it w a s d i f f i c u l t t o be sure. They reported t h a t t h e r i m s of t h e c r a t e r s i n t h e l i g h t mantle are somewhat brighter than those i n t h e dark mantle, and t h a t the albedo of t h e surface appeared somewhat b r i g h t e r looking downsun. Otherwise, t h e surf ace appears similar t o t h a t of t h e dark mantle. Craters up t o 5 meters i n diameter a r e f a i r l y common i n the sample area. Most a r e subdued or have only s l i g h t l y r a i s e d r i m s . Small cloddy c r a t e r s a r e s c a t t e r e d along the traverse route.
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The material sampled probably represents l i g h t mantle material t h a t w a s e j e c t e d from t h e c r a t e r .

4.12.2.5 T h i r d lunar rovinp vehicle sample stop.- The t h i r d lunar roving vehicle sample s t o p w a s made at a s i t e i n t h e dark mantle between t h e main body of l i g h t mantle and a finger of l i g h t mantle t h a t l i e s t o t h e southeast. The area resembles t h e dark mantle surface at the first l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop r a t h e r than t h e dark mantle surface a t t h e l u n a r module and s t a t i o n 1. It appears i n t h e surface photography as an exceptionally smooth-surfaced f l a t a r e a with a pock-marked appearance caused by widely spaced craters t h a t are nearly f r e e of blocks on t h e i r r i m s ; t h e s o i l between c r a t e r s has a "raindrope1 appearance. The block population covers less than 1 percent of t h e area, and a l l blocks are less than 1 meter across. Clods of s o i l breccia a r e present on the r i m s of a few c r a t e r s less than 3 meters across.

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4-26 Samples include a rock fragment and a "couple o f teaspoons" of s o i l . The rock i s from a c l u s t e r of rocks on t h e surface t h a t are not c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o any c r a t e r . The rocks i n t h e a r e a a l l appear similar and resemble subfloor b a s a l t . The s o i l sample i s a scoop o f s o i l f r o m t h e same area, and can be considered t y p i c a l of t h e surface material i n a dark mant l e a r e a free of l a r g e blocks. There i s no evidence of t h e presence of l i g h t mantle d e b r i s i n t h e a r e a of t h e t h i r d l u n a r roving v e h i c l e sample stop.

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4.12.2.6 S t a t i o n 2.S t a t i o n 2 i s located at t h e foot of South Massif where it i n t e r s e c t s t h e southeast margin of Nansen C r a t e r , and near t h e contact between t h e l i g h t mantle and materials of t h e South Massif. Rock chips were c o l l e c t e d from t h r e e boulders, and s o i l was c o l l e c t e d from near and under t h e boulders, i n a s m a l l a r e 2 low o n . t h e slopes of t h e South Massif. A rake sample was c o l l e c t e d from t h e same a r e a and another from an a r e a about 40 meters n o r t h e a s t of t h e base of t h e massif, i n t h e l i g h t mantle. Rocks v i s i b l e i n t h e photographs i n and around t h e sampled a r e a vary i n s i z e from less than 1 centimeter across up t o boulders more than 2 met e r s a c r o s s . Rocks are more abundant near the base of t h e slope than at intermediate e l e v a t i o n s or out on t h e l i g h t mantle. Most of t h e rocks l a r g e r than 25 centimeter4 a r e rounded, and smaller rocks range from angI ular t o rounded. I Rocks of all s i z e s vary from almost t o t a l l y buried t o v i r t u a l l y no b u r i a l . F i l l e t s a r e poorly developed except on t h e u p h i l l s i d e s of rocks t h a t a r e on slopes g r e a t e r than 1 0 degrees. The downhill s i d e s of such rocks commonly have no f i l l e t s .

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Except f o r rocks i n t h e rake sample, the rock samples t h a t were coll e c t e d from t h e lower slopes of South Massif were chipped from t h r e e bould e r s , two o f which are about 2 meters across and t h e t h i r d about 2/3 meter a c r o s s . The boulders a r e complex c r y s t a l l i n e b r e c c i a s which probably e i t h e r r o l l e d or were e j e c t e d from c r a t e r s higher on South Massif. S o i l w a s c o l l e c t e d from beneath overhangs on the two l a r g e r boulders, and t h e s o i l beneath t h e smaller boulder w a s c o l l e c t e d a f t e r r o l l i n g t h e boulder. S o i l was c o l l e c t e d from t h e f i l l e t of t h e southernmost boulder, and a rake sample w a s taken from an a r e a about 5 meters e a s t of t h i s boulder. Another rake sample w a s c o l l e c t e d from t h e l i g h t m a n t l e about 50 meters north of t h e break i n slope a t t h e base of t h e South Massif, i n an a r e a of sparse rock fragments. S o i l i n t h e sample area i s l i g h t t o medium gray. The surface i s satu r a t e d by c r a t e r l e t s up t o about 5 centimeters i n diameter. The s o i l appears from b o o t p r i n t s t o have a r a t h e r low cohesiveness.

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Craters 3 t o 5 meters i n diameter are common, but most a r e e i t h e r subdued o r have only s l i g h t l y r a i s e d r i m s . N blocky c r a t e r s are v i s i b l e o i n t h e area of s t a t i o n 2, and there i s no evidence t h a t any of the f r e s h e r c r a t e r s penetrate t o consolidated rock. A few s m a l l , cloddy c r a t e r s a r e v i s i b l e , but none are i n t h e immediate sampling areas. "he crew reported seeing lobes of unconsolidated material extending from t h e slopes of South Massif onto t h e l i g h t mantle. The lobes a r e esp e c i a l l y prominent on t h e south w a l l of Nansen Crater and encroach onto t h e north w a l l , suggesting downslope mass wasting. Visible lobes do not extend as f a r as t h e rake sample area of t h e l i g h t mantle. The boulders a r e probably representative of material from high on t h e slope of South Massif; t h e f i n e s i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e boulders a r e probably derived l a r g e l y from South Massif, but with some contamination from c r a t e r e j e c t a o f f t h e l i g h t and dzrk mantles. The rake sample on t h e l i g h t mantle probably contains l i g h t mantle and some material. .ejected o f f South Massif and from t h e dark mantle.
4.12.2.7 S t a t i o n 2A ( f o u r t h lunar roving vehicle sample stop).S t a t i o n 2A i s l o c a t e d about 500 meters northeast of Hansen Crater on t h e l i g h t mantle. It w a s o r i g i n a l l y planned as a lunar rover sample s t o p , but during t h e mission, it w a s decided t o take a traverse gravimeter reading at t h i s stop. While iff t h e rover, t h e crew collected four samples.
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Rock fragments up t o s e v e r a l centineters i n diameter cover l e s s than one percent of t h e surface. Many appear t o be only s l i g h t l y buried, and f i l l e t s a r e poorly developed. The crew described t h e surface material as blue-gray s o i l t o a depth of about 5 t o 1 0 centimeters, and a lighter-colored s o i l below. The surface i s s a t u r a t e d with c r a t e r s up t o 5 centimenters i n diameters. Larger c r a t e r s up t o about 5 meters i n diameter a r e sparse t o f a i r l y common. Most of t h e c r a t e r s are subdued o r have only s l i g h t l y r a i s e d r i m s . None of t h e c r a t e r s have blocky e j e c t a , but a few appear t o be cloddy. Samples c o l l e c t e d include a fragment, probably breccia; a clod which d i s i n t e g r a t e d t o s o i l by t h e time it reached t h e Lunar Receiving Laborat o r y ; and a sample of t h e upper blue-gray material, which may have some contamination by e j e c t a from t h e dark mantle. A sample of l i g h t material from t h e bottom of a 15-centimeter trench was a l s o collected, and it i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i s t h e most representative sample of l i g h t mantle f i n e s t h a t was returned by t h e mission.

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4-28 S t a t i o n 3.- S t a t i o n 3 i s located on t h e l i g h t mantle near 4.i2.2.8 t h e base of t h e scarp, approximately 50 meters e a s t of t h e r i m of Lara Crater. A l l of t h e samples except t h e drive tube were collected f r o m t h e r a i s e d r i m of a c r a t e r 1 0 meters i n diameter. Time at t h e s t a t i o n was l i m i t e d and w a s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r d e t a i l e d , systematic documentation of t h e samples. Some of t h e individual rock fragments sampled cannot be recognized on pre-sampling photographs, but the locations of all t h e samples are knowri with reasonable c e r t a i n t y . The drive tube w a s taken about 20 meters south-southeast of t h e r i m of t h e 10-meter-diameter c r a t e r . Rock fragments 1 t o 25 centimeters across are f a i r l y common but cover l e s s t h a n 1 percent of t h e surface, and several boulders up t o l m e t e r across are v i s i b l e i n t h e panorama. Most of the rocks a r e rounded, except f o r t h e l a r g e s t boulders, which a r e generally angular t o subrounded. The l a r g e s t rocks a r e generally near c r a t e r s several meters i n diameter. Rock fragments were collected from t h e r i m of a c r z t e r 1 0 meters i n diameter and include s e v e r a l samples of b r e c c i a similar t o samples collected at s t a t i o n 2. F i l l e t s are poorly developed, but a f e w of t h e rocks are apparently mre than one-half buried. The s o i l at t h e surface w a s described as medium-gray, but light-gray material w a s kicked up from j u s t below t h e surface material at t h e c r a t e r r i m . A trench 20-centimetbrs deep showed t h a t medium-gray surface material about one-half centimeter t h i c k o v e r l i e s a light-gray l a y e r 3 centimeters I t h i c k , which, i n t u r n , o v e r l i e s marbled o r mottled l i g h t and medium-gray material. The s o i l appears t o be loosely compacted and saturated with c r a t e r l e t s up t o about 5 centimeters i n diameter.
Craters l a r g e r than 4 centimeters and up t o about 2 meters i n dime t e r a r e f a i r l y common. Several of these have f r e s h cloddy e j e c t a , but all of t h e s m a l l c r a t e r s i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y of t h e sampled area appear t o be subdued shallow pans. Craters ranging from 2 meters up t o about 15 meters i n diameter are a l s o f a i r l y conmon, and several have r a i s e d and somewhat blocky r i m s . One such c r a t e r i s t h e 10-meter diame t e r c r a t e r at t h e sampling s i t e . These c r a t e r s appear t o have penet r a t e d only unconsolidated and somewhat rocky material of t h e l i g h t mant l e . Lara Crater, 500 meters i n diameter, and t h e l a r g e s t c r a t e r i n t h e a r e a i s probably covered by l i g h t m a n t l e material, as suggested by premission mapping. It i s probable t h a t t h e samples collected are r e l a t e d only t o t h e l i g h t mantle and not t o materials t h a t were e j e c t e d from depth from Lara Crater.

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4.12.2.9 F i r t h lunar roving vehicle sample stop.- The f i f t h lunar roving vehicle sample stop i s located about 800 meters northeast of stat i o n 3 i n t h e blocky e j e c t a of a c r a t e r i n t h e l i g h t mantle. Rock fragments range from 1 centimeter t o 50 centimeters i n diameter, and cover 1 5 t o 20 percent of t h e e j e c t a blanket surface. The fragments a r e dominantly angular and p a r t i a l l y buried. No f i l l e t s are v i s i b l e i n t h e photographs.

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4-29 The crew commented t h a t t h e e j e c t a i s much d i f f e r e n t than they had previously seen around other c r a t e r s . They also suggested t h a t t h e crat e r may p e n e t r a t e through t h e l i g h t mantle i n t o bedrock. The sample i s a fragment of e j e c t a from t h i s c r a t e r and may not be representative of l i g h t mantle material. 4.12.2.10 S i x t h lunar roving vehicle sample stop.- The s i x t h lunar roving vehicle sample stop i s located about 1.3 kilometers northeast of s t a t i o n 3 , on t h e l i g h t mantle. The sequence of driving photographs sugg e s t s t h a t t h e sample was taken somewhere i n the v i c i n i t y of two s m a l l cloddy c r a t e r s . Rock fragments 1 t o 5 centimeters across are sparse and cover less than 1 percent of t h e surface. A few boulders 1 t o 2 meters across a r e s c a t t e r e d over t h e surface. Many of t h e rocks are e i t h e r s i t t i n g on t h e surface o r only s l i g h t l y buried. F i l l e t s appear t o be poorly developed. The surface i s s a t u r a t e d w i t h c r a t e r s up t o 5 centimeters across. Craters 5 centimeters t o 2 meters across a r e common and most are shallow subdued pans. Craters 2 t o 1 0 meters across are sparse and are mostly subdued o r have s l i g h t l y r a i s e d r i m s .

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The sample c o l l e c t e d i s s o i l from the surface of t h e l i g h t mzitle; it i s probably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of l i g h t mantle f i n e s except f o r contaminat i o n by e j e c t a from d d k mantle materials. 4.12.2.11 S t a t i o n 4.- S t a t i o n 4 i s located on t h e south r i m c r e s t of Shorty, a ll0-meter c r a t e r near the north edge of t h e l i g h t mantle ( f i g . 4-5). Shorty resembles Van Serg Crater and i s similar t o other c r a t e r s t h a t have been i n t e r p r e t e d as young impact c r a t e r s . The f l o o r i s hummocky, with a low c e n t r a l mound and with warginal hummocks t h a t resemble slumps forming discontinuous benches along the lower p a r t s of the c r a t e r w a l l . The r i m i s d i s t i n c t l y raised and i s sharp i n o r b i t a l views. The dark e j e c t a blanket i s e a s i l y distinguished from t h e r e f l e c t i v e surface of t h e surrounding l i g h t mantle, which it overlies. However, t h e low albedo of t h e e j e c t a i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e dark mantle elsewhere on t h e p l a i n s surface.
The c e n t r a l mound i s blocky and extremely jagged, and t h e hummocks o r benches t h a t e n c i r c l e t h e f l o o r a r e a l s o blocky. Although some port i o n s of t h e walls are blocky, t h e w a l l s , the r i m , and the outer flank of Shorty Crater consist l a r g e l y of dark material t h a t i s much f i n e r grained than t h e floor. O the crater r i m , fragments ranging up t o about n 1 5 centimeters i n diameter t y p i c a l l y cover l e s s than 3 percent of t h e surface. S c a t t e r e d coarser fragments, ranging up t o at least 5 meters i n diameter , a r e present.

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Sampling w a s c a r r i e d out i n a low place on t h e r i m c r e s t of Shorty j u s t south of a 5-meter boulder of fractured b a s a l t . Debris t h a t may have been shed from t h e boulder l i e s on t h e nearby s u r f a c e , and blocks a r e abundant on t h i s p a r t of t h e i n n e r c r a t e r w a l l . All of t h e rocks examined a r e basalt. They a r e commonly intensely fractured and some show i r r e g u l a r knobby surfaces t h a t resemble t h e surfaces of t e r r e s t r i a l flow b r e c c i a s . Rocks range from angular t o subrounded; some a r e p a r t i a l l y buried; some are f i l l e t e d , including t h e upslope s i d e s of a f e w of the l a r g e r boulders on t h e inner c r a t e r w a l l . The c r a t e r r i m and flanks are p i t t e d by s c a t t e r e d , s m a l l (up t o seve r a l maters) c r a t e r s whose r i m s range from sharp t o subdued. Typically t h e i r e j e c t a a r e no b l o c k i e r , except f o r clods, than t h e adjacent surfaces.
A trench dug i n t h e r i m c r e s t exposed compact reddish s o i l buried beneath a 1/2-centimeter-thick gray s o i l l a y e r t y p i c a l of t h e general s o i l surface at t h e s t a t i o n . The reddish s o i l occurs i n a meter-wide zone t h a t trends p a r a l l e l t o t h e c r a t e r r i m c r e s t f o r about 2 meters. Color zoning w i t h i n t h e colored s o i l occurs as 10-centimeters-wide yellowish bands t h a t form t h e southwest and northeast margins of the deposit. They a r e i n s t e e p sharp contact w i t h gray s o i l zdjacent t o the colored s o i l , and grade inward t o :the more reddish s o i l t h a t makes up t h e major p a r t of t h e zone. A drive! tube placed i n the a x i a l portion of the colored I zone bottomed i n black fine-grained material t h a t reminded the crew of magnetite. Similar reddish m a t e r i a l has been excavated by a s m a l l , f r e s h c r a t e r high on t h e northwest i n t e r i o r w a l l of Shorty and perhaps a l s o on t h e r i m c r e s t a short distance southeast of the lunar rover.

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Although a volcanic o r i g i n has been considered f o r Shorty Crater, no compelling d a t a t o support t h e volcanic hypothesis have been recog.nized. Most probably Shorty i s an impact c r a t e r . I t s blocky floor nay represent t h e t o p of t h e subfloor b a s a l t , which i s buried by 1 0 t o 1 5 meters of poorly consolidated r e g o l i t h , dark mantle, and l i g h t mantle. The predominantly fine-grained w a l l , r i m , and flank materials would then be e j e c t a derived l a r g e l y from materials zbove t h e subfloor, and t h e bas a l t blocks would be e j e c t a derived from t h e subfloor. Regardless of i t s o r i g i n , t h e c r a t e r i s c l e a r l y younger than the l i g h t mantle. The o r i g i n of t h e r e d s o i l i s currently enigmatic. It and t h e underlying black s o i l may represent a s i n g l e clod of e j e c t a excavated by t h e Shorty impact from similar materials previously deposited i n t h e targ e t area by impact or volcanism. However, t h e symmetrical color zonation o f t h e r e d ' s o i l and p a r a l l e l i s m of t h e zone's steep sharp boundaries w i t h both t h e i n t e r n a l color banding and t h e axis of the r i m c r e s t are improbable f e a t u r e s * f o r a clod of e j e c t a . Perhaps volcanic o r i g i n along a fissure at t h e c r a t e r r i m c r e s t should be considered.

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4- 31
The 1/2-centimeter-thick gray s o i l t h a t mantles t h e r e d s o i l unit should be present at the t o p of the drive tube sample. It could have been formed by e i t h e r volcanism, impact processes, o r r e g o l i t h formation and deserves s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n analysis. However , Shorty Crater i s younger than any widespread dark mantle deposit near s t a t i o n 4. Seventh l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop.- The seventh 4.12.2.12 lunar roving v e h i c l e sample' s t o p i s located at t h e apex of t h e "v"-shaped Victory C r a t e r , very near t h e contact of dark mantle with t h e finger of l i g h t mantle. . The a r e a w a s mapped as dark mantle near t h e l i g h t mantle c o n t a c t , but t h e presence of l i g h t mar-tle material w a s not detected by t h e crew at t h e sample s i t e . Victory xas judged by t h e crew t o be a ser i e s of c r a t e r s with a d e f i n i t e r i m , a d probably i s an impact feature with normal e j e c t a . The e j e c t a blanket and the r i m appeared t o be blanketed by dark mantle, and t h e surface on the r i m looked l i k e it had a "normal block population", although the inner w a l l s of t h e c r a t e r were l o c a l l y very blocky. The blocks on t h e r i m near t h e s a G l e s i t e a r e a l l less than one met e r i n diameter and cover two t o t h r e e percent of t h e area. B u r i a l of t h e rocks seems t o be moderate t o s l i g h t and f i l l e t s a r e only r a r e l y prese n t . The rocks a r e subangular t o rounded, and some have planar s i d e s . The s o i l appears norm@, and lunar rovsr t r a c k s i n t h e s o i l a r e very sharply defined. Scattered subdued crEters 1 t o 5 meters i n diameter are present near t h e kample s i t e , but Lone seem t o have a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h e sample. The sample i s s o i l t h a t should be representative of the surface mat e r i a l i n t h e area. This s o i l sample i s probably mostly dark mantle, but could contain a considerable amount of s o i l fragments derived from subf l o o r basalt. 4.12.2.13 Eighth l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop.- The eighth l u nar roving vehicle sample s t o p i s loczted i n an a r e a mapped as dark mant l e s l i g h t l y more than one c r a t e r diameter from Camelot and Horatio Crat e r s . The a r e a can be considered as- dz-rk mantle away from the e j e c t a of t h e c l u s t e r of l a r g e c r a t e r s . The surface appearance i s similar t o t h a t at t h e f i r s t , t h i r d , and seventh lunar roving vehicle sampling stop a r e a s , with a fragment coverage of less than 1 percent of t h e area. The photographs taken from t h e rover show t h a t t h i s very low abundance of fragments continues from Victory t o t h e r i m of Canelot. The narrow tongue of l i g h t mantle crossed by t h e t r a v e r s e i s not obvious i n the surface photographs and was not noticed by t h e crew. The sample c o l l e c t e d i s a scoop of s o i l from a i n t e r - c r a t e r area. n The sample s i t e i s within a f e w meters of a c r a t e r one meter i n diameter which has abundant r i m fragments t h a t Eypear t o be clods of s o i l breccia.

4- 32
All fragments near t h e sample s i t e a r e l e s s than 10 centimeters across, and t h e s o i l i n t h e area appears t y p i c a l of s o i l s i n dark m a n t l e areas. Nearby c r a t e r s from 1 t o 5 meters i n diameter may be members of two s m a l l , overlapping c l u s t e r s . Several subdued, nearly rimless c r a t e r s a r e present, as w e l l as at l e a s t 3 c r a t e r s with d i s t i n c t e j e c t a blankets covered with clods. The sample i s probably t y p i c a l of surface material i n areas of dark mantle at some distance from contributions from other formations , and thus- should be comparable t o s o i l from the t h i r d l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop. These two samples a r e good subjects f o r study of v a r i a t i o n i n t h e dark m a n t l e map u n i t .

4.12.2.14 S t a t i o n 5.- S t a t i o n 5 i s located within a block f i e l d on t h e southwest r i m of t h e l a r g e (600-meter) c r a t e r Camelot ( f i g . 4-4). The blocks , which a r e p a r t l y buried by dark mantle material, are exposed near and along t h e low, rounded r i m c r e s t of t h e c r a t e r and extend downward i n t o t h e c r a t e r w a l l s where, as i n other c r a t e r s , outcrops a r e most abundant. Blocks are absent on t h e c r a t e r f l o o r . Outward from t h e r i m c r e s t , t h e block population decreases rapidly within a few meters and t h e t e r r a i n becomes smooth and undulating, but p i t t e d by s m a l l c r a t e r s up t o several meters across.
Within t h e block f i e l d , individual rocks, varying from cobble t o boulder-size , a r e subrounded t o subangular, moderately t o deeply buried, and cover about 30 percen'r; of t h e surface. Except f o r one l o c a l i t y where s o i l occurs on t h e surfacd of a l a r g e f l a t rock, the tops of boulders impressed t h e crew as having been cleaned by the zap-pitting process. F i l l e t i n g i n t h i s area appears t o be minimal.
All of t h e rocks described by t h e crew c o n s t i t u t e subfloor material having a very uniform appearance. Planar t o subplanar concentrations of v e s i c l e s , l i n e a r arrangements of c r y s t a l s , and possible gray zones of f i n e r material cause some v a r i a t i o n s i n rock t e x t u r e s and s t r u c t u r e s . Descriptions by t h e crew i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e rocks are subophitic pyroxenebearing basalts with shiny ilmenite p l a t e l e t s i n t h e vugs and v e s i c l e s .

The s o i l - l i k e mantle seems t o consist of cohesive p a r t i c l e s of miA "raindrop" p a t t e r n i s ubiquitous on t h e mantle. A t Camelot, t h e mantle appears t h i n n e r than at t h e c r a t e r Horatio.

form s m a l l s i z e .

Shallow depressions and subdued c r a t e r s up t o several meters i n diame t e r a r e superposed on t h e r i m and f l o o r of Camelot. These c r a t e r s are younger than Camelot; however, within the observed block f i e l d only one younger c r a t e r of'moderate s i z e ( 4 t o 5 meters) was noted by t h e crew.
The composition, textures, and uniform lithology of t h e e j e c t a blocks around t h e c r a t e r Camelot i n d i c a t e t h a t subfloor b a s a l t s covered t h i s p a r t of t h e v a l l e y f l o o r t o a depth of at least 100 meters p r i o r t o t h e format i o n of t h e c r a t e r . Subsequent t o t h e formation of Camelot, deposits o f

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4-33 dark mantle material p a r t l y buried rocks around t h e r i m and i n the f l o o r of Camelot and p a r t l y f i l l e d and subdued m y younger c r a t e r s i n the area. The samples of b a s a l t from blocks at s t a t i o n 5 should provide a sample of t h e subfloor u n i t t o a depth of 30 meters. 4.12.2.15 Ninth lunar roving vehicle sample stop.- The ninth l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop i s about halfway between t h e lunar module and s t a t i o n 6 i n an a r e a mapped as dark mantle about 2/3 of a c r a t e r diameter south of Henry Crater. Between t h e lunar module/surface e l e c t r i c a l prope r t i e s area and a point about 200 meters south of t h e ninth lunar roving vehicle sampling s t o p , t h e surface i s characterized by 3- t o 5-percent coverage of rock fragments and some large boulders. A t t h i s ninth lunar roving vehicle s t o p , the fragment coverage i s l e s s than 1 percent. To t h e north of t h i s s t o p , the fragment coverage increases as the r i m of Henry i s approached, but never reaches more than a few percent except near young c r a t e r s . The sample stop i s i n the p a r t of t h e traverse from t h e l u n a r module t o s t a t i o n 6 with the fewest rock fragments. The fragments i n t h e a r e a include some t h a t seem t o be blocks excavated by a 10meter c r a t e r and some t h a t appear t o be blocks and clods excavated by s e v e r a l 1 t o 2-meter c r a t e r s . The sparseness of blocks ejected by crat e r s suggests t h a t t h e blocks were derived from t h e r e g o l i t h r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y from t h e subfloor u n i t . The blocks are angular t o subrounded, less than 30 centimeters across, and s l i g b t l y t o mostly buried. Only a few of t h e rocks have f + l l e t s . The sample i s a s o i l sample from a s m a l l c r a t e r with abundant clods of s o i l b r e c c i a on i t s r i m . It should be reasonably representative of surface m a t e r i a l i n t h e nearby area of dark mantle. Some mixture o f mat e r i a l from t h e re-excavated e j e c t a from Henry Crater i s t o be expected. However, t h e sample should be of considerable value i n determining geographic v a r i a t i o n i n dark mantle material. 4.12.2.16 Tenth l u n a r roving vehicle sample stoe.- The t e n t h l u n a r roving vehicle sample s t o p i s adjacent t o Turning Point rock, 2.8 kilome t e r s north of t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties t r a n s m i t t e r . The area was mapped as dark mantle near t h e gradational contact with North Massif material. The sample s i t e i s on a gentle slope above a moderately dist i n c t break i n slope with t h e valley f l o o r and below an equally d i s t i n c t break i n slope with t h e North Massif. The material underlying t h e area between t h e breaks i n slope may be debris from the North Massif. Turning Point rock r e s t s within a halo of smaller boulders and rock fragments t h a t are probably derived from it. The rocks a r e rounded, p a r t l y buried, and f i l l e t e d on t h e upslope side. Turning Point rock probably reached i t s present p o s i t i o n as one large boulder t h a t has since been fragmented.

4- 34
The sample was taken about 4 meters north of Turning Point rock, and it c o n s i s t s of a t l e a s t t h r e e rock fragments and some s o i l . Most l i k e l y , t h e fragments i n t h e sample are derived from Turning Point rock, but they could be debris derived s e p a r a t e l y from North Massif. Although t h e s o i l may contain f i n e debris from t h e rock, it most l i k e l y i s a sample of t h e s o i l from North Massif t h a t has moved downslope and banked against the rock. 4.12.2.17 S t a t i o n 6.- S t a t i o n 6 i s on the south slope of t h e North Massif, approximately 250 meters north of the break i n slope between t h e v a l l e y f l o o r and the massif. The a r e a slopes approximately 1 degrees t o 1 t h e south and i s covered by many l a r g e blocks and smaller fragments which have come from higher on t h e North Massif ( f i g . 4-6). Twenty meters from t h e rover are f i v e l a r g e boulders aligned do-mslope from t h e end of a s i n g l e boulder t r a c k as if a s i n g l e boulder broke i n t o f i v e p a r t s . Four were sampled. The boulder t r a c k made by t h e s t a t i o n 6 boulders can be traced one t h i r d of t h e way up t h e North Massif. This i s the lowest l e v e l on the mountain where high concentrations of boulders appear. The sharpness of t h e boulder t r a c k of the s t a t i o n 6 boulders indicates t h a t t h e boulder may have been i n i t s present p o s i t i o n only a short length of time. The shadowed s o i l w i l l probab:y r e f l e c t t h i s . One of t h e boulders has a prominent north overhang, beneath which a shadowed s o i l was collected along with two s o i l samples c o l j e c t e d outside the shadow. A s o i l sample was c o l l e c t e d from t h e surface of one of t h e boulders. A rake sample and a s i n g l e drive tube were taken within a few n e t e r s of t h e boulders. Two undocumented grab samples were c o l l e c t e d probably near t h e rover, and m o t h e r sample w a s c o l l e c t e d downslope fron the s t a t i o n area. Less than 1 percent of t h e surface i n the s t a t i o n 6 a r e a i s covered by fragments. Tnere appears t o be a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n of fragments i n t h e a r e a , though not as s t r i k i n g as t h e s t a t i o n 7 area. A s a t s t a t i o n 7, t h e r e appear t o be r e l a t i v e l y few f r a e e n t s i n t h e s i z e range of 3 t o 1 5 centimeters. Fragments l e s s than 1 / 2 meter are s c a t t e r e d randomly over t h e s u r f a c e , l a r g e r ones are generally i n c l u s t e r s . Most blocks a r e subrounded t o rounded. A few angular blocks are s c a t t e r e d over t h e surface. F i l l e t s a r e well developed on t h e upslope s i d e of some of t h e l a r g e boulders. F i l l e t s on blocks less than 20 t o 30 centimeters a r e poorly developed or absent. The medium-gray s o i l i n t h e s t a t i o n 6 area i s moderately firm away from c r a t e r r i m s . The rover wheels made shallow impressions and threw very l i t t l e spray, 1 0 t o 15 meters away from c r a t e r s . Close t o a 10-met e r c r a t e r i n t h e area, b o o t p r i n t s and rover wheel penetration were deeper, and spray generated by them was considerably more. The drive tube coll e c t e d near t h e rover was pushed by hand t o a depth of 1 0 centimeters.

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4-35
Craters , randomly s c a t t e r e d over the surface, range i n s i z e from t h e l i m i t of resolution t o 10 meters. Craters l a r g e r than 1 meter are sparse. The r i m s a r e smooth and unblocky, and usually more r a i s e d on the downslope s i d e . A few s m a l l f r e s h c r a t e r s have blocky r i m s , with the e j e c t a deposited p r e f e r e n t i a l l y downslope. The c l u s t e r of f i v e boulders was probably at one time a single boulder. * There are a t l e a s t two major rock types represented: a highly vesicular light-gray b r e c c i a , and a darker blue-gray breccia. The lower t h r e e boulders a r e highly v e s i c u l a r , l i g h t gray breccias. The contact between t h e two breccias i s i n t h e second boulder from the top. Near the contact a r e inclusions of blue-gray breccia i n the vesicular breccia. The bluegray b r e c c i a i s p a r t i a l l y r e c r y s t a l l i z e d , and has inclusions of f r i a b l e breccia. The contact between the inclusions and blue-gray brecciz i s sharp. If all f i v e boulders were a t one time p a r t of t h e same rock, t h e r e are at l e a s t four stages of brecciation. The s i m i l a r i t y of the station-6 boulders t o t h e station-7 boulder suggests strongly t h a t the North Massif i s composed primarily of multi-cycle breccias. Other samples of the North Massif are t h e rake sample, drive tube, and three grab samples, d l of which are probably composed primarily of eroded material from the massif with possible minor contribution of subfloor material.

4.12.2.18 S t a t i o n 7.- Station 7 i s located at t h e base of the North Massif, j u s t above thejbreak i n slope between t h e valley f l o o r and t h e massif. The slope toward t h e valley i s zbout 9 degrees. The s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d on North Massif material and the s i t e contains boulders from slopes high on t h e massif. Several rock chips were collected at the s t a t i o n from such a 3-meter boulder of complex, multi-stage breccias. The 3-meter brecc i a boulder i s t h e l a r g e s t one i n the s t a t i o n area, but other large boulders can be seen i n t h e panorama. The l m g e rock appears similar i n color and weathering c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the other boulders i n the area. Several a d d i t i o n a l fragments were s e l e c t e d from t h e r e g o l i t h surface.
Less than one percent of t h e surface i s covered by blocks. There appears t o be a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n : Frzgments from the l i m i t of resolut i o n t o 2 or 3 centimeters are abundant, and blocks 30 centimeters and l a r g e r are common, but t h e r e i s a s c a r c i t y of blocks i n the s i z e range o f 3 t o 30 centimeters. Blocks smaller than 30 centimeters are s c a t t e r e d randomly over t h e surface; those l a r g e r than 30 centimeters are i n c l u s t e r s . Most blocks, i n all s i z e ranges, a r e rounded, but a s m a l l percentage are angular. One 2- t o 3-meter boulder downslope from the samp l i n g area i s s t r i k i n g l y more angular than most other rocks. The rocks range from being deeply buried t o perched. The sampled boulder overhangs t h e surface on t h e e a s t , west, and, presumably, south sides. A few h a l f meter boulders i n t h e same a r e a are almost t o t a l l y buried, and most fragments less than 1 meter are at least p a r t i a l l y buried. F i l l e t i n g i s w e l l developed on blocks l a r g e r than 1 / 2 meter, and poorly developed o r absent

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4- 36
on smaller blocks. F i l l e t s are r e s t r i c t e d t o the u p h i l l s i d e of the blocks. One meter-sized boulder has a f i l l e t extending three-fourths of t h e distance up t h e upslope face. The boulder i s a vesicular hornfelsic b r e c c i a (described by t h e crew as v e s i c u l a r anorthosite) i n contact with a dense blue-gray breccia. I n t h e dense blue breccia i s a 11/2-meter crushed light-colored inclusion , which i s intruded by d i k e l e t s of breccia. One sample i s a piece of blue-gray b r e c c i a i n f a i r l y sharp contact with a t a n b r e c c i a which intrudes it. A l a r g e separate sample appears t o be similar t o t h e blue-gray b r e c c i a i n t h e boulder. Several small chips collected on t h e surface a r e probably s i m i l a r t o the boulder, and a l s o representat i v e of North Massif m a t e r i a l , although there may be a minor contribution from subfloor b a s a l t s .
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The medium-gray s o i l i n t h e s t a t i o n 7 zrea i s r e l a t i v e l y firmly compacted. Bootprints and rover t r a c k s penetrzte between 1 and 2 centimeters. Very l i t t l e spray w a s generated from bootscuffs or t h e lunar rover wheels. The s o i l i s q u i t e cohesive (as shown by v e r t i c a l w a l l s of bootprints and t h e i n t a c t state of t r e a d i m p r i n t s ) . Craters i n t h e s t a t i o n 7 area range from the l i m i t of resolution t o Craters 1 / 2 meter or l e s s a r e common. Most c r a t e r s have somewhat subdued non-blocky r i m s , and e j e c t a i s not v i s i b l e . A few s m a l l ( l e s s than 1/2-meter) c r a t e r s have r a i s e d blocky r i m s . The n ejects around these c r a t e r s i s deposited p r e f e r e n t i a l l y downslope. O a meter-diameter c r a t e r downslope from the rover, t h e e j e c t a i s p i l e d against a rock downslope and forms only a s l i g h t raised r i m on the u p h i l l side.

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The l a r g e boulder at s t a t i o n 7 probably originated at l e a s t one-third of t h e way up t h e North Massif because t h i s i s t h e lowest l e v e l on the massif where c l u s t e r s of boulders appear. The rock types seen i n t h i s boulder a r e similar t o those i n l a r g e boulders a t s t a t i o n 6, making t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s being an exotic improbable, and suggesting t h a t samples of t h e boulders are representative of the massif. These samples i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e North Massif i s composed of multi-cycle breccias. Eleventh lunar roving vehicle sample stop The eleventh 4.12.2.19 l u n a r roving vehicle sample s t o p i s located between s t a t i o n s 7 and 8 on the southeast r i m of SWP Crater. Before the mission, t h e area was mapped as dark m a n t l e blanketing S P Crater. The szmple s i t e was chosen by t h e W crew i n t h e e j e c t a blanket of a f r e s h c r a t e r estimated t o be 30 t o 40 met e r s i n diameter. The rocks i n t h e sample area are p a r t of t h e e j e c t a blanket and were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e crew as clods of s o i l breccia t h a t break e a s i l y and are "chewed up" by the rover wheels. A t the r i m , and j u s t within t h e r i m , t h e clods cover as much as 70 percent of t h e surface and at t h e sample s i t e cover as much as 50 percent of t h e surface. The clods are very angular with some rounding of the tops. A l l are f o o t b a l l s i z e o r smaller. The s o i l between t h e clods i s t h e same color and probably t h e same composition as t h e clods. Within the e j e c t a blanket of t h e 30- t o 40-meter c r a t e r , t h e r e are no v i s i b l e younger c r a t e r s .

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The area surrounding t h e 30- t o 40-meter c r a t e r appears t y p i c a l of dark mantle surfaces t h a t have a rock fragment population of l e s s than one percent. The 30- t o 40-meter c r a t e r should have penetrated some 6 t o 8 meters of t h e s o i l (possibly dark mantle), which i s a considerable g r e a t e r thickness than t h e s o i l at s t a t i o n 1 A . Possibly t h e c r a t e r at t h e eleventh l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop penetrated the same type of material as d i d Van Serg Crater ( s t a t i o n 9 ) and i f s o , t h a t material i s a ' d i s t i n c t u n i t t h a t i s not present a t s t a t i o n lA. However, with our present knowledge, t h e dark mantle at the eleventh lunar roving vehicle sample s t o p , s t a t i o n 9 , and s t a t i o n 1 i s considered t o be the sane mater i a l but with a l a r g e range i n thickness. The sample taken a t t h e eleventh lunar w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining the near r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e e j e c t a blanket of the i t s p o s i t i o n on t h e e j e c t a blanket suggests 2 t o 4 meters below the surface. roving vehicle sample stop surface stratigraphy. It i s 30- t o 40-meter c r a t e r , and t h a t it came fYom a depth of

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4.12.2.20 S t a t i o n 8.- S t a t i o n 8 l i e s near the base of t h e Sculptured H i l l s south of Wessex Cleft and about 4 kilometers northeast of t h e l u n a r module. The t e r r a i n i s undulating and forms a moderately inclined t r a n s i t i o n zone between t h e h i l l s and the valley floor t o t h e southwest; slopes increase noticeably towards t h e h i l l s within the sample area. Eleven samp l e s were c o l l e c t e d , representing t w o , possible t h r e e , major rock types , and including s o i l s , alrake sample, and a s u i t e of four samples from a trench. Small cohesive clods and pebble-size coherent rock fragments a r e common throughout t h e s t a t i o n a r e a , but l a r g e r rocks and boulders a r e rare. Most of t h e rocks are subrounded t o subangular, are well exposed t o p a r t l y buried, have poorly developed f i l l e t s , and a r e only t h i n l y covered by dust. The population of block and fragments does not increase g r e a t l y around t h e r i m s of any c r a t e r s i n the area photographed. With t h e exception of one coarse-grained gabbroic boulder, a l l of t h e rocks l a r g e r than 20 centimeters which were examined had the appearance of subfloor b a s a l t s . The gabbroic rock w a s estimated by t h e crew t o be made up of about equal amounts of blue-gray plagioclase (possibly maskelynite) and a l i g h t yellow-tan mineral , probably orthopyroxene ; i t s average g r a i n s i z e appeared t o be about 3 t o 5 millimeters. The surface of t h i s boulder w a s coated by glass. Both t h e top and bottom of t h e boul d e r were sampled. A white f r i a b l e rock sampled by the crew i n a s m a l l p i t c r a t e r within t h e w a l l of a l a r g e r c r a t e r has probably been highly shocked by at l e a s t two episodes of f a i r l y recent cratering.

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The s o i l i n t h i s area, at l e a s t t o the 20 t o 25 centimeter depth of t h e trench samples, c o n s i s t s of fine-grained, cohesive p a r t i c l e s . It has t h e dark appearance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e nmtle throughout t h e valley f l o o r . S u r f i c i a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s r e l a t e d t o s t r u c t u r e were not observed, but many t r a c k s made by t h e downhill movement of clods of a l l s i z e s were noted on t h e s t e e p e r slopes.
N o l a r g e c r a t e r s a r e present i n t h e i m e d i a t e area; those up e r a l meters i n diameter a r e common, however, and have a continuum phologies from fresh-appearing , topographicdly sharp features t o subdued depressions. None of t h e c r a t e r s h u e e i t h e r prominently or blocky r i m s .

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A t t h i s stage of our knowledge, probably t h e most important r e s u l t s obtained from t h e f i e l d observations of t h e materials at s t a t i o n 8 i s t h e apparent complete d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n lithology of t h e rocks on the surface at s t a t i o n 8 compared with those a t the base of t h e massifs. If the gabb r o i c rock or t h e basalts are representative of materials forming t h e Sculptured H i l l s , t h e implications favored as t o t h e composition and ori g i n of t h e h i l l s will be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t fro= the premission i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t t h e h i l l s a r e S e r e n i t a t i s basin e j e c t a . However, only a small numker of rocks were avaifable f o r examination, and these may not be repr e s e n t a t i v e . The absence iof boulder tracks , together with the glass coating on t h e gabbroic bouldqr, suggests t h a t the rocks may be exotic blocks e j e c t e d from d i s t a n t impact c r a t e r s . It i s 2ossible t h a t t h e rake sample and t h e sample from t h e c r a t e r wall may provide b e t t e r clues t o the comp o s i t i o n and o r i g i n of t h e Sculptured H i l l s . Dark mantle material i n t h i s a r e a i s believed t o be r e l a t i v e l y t h i n , thus rake and s o i l samples may contain a mixture of dark mantle, subfloor e j e c t a , and debris mass wasted from t h e Sculptured H i l l s .

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4.12.2.21 S t a t i o n 9.- S t a t i o n 9 i s located on t h e southeast r i m and nearby o u t e r flank of Van Serg Crater. The c r a t e r , 90 meters i n diameter, has a blocky c e n t r a l mound about 30 meters across, discontinuous benches on t h e i n n e r walls, and a r a i s e d blocky r i m with a d i s t i n c t c r e s t out from which slopes t h e blocky e j e c t a blanket. I n both o r b i t a l and lunar surface photographs, V a n Serg resembles o t h e r c r a t e r s t h a t have been i n t e r p r e t e d as t y p i c a l young impact c r a t e r s . I t s e j e c t a blanket i s d i s t i n c t i n l u n a r surface v i e w s because of i t s blockiness, which i s greater than t h a t of t h e adjacent p l a i n s . The e j e c t a blanket cen be recognized, at l e a s t i n p a r t , i n premission o r b i t a l photographs as s d i s t i n c t topographic f e a t u r e , but it i s inseparable from t h e adjacent plains on t h e b a s i s of albedo. Exploration at s t a t i o n 9 w a s concentrated i n two areas: southeast r i m c r e s t of t h e c r a t e r , and ( 2 ) the surface of t h e k e t about 70 p e t e r s out from t h e c r a t e r r i m t o the southeast, l u n a r rover was parked. I n both sample areas t h e predominant
(1)t h e e j e c t a blanwhere t h e fragment

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s i z e ranges up t o about 30 centimeters, with a few boulders as l a r g e as 1 t o 2 meters i n diameter. A t t h e r i m c r e s t fragments l a r g e r than 2 cent i m e t e r s cover about 10 percent of the surface, but they cover no more than 3.percent of t h e surface i n t h e s a q l i n g area near t h e rover. The predominant rock type at s t a t i o n 9 i s s o f t or f r i a b l e dark-matrix b r e c c i a . White c l a s t s up t o about 2 centimeters i n diameter a r e v i s i b l e i n some rocks on t h e c r a t e r r i m , and lig3t-colored c l a s t s possibly as l a r g e as 1 / 2 meter i n diameter were seen i n rocks of the c e n t r a l mound. Some rocks are s t r i k i n g l y slabby. Closely spaced p l a t y f r a c t u r e s occur i n some, and a few show d i s t i n c t a l t e r m t i n g dark and l i g h t bands. Some frothy g l a s s a g g l u t i n a t e w a s a l s o sampled. I n s p i t e of t h e i r apparent s o f t n e s s , t h e rocks a r e t y p i c a l l y anguler. Many a r e p a r t i a l l y buried, but t h e r e i s l i t t l e or no development or” fillets even on t h e steep inner w a l l s of Van Serg Crater. S o i l at t h e surface i s uniformly fine and gray with no v i s i b l e l i n e a r p a t t e r n s . The uppermost one or two centimeters i s loose and soft, but compacts e a s i l y t o preserve bootprints. The trench near t h e lunar rover exposed about 1 0 centimeters of a white or l i g h t gray s o i l u n i t below a 7-centimeter upper dark u n i t . Craters younger than Van Serg a r e extremely r a r e i n t h e s t a t i o n area. A l a r g e subdued depression southwest ok t h e rover may be an old c r a t e r now mantled by Van Serg e j e c t a . Frequency and angularity of blocks , paucity of c r a t e r s , general absence of f i l l e t s , and uneroded nature of c r a t e r r i m and c e n t r a l mound a t t e s t t o t h e extreme youth of V a 2 Serg Crater. Such c r a t e r forms elsewhere have been a t t r i b u t e d t o impact, and no d i r e c t evidence of volcanic o r i g i n has been recognized. A n ir;tDact o r i g i n seems l i k e l y .
A few s m a l l (about 1-meter) f r e s h c r a t e r s are present.

The e j e c t a , unexpectedly, i s domineted by s o f t dark matrix breccia i n s t e a d of subfloor b a s a l t . The rocks m y be s o i l b r e c c i a s , indurated and e j e c t e d i n t h e V a n Serg impact. If s o , a fragmental u n i t t h a t may 5 be as much as 1 t o 20 meters t h i c k must o v e r l i e t h e subfloor b a s d t i n t h e Van Serg area. Development of a r e g o l i t h t h i s t h i c k in s i t u i s d i f f i c u l t t o reconcile with t h e apparent youth of t h e valley floor. Hence, t h e V a n Serg rocks may represent a young mantle of transported fragmental m a t e r i d or a mature r e g o l i t h t h a t w a s developed on the surface of t h e subfloor b a s a l t and w a s buried by the dark mantle p r i o r t o the Van Serg impact. S o i l samples probably c o n s i s t of fine-grained Van Serg e j e c t a . The upper 7 centimeters of t h e t r e n c h m a y have been darkened by soilmodif’ying processes, which would a l s o have affected other s o i l samples and t h e upper p a r t of t h e d r i v e tube. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the upper 7 centimeter zone o f t h e trench may represent a young dark mantling u n i t deposited a f t e r t h e Van

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Serg event. Deposition of such a young t h i n u n i t would account f o r t h e similar albedos of t h e Van Serg e j e c t a blanket and t h e general plains surface.
4.12.2.22 Twelfth l u n a r roving vehicle sample stop.- The twelfth l u n a r roving vehicle sample s t o p i s located north of Sherlock at about 1/3 of a c r a t e r diameter out from t h e r i m i n an area mapped as dark mantle.

The samples c o n s i s t of a fragment of basalt and a separate s o i l samp l e . They were c o l l e c t e d within a meter of a 1-meter boulder and a 1-meter c r a t e r t h a t has clods of s o i l breccia. The rock sample i s probably a subfloor b a s a l t derived from a depth of 50 t o 90 meters. The s o i l sample probably i s representative of t h e surface material i n t h e a r e a , which i s mapped as dark mantle, although it may contain a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of material derived from t h e nearby boulder. Surface photographs show an abundance (5 percent) of rock fragments, including s e v e r a l boulders (1meter a c r o s s ) , only t h e tops of which are v i s i b l e . The rocks a r e very l i k e l y e j e c t a of subfloor material from Sherlock Crater. Their s i z e suggests t h a t not more than a f e w meters of dark mantle have been deposited o r formed since t h e Sherlock Crater impact. The s l i g h t l y protruding boulders are smooth and rounded; most of t h e smaller fragments areirounded, but a few are subangular and have planar s i d e s . I
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Younger c r a t e r s have c l e a r l y re-excavated a few of t h e smaller blocks. Very s m a l l c r a t e r s (1-meter diameter) with many fragments on t h e i r r i m s are a l s o present and t h e r i m fragments seem t o be clods of s o i l breccia. The s o i l i n t h e a r e a appears normal i n color and compaction.

4.13

SOIL MECHANICS EXPERIMENT

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The s o i l mechanics experiment (S-200) i s being c a r r i e d out using d a t a from o t h e r l u n a r surface a c t i v i t i e s . A t the time of t h i s r e p o r t , only the following f e w observations have been made :

a. The lunar d r i l l deep core hole remained open, as predicted f o r i n s e r t i o n of t h e l u n a r neutron f l u x probe.
b. Resistances t o d r i l l i n g and core tube driving were within establ i s h e d ranges and i n d i c a t e d no unusual mechanical properties.

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c. Considerable l o c a l v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l mechanical properties i s indicated, as has been observed at previous landing sites.

d. Surface t e x t u r e , dust generation, cohesiveness, and average footp r i n t depth i n d i c a t e s s o i l properties at the surface comparable t o those at o t h e r Apollo landing sites.

4.14

PHOTOGRAPHY

A t o t a l of 2218 photographs were taken on the lunar surface t o provide documentation of t h e landing s i t e , through 360O panoramas at various s t o p s , Apollo lunar surface experiments package placement d a t a , and samp l e documentation as l i s t e d i n t a b l e 4-1. The crew a l s o obtained s e v e r a l photographs o f s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t t o document real-time observations.

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5.0

INYLIGHT SCIENCE P J D PHOTOGRAPHY

The i n f l i g h t science experiments, performed during lunar o r b i t and t r a n s e a r t h f l i g h t , were t h e S-band transponder , l u n a r sounder , i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer, u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer, gamma ray spectrometer, and t h e Apollo window meteoroid experinent. The photography equipment c o n s i s t e d of a panoramic camera, a nagging camera, and a l a s e r z l t i m e t e r , a l l of which had been flown on t h e two previous J - s e r i e s missions. Other cameras used. were t h e e l e c t r i c , 35-m, and data a c q u i s i t i o n .

5.1 S-BAND TIIANSPOBDZR EXPERIMENT
The S-band transponder experiment (S-164) systems performed satisf a c t o r i l y . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t n z l f m c t i o n s during t h e data coll e c t i o n period and all planned d a t a were obtained. The q u a l i t y of t h e d a t a w a s good; however, as i n p a s t missions, spacecraft maneuvers and ventings degraded t h e d a t a f o r s h o r t periods of t i m e . The g r a v i t y v a r i a t i o n s recorded i n the Mare S e r e n i t a t i s region a r e one of t h e l a r g e s t measured on t h e moon. Another l a r g e high-gravity vari a t i o n was recorded i n t h e Mare Crisim region. The landing s i t e indic a t e s a low g r a v i t y measurement t h a t WZS consistent with t h e surface gravimeter measurements. Additional low neasurements were recorded t h a t a r e probably t h e e f f e c t of t h e l a r g e c r a t e r s Eratosthenes and Copernicus , ( f i g . 3-1 near 1 5 O north l a t i t u d e and 15Q m s t longitude) which l i e adj a c e n t t o t h e ground t r a c k . There a r e d e f i n i t e g r a v i t y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e Mare Procellarum region, but c o r r e l a t i o n with topographic f e a t u r e s i s not very evident. There seems t o be some c o r r e l a t i o n with t h e i n f r a r e d and u l t r a v i o l e t earth-based photography of t h i s a r e a t h a t i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o be areas of o l d and recent lava flows. The more r e c e n t l a v a flows a r e the areas of g r a v i t y highs. The continuing d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the S e r e n i t a t i s mascon will be g r e a t l y enhanced with t h e new Apollo 17 p r o f i l e . Figure 5-1 shows the Apollo 15 and 17 g r a v i t y p r o f i l e s f o r the S e r e n i t a t i s region. A n e r analy s i s of t h e Apollo 15 d a t a , t h e b e s t estimate of t h e mascon was a nears u r f a c e symmetric d i s k t h a t matched the p r o f i l e i n figure 5-1 f a i r l y w e l l ' ( i . e . b e t t e r than 95 percent of t h e variation removed). The dotted curve i n f i g u r e 5-1 i s t h e p r e d i c t e d Apollo 17 p r o f i l e from t h e b e s t model, but it was poor, because of being erroneously low by 37 percent. Based on Apollo 17 d a t a , new models w i l l be formulated and many models now under consideration may be deleted.
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5.2

LUNAR S U D R ONE

All planned operations of t h e lunar sounder experiment (S-209) were accomplished. Eleven hours of f i l m data (active mode) were recorded, 7 hours of which were i n high frequency band, and 4 hours i n the very high frequency band. I n addition, 30 hours of telemetry data were collected i n the passive (receiver only) mode. Six of the 30 hours were collected during l u n a r o r b i t and 24 hours were collected during the transearth coast period.
The images produced by o p t i c a l processing indicated t h a t the energy i n high frequency channel 2 w a s down approximately 10 t o 20 dB r e l a t i v e t o high frequency channel 1. The predicted signal differences were 7 t o 1 0 dB. The g r e a t e r difference will l i m i t the analysis of the 15 mHz data. The high frequency channel 1 and very high frequency images a r e of excell e n t quality. The very high frequency p r o f i l e i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r addressing l o c a l selenomorphological problems. Tentative subsurface returns have been i d e n t i f i e d i n both the high frequency 1 and very high frequency channels.

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Evaluation i s continuing , however , t o substantiate t h a t these features a r e not sidelobes of t h e main surface return or off-vertical surface features. I n t h e passive mode, t h e telemetry data e x h i b i t s a high t e r r e s t r i a l noise component on t h e f r o n t s i d e of the moon. The lunar backside offered the opportunity t o measure t h e t r u e g d z c t i c noise background. However, t h e noise f r o m t h e guidance and navigation system w a s i n c o r r e c t l y pred i c t e d and a reassessment of t h e guidance and navigation noise l e v e l i s required before an accurate assessment of the g a l a c t i c noise can be made. The 24 hours of d a t a collected during t r m s e a r t h coast will be used t o analyze t e r r e s t r i a l noise sources and improve t h e c a l i b r a t i o n of the antenna p a t t e r n . Minor problems were encountered with operation of the equipment and f i l m processing. The f i l m recorded occzsional s t a t i c discharge marks as a r e s u l t of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y generated when the f i l m edge rubbed against t h e r o l l e r flange. Also, streaks and flow patterns were noted and appare n t l y were acquired during the f i l m development process. The nature and spacing of t h e discharge and development marks had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the data. Random dark bands'were observed on the film but coherent data existed between t h e bands. Thk bands are believed t o have r e s u l t e d from arcing i n t h e high voltage poher supply for the recorder cathode ray display tube. T h i s problem w a s observed at turn-on dzring p r e f l i g h t vacuum t e s t i n g of the Apollo 17 recorder. Two bands were noted during the f i r s t eight hours of operation and t h e r e w a s negligible dzta l o s s . The r a t e of occurrence increased t o f i v e o r s i x discharges per minute during t h e f i n a l three hours of operation. Each band obscured from one fourth of a second t o one second of data.
Two problems were encountered i n extending and r e t r a c t i n g t h e high frequency antennas :
The HF antenna boom 1 r e t r a c t limit sensing switch f a i l e d t o operate, r e s u l t i n g i n telemetry and command module display data t h a t indicated the boom had not f u l l y r e t r a c t e d . Drive motor current was then used t o determine t h e antenna r e t r a c t s t a t u s . Section 15.1.3 discusses t h i s problem.

Extension of t h e HF antenna boom 2 required more t i m e than expected. Motor current data i n d i c a t e s f r i c t i o n WES higher than predicted. Section 15.1.4 discusses t h i s problem.

5-4

5.3

ULTRAVIOLLET SPECTROiMETER

The u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer (s-169) ‘was operated as planned during t h e mission. Data were obtained both while t h e command and service module was i n l u n a r o r b i t and during t r a n s e a r t h coast with a t o t a l of 164 hours and 45 d n u t e s of operating t i m e . Data were obtained i n t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrum region (1180 t o 1680 angstroms). Observations were accomplished of t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e , lunar atmosphere, zodiacal l i g h t , and g a l a c t i c and e x t r a g a l a c t i c sources. Instrument performance w a s normal except f o r a background count r a t e t h a t w a s higher than expected. The higher count r a t e , which has been tent a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o cosmic r a d i a t i o n , raises t h e lower l i m i t f o r detect i o n of weak s i g n a l s , but does not a f f e c t the precision with which stronger l i g h t s i g n a l s can be measured. The high count r a t e a l s o does not a f f e c t t h e absolute s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e spectrometer. O t h e l a s t day of operation of the u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer, two n telemetered temperature measurements ceased t o operate. Section 15.5.4 contains a discussion of t h i s problem. This anomaly did not i n any manner a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f , t h e spectrometer t o complete i t s mission.
A portion of t h e s p e d t r a l data has been evaluated, and some scient i f i c observations a r e presented i n t h e following paragraphs.

The t o t a l l u n a r atmosphere appears t o be much l e s s dense than t h e maximum p a r t i c l e density of l o 7 per cubic centimeter reported by the Apollo 1 4 cold cathode pressure gage. The Apollo 17 mission u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer w a s s e n s i t i v e t o all possible atmospheric constituents except argon, helium, and neon. The upper l i m i t t o t h e t o t a l p a r t i c l e density of all constituents observed on the Ayollo 17 mission i s l o 5 per cubic centimeter. Only atomic hydrogen w a s p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the lunar atmosphere. The p a r t i c l e density-was less than 50 per cubic centimeter, which i s about 1 percent of t h e density expected, i f solar-wind protons undergo a charge exchange at t h e surface and t h e m a l l y escape. Lunar albedo measurements confirm laboratory measurements performed with lunar samples from previous missions. The f l i g h t data show t h e same angular s c a t t e r i n g function observed i n the visible region. Albedo varia t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e lunar geography are being analyzed. New information about the s o l a r atmosphere (including zodiacal l i g h t ) and t h e e a r t h ’ s atmosphere was obtained during t h e mission. Additionally , very good d a t a were obtained during t r a n s e a r t h coast on s t e l l a r and ext r a g a l a c t i c sources , and a general u l t r a v i o l e t slqr survey w a s conducted.

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5.4

INFRARED SCANNIliG RADIOMETER

The i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer (S-171) performed normally during
all l u n a r o r b i t phases of t h e mission and during t r a n s e a r t h coast. I n more than 90 hours of operation, approximately 100 million l u n a r temperat u r e measurements were made and a l l t e s t objectives were met. The tem-

p e r a i u r e s i n t h e i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer remained well within design limits. The i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer output w a s non-zero when t h e i n s t r u ment viewed space during t h e f i n a l portion of each scan. The non-zero value v a r i e d over a range of approximately 7 t o l'j telemetry b i t s as a f b c t i o n of o r b i t a l p o s i t i o n . Furthermore, during t r a n s e a r t h operations, a non-zero value appeared near t h e mid-position of each scan and remained t h e r e u n t i l t h e mirror entered t h e housing at t h e end of a scan. The cause of t h e non-zero condition i s a t t r i b u t e d t o some object aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t and within t h e o u t s k i r t s of t h e i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer field-of-view. The e f f e c t of t h i s object on t h e d a t a can possibly be removed w i t h only a s m a l l degradation of the signal-to-noise r a t i o i n t h e affected data. The i n f r a r e d scathing radiometer low-gein channel s a t u r a t e d when t h e instrument measured sybsolar point temperatures. The e f f e c t was not ant i c i p a t e d s i n c e t h e i n f r a r e d scanning radioaeter w a s c a l i b r a t e d t o temp e r a t u r e s higher than t h e predicted subsolar point value, however, no t e s t o b j e c t i v e w a s compromised by the s a t u r a t i o n . Oceanus Procellarum has a considerzble v a r i a t i o n i n temperature , because i t s surface f e a t u r e s range from l a r g e c r a t e r s t o s m a l l features which a r e below t h e i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer r e s o l u t i o n ( l e s s than 2 k i l o m e t e r s ) . The remainder of t h e ground t r a c k has f a r fewer thermal v a r i a t i o n s , and t h e night-time scans on t h e backside show only a f e w variations.

5.5

PANORAMIC

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The panoramic camera operation was normal except f o r two problems. O revolution 1 5 , t h e v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e sensor d a t a were e r r a t i c (see n sec. 15.5.11, and t h e camera w a s placed i n the v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e overr i d e p o s i t i o n f o r a l l subsequent photography.
On revolution 74, telemetry indicated a s t e r e o drive motor f a i l u r e 8 minutes p r i o r t o completion of t h e last section of coverage. The l o s s of forward motion compensation degraded t h e resolution of t h e remaining
3

5-6
frames. This anomaly i s discussed i n section 15.5.3. However, postt r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n photography w a s according t o the f l i g h t plan. Telemetry d a t a i n revolution 49 indicated f i l m usage w a s s l i g h t l y high, and t o compensate f o r t h i s , approximately 1 5 frames were deleted from t h e end of revolution 62 at 90' east. A t acquisition of signal on revolution 62 , t h e spacecraft was i n a pitch-up a t t i t u d e ; consequently, photographs from t h i s pass are west-looking obliques r a t h e r than convergent s t e r e o as planned. Figure 5-2 shows t h e cumulative panorzrnic camera coverage through revolution 74. The coverage f o r revolution 62 (133' east t o 93' e a s t ) i s t h e normal ground coverage r a t h e r than the actuzl western oblique coverage. Examination of a quick-look film positive indicated s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a l i t y . However , because t h e camera was i n v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e override, s t e r e o overlap i s not always 100-percent and models as low as 74 percent may be expected. The 5 oblique frames from revolution 36 cover t h e Apollonius Highlands and Mare Fecunditatis north of Langrenus. This area includes the Luna 1 6 landing s i t e . The oblique photogrqhy obtained on revolution 62 produced some unexpected besult s . The sequence s t a r t s over Tsiolkovsky and t h e p i t c h increases dtil t h e e n t i r e horizon i s included. This spect a c u l a r photograph i s t h e 'only one i n existence t h a t d i s t i n c t l y shows the mountain range t h a t e n c i r c l e s Mare Smythii ( f i g . 5-3).

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5.6

MAPPING CMEW

The mapping camera and i t s associated s t e l l a r camera performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission. I n accordvlce with t h e f l i g h t plan, t h e camera w a s operated i n both t h e extended and t h e r e t r a c t e d positions during revolution-2-2. Camera deployment wzs cormal but t h e r e t r a c t i o n was sluggish (sec. 1 5 . 5 . 5 ) . Deployment f o r the next camera operation on revolution 13-14 required 3 minutes, 1 9 seconds as compared with the expected 1 minute and 20 seconds. To reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of t o t a l f a i l ure of t h e deployment mechanism, t h e camera was l e f t extended u n t i l a f t e r operation on revolution 38, when it w a s necessary t o r e t r a c t for t h e plane change maneuver and rendezvous. Operation on revolution 49 w a s i n t h e retracted position with a consequent loss of s t e l l a r photogrsphy on t h a t revolution. The camera w a s extended f o r operation on revolution 62. The a t t i t u d e of t h e spacecraft on p a r t of revolution 62 r e s u l t e d i n t h e photographs being west-looking obliques r a t h e r than t h e planned s t e r e o v e r t i c e l s .

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5-10 O r e v o l u t i o n 65, t h e camera was not turned on u n t i l a f t e r acquisin t i o n of s i g n a l and approximately 15 minutes of planned n o r t h oblique photography was l o s t . The delayed turn-on w a s t h e r e s u l t of t h e camera bei n g t o o c o l d following a complete power-down f o r l u n a r sounder operations. The remaining o p e r a t i o n , including p o s t - t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n photography -was normal. Figure 5-4 shows cumulative mapping camera coverage through r e v o l u t i o n 74. Throughout t h e mission, t h e exposure pulses were missing a t t h e lower l i g h t l e v e l s , t h u s i n d i c a t i n g a p o s s i b l e overexposure condition (see s e c . 1 5 . 5 . 2 ) ; however, a check during f i b processing i n d i c a t e d no adverse a f f e c t s . When t h e camera w a s o p e r a t e d i n t h e r e t r a c t e d p o s i t i o n , t h e camera covers appear i n t h e f i e l d of view. Photography on revolution 14-15 was planned t o be v e r t i c a l , however, t h e s p z c e c r a f t w a s i n a n o r t h oblique a t t i t u d e at t h e beginning of t h e pass. 'ilnis r e s u l t e d i n t h e bonus acq u i s i t i o n o f t h e only reasonably good Apollo photographs of t h e c r a t e r Icarus .
A l l o f t h e o b j e c t i , v e s of mapping crmera photography were s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished and i n gen,eral, t h e q u a l i t y of t h e photographs i s e x c e l l e n t . The p o r t i o n which w a s Faken under high sun conditions a r e somewhat overexposed and as might be expected t h i s r e s u l t s i n some l o s s of d e f i n i t i o n . Newton's r i n g s a r e p r e s e n t on t h e imagery, more so than on previos photography. F i l m d u p l i c a t e s e x h i b i t e l e c t r o s t a t i c discharges on some o f t h e frames; however, none of t h e s e e f f e c t s should degrade t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o reduce t h e photographic d a t a .

5.7

LASER ALTIMXTER

.

The l a s e r a l t i m e t e r performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission w i t h a t o t a l of 3769 measurements. Approximately 4 minutes of d a t a were l o s t on r e v o l u t i o n 24 when t h e power was i n a d v e r t e n t l y turned o f f . About 38 minutes of dark-side a l t i m e t r y was d e l e t e d from revolution 62 t o permit a maneuver away from t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay a t t i t u d e f o r ope r a t i o n of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer. The altimeter w a s o p e r a t e d continuously f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 1 0 hours during t h e p r e - t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n s l e e p period.

5-11

Figure 5-4.-

Mapping camera coverage during Apollo 17 mission.

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5.8 OPERATIONAL AND COMMAND MODULE SCIENCE PHOTOGRAPHY
Crew camera and photographic o p e r a t i o n s , from a d a t a and equipment s t a n d p o i n t , were good. The photographic data requirements were f u l f i l l e d with only minor exceptions which r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e rescheduling of f l i g h t p l a n a c t i v i t i e s t o make up t h e time l o s t due t o a l a t e e a r t h l i f t - o f f . The primary photographic d a t a not obtained were t h e l u n a r surface polari m e t r i c photography sequence , and one s o l a r corona photographic sequence from t h e command module.
Valuable unscheduled photographs were obtained on t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e , i n l u n a r o r b i t , and during t h e t r a n s l u n a r and t r a n s e a r t h coast p e r i o d s , a l l of which were accompanied by v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n s . The orange s o i l documentation and t h e e a r t h s h i n e photographs were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . An i n t e r e s t i n g observation w a s t h a t t h e crew could s e e more d e t a i l s i n t h e e a r t h s h i n e photographs on high-speed f i l m , than they could d e t e c t v i s u a l l y from o r b i t .

5.8.1

Operation and Documentary
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Documentary and o p d r a t i o n a l photography was accomplished covering all a s p e c t s of miss*. Table 5-1 l i s t s t h e equipment and f i l m t y p e s used, along w i t h t h e photographic o b j e c t i v e s f o r each system. The crew photographic complement d i f f e r e d from A-00110 1 6 i n t h a t t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e 16-m~ sequence system w a s d e l e t e d from t h e Apollo 17 mission.

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5.8.2

Lunar O r b i t a l Science

All t h e planned photography was t d e n . Near-terminator photography o f mare regions produced valuable photography with t h e 70-mm camera system; however, t h e camera system w a s not f a s t enough f o r b e s t d a t a of f a r s i d e t e r m i n a t o r t a r g e t s u s i n g high-speed black-and-white film.

The 35-mm camera provided b e t t e r e a r t h s h i n e photography than on previous missions because of t h e h i g h e r speed l e n s . Five planned t a r g e t s : Eratosthenes , Copernicus , Reiner , Gamma R i c c i o l i , and Orientale were photographed along with crew o p t i o n photograFhs o f Tsiolkovsky, Mare Inbrium, and t h e l a n d i n g s i t e using t h e b l u e , r e d , and p o l a r i z i n g f i l t e r s . These d a t a are a valuable a d d i t i o n t o t h e c a t a l o g of surface f e a t u r e s which a r e being s t u d i e d .

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TABLE 5-1 .- PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT AND TARGETS
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Equipment Command module 70-m e l e c t r i c d a t a camera

Lens f o c a l
length
80

Film .type

Task / t a r g e t Undockirg, lw,ar module e j e c t i o n , l u n a r module i n s p e c t i c = , rendezvous, and docking. Earth a:e noon o r b i t a l science. Solar coxma. O r b i t a l science, s t e r e o s t r i p . Contamirs:ion. Neer t e d n a t o r . Geology ssxgle documentation, surface panor.-z, Apollo P z a r s-wface experiments pacX.,-e 6e;loyment, g5dogy documentation, s o i l n e c h a i c s , lunar module i-spection, d i s t a n t f e a t u r e s . Apollo l i g h t f l a s h moving emulsion device p s i t i o n data. Zodiecal l i g h t , g a l a c t i c l i b r a t i o n point. Lunar sir-?ace i n earth-shine , dim l i g h t phexzena, and far s i d e t e n i n a t o r . TrmsposLzion, docking, undocking, rendezvoils. Lunar noi-iie i n s p e c t i o n , s c i e n t i f i c inscrucezt module i x r j e z t i s o n , t r a n s e a r t h e x t r w e h i r 2 z r activity. Entry e a b parechutes. Heat f1c-G demonstration. Comet. Contairszion. IntravelCcular a c t i v i t y operations. Lunar s r r i g s e s u l t photography. Descent, s u f e c e a c t i v i t y , a s c e n t , rendezvoE.

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55

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5.8.3

Astronomic Photography

The one s o l a r corona photographic sequence obtained consisted of 7 photographs w i t h exposure times 1 0 , 4 , 1, 1 / 2 , 1/8, 1/30, and 1/60-second s t a r t i n g 75 seconds before sunrise and ending 1 0 seconds p r i o r t o sunrise. The sequence w a s made using t h e Hasselblzd e l e c t r i c camera with the 80-m lens set a t f / 2 . 8 , and high-speed, black-and-white f i l m . The sunrise coronal sequence provides data on t h e e a s t limb of the sun. J u p i t e r appears i n all seven of the photographs, thereby perinitt i n g s i m p l i f i e d indexing and t r a c i n g of the data. Two coronal streamers are evident i n t h e photograph taken 6.4 seconds p r i o r t o sunrise; and while these streamers seem t o appear i n the photograph taken 30 seconds p r i o r t o s'mrise , photographic techniques and microdensitometry will be required t o determine t h e i r f u l l extent. One streamer l i e s nearly along t h e e c l i p t i c , and t h e excellent sketches made by t h e crew during the miss i o n as w e l l as t h e i r descriptions during t h e debriefings show and include

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streamers extending along t h e e c l i p t i c out t o J u p i t e r , some 24.4 degrees from t h e center of t h e sun. Microdensitometry traces w i l l be made from t h e l u n a r limb out along t h e e c l i p t i c on all photographs t o determine the brightness of t h e corona a s a function of distance from t h e center of t h e
Sun.

Zodiacal l i g h t photography data were obtained with greater success on t h i s inission than on any previous attempt, due primarily t o refined procedures and equipment. The zodiacal l i g h t extending eastward from t h e lunar-occulted sun was recorded i n t h r e e separate s e r i e s of photographs. Each of t h e s e pre-sunrise s e r i e s included overlapping frames covering elongation angles from 80 degrees t o 0.5 degree eastward along the eclipt i c plane. The 35-mm camera system w a s used with t h e 55-mm l e n s a t f/1.2, and front-end ( c o l o r o r p o l a r i z i n g ) f i l t e r s using high-speed, black-andwhite f i l m . The camera w a s bracket-mounted behind t h e right-hand rendezvous window and w a s pointed almost p a r a l l e l t o the vehicle plus X axis when color f i l t e r s were i n use, and 30 degrees from t h e plus X a x i s towards t h e minus Z a x i s when t h e l a r g e r polarizing f i l t e r was i n use. For t h e zodiacal l i g h t t a s k s , t h e camera's o p t i c a l axis w a s i n i t i a l l y pointed i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e vehicle instantaneous velocity vector by properly o r i e n t i n g t h e spacecraft. T h i s allowed t h e camera a x i s t o be aimed close t o t h e e c l i p t i c plane with one corner of the frame viewing a portion of t h e l u n a r limb c u t t i n g across t h e e c l i p t i c . S t e l l a r images on the data frames provide good postf;ight references f o r pointing accuracies. The f i r s t s e r i e s of ll d a t a frames was taken i n red f i l t e r e d l i g h t on revolution 23. An exposure time of 90 seconds was used i n i t i a l l y f o r positions f a r t h e s t away from t h e sun, and the exposure t i m e w a s decreased as t h e zodiacal l i g h t ' s brightness increased, so t h a t t h e f i n a l exposure w a s 1/30 second within 0.5 degree of the sun.
A second s e r i e s of photographs was made i n blue f i l t e r e d l i g h t on revolution 28. Since it used t h e same Siming and duration of exposures as t h e previous s e r i e s , a d i r e c t frame-for-frame comparison w i l l show s p e c t r a l content differences. Both s e r i e s w i l l a l s o be compared d i r e c t l y t o matching duration exposures of a calibrated stepwedge, illuminated by a s o l a r equivalent l i g h t source. Calibration exposures were c a r r i e d on t h e f l i g h t s o t h a t they experienced t h e same l e v e l of r a d i a t i o n fogging as t h e data frames, and t h e i r combined analysis w i l l remove emulsion reci p r o c i t y f a i l u r e e f f e c t s from t h e f i n a l photometric results.

The polarized series was composed of eleven sets of photographs over corresponding regions of t h e sky. Each s e t was made up of two photographs with t h e f i l t e r r o t a t e d 90 degrees. Equivalent polarized c a l i b r a t i o n s of t h e s e exposures were a l s o c a r r i e d on t h e f l i g h t .

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The most s t r i k i n g i n i t i a l r e s u l t s come f r o m t h e comparison of corresponding red and blue images. The inner zodiacal l i g h t within about 15 degrees of t h e sun shows a stronger red component i n and close t o the e c l i p t i c plane, while the inner zodiacal l i g h t well out of t h e e c l i p t i c plane as w e l l as almost a l l - o f t h e outer zodiacal l i g h t produced a stronger blue component. While a s i m i l a r visual comparison of equival e n t polarized frames does not show any obvious v a r i a t i o n i n f e a t u r e s , very good isophote maps can be made f o r more s e n s i t i v e comparisons.

5.9

VISUAL OBSERVATIONS FROM ORBIT

Fourteen l u n a r surface t a r g e t s were visually studied from o r b i t t o complement photography and other remotely-sensed data. Crew members were aided i n performing t h e t a s k by onboard graphics, 10 power binoculars, and a color wheel. A l l t h e supporting material was found adequate except f o r t h e color wheel which apparently d i d not include a color range comparable t o t h e a c t u a l l u n a r colors. Some s a l i e n t r e s u l t s of t h e observations are:

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a. Descriptions of both t h e regional and l o c a l geological s e t t i n g s of t h e landing s i t e w i 4 1 a i d i n t h e study of the returned sanples and t h e i r environments. b. Color determination of t h e overflown lunar maria w i l l help i n extrapolation of r e s u l t s of sample analyses. c. Orange-colored u n i t s detected on eastern and western Mare Sereni t a t i s are probably s i m i l a r t o t h a t sampled at Shorty Crater. d. Domical s t r u c t u r e s within t h e c r a t e r Aitken on t h e lunar f a r s i d e were characterized as resembling t h e many dacite domes i n northern C a l i f o r n i a and Oregon. 5.10

GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER EXPERIMENT

The gamma ray spectrometer experiment (s-160) w a s passive during the mission and consisted of only t h e sodium iodide c r y s t a l of t h e hardware flown on Apollo 1 5 and 16. This was flown on Apollo 17 t o obtain a measure of induced c r y s t a l a c t i v a t i o n from primary protons and secondary neut r o n s while i n t h e spacecraft. The induced a c t i v i t y w a s believed t o be a major source of i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e g a l a c t i c flux data taken on Apollo 15 and 16.

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5-16
The a c t i v e p a r t of t h e experiment s t a r t e d a f t e r landing and recovery of t h e c r y s t a l from t h e spacecraft. The c r y s t a l , activated during f l i g h t , was counted i n a low-background s h i e l d aboard the recovery ship. An ident i c a l c r y s t a l not flown aboard Apollo 17 was used as a control throughout t h e measurement program.
A t t h e t i m e of p u b l i c a t i o n , q u a l i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s have been made of t h e following nuclear i s o t o p e s ; Sodium 24, Iodine 123, Iodine 124, 10d i n e 125, Iodine 126, and possible Antimony 1 2 4 and Sodium 22. Results i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e induced a c t i v i t y can be a t t r i b u t e d mainly t o species with half l i v e s of about half a day and longer. Significant i n t e n s i t i e s of decay products with s h o r t e r h a l f l i v e s have not been seen, although i f such products were present they should have been observed.

.,: ;.

.. ..

..
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The f i n a l r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment w i l l be reported i n a supplement t o t h i s report.

5.11 APOLLO WINDOW METEOROID EXPERIMENT
This Apollo window meteoroid experiment (s-176) u t i l i z e s t h e comand module s i d e and hatch windows f o r detecting meteoroids having a mass of grams or l e s s . The gindows were scanned at a magnification of 20X (200X magnification f o r areas of i n t e r e s t ) t o map a l l v i s i b l e defects. Possible meteoroid c r a t e r s have been i d e n t i f i e d and a possible correlat i o n has been made between t h e meteoroid c r a t e r i n g f l u x on the glass surfaces and t h e lunar rock c r a t e r i n g studies. The Apollo 17 windows were o p t i c a l l y examined with more than the usual a n t i c i p a t i o n because t h e crew noted an impact of about 1-mm diame t e r . N meteoroid c r a t e r s l a r g e r than 0.1-mm diameter have been deteco t e d , but two l a r g e bubbles had formed j u s t below the window surface. The bubble i n window 3 had a 0.42-mm diameter, and the bubble i n window 1 had a 0.75-~nm diameter. A t a b u l a t i o n of meteoroid impacts and r e l a t e d data .from t h e previous missions i s contained i n t a b l e 5-11.
.. . , .'_ .

.

< .

5

TABLE 5-11.- METEOROID

CRATERS AND RELATED INFORMATION

~

Mission

Number of

Window ex osure, -sec

9
impacts 5 5.96
1.07

Meteoroid flux, number/m2 -sec 5.29 x 1015 7.23 X 10

95 percent confidence l i m i t s , number/m2 -sec

Minimum meteoroid m a s s ,
g

Apollo 7 (Earth o r b i t a l without l u n a r module) 2.21
105

x
x
105

1.3 X 1-' 0l 7.9 5.4

Apollo 8 (Lunar o r b i t a l without lunar module)
1.80
1 __
.-

x

x 10-6

x 10-11 x 10-10

Apollo 9 (Earth o r b i t a l w i t h l u n a r module) 1.87
105

x
1
0

3.0 x 10-5 5.36 x 10-7 1.86

Apollo 10 (Lunar o r b i t a l w i t h l u n a r module) 1.99 2.43
0
1.112 1.05

x 105 x 105
x
I
2

--1.52

x

10-5

1.6

x 10-l~

Apollo 1 2 (Lunar landing)

---

x

10-5

1.6 X
7.6 x 1 0 - 5 1.37 X

Apollo 13 (Circumlunar abort w i t t i lunur mo dule ) 2.35
105

5.9

x
5.9 x 10-5 1.64 X 10-6
1.28
1.39

10-9

Apollo 14 ( L u n a r landing) 2.88
105

x x
0
0

1.6

x

io-ll

Apollo 15 (Lunar landing ) 2.55
105

--x

x

10-5

6.7

x 10-l~

Apollo 16 (Lunar landing) 2.95
105

x
x

--0

10-5

6.7
1.25

x 10-11
x
10-5

Apollo 17 (Lunnr landing)

5.37

x 10 0 ' 1

6-1
6.0
MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS AND INFLIGHT DEMONSTRATIONS

6.1 BIOSTACK EXPERIMENT
. The b i o s t a c k experiment (M-211) was conducted t o determine t h e biol o g i c a l e f f e c t s of heavy i o n s from cosmic sources and t h e space f l i g h t environment on p l a n t and animal b i o l o g i c a l systems i n a dormant s t a t e . The experiment was h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d a d self-contained.
The b i o s t a c k c o n t a i n e r l i k e t h e one flown on Apollo 1 6 , was r e t u r n e d t o t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r i n Frankfurt/Main Germany and opened within 10 days a f t e r landing. The r e s u l t s w i l l be published i n a supplement t o t h i s report. 6.2 BIOLOGICAL COSMIC RADIATION EXPERIMENT

_- . __ -.. - -,.

.

The b i o l o g i c a l cosmic r a d i a t i o n e e e r i m e n t was a passive experiment t o determine if damage could be detected i n t h e b r a i n and eyes of pocket mice after exposure t o heavy cosmic p a r t i c l e s i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t cabin environment. A dosimeter recorded t h e l e v e l of r a d i a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e experiment and two temperature recorders i n d i c a t e d t h e maximum and minimum temperatures w i t h i n t h e c a n i s t e r . The experiment package w a s removed from t h e s p a c e c r a f t about 4 1 / 2 hours a f t e r landing. The i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e o f 1 0 . 1 p s i a w a s immediately r s i s e d t o 14.7 p s i a with a 1-to-1 mixture o f oxygen and helium. The c a n i s t e r w a s then flown t o t h e Lyndon B. Johnson T r o p i c a l Medical Center i n American Samoa. The experiment w a s opened approximately 7 1 / 2 hours a f t e r landing and 4 mice were observed moving about i n t h e i r t u b u l a r compartments. The f i f t h mouse w a s dead and i t s death w a s not caused by r a d i a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l condition of t h e l i v i n g mice appeared t o be e x c e l l e n t . The recorders i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e temperature w i t h i n t h e c a n i s t e r ranged from 71.0' F t o 85.7' F. The imp l a n t e d s c a l p dosimeters i n d i c a t e d penetration by a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f cosmic p a r t i c l e s . Performance of t h e potassium superoxide granules i n p r o v i d i n g l i f e support oxygen w a s considered t o be normal. The l i v i n g mice were e u t h a n a t i z e d end all f i v e mice were then prepared f o r postmortem examination. Autopsies were performed during which various r e q u i r e d t i s s u e samples were obtained f o r subsequent evaluation. Analysis of t h e dosimeters w i l l provide i n f o r n a t i o n f o r s e c t i o n i n g t h e b r a i n s and eyes t o maximize t h e p r o b a b i l i t y f o r l o c a t i n g l e s i o n s caused by t h e r a d i a t i o n p a r t i c l e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a supplement t o t h i s r e p o r t .

.

.

,

..

. ..

.

.

.

. . e

6-2

6.3

VISUAL LIGHT FLASH PBNOMENON

The v i s u a l l i g h t f l a s h phenomenon functional objectives were comp l e t e d during t h e t r a n s e a r t h and translunar coast phases. During t h e 64-minute translunar coast t e s t period, the Command Module P i l o t wore t h e Apollo l i g h t f l a s h moving emulsion d e t e c t o r , t h e Commander wore an eyes h i e l d , and t h e L u n a r Module P i l o t served as t h s recorder f o r t h e events observed by t h e other crewmen. A t o t a l of 28 events, occurring at random i n t e r v a l s , were reported by t h e two crewmen. This t o t a l i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h e 70 events reported i n a conperable observation period on Apollo 16. The Apollo l i g h t f l a s h moving eraulsion detector control p l a t e s (nuclear emulsion) have been processed and contained a low background of proton p a r t i c l e t r a c e s i n the emulsions. The t r a n s e a r t h coast observation period commenced a t 279 :55 and continued f o r 55 minutes. A l l t h r e e crewmen wore eyeshields f o r t h i s observation period. No l i g h t flashes were experienced during t h i s observation period; however, both t h e Command Module P i l o t and Lunar Module P i l o t reported l a t e r t h a t they experienced l i g h t flashes during t h e subsequent s l e e p period. No explanation of the lack of l i g h t f l a s h e s during t h e observation period can be made at t h i s time. A supplemental report will be published summarizing t h e ; r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment on a l l mission flown.
!

6.4

HEAT FLOW

AND CONVECTION

INFLIGHT DEMONSTRATION

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.. . . ..-.

.. . . .'. .

A heat flow and convection demonstration was conducted by t h e Conmand Module P i l o t during t r a n s l u n a r coast. The demonstration w a s a nodif i e d version of t h e Apollo 1 4 demonstration and contained t h r e e separate experimental t e s t s . Data were obtained with the 1 6 - I U ~ data acquisition camera and from crew observations; both of which were of excellent q u a l i t y . Film data i n d i c a t e s t h a t all demonstrations were performed successfully. A b r i e f description as well as t h e preliminary results of t h e demonstrat i o n are contained i n t h e fol.lowing paragraghs, and t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s w i l l be presented i n a supplement t o t h i s report.

Flow P a t t e r n Experiment The flow p a t t e r n experiment w a s t o i n v e s t i g a t e convection caused by surface tension gradients. The gradients r e s u l t from heating a t h i n l a y e r of l i q u i d which generates c e l l u l a r p a t t e r n s known as Benard Cells. The apparatus consisted of an open alminum pan approximately 7 cent i m e t e r s i n diameter with e l e c t r i c a l heaters attached t o t h e bottom. The l i q u i d w a s Krytox o i l with approximately 0.2-percent f i n e aluminum powder
, .

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J

.

. ..

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,

. .. .

.- .

added f o r v i s i b i l i t y , and t h e solution w a s released i n t o the pan by a valve and pump arrangement. Baffles of KEL-F material around the inside periphery of t h e pan maintained t h e l i q u i d l e v e l at 2 and 4 millimeters i n depth. The b a f f l e s were redesigned e f t e r t h e Apollo 14 mission t o assure an even l a y e r of o i l across t h e bottom of the pan. O t h e Apollo n 14 demonstration, t h e f l u i d tended t o adhere t o t h e w a l l s of the pan. O n t h e Apollo 17 demenstration, t h e t e s t WES conducted twice, once with a 2-millimeter fluid-depth, and once with a 4-millimeter depth. The f l u i d contained bubbles which vere not e a s i l y dissipated by s t i r r i n g . A t t h e 2-millimeter depth, onset of convection occurred within a few seconds of heat a p p l i c a t i o n ; wherees, on e a r t h , t h e average onset time w a s approximately f i v e minutes. The f l u i d w a s contained by t h e b a f f l e s aro,und t h e periphery and assumed a convex shape, s i m i l a r t o a perfect l e n s . The surface w a s observed t o be free of r i p p l e s and d i s t o r t i o n , and t h e cFnter thickness w a s approximately twice the b a f f l e height of 2 m i l limeters. The Benard c e l l s formed i n the 2-millimeter depth were l e s s orderly arid symmetrical than the ground-based p&terns and they reached a steady s t a t e i n about seven minutes ( f i g . 6-1). Cells formed i n 4-millimeter t e s t were more regular and l a r g e r than those i n t h e 2-millimeter t e s t , but t h e c e l l s did not reach a steady-state condition during t h e 10-minute heating period. 1
I

Radial Heating Cell The radial heating c e l l was t o investigate heat flow and convection i n a confined gas at low g conditions. The experiment consisted of a cylinder which contained argon, and w a s approximately 6 centimeters i n dianeter and 2 centimeters i n length. The i n i t i a l i n t e r n a l pressure w a s approximately one atmosphere. Heat was applied by a post h e a t e r mounted i n the center of the c e l l . Temperature changes and d i s t r i b u t i o n were monitored by l i q u i d c r y s t a l s t r i p s which changed color as t h e temperature changed. Clear color changes indicate proper operation; however, the results of the demonstration will not be available u n t i l analysis of t h e data i s complete. Lineal Heating Cell The l i n e a l heating c e l l u n i t w a s t o investigate heat flow and convection i n a confined l i q u i d at low g conditions. The demonstration cons i s t e d of a c y l i n d r i c a l g l a s s container approximately 3 centimeters i n diameter and 9 centimeters long, containing Krytox o i l . A disc-shaped h e a t e r was located at one end of the cylinder and t h e temperature changes

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6-4

.-;.. .. . .-

..

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-

*

..

Figure 6-1.

- Heat

flow and convection demonstration.

were monitored by l i q u i d c r y s t a l s t r i p s . The c e l l a l s o contained a f e w magnesium p & i c l e s t o a i d v i s i b i l i t y . Clear color changes indicated proper operation, but f i n a l r e s u l t s are dependent upon f'urther analysis.

6- 5

6.5

ORTHOSTATIC COUNTERIEASURE G T

I

-.

A c u s t o m - f i t t e d o r t h o s t a t i c counterzeasure garment was donned 2 hours p r i o r t o e n t r y by t h e Command Module P i l o t , and t h e garment was p r e s s u r i z e d at l a n d i n g , and remained p r e s s u r i z e d until performance of t h e lower body , n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e t e s t 5 hours l a t e r . The garment, when p r e s s u r i z e d , a p p l i e d a p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t from 50 m Eg at t h e ankles t o 0 a t t h e w a i s t . While wearing t h e garment i n a p r e s s u r i z e d c o n d i t i o n , t h e Cornand Module P i l o t ' s s t a n d i n g h e a r t r a t e w a s 99 b e a t s p e r minute and h i s p u l s e p r e s s u r e w a s 46 mm Hg. Upon d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e garment, t h e s t a n d i n g h e a r t rate and p u l s e p r e s s u r e changed t o lob b e z t s p e r minute and 47 mm h'g, res p e c t i v e l y . The Command Module P i l o t ' s p o s t f l i g h t r e s t i n g h e z r t r a t e (recumbent) w a s l e s s t h a n t h e p r e f l i g h t value and t h e lower body n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e t e s t produced no s i g n i f i c a n t chznge i n h e a r t rate o r p u l s e p r e s s u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , o t h e r r e l a t e d p o s t f l i g h t f i n d i n g s such as a small d e c l i n e i n h e a r t s t r o k e volu-e , e n l a r g e d c a r d i a c s i l h o u e t t e by X-ray , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e c r e a s e i n h i s 1~55 volume was g r e a t e s t o f t h e t h r e e crewmen , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e Cornand Kodule P i l o t ' s CardiGvESCUlar o r t h o s t a t i c f u n c t i o n s d i f f e r e d from t h e o t h e r two crewmen. The garment p r o v i d e d no apparent b e n e f i t t o t h i s c r e - n a n .

. .. .. . .

..

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.:

7.0

COMMAND AND SERVICE M D L S O UE

Performance of t h e command and service systems i s discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The s e q u e n t i a l , pyrotechnic, thermal p r o t e c t i o n , and emergency detection systems operated as intended and a r e not discussed i n t h i s sect i o n . Discrepancies and anomalies i n the command and s e r v i c e module systems are mentioned i n t h i s s e c t i o n and discussed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n sect i o n 15.1.

7.1 STRUCTURES AND MXHAVICAL

SYSTEMS

Command module window Contamination , s i m i l a r t o t h a t reported on previous f l i g h t s , w a s observed s h o r t l y a f t e r e a r t h o r b i t i n s e r t i o n and remained throughout t h e mission. A fine mist condensed on t h e i n n e r surface of t h e heat s h i e l d panes of t h e two s i d e windows and t h e hatch window. The o u t e r surface of t h e heat s h i e l d pane on t h e l e f t s i d e window w a s a l s o contaminated by t h e residue from t h e waste water d u p . During t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n and docking sequence, t h e no. 9 docking l a t c h switch d i d not open as evidenced by a barberpole i n d i c a t i o n and v i s u a l inspection of ?he l a t c h e s . E x d n a t i o n of t h e l a t c h v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e l a t c h hook w a s prbperly engaged and subsequent manual actuation of t h e l a t c h r e s u l t e d i d proper l a t c h i n g a d switch operation. Also, t h e handles f o r l a t c h e s no. 7 and 1 0 d i d not lock automatically, thus requiri n g manual engagement. During preparation f o r t h e f i r s t l u n a r module i n gress , t h e Command Module P i l o t recocked no. 4 docking l a t c h and all l a t c h e s operated normally f o r t h e lunar o r b i t docking. Following command and s e r v i c e modules/lunar module undocking, an e x t e n d / r e t r a c t t e s t was conducted f o r the lunar sounder HF’ antennas. The antennas were p a r t i a l l y extended and then r e t r a c t e d ; however, a r e t r a c t i n d i c a t i o n w a s not received f o r antenna 1 ( s e c t i o n 15.1.3). The antenna w a s then f u l l y extended i n preparation f o r the lunar sounder experiments. Subsequent antenna r e t r a c t i o n v e r i f i c a t i o n s were based on r e t r a c t power and time. P r i o r t o t h e l u n a r o r b i t docking, t h e l u n a r module crew visua l l y v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e antenna was r e t r a c t e d . Photographic d a t a taken from t h e lunar module during rendezvous show t h e mapping camera r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system plume s h i e l d door i n t h e open p o s i t i o n with t h e mapping camera apparently r e t r a c t e d . A discussion of t h i s anomaly i s contained i n s e c t i o n 15.1.7. The e a r t h landing system performance w a s normal. A l l t h r e e main parachutes and t h e forward heat s h i e l d were recovered. P o s t f l i g h t inspect i o n s o f t h e main parachutes revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t operational damage , and i n s p e c t i o n of t h e forward heat s h i e l d revealed no unusual conditions.

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:

7-2 7.2 ELEXTRICAL P W R AND FUEL CELLS O E

Performance of t h e e l e c t r i c a l power system and f u e l c e l l s w a s normal. The e n t r y , postlanding, and pyrotechnic b a t t e r i e s f u l f i l l e d all power requirements. Entry b a t t e r i e s A and B were each charged once before launch and, w i t h t h e f u e l c e l l s , supplied the main buses through launch and during a l l service propulsion system maneuvers. Battery A w a s charged four times during t h e f l i g h t and b a t t e r y B f i v e t i a e s . The t o t a l ampere-hour s t a t u s of entry b a t t e r i e s A , B y and C was mzintained above a minimum capac i t y of 85 ampere-hours throughout t h e f l i g h t . This minimum, which w a s approximately 1 0 t o 15 ampere-hours l e s s t h m usual, occurred about nine hours i n t o t h e mission and was due t o t h e ddzyed e a r t h l i f t - o f f which r e s u l t e d i n more b a t t e r y usage. The f u e l c e l l s were a c t i v a t e d 58 hours p r i o r t o launch with f u e l c e l l 2 on main bus A and f u e l c e l l s 1 and 3 open c i r c u i t e d . Three and one-half hours before l i f t - o f f , f u e l c e l l 1 wzs placed on bus A and f u e l c e l l s 2 and 3 were placed on bus B , a configuration which w a s not changed throughout t h e f l i g h t . The f u e l c e l l s supplied 686 kilowatt hours of energy at an average bus voltage and current of 29.0 v o l t s and 76.5 amperes, respectively.
i !

7.3

CRYOGENICS S O L G SYSTEN T FA E

The cryogenic storage system supplied reactants t o t h e f u e l c e l l s and metabolic oxygen t o t h e environmental control system. The hydrogen tank 2 automatic pressure switch f a i l e d t o operate properly a f t e r approximately 70 hours. A f t e r t h i s time, pressure w a s manually controlled i n hydrogen tanks 1 and 2. The oxygen and hydrogen systems performance was normal and as predicted except f o r t h i s anomaly which i s discussed i n d e t a i l i n section 15.1.8.

7.4

COMMUNICATIONS

Performance of t h e communications equipment w a s normal except f o r a 2-minute dropout of several pulse code modulation telemetry channels which occurred at about 191 hours. D e t a i l s of t h i s anomaly may be found i n sect i o n 15.1.9.

.

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.

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...

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. .

.

.

.

7- 3

7.5

I N S T R W T A T I O N AND DISPLAYS

.
..

. ..... ..

.

.
1

The instrumentation and displays performed normally during t h e miss i o n . One measurement , t h e f u e l interface pressure, fluctuated about 17 p s i twice, each time f o r about 1 0 hours. Oscillations of the same type were a l s o experienced on Apollo 15 with the service module reaction control system quad A f u e l manifold pressure. These o s c i l l a t i o n s r e s u l t from minor i n s t a b i l i t i e s i n t h e signal conditioning amplifier as a r e s u l t of temperature or other physical e f f e c t s . These fluctuations did not prevent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e data. O s e v e r a l occasions s h o r t l y a f t e r earth-orbit i n s e r t i o n , spurious n master alarms occurred, as discussed i r , section 15.1.1. The condition was only a nuisance f a c t o r t o t h e mission. I n i t i a l checks after e a r t h o r b i t insertion disclosed t h a t the mission timer i n t h e lower equipment bay w a s 1 5 seconds slow. The timer was r e s e t and it operated properly for t h e remainder of the mission. This anomaly i s discussed i n section 15.1.2. A t about 71 hours, t h e caution and warning tone booster was inoperat i v e . The tone booster i s a photo-sensitive device which activates when a f i n i t e l i g h t i n t e n s i t y i s generated by the master alarm l i g h t . Discussions w i t h t h e crew i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n i t i a l check of t h e tone booster w a s made using t h e lamp t e s t mode. This mode a c t i v a t e s about half of t h e warning l i g h t s including t h e master alarm l i g h t i n a p a r a l l e l e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t , and t h i s r e s u l t s i n a lower i n t e n s i t y of t h e master alarm l i g h t . The subsequent t e s t of the tone booster activated only t h e master a l a r m l i g h t ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e l i g h t i n t e n s i t y was higher and t h e tone booster ope r a t e d properly. The condition had been experienced during ground t e s t s .

. . .: . . . . .

. .

. . . . . .. .. . . ._. . .. . .. . .. : . _. . .

.

#

7.6

GUIDANCE, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL

Performance of t h e guidance, navigation, and t h e primary and backup control systems was normal throughout t h e f l i g h t . The only anomaly w a s a l a r g e b i a s v a r i a t i o n of t h e accelerometer i n t h e e n t r y monitor system (see s e c t i o n 15.1.5). The anomaly occurred l a t e i n f l i g h t , therefore, it had no e f f e c t on t h e mission and the system performed normally during entry

.

The primary guidance system provided good boost t r a j e c t o r y monitori n g during laynch and during t h e translunar i n j e c t i o n maneuver. The crew was unable t o see any i d e n t i f i a b l e star groups during t h e boost phase. This would preclude using out-of-the-window alignment techniques, i f t h e primary and backup a t t i t u d e reference systems were l o s t and it became necessary t o abort.

. .

-

-

7-4
A t earth-orbit i n s e r t i o n , the differences between t h e primary guidance v e l o c i t y vector and t h e Saturn guidance velocity vector were minus 3.0, minus 13.6, and minus 6.3 f t / s e c i n the primary guidance X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The differences include an azimuth update of plus 0 . 9 degree i n t h e Y a x i s made at 100 seconds and represent 0.6 and 0.7 sigma X and Z platform e r r o r s , respectively. The azimuth correction ( Y a x i s ) at 100 seconds was well within specification.
A h i s t o r y of primary guidance system i r e r t i a l component e r r o r s i s presented i n t a b l e 7-1. The p r e f l i g h t perfcrmance values were obtained from system c a l i b r a t i o n s performed a f t e r the i n e r t i a l measurement unit was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e command module. The f l i g h t performance values are from platform alignment data and acce1erome;er b i a s measurements made during t h e mission.

Table 7-11 i s a summary of i n e r t i a l mezsurenent u n i t realignments performed during t h e mission. Table 7-111 s - m a r i z e s the s i g n i f i c a n t control parameters during service propulsion system maneuvers and t h e midcourse correction maneuvers. The e n t r y sequence, which begins with commvld module/service module separation, w a s normal through landing. The guidance system controlled t h e spacecraft a t t i t u d e and lift vector during e n t r y and guided the veh i c l e t o landing coordina$es of 17 degrees 52 minutes 48 seconds south l a t i t u d e , 166 degrees 6 minutes 36 seconds Test longitude, as determined from t h e spacecraft computer.

7.7

SERVICE PROPULSION S S E YT M

The service propulsion system performzcce w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y during each of t h e s i x maneuvers with a t o t a l f i r i i g time of 584.7 seconds. The a c t u a l i g n i t i o n times and f i r i n g durations &re contained i n t a b l e 7-111. A l l system pressures were normal during the service propulsion f i r i n g s . The helium pressurization system functioned normally throughout t h e mission. A l l system temperatures were maintained within t h e i r redline limits without h e a t e r operation a s i n d l previous Apollo f l i g h t s . The nitrogen pressure system data showed normal usage f o r t h e six maneuvers. The propellant m a s s unbalance at the end of t h e t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n firing w a s approximately 30 lb decrease. The propellant u t i l i z a t i o n valve w a s i n t h e decrease p o s i t i o n for approximately 39 percent of t h e t o t a l s e r v i c e propulsion system f i r i n g t i m e and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r a l l prop e l l a n t mixture r a t i o f o r t h e mission of 1.592. The predicted mixture r a t i o for t h e mission w a s 1.597 with t h e proDellant u t i l i z a t i o n valve i n

.. - -

,
. I

'.. i. . .,.. . .'
,

.

, a /'.
. . I ,
I

. '~,,./.'.' . . .:...-.-. . . ,, .

TABLE
COMPONENT HISTORY

7-1.INERTIAL

P r e f l i g h t performance Number of samples Sample mean Accelerometers -704 20 0.06 -0.06 -233 -0.04 -831 0.69
'

I n f l i g h t performance Flight Number of load samples Sample mean Standard deviation

Parameter

Standard deviation

Countdown value

X -715 -750

112

0.04

0.12

-0.08
-234

-0.19
-210

17
0.03 22 0.03

112

-0.02

0.03

0.08
824 .

-0.07 -810
0.71

0.6

112

0.74

- S c a l e f a c t o r e r r o r , ppm . . . . . . 2 B i a s , cm/sec . . . . . . . . . . . Y - S c a l e f a c t o r e r r o r , ppm . . . . . . 2 B i a s , cm/sec . . . . . . . . . . . Z - S c a l e f a c t o r e r r o r , ppm . . . . . . 2 B i a s , cm/sec . . . . . . . . . . .
0.71
Gyroscopes 0.32 -6.22 0.33 2-97 0.76 0.62 5.10

0.03

X

1.36

1.9

- Null b i a s d r i f t , meru . . . . . . . Acceleration d r i f t , s p i n r e f e r e n c e axis, meru/g . . . . . . . . . . .
5.72 0.82

-6.7
4.1

-6.0

A c c e l e r a t i o n d r i f t , i n p u t axis meru/g

..............

7.0

Y

- Null b i a s d r i f t , meru . . . . . . .
8.98
1.37 -3.50

0.6

-0.1

Acceleration d r i f t , spin reference a x i s , meru/g

4.7
3.05 10.3

6.0

........... A c c e l e r a t i o n d r i f t , i n p u t axis meru/g . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.0

Z

- Null

0.77
0.54

2.3 -3.1

1.2
-4.0

b i a s d r i f t , meru A c c e l e r a t i o n d r i f t , sp_in r e f e r e n c e axis, meru/g

....... ........... A c c e l e r a t i o n d r i f t , i n p u t axis , meru/g . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-6 95

-

4.69

1.2

-6.0

.

.

.

',

8

.

.

.

TABLE

7-11.-PLATFORM ALIGNMENT
SUMMARY

I I
o \

Gyro torquing angle, deg
itar

Gyro d r i f t , meru
Comments Launch o r i e n t at i on

S t a r used

-

X
2

angle - - Lifference, Y de& -

X
2

Y
-3.27 0.38 0.20 2.03 -1.14

1.90

0.080

24 Gienah, 30 Menkent 22 RegulUS, 24 Gienah 4 Achernar, 7 Menkar -0.037 -0.134 20 .1 1.46 0.029 -0.007 -0.018
I

0.018 -0.021 0.175

0.01 0.00 0.01
-9.011
I

3 3 3 1 3

4 Achernar,
-0.57
0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 00 .1 0.01
0.00 0.00

--1.18 1.46 -0.13 -0.13 -0.27 -0.18 0 1.28 1.04 1.60 -0.20 0.20 -0.55 0.14 -0.11 -0.107 0.52 -0.61 0.35 -0.36 -0.18

3

-

---

--

--

Passive thermal c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o r

3

32 Alphecca, 23 Denebola 7 Menkar, 13 Capella 32 Alphecca, 35 Rasalhague 1 Alpheratz, 1 0 Mirfak 1 Alpheratz, 36 Vega 26 Spica, 32 Alphecca 16 Procyon, 17 Regor

0.01 0.01 0.01 -1.04 1.13

-1.48 -0.50

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

---

Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n Landing s i t e o r i e n t a t i o n

-0.00 0.00 0.00

-1.48 0.98

-

-0.05 -0.165 -0.151 0.089 -0.022 0.021 0.114 0.077 -0.022 0.029 -0.045 0.742 0.046 -0.036 0.065

-0.48 -2.34
-0.86 0.50 0.63 -0.83 -0.11 0.11
-0.110

0.01
0.00

1 3 3 3 3 3

0.09

3
-0.015
-0.01 2

13 Capella, 20 Dnoces 1 Aldebaran, 16 Procyon 1 15 S i r u s 15 S i r i u s , 22 Regulus 20 Dnoces, 27 Alkaid 14 Canopus, 25 Acrus 30 Menkent, 21 Alphard, 26 Acrux 15 S i r i u s . 22 Regulus 7 Menkar, 11 Cwiopiiu 1
0.01
0.01

-0.1311 0.019 -0.035 0.017 -0.108 -0.067 0.039 -0.016 0.041 -0.039 0.736 0.014 0.052 -0.076 0.025 0.015 -0.038
-1.56 0.60 -0.53 0 -0.42
-0.118

0.00 0.153 0.140 -0.023 -0.020 -0.005-0.033 -0.002 -0.054 -0.041 -0.020 -0.735 -0.069 0.030 -0.102 0.024 -0.056

-1.70
0.13
-0.02
-0.01 1

-0.006 -0.006
-O.(Y$I

-0.31
-0.!>l

CWIO~IIIIJ
kIll2tJ

0.10 0.06

7 Mcnkirr , 111 6 Acwnur. 1 3 1
-0.039
-0.0115

0.06
-0.32 -1.03
-0.14

-0.16 -0.21 -0.

00:35 01:52 07:58 08 :08 08:11 16:55 23:lO 35:04 45:17 58:19 68:15 82:40 82:5a 84:50 87:29 87:32 89:30 93:31 105:40 108:34 110:40 130:21 1hO:39 151i:%y 166:41 177:50 177:55 -0.706

180:22

3 3 3 3 1 1

-0.092

--

---1.91 -0.46 -0.38 -0.52

--1.08
-0.56 0.20 0.17 -0.24 0.83

Plane change o r i e n t a t i o n L i f t - o f f o r i e n ta t i o n -0.89 -0.05
-0.07

3

3

3

3

-0.15

3

-0.65

0.00

--1.88

-0.16

Transearth i n j e c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n

3 3 3 3

-0.49
-0.63
0.01 0.00
0.00

--

-0.511 -0.46
-0.36

0.54 Passive thermal c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o i

-00 .5 -0.04 0.40 -0.61 0.33

3

0.01. 0.01 0.01 0.00 00 .1 00 .1 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01

3

3

3

183:55 207 :43 215:42 227 :34 231:34 231 :46 235:30 235 :43 249:31 262 :19 273:50 285 :20 297:16 297 :29 300 :03
0.040

3 3

1 Aldebnrun, 20 Dnoceo 1 20 Dnoces, 1 Aldebartm 1 2 Diphda, 1 4 Canopus 22 Regulus, 24 Gienah 12 Rigel, 21 Alphard 12 Rigel, 21 Alphard 27 Alkaid, 31 Arcturus 12 R i g e l , 21 Alphard 12 Rigel, 21 Alphard 23 Denebola, 30 Menkent 23 Denebola, 30 Menkent 26 Spica, 27 Alkaid 1 Alpheratz, 36 Vega 26 Spica, 27 Alkaid 3 Navi. 36 VeEa 7 Mcrikar. 115 lbmnlhaut 7 Menkar, 45 I~omalhnut 24 Gienah, 33 Antares

0.013 0.1113 0.0116 0.306 0.053 0.173 -0.541 -0.493 .0.102 0.163 0.046 0.092 0.065 -0.011 0.105 -0.086 0.102 0.121 0.086 0.079 0.064 -0.059 0.004
-0.011 0.023 -0.147 -0.798 0.030 -0.073 -0.020 0.043 -0.050 -0.007 -0.009 0.026 -0,011 0.009 -0.063 0.106 -0.059 -0.003

-00 .1

-.1 013 -0.23 0.38 -0.39 -0.18

--2.20
-1.00

-0.040 -0.019 -0.009 -0.026 -0.039 -0.002 0.030 -0.045 -0.089 -0.047 0.060 -0.068 -0.032 -0.050 -0.036

Entry o r i e n t a t i o n
-0.N
I _

-

%e

numbers used i n this column r e p r e s e n t t h e f0110ving: 1

- Preferred;

3

- REFSMMAT.

. .
i

TABLE 7-111.- MANEUVER SUMMARY

~~~~

aFirst
aLunar orbit insertion 'Lunar o r b i t ircularization
~~

Parameter

midcourse correct ion

%escent orbit insertion Orbital trim 'Lunar o r b i t plane change aTransearth injection

Second midcourse correction

Time

I g n i t i o n , hr:min:sec

Cutoff, hr:min:sec

86 :I4 :22.60 86 :20:55.76
06 :33.16

.. . .. Duration, hr:min:sec . .
go :31 :37.43 90 :31: 59.70 22.27
109:17:28.92 103 :17:32.72 03.80
178: 54: 05.45 178:54 A2.95 31 :30
179:53 :53.83 179:54 :13.88 20.05

35 :29 :59.91 35 :30 :01.64 01.73

234: 02:09.18 234 :04 :32.87 02 :23.69

298:38:01 298: 38:lO 00 :09

0.310.1 1.311.4
0 :o/o . 1
I

bVelocity gained. ftlsec (actualfdesired)

x-axis

Y-axis

o.o/o.o
68.9170.5
0.410.2

5.115.7 7.017.1 -266.81-267 .O 250.11250.1 -11.11-11.2

z-axis

. .. ...... . .. .. .... ........ .
,2982.4/2987.1 -48.31-48.3 -39.11-39.1 -112.81-113.0 -i6i.3/-161.'.1 -16.31-16.4 0.710.1
0. 010 .l

9.119 1 8 3.213.4 -2.21-2.4

-3043.31-3043.3 97.3198.1 06.8187.0

1.611.6

cVelocity r e s i d u a l s , ftfsei (beforelafter t r i d n g )
O.l/No t r i m

x-axis

:
1.310.0
0.210.0

-0.510.0
0.0/0.1

O.l/No t r i m
O.l/No trim O.l/No t r i m
O.1INo trim

Y-axis

-0.31No t r i m +O.l/No t r i m
0.21No t r i m

O.O/No t r i m
0.2INo t r i m

O.l/No t r i n O.O/No t r i n
-0.11No trin

........ .,....... z-axis. . . ... .
o.o/o.o
O.O/No t r i m O.O/No t r l m -0.61-0.6
0.51-0.1

*

0

g e r v l c e propulsion nystem w e d f o r these mnneuvers.

b I n e r t i a l coordinates before t r i m i n g .

' ~ o 4 y coordinates a f t e r trimming.

-a I -a

.

. .

.

c

.

..-. . .

7-8
t h e normal p o s i t i o n . Adjusting f o r t h e service propulsion system f i r i n g time performed with the propellant u t i l i z a t i o n valve i n t h e decrease posit i o n , t h e difference w a s within t h e predicted value.

7.8

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

The performance of t h e command and service module reaction c o n t r o l systems were normal during all phases of the mission. During p o s t f l i g h t purging of t h e oxidizer manifold, t h e plus p i t c h and plus yaw engines o f t h e command module reaction control system 1 responded simultaneously t o ground support equipment commands. The problem was located i n t h e ground support equipment and t h a t hardware w i l l be modified for the Skylab program.

7.9

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

The environmental control system provided an acceptable environment f o r t h e crew and spacecraft equipment. During t h e d a i l y water chlorinat i o n operations, leakage was observed i n and around t h e casing assembly of t h e i n j e c t o r mechanism! Despite t h e minor leakage, a l l chlorination procedures were accomplished as scheduled. This anomaly i s discussed i n s e c t i o n 15.1.6. During four e a r l y lunar o r b i t s , t h e water/glycol temperature control valve (mixing valve) f a i l e d t o open properly as t h e r a d i a t o r o u t l e t temperature decreased. The mixed coolant temperature momentarily f e l l as much as 4' F below t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n control band of 42' t o 48' F during mixing s t a r t u p . N corrective action w a s taken and i n i t i a t i o n of mixing o w a s proper during all subsequent lunar o r b i t s and during t r a n s e a r t h coast This anomaly i s discussed i n section 15.1.10. The r a d i a t o r flow proportioning valve automatically switched over t o t h e backup control system f o r t h e primary coolant loop. About 4 hours l a t e r , t h e crew r e s e t t h e flow c o n t r o l t o the primary system and returned control t o t h e automatic mode a f t e r which operation of t h e valve was sati s f a c t o r y . Switching normally occurs f o r any one of t h e following conditions.

-. -- I-

a. The indicated temperature difference between t h e two r a d i a t o r 5 panels i s g r e a t e r than 1' F and the flow control valve i s not drawing full current.

i.

..

- ,

.

.

.

. . _ , ....

, . .

7-9
b. The indicated temperature difference between t h e two r a d i a t o r 5 panels i s g r e a t e r than 1' F and the valve current i s of t h e wrong pol a r it y

.

c.

A t r a n s i e n t on t h e ac o r dc bus.

7.10

EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY EQUIPMENT

The extravehicular a c t i v i t y crew equipment performed successfully throughout t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Preparations f o r t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y were delayed s l i g h t l y when t h e Command Module P i l o t ' s communication c a r r i e r did not receive a low pressure warning tone during t h e oxygen purge system checkout. The Command Module P i l o t exchanged communication c a r r i e r s with the Lunar Module P i l o t and received t h e tone on a subsequent check, and the extravehicular a c t i v i t y proceeded as planned. L a t e r , an inspection of the f a u l t y communications c a r r i e r revealed two broken leads i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l p i g t a i l . See section 15.3.1 f o r a discussion of t h i s anomaly.

...

.

.

..

. ..

..

...I -..

'

I . . _ .

. . , . . ..

. I .

..

. .

.

^I...

.

.

,

..

7-10

7.11 COXSUMABLES

(Lq
17 w a s

The command and s e r v i c e module consumable usage during Apollo w e l l within t h e r e d l i n e limits. .

7.10.1

Service Propulsion Propellant

Service propulsion propellant and helium loadings and consumption values are l i s t e d i n t h e following t a b l e . The loadings were calculated from gaging system readings and measured d e n s i t i e s p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f .

Proyellant, l b Condition Fue 1 Loaded Consme d
I

Oxidizer

Total

1 5 669.0
1 4 917.0
752.0

40 742.0

38 671.0
1319.0
1024.0

Remaining a f t e r t r a n s earth injection ! Usable a f t e r t r a n s earth injection

2071.0
1630.o

606.0

..

. . . -.. . .< .. .
- ...

i

Helim, l b Condition Storage b o t t l e s Loaded Consued Remaining after transearth injection Propellant tanks
-

87.6

5.4

65.5
22.1 70 -9

.. . . - . : ... .

..__-.

7-11 7.11.2
Reaction Control System Propellant

Service Module.- The propellant u t i l i z a t i o n and loading data f o r t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system were as shown i n the following t a b l e . Consumption w a s calculated from telemetered helium tank pressure h i s t o r i e s and was based on pressure, volume, and temperature r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Propellant, l b Condition Fuel Loaded Quad A Quad B Quad C Quad D Total
a Usable loaded

Oxidizer

Total

110 110 110
110

440

337 335 336 335 1343
1252

Consumed Remaining a t commmd module/service module separation

654

i

598

a Usable propellant i s t h e amount loaded minus t h e amount trapped with corrections made f o r gaging system e r r o r s . Command Module.- The loading of comand module reaction control system propellant were as follows.
~ ~~

Propellant, l b Condition Fuel Loaded System 1 System 2 Toial Usable loaded
..

Oxidizer

Total

39 38

78 78

77

156

Consme d *Based on amount of propellant off loaded.

.

.

.

.

.

I

.

. . . ..

'

7-12 7.11.3
Cryogenics

The t o t a l cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen q u a n t i t i e s available a t l i f t - o f f and consumed were as follows. Consumption values were based on quantity d a t a transmitted by 'telemetry.

. Hydrogen, l b

Oxygen, l b Actual Planned

Condition Actual Available at l i f t - o f f Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Total Consm e d Planned

26.7 26.9 25 -5
79.1
82.1

309.5 313.8 325.8 949.1 944.8

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3
Total Remaining at command module / se r v i c e module separation Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Totdl

19.0 19.9
22.2

215.0

61.1

60.5

197 5 187.6 600.1

576.9

7.7 7.0 3.3 18.0

94.5 116.3 138.2 21.6 349.0 367.9

.

.. . .. . . , ........ -. .. . ,.. . . . :-. . . . .....

.

-.

.

.

.

_.~_'. ..

.

. .>

. .

...

-

.

...

.

-

8-1
8.0
LUNAR MODULE P R O M N E EFR AC

The l u n a r module systems performance i s discussed i n t h i s section.

All spacecraft d i s p l a y s , plus t h e t h e m a protective, pyrotechnic, and reaction control systems operated as intended and a r e not discussed i n
t h i s - s e c t i o n . The systems discrepancies and anomalies a r e mentioned i n t h i s section and discussed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n section 15.2.

8.1 STRUCTURE3 AND MEXKUICU SYSTEMS
A l mechanical systems functioned properly. The loads at landing l were low based on t h e r a t e of descent at footpad contact of about 3 f t / s e c . The vehicle a t t i t u d e on the lunar surface was approximately 5.3 degrees p i t c h up with a l e f t roll of about 2.6 degrees.
8.2 ELECTRICAL P W R DISTRIBUTION AND BATTERIES O E
1

The descent batt e r i e s delivered 1585 [ampere-hours out of a nominal t o t a l capacity of 2075 w e r e - h o u r s A t j e t t i s o n , t h e ascent b a t t e r i e s , had delivered about 300 ampere-hours out of a normal capacity of 592 w e r e - h o u r s , and at imp a c t , over 200 ampere-hours remained. The dc bus voltage was maintained a t about 28.8 v o l t s , and the maximum observed current was 71 amperes duri n g t h e powered descent.

The e l e c t r i c a l power system performed as expected.

.

8.3

COMMUNICATIONS

A l l functions of t h e communications system were acceptable during each phase of t h e mission. The S-band steerable antenna l o s t lock seve r a l times because of vehicle blockage o r reaching t h e gimbal limits. No l o s s e s of automatic t r a c k , due t o divergent antenna o s c i l l a t i o n s , were noted as experienced on several previous missions.

8.4 INSTRUMENTATION
The instrumentation system operated normally except f o r a b a t t e r y 4 measurement s h i f t which w a s noted at about 108 hours. This anomaly is discussed i n section 15.2.1.

.

. ......* - .

. .. . . _. .
. . . .

8- 2

8.5

RADAR

Landing radar performance was normal during powered descent. Velocity a c q u i s i t i o n was obtained at an estimated a l t i t u d e of 42 000 f e e t , p r i o r t o changing t h e lunar module yaw a t t i t u d e from 70 t o 20 degrees. Range acq u i s i t i o n was obtained during t h e yaw maneuver, at an a l t i t u d e of approximately 39 000 f e e t . Antenna position and r a g e s c a l e change occurred at t h e predicted t i m e and tracking w a s continuous t o lunar touchdown. There was no lock-up on moving dust or debris n e a t h e lunar surface. The rendezvous radar performance w a s normal f o r a l l mission phases including s e l f - t e s t , rendezvous radar/transponder checkout , and rendezvous tracking.

8.6

DESCENT PROPULSION SYSTEM

The descent propulsion system performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The t o t a l time f o r t h e descent f i r i n g was approximately 727 seconds. The propellant quantity gaging system indicated about 1225 l b of usable propellant remaining a t engine shutdown. This i s equivalent t o 117 seconds of hover t i m e . The descent propulsion syTtem pressures and temperatures were as expected during all phases of the mission. The s u p e r c r i t i c a l helium system functioned normally. Performance of both t h e s u p e r c r i t i c a l helium tank and t h e ambient s t a r t b o t t l e i s shown i n t a b l e 8-1. The gaging probe readings at engine shutdown are given i n t a b l e 8-11. The low-level sensor w a s a c t i v a t e d at lunar landing and w a s probably a res u l t of propellant s l o s h , since a l l probes indicated propellant q u a n t i t i e s above t h e sensor a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l .

8.7 ASCENT PROPULSION SYSTEM
The ascent propulsion system performance was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e l u n a r ascent and a terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n f i r i n g s . The engine f i r i n g duration f o r t h e ascent maneuver was 441 seconds. The terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n maneuver f i r i n g t i m e w a s approximatelly 2.7 seconds, however, no d a t a were received during t h e second f i r i n g . System pressures and tempera t u r e s were normal during all phases of the nission.

1

i

. . . . . ._

.

, - d

....

......

rrr;rrcr.ii?-?-”.

.-.!< .-

.............. -.

8- 3

TABLE 8 -I.- DESCENT PROPULSION S S E YT M SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM SYSTEM P R O M N E EFR AC

~~

Par m e t e r S u p e r c r i t i c a l helium b o t t l e Pressure r i s e r a t e from l i f t - o f f t o powered descent maneuver i g n i t i o n Pressures during powered descent I g n i t i o n pressure

Value

........

6.8 p s i / h r

............... Peak pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure at l u n a r touchdown . . . . . . . . . .
.......
I I

1304 p s i a

1415 p s i a
482 p s i a

Ambient s t a r t b o t t l e Pressure l e v e l from loading t o use Pressure a f t e r squib valve opening Pressure at l u n a r landing

1646 t o
1625 p s i a
600 p s i a 602 p s i a
.

Pressure at i g n i t i o n f o r powered descent

.... ............

.......

602 p s i a

TABLE 8-11.-

PROPELLANT QUANTITY GAGING SYSTEM DATA AT ENGINE SHUTDOWN

Tank 2 Oxidi zer Quantity, percent Weight, l b Fuel Quantity, percent
. .- ... ...-.:
. . .

Total

...... .........

6.6 379

7.1
407

--796

Weight, lb
b

...... .........

6.4
230

6.2 223

--453

.i.:

. .-

.

-

..-.

-

. .

.. .

.

.

.

-

~

. . C

..

.

.

8-4
8.8 GUIDANCE , NAVIGATION , AND CONTROL
The performance of t h e primary guidance, navigation, and control syst e m as well as t h e abort guidance system was normal throughout the mission. Two i r r e g u l a r i t i e s were noted during system activation. T h e ' f i r s t i r r e g u l a r i t y w a s noted when power was applied t o t h e comp u t e r . The crew did not observe t h e expected r e s t a r t l i g h t , and 400 was displayed i n r e g i s t e r 2 of t h e display keybozrd. The r e g i s t e r should have been blank. Data i n d i c a t e t h a t 3 r e s t a r t s had occurred instead o f one and t h a t two computer addresses contained useless data. A l l of these symptoms can be caused by very small voltage v a r i a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from changing current demands as t h e computer i s being activated. Subsequent computer s e l f - t e s t s were normal and t h e computer performance was normal f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. The second i r r e g u l a r i t y occurred when the engine p i t c h and r o l l gimThe numbers were c o r r e c t , but the axes were reversed from those i n t h e onboard checklist. Due t o an e r r o r i n t h e documentation supplied t o Kennedy Space Center, t h e axes were reversed when t h e d a t a were loaded i n t o t h e computer during prelaunch a c t i v i t i e s .
b a l t r i m s e t t i n g s were displayed.
!

Aside from these i r r 4 g u l a r i t i e s , activation of both guidance systems was normal. The lunar module computer timing w a s synchronized t o the command module timing and t h e l u n a r module platform w a s aligned t o the command module platform. Table 8-111 i s a summary of primary guidance system p l a t form alignments and t a b l e 8-IV i s a h i s t o r y of t h e i n e r t i a l component stab i l i t y . Table 8-v i s a h i s t o r y of t h e abort guidance system c a l i b r a t i o n s . The powered descent maneuver was i n i t i a t e d on time. summary of s i g n i f i c a n t events during descent.
. ..

Table

8-VI i s a

Performance during ascent w a s normal. Velocity residuals at insert i o n were minus 0.9, minus 1 . 2 , and plus 1.3 f t / s e c i n t h e X, Y , and Z .axes, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h e o r b i t indicated by t h e guidance computer w a s 50 by 9.1 miles. I n s e r t i o n e r r o r s from various sources are shown i n t a b l e 8-v11. A vernier adjustment maneuver of minus 3 . 6 , minus 9.0, and plus 1 . 2 f't/sec was performed t o adjust the o r b i t a l conditions. Table 8-vr11 i s a summary of rendezvous solutions from several sources.

I

TABLE 8-111.- LUNAR MODULE PLATFORM ALIGNMENT SUMMARY

Tine Techniqueb
X X Y Y 2

Type

Aligment mcde DetentC 3 2
1
0.07

Star angle
Detente Star d i f Cerence , deg

Gyro torquing an8Ie. deg

Gyro d r i f t r a t e s . mcru
2

hr:min

slignmer't Optiona

Star

106:56 108:46 2 -1.99
I

52 52 0.03
0.097

3 3
3 3
3

52-hbhe 16-~rocyon 52-hbhc 0.620 0.056 0.695 0.044 0.135 -0.028 11-Aldebarm 11-Aldebaran

--1.57 0.72

--0.99

1ll:ll

-1.41

2.68
I

4
36-vega

-0.01 0.011 0.053 -0.014 -0.25

0.Ob -0.02

0.051 0.028

-

-0.74

181:56 1&:50

57 57 57

4 4
3 3

4
36-Vego

---

-0.026 0.014 -0.032

-0.32

9 - Referred;

bO

1 '

2 - Nominal; 3 - REPSWT; 4 - landing s i t e . - Stored a t t i t u d e ; 1 - REFSM44T + g; 2 - Two bodies; 3 - 1 body + g. - Left front; 2 - Center; 3 - Right front; 4 - Right r e a r ; 5 - r e a r ; 6 - Left r e a r .

.
'.

.
...

. .

TABLE 8-1V.I N E R T I A L COMPONENT HISTORY
a ,
I

r

I n f l i g h t performance

Parameter

.
Number of samples Sample

mean
Accelerometers

Standard deviation

F::gahdt
Power-up to surface Surface power-up t o lift-off Lift-off through rendezvous

-867 60 -980 0.05 1.59

1.2oa

1.21

1.61

1.64
-560 1.73 1.69

Scale f a c t o r e r r o r , ppm

-444
1.74
.- 62 0.03

1.66

2.06~
2.01

Bias, cm/sec2

....... ............
-343

I
49
-469 1.60

z
1.60
0
Gyroscopes

- Axis

1.60

1.60

x
0.4
1.0

- Axis
0.1
11.0

Null b i a s d r i f t , meru
3.1.

-1.89

Acceleration d r i f t about opin rcfcrence oxis. mcrule

0.6
1.0

........ ...... Acceleration d r i f t about inpuL a x i s , merule . . . . . . . . . . .
12.0

12.0

04 .
-1.17

Y

- Axis
0.8
1.2 1.0

N u l l b i a s drift, meru

Acceleration drift about spin reference a x i s , merulg

5.9
-2.2

6.0
0.8
-4.0

........ ...... Acceleration drift about input axis, merulg . . . . . . . . . . .

0.88
-1.1

Z

- Axis ........
...... ...........

N u l l bias d r i f t , meru

-0.4
-8.9
5.11

-2.10
0.6
-8.0

Acceleration d r i f t about spin reference a x i s , nerulg

Acceleration d r i f t about input a x i s . merulg

1.9

4.0

-

"A b i a s update was performed a t 182:20.

,

.

1 ' 0.

, .......

i .' :;

.

...1 . '

. ..;.

'

,

,i

TABLE 8-V.- ABORT GUIDANCE SYSTEM CALIBRATION HISTORY

P r e f l i g h t performance I n f l i g h t performance Flight load Postlanding Prelift-off System activation Postascent

Parameter

Mean of 1 calibrations

Standard d e v i a t i o n of calibrations

Postdocking

S t a t i c b i a s , pg

-

X-axis 11.2 9.0 23.1 62 -217 -217 62 93 -212

74
87
0

35
-241

37
-242

Y-axis

-

z-exis

-

38

37

Gyroscope d r i f t , deg/hr 0.02 0.06
0

x-axis 1.07 0.20
0.oh

-0.32 0.87 0.63

-0.29

-0.33 0.85
0.07 0.80

Y-axis

0.04
0.23

1.01

z-axis

-0.98

-

-

'The

mean value of t h e c a l i b r a t i o n s is based on 36 c a l i b r a t i o n s of t h e u n i t s d u r i n g t h e p r e f l i g h t p e r i o d .

..

8-8
TABU 8-Vr.SEQUENCE O EVENTS DURING POWERED DESCENT F

Elapsed t i m e , h r :min :sec 110:09:45 110 :09 :53 110:10:21 110 :1 :25 1 1 0:13 :28 1 1 0:14 :06 1 110 :14:32 110 :17 :l9 110 :1 9 :15 110 :19 :16 1-10 :26 :1g 110 :19 :54 1 0:20 :51 1 1 0:21: 1 58

Time from ignition, min :sec -00.08 00 :oo 00:28 00 :32 03 :35 04 :13 04 :39 07 :26 09 :22 09 :23 09 :33 1 0 :01 1 0 :58 12 :05

Event Ullage on Ignition Throttle t o M l - t h r o t t l e position Manual t a r g e t update ( ~ 6 9 ) Landing radz-r v e l o c i t y data good Landing radar range d a t a good Enable landing radar updates (V57) T h r o t t l e down Approach phase program s e l e c t e d (P64) Landing radar antenna t o p o s i t i o n 2 F i r s t landing point redesignation Landing radar t o low s c a l e Landing phase program s e l e c t e d ( ~ 6 6 ) Space c r a f t landing

TABLE 8-1711.-

LUNAR ASCENT INSERTION S M A Y U MR
Downrange Crossrange velocity ( l e f t ) velocity ft/sec ft/sec 5542
Radi a1 velocity: ft/sec

Source Primary guidance system Abort guidance system Powered f l i g h t processor

Altitude

f k
60

711

1

33

60 912 62 001

5541
5541

-8
-9

34
41

>,.. . . .

.

.

.

.

.

..

. .

.

.. .

I '

.

.

.

-

8-9
TABU ~-VIII.- RENDEZVOUS SOLUTIONS

Coquied v e l o c i t y change, f t / s e c Maneuver Local vertical coordinates Ax V
AVY

Command module computer

Lunar module guidance computer

A b o r t guidance

system

Terminal phase initiation

75.9

75.5
7.2

4.8
17.6
19.7
78.3 -1.2
0.4

Az V Total

17.4

78.1

77.7
-. 11

First midcourse correction

Ax V AVY Az V Total

,

o
0.2 -0.3

1.9
-0.6
2.3

0.3

0.4
01 . -1.4 -5.4

1.3
-0.4

Second midcourse correction
-

Ax V AVY Az V Total

-0.4

.. . ,.. - n ._. .-. . . .

5.6

....

I

-0.7 -1.6 1.8

1.9
-1.7
2.6

8.9

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Performance of t h e environmental control system w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l l system components functioned normally except demand regulator A , which caused a r i s e i n pressure i n t h e suit loop while it was unmanned during preparation f o r t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Demand regulator A w a s placed i n t h e closed position and the pressure r i s e stopped. Rather than p e r t u r b a t e t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y o r mission timeline, the regu l a t o r w a s not rechecked, but w a s l e f t closed f o r t h e remainder of t h e l u n a r module operations. Regulator A w a s leaking at a r a t e between 0.03 t o 0.05 l b / h r and w a s probably caused by conta@nation between the b a l l poppet and s e a t . Section 15.2.2 contains a discussion of t h i s anomaly.

. .

/-.. - 2 . ... . . . .

8-10

8.10

CONSUMABUS

i."'

All lunar module consumables remained well within r e d l i n e limits.
8.10.1
Descent Propulsion System

Propellant.- The descent propulsion system propellant load q u a n t i t i e s shown i n t h e following t a b l e were calculated from known volumes and weights of off-loaded p r o p e l l a n t s , temperatures, and d e n s i t i e s p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f .

I I
Condition Quantity, l b Oxidizer
12 042.5

Total

Loaded Consumed Remaining at engine cytoff Total Usable

7521.7 7041.3

19 564.2
18 248.9

207.6

i
I

480

835

1315 1225

455

770

S u p e r c r i t i c a l helium.- The q u a n t i t i e s of s u p e r c r i t i c a l helium were determined by computations using pressure measurements and the known volume of t h e tank.
t

Quantity, lb Condition
. .

Actual Loaded Consumed Remaining a t landing

Predi ct e d

51.2

51.2
43.0 8.2

41.6
9.6

I

.

._-. .,.. __..

.

. ..

.

.

'

.

.,i

. .,

,

.. .

8-11 8.10.2
Ascent Propulsion System

P r o p e l l a n t . - The a s c e n t propulsion system t o t a l propellant usage w a s approximately as p r e d i c t e d . The loadings shown i n t h e following t a b l e were determined from measured d e n s i t i e s p r i o r t o launch and from weights of off-loaded p r o p e l l a n t s . Propellant mass, lb Condition Fuel Loaded Consumed Remaining at a s c e n t s t a g e j e t ti s on Oxidizer Total

a Predi c t e d quantity, lb

2026. g 1918.0 108.9

3234.8 3059.2 175.6

5261.7 4977.2 284.5

5257.5 4946.8 310.7

a P r o p e l l a n t r e q u i r e d f o r ascent was reduced by 60 l b t o account f o r r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system consumstion.
I

Helium.- The q u a n i i t i e s of ascent propulsion system helium were determined by p r e s s u r e measurements and t h e known volume of t h e tank.

Condition Loaded
'

I

Actual q u a n t i t y , lb

I

13.2

Consumed Remaining a t lunar module impact

8.7
4.5

i ...: .. . .. . : . .

. .

.. .

. .~

..

.

,

..

. ,

.

.

8-12

8.10.3

Reaction Control System Propellant

The r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system propellant consumption was calculated from telemetered helium tank pressure h i s t o r i e s using t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r e s s u r e , volume, and temperature. Actual quantity, lb Condi t i on Fuel Loaded System A System B Total Consumed t o :
L u n a r landing

Oxidize]

Total

Predicted quantity , lb

107.4 107.4

208.2

208.2

35.6 35.6
631.2
631.2

131

157.8
273.0

Docking Remaining at ascent s t age j e t t i son Remaining at ascent s t a g e impact

282 449 182.2

473.4 157.8

8-13
8.10.4

Oxygen

The a c t u a l q u a n t i t i e s of oxygen loaded and consumed a r e shown i n t h e following t a b l e . Actual quantity, lb Predicted quantity, l b

Condit i on Loaded ( a t l i f t - o f f ) Descent stage Tank 1 Tank 2 Ascent s t a g e Tank 1 Tank 2 Tot a1 Consmed Descent stage Tank 1 Tank 2
i I

47 7 1
47.39

2.36 2.36 99.82

23.41 22.94

22.5 21.4

As cent s t a g e
Tank 1 Tank 2 Total Remaining i n descent s t a g e at l u n a r l i f t - o f f Tank 1 Tank 2 Total Remaini n g at docking (ascent s t a g e ) Tank 1 Tank 2 Total
2.31 2.30 2.36 2.36 4,72 24.00 24.45 24.91 25 90 0.05 0.06

0
0
43.9

46.46

48.45

50.81

4.61

8-14 8.10.5
Water

The a c t u a l water q u a n t i t i e s loaded and consumed, shown i n t h e following t a b l e are based on telemetered data. Actual quantity, lb Predicted quantity, l b

Condition
~

Loaded ( a t l i f t - o f f ) Descent stage Tank 1 Tank 2

202.6 204.6

As cent stage
Tank 1 Tank 2 Total Consumed Descent s t a g e off) Tank 1 Tank 2 Ascent stage (docking) Tank 1 Tank 2 Total Remaining i n Cescent stage at lunar l i f t - o f f Tank 1 Tank 2 Total Remaining in ascent s t a g e at docking
.:

k1.3 42.6
491.1
i

(1Gar l i f t I
185 7 189.1 7.5 8.1 390.4

-

177 5 181.5 6.5 7.5 373.0

16.9 15.5 32.4

25.1

23.1 48.1

Tank 1 Tank 2 Total

33.8 34.5 68.3

34.8 35.1 69.9

.

.

..~. .

~

.

. .

.

,

.. ,

.

. .

.

.

.

9-1
9.0

LUNAR SURFACE OPERATIONAL EQUIPMENT

9.1

LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE

The l u n a r roving vehicle s a t i s f a c t o r i l y supported t h e lunar explorat i o n objectives. Table 9-1 shows the performance parameters from t h e l u nar roving vehicle. C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y was good, and no problems were experienced with s t e e r i n g , braking, or obstacle negotiation. The navigation system gyro d r i f t and closure e r r o r at the lunar module were negligible. A l l i n t e r f a c e s between t h e crew and the lunar roving vehicle and between t h e lunar roving vehicle and the stowed payload were s a t i s f a c t o r y . A det a i l e d discussion of t h e l u n a r roving vehicle performance i s contained i n reference 2. Deployment of t h e l u n a r roving vehicle from the l u n a r module was smooth and no s i g n i f i c a n t problems were encountered. The chassis lock pins d i d not s e a t f u l l y , but t h e crew used the deployment assist t o o l t o s e a t the pins. A t i n i t i a l power,-up, t h e lunar roving vehicle b a t t e r y temperatures were higher than predicted; 95' F f o r battery 1 and 110°F f o r b a t t e r y 2 compared t o the predikted temperatures of 80' F f o r each. This w a s part i a l l y due t o t h e t r a n s l u n a r a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e flown, and p a r t i a l l y t o a bias i n t h e b a t t e r y temperature meter. Following adequate b a t t e r y cooldown a f t e r t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y , temperatures f o r the remainder of t h e l u n a r surface operations were about as predicted. The following lunar roving vehicle systems problems were noted: a. The b a t t e r y 2 temperature indication w a s off-scale low a t t h e s t a r t of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . b. The r i g h t r e a r fender extension was knocked o f f p r i o r t o leaving t h e l u n a r module on t h e f i r s t extravehicular traverse. The b a t t e r y 2 temperature indication was off-scale low at the beginning of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . This condition continued f o r t h e remainder of t h e l u n a r surface operation. The most probable cause w a s a shorted thermistor i n t h e battery. The same condition was noted on ground t e s t i n g of two o t h e r b a t t e r i e s . Electrolyte leakage through t h e sensor bond, as a result of elevated temperatures, may have caused t h e s h o r t . Temperature monitoring was continued using b a t t e r y 1 as an indic a t o r with temperature trends established from d a t a on the f i r s t and second extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s f o r b a t t e r y 2.

TABLE 9-1.- LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
N

\o

I

~~

First extravehicula activity Total 253.5 32.3 32.5 36.0 2.5 1.0 0.2 0.1 8.20 7.50 5.1 5.55 8.75 20.2 12.0 280 27 2.3 19.0 11.0 138.5 88

Second extravehicular activity

Third extravehicular activity

Mission planning value

Drive time, minutes

......... M p distance, kilometers . . . . . . a aOdometer distance, kilometers . . . . Traverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional . . . . . . . . . . . .
37; 35

bTraverse mobility r a t e , kilometers/hr

...........
8.25

-

-.

7.6
8.2

Traverse average speed, kilometerslhr

...........
1-77
6.2 31.5 19.5

8

Energy r a t e , ampere-hoursf kilometers (lunar roving vehicle only)

1.54

1.61

1.59 72

1.8

85

14.8
0

-

0
0

0

0

0

Small Small

Small
0

6
12 18' up 200 down 10

........... Energy consumed, ampere-hours . . . . Lunar roving vehicle . . . . . . . Lunar comnunicationo r c l w unit . . Navigation closure e r r o r , kilometera . . . . . . . . . . . . Nmbr of navigation updates . . . . Gyro d r i f t r a t e , degfhr . . . . . . . 'Wander f a c t o r plus s l i p , percent . .

8.4
18 downhill

Maximum speed reported, kilometers/hr

...........
u.

-

Maximum slope reported, deg

.....

-

-

-

'Odometer
~ v ~

d i n t a r m (truvcroe ) dlatance a c t u a l l y driven from traverse o t a r t i n g point (ourfncc c l c c t r l c a l propcrtieo antenna) t o end point (usually surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s antenna).
~ ~ ~ C e

-

bMobility r a t e = ~

cWander factor = Traverse odometer map distance M p distance a

-

9-3
During t h e f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r z c 7 i v i t y at t h e l u n a r moduie s i t e ,
t h e Commander i n a d v e r t e n t l y knocked off t h e r i g h t rear fender exkension. While s t i l l at the lmar module s i t e , 2 2 Commander t a p e d t h e extension t o t h e f e n d e r . Becawe of t h e dusty s r f e c e s , t h e t a p e d i d n s t edhere and t h e e x t e n s i o n w a s l o s t . Lunar surfsce aa?s were clamped t o the f2Ld e r ( f i g . 9-11. This f i x w a s adequate.
.

-. . .
.
. .

.

..

..
i

' '

f

F i g u r e 9-1.-

Crew-manufactured fender extension.

9-4

9.2 LUNAR COMMUNICATIONS RELAY UNIT AND GROUND COMMANDED TELEVISION A S M L SE B Y
The l u n a r communications r e l a y u n i t provided s a t i s f a c t o r y support from t h e l u n a r surface, and t h e ground-commanded t e l e v i s i o n assembly produced go.od q u a l i t y p i c t u r e s at all times. Activation w a s i n i t i a t e d about 1 hour and 1 minutes a f t e r crew egress f o r the f i r s t extravehicular ac1 t i v i t y . Television coverage of crew egress was not available because t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o t e l e v i s e from t h e l u n a r module w a s eliminated f o r Apollo 17 t o save weight. The system allowed ground personnel t o coordinate lunar surface act i v i t i e s with t h e crew. The rover fender r e p a i r and the deep-core d r i l l i n g were e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s aree. Television coverage, augmented by crew comments, w a s a valuable asset used i n making an e a r l y determination of t h e a c t u a l experiment locations , sampling s i t e s , t r a v e r s e s t o p s , geological f e a t u r e s , and t h e landing point area. Panoramic reproductions of t h e t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e s were a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution t o a preliminary interagency geology report which was issued on December 17, 1972, two days p r i o r t o termination of the nission.
I

The lunar communicatfons system f a i l e d t o respond t o uplink turn-on The condition was expected commands about 36 hours after l u n a r l i f t - o f f . because t h e l u n a r environment eventually exceeded t h e operational tempera t u r e limits of t h e equipment.

Total t e l e v i s i o n operating time w a s 1 5 hours and 22 minutes.

9.3 EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY UNIT
The performance of t h e extravehicular mobility units was good f o r all t h r e e extravehicular periods which t o t e l e d 22 hours 4 minutes. The crew had no d i f f i c u l t y i n donning o r doffing the suits and t h e portable l i f e support systems operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . System operation during i n t e g r i t y checks of t h e extravehicular mob i l i t y u n i t s p r i o r t o each extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s normal. P r i o r t o t h e second extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e Lunar Module P i l o t ' s portable l i f e support system water tanks were reconnected t o the lunar module water syst e m t o assure t h e i r being f i l l e d t o capacity. The tanks, however, did not require any a d d i t i o n a l water. Crew comfort w a s maintained s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s with t h e crewmen adjusting t h e water d i v e r t e r valves as required t o control cooling. Both crewmen received t h e necessary feedwater warning tones f o r t h e expected depletion of primary feedwater and r o u t i n e l y switched t o the a u x i l i a r y feedwater supply

.

.

"

-

.. .

:.

. . .

.

. . . ,'

9-5
The Lunar Module P i l o t encountered some d i f f i c u l t y i n operating t h e sun shade of t h e l u n a r extravehicular visor assembly because of lunar dust i n t h e s l i d e mechanism. Dust and scratches on t h e outer gold v i s o r
prompted t h e crew t o operate with the outer v i s o r i n t h e p a r t i a l l y r a i s e d p o s i t i o n during p a r t of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Both crewmen used t h e special. cover gloves (provided f o r d r i l l i n g operations) throughout t h e f i r s t two extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s , and noted t h a t t h e gloves were extremely worn. The cover gloves were removed and discarded at t h e beginning of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y . During t h e pressure regulation check of the Lunar Module P i l o t ' s oxygen purge system a f t e r the t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e regulation pressure w a s s l i g h t l y above the specificztion value. This was a t t r i b u t e d t o r e g u l a t o r leakage. History of the oxygen purge system regulators has shown t h a t leakage can be caused by e i t h e r a small amount of contamination ( 2 t o 3 microns) on t h e s e a t o r by minor seat erosion r e s u l t i n g from t h e high gas flow. The amount of leakage present was such t h a t the u n i t was s t i l l s u i t a b l e f o r a contingency t r a n s f e r , i f needed. However, since only one o q g e n purge system was t o be returned t o support the Command Module P i l o t ' s extravehicular a c t i v i t y , the Commander's oxygen purge system w a s r e t a i n e d and t h e Lunar Module P i l o t ' s oxygen purge system was j e t t i s o n e d with t h e ascent stage.:
I

The suits and r e i a t e d equipment were returned f o r p o s t f l i g h t inspect i o n . The suits were only s l i g h t l y worn and leakage was within the spec i f i c a t i o n values. Oxygen, power, and feedwater consumables are shown i n t a b l e 9-11.

-

.

.

..

..

-

..

-

9-6
TABLE 9-11.EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY UNIT CONSUMABLES

Commander Condition Actual Predicted

Lunar Module P i l o t Actual Predicted

F i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y

Time, min
Oxygen, lb Loaded Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t Feedwater lb Loaded Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t Battery , amp-br I n i t i a l charge Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t

432 1.93

420 1.86 1.26 0.60

432

420 1.86 1.26 0.60

1.94
1-57
03 .7 0.37 12.12 10.86 1.26 0.91 25.40 20.20 5.20 3.28

1-55
0.38

0.37
12.19 11.23 0.96 0.91 25.40 18.40 7.00 3.28

-

-

u9 .0 9.77
2.13

11.9

9.77
2.13

-

-

25.40 18.90 6.50

-

25.40 18.90 6.50

-

Second extravehiculzr a c t i v i t y Time, min Oxygen, lb Loaded Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t Feedwater lb Loaded Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t B a t t e r y , amp-hr I n i t i a l .charge Consumed Remaining , Redline l i m i t

457
1.78 1-33 0.45 0.37 12* 79 10.20 2.59 0.91 25.40 19.00 6.40 3.28

420 1.81 1.16 0.65

457
1.81 1.36 0.45 0.37 12.72 10.10 2.62 0.91 25.40 21.30 4.10 3.28

420 1.81 1.16 0.65

--

--

12.20

12.20

8.94
3.26

8.94
3.26

--

--

25.40 18.90 6.50

--

25.40 18.90 6.50

--

. . ..

...

.

9-7
TABLE 9-11.EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY UNIT C N U A L S O S M BE CONCLUDED

-

Commander

Lunar Module P i l o t Actual Predicted

.

Condition Actual. Predicted Third extravehiculzr a c t i v i Y T i m e , min Oxygen, lb Loaded Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t Feedwater, lb Loaded I Consumed Remaining Redline limiti Battery, amp-hr I n i t i a l charge Consumed Remaining Redline l i m i t

435

42 0

435

420

1-77
1.33
0.44 0.37

1.81
1.25 0.56
c

1.81 1.43
0.38 0.37

1.81
1.25 0.56

--

11.36 1.43

12-79

12.20

9.66
2.54

0.91

-

12.72 11.52 1.20 0.91

12.20

9.66
2.54

-

25.40 18.00 7.40 3.28

25.40 18.90 6.50

--

25.40 20.30 5.10 3.28

25.40 18.90 6.50

--

.

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k

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10.0

PILOT'S REPORT

This s e c t i o n discusses t h e Apollo 17 mission as performed by t h e crew. Emphasis has been placed upon t h e operational and hardware differences from previous f l i g h t s w i t h descriptions and opinions presented on phases o f t h e f l i g h t t h a t were deemed operationally i n t e r e s t i n g . The asflak f l i g h t plan i s summarized i n figure 10-1 at t h e end of t h i s s e c t i o n .

10.1

TRAIXNG

The Apollo 17 crew w a s thoroughly prepared f o r t h i s f l i g h t i n a l l r e s p e c t s . The experience gained as Eezbers of previous f l i g h t a d backup crews w a s a major contribution t o t h i s preparation. Because of t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and complexity of the h n a r - s u r f a c e and orbital-science equipment, and t h e v a r i e t y of lunar t e r r a i n t o be encountered near t h e landing s i t e , more time w a s spent i n s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g than by any previous crew. A n even balance between s c i e n t i f i c r e t u r n and operation& proficiency w a s considered a necessity, t h e r e f o r e , no phase of t h e m i s sion t r a i n i n g was compromised.
I

The s u c c e s s f u l q c o m p l i s h e n t of t h e mission objectives can be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o ' t h i s t r a i n i n g , but the p r e f l i g h t and i n f l i g h t supp o r t provided by personnel throughout the NASA organization was a contribu t i n g f a c t o r . The Apollo 17 support crew provided a most s i g n i f i c a n t contribution.

10.2

LAIJiCH

The crew i n g r e s s and t h e prelaunch checkout , l i f t - o f f , and powered f l i g h t of all t h r e e s t a g e s was s i m i l a r i n f l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and physiological phenomenon t o preceeding Saturn V missions. Following crew i n g r e s s , t h e prelzunch count proceeded normally u n t i l T-30 seconds at which time the automatic sequencer i n i t i a t e d a hold. The count resumed s e v e r a l times during t h e ultimate 2-hour and 40-minute del a y , and as a r e s u l t , t h e launch azimuth had t o be updated and t h e p l a t form was r e a l i g n e d s e v e r a l t i m e s p r i o r t o t h e l i f t - o f f . The quickest and e a s i e s t way t o accomplish t h e update and realignment is t o copy t h e new launch azimuth as read from t h e control center and then, with confirmat i o n from t h e s p a c e c r a f t t e s t conductor, load and e n t e r the azimuth update i n on? s t e p .

10-2

Except f o r t h e hold, the major differences t o consider when comparing t h i s launch w i t h previous ones are those associated with the night launch. The crew could see f i r s t - s t a g e ignition through t h e rendezvous window and t h e hatch window cutout i n the boost protective cover from a very few seconds p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f u n t i l a few seconds following lifto f f . A t staging of t h e s-IC s t a g e , a bright f l a s h w a s evident. It was as i f t h e spacecraft w a s being overtaken by 8 f i r e b a l l at t h e f i r s t stage c u t o f f . The e f f e c t could have been produced by the S-IC stage retrograde motors or t h e S-IC engines. Escape tower j e t t i s o n was more spectacular at night than it w a s i n daylight. Again at S-I1 staging, t h e crew could see a glow through the windows as the S-I1 shut down and t h e S-IVB ign i t e d . T h i s glow could possibly have been the S-I1 f i r e b a l l tending t o overtake t h e spacecraft. During t h e S-IVB f i r i n g , t h e only visual clues came from t h e a u x i l i a r y propulsion system engines as they f i r e d periodi c a l l y throughout t h e dynamic f i r i n g phase end during a t t i t u d e hold i n earth orbit.

For mission planning purposes, t h e night-time launch indicated t h e possible l o s s of t h e backup abort c a p a b i l i t i e s , i n t h e event of an S-IVB yaw hardover maneuver combined with the l o s s of both t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n control system and the i n e r t i a l measurement u n i t . Some e f f o r t was expended, during t h e S-I1 f i r i n g , t o examine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of seeing stars through t h e window aha detecting t h e presence of t h e horizon by watching t h e stars r i s e f r m t h e earth-occulted sky. The lack of night adaptation was a hindrance, even though the l i g h t s i n the cabin were turned down f o r short periods of time. No s t a r s were ever v i s i b l e , nor w a s t h e horizon detectable. Had v i s i b l e s t a r s been required f o r a mode I1 or a mode I V abort, it i s t h e Commanders' judgement t h a t the abort would only have been marginally successful because of the s m a l l amount of night adaptation t h a t t h e crew'were able t o acquire i n f l i g h t . Although an abort under these conditions considers a second t o t h i r d order f a i l u r e , serious cons-i-deration must be given t o t h e cockpit l i g h t i n g configuration f o r powered f l i g h t , if t h e requirement t o see s t a r s during a night launch i s v a l i d . The l i g h t s were near f u l l bright on Apollo 17 t o preclude t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of being blinded at engine i g n i t i o n and during the e a r l y secwds a f t e r l i f t - o f f . The requirement t o observe the control panel displays during t h i s period of f l i g h t f a r outweigh the p o t e n t i a l requirements of maintaining spacecraft a t t i t u d e with v i s u a l cues during a highly unlikely abort sequence.

9

..

7

..
.... ..

. .

.. .
.. ..I.
..d-.

There were no systems anomalies during the launch phase. A low battery-current load was noted when t h e bus t i e s were turned on. Because of t h i s , t h e Lunar Module P i l o t changed from his normal procedure of monitori n g t h e b a t t e r i e s t o monitoring t h e fuel c e l l s f o r current fluctuations. When t h e s e r v i c e propulsion system gimbal motors were activated 6 minutes p r i o r t o launch, t h e fuel-cell currents fluctuated much more sharply than had been noted i n t h e simulator. The apparent reason f o r t h e low b a t t e r y loads was t h e high e f f i c i e n c y of t h e fuel c e l l s . During t h e two staging

-. - .. . .

10-3
events of t h e launch phase, t h e r e were no observed systems parameter fluct u a t i o n s and a p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t had beer, nzde t o scan t h e gages a f t e r each major dynanic event t o determine i f z q such f l u c t u a t i o n s occurred. The crew's opinion was t h a t during certain phases of t h e launch, part i c u l a r l y during t h e high v i b r a t i o n and hlgh g loads on t h e s-ICY trcubleshooting of systems malfunctions would be very c i i f f i c u l t . Launch phase t r a i n i n g c e r t a i n l y prepares a person t o troubleshoot malfunctions should it become absolutely necessary.

10.3

EARTH ORBITAL FLIGHT

O r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n occurred i n t o t a l dzrkness and t h e first glimpse of t h e e a r t h w a s gained i n a spectacular sunrise over t h e Atlantic Ocean as t h e spacecraft approached t h e west coast of Africa. The o r b i t a l ins e r t i o n c h e c k l i s t progressed without incident while being primarily involved with checking t h e systems, verifying the o p t i c s cover j e t t i s o n and operation, a l i g n i n g t h e platform, and preparing f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a first o r b i t t r a n s l u n a r - i n j e c t i o n opportunity. This preparation w a s complete when contact w a s made with t h e H a w a i i range s t a t i o n on t h e f i r s t revolution. The next revolution afforded a good opportunity t o l e i s u r e l y m a k e observations from t q e low e a r t h o r b i t .
I

Earth observations p e r t a i n i n g t o weather o r land mass phenomena req u i r e s constant a t t e n t i o n . The knowledge of d i s c r e e t p o s i t i o n s on an earth-based map, and t h e a b i l i t y t o predict the t i m e of upcoming t a r g e t s i s e s s e n t i a l t o make t h e observations meaningful.. Numerous s t e r e o photographs were taken of t h e weather phenomena. An analysis of these photographs w i l l be reported i n a supplement t o t h i s r e p o r t . The o p t i c s dust covers were j e t t i s o n e d i n daylight and could be seen under r e f l e c t e d s u n l i g h t . There i s an associated noise t h a t i s appzrent with t h e j e t t i s o n i n g . N stars were ever seen through t h e telescope i n o t h e d a y l i g h t ; however, no attempt w a s made t o become f u l l y night-adzpted. The pick-a-pair r o u t i n e worked w e l l with t h e stars v i s i b l e i n the s e x t a n t ; however, i n t h e d a y l i g h t , t h e r e w a s no detectable illumination of the sext a n t r e t i c l e . The sextant cross-hairs showed up as black l i n e s against a l i g h t b l u e background.

A systems problem w a s noted a f t e r e a r t h o r b i t i n s e r t i o n when numerous spurious master a l a r m s i g n a l s occurred, and these f o r t h e most p a r t , seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d with t h e operation of switches on control panel 2 ( s e c . 15.1.1). A occasional alarm would occur by simply bumping t h e n panel. These master alarms came i n groups throughout t h e f i r s t day and continued i n t o t h e second day of f l i g h t . Another condition noted w a s

10-4
a 15-second l a g i n t h e mission t i m e r i n t h e lower equipment bay (sec. 1 5 . 1 . 2 ) . The timer w a s r e s e t and no f u r t h e r time l o s s e s occurred during t h e mission. The only major changes t o t h e i n s e r t i o n c h e c k l i s t were t h e rearrangement o f s t a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n times and t h e d e l e t i o n of t h e t e l e v i s i o n configuration f o r t r a n s p o s i t i o n and docking.

10.4

TRANSLUNAR INJECTION

The t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n procedures and maneuver were normal. The most s i g n i f i c a n t change w a s t h e update t o the backup t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n a t t i t u d e numbers on t h e cue cards. Final t r v l s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n preparat i o n s began p r i o r t o t h e s t a t e s i d e pass and continuous communications contact w a s maintained through maneuver comDletion, using t h e Apollo range instrumentation aircraf't i n t h e f i n a l phases. Reception through Apollo range instrumentation a i r c r a f t w a s f a i r t o good onboard t h e spacecraft and w a s apparently e x c e l l e n t on t h e ground. The maneuver w a s i n i t i a t e d on time with the instrument u n i t and comm a n d module computer guidance agreeing well throughout t h e f i r i n g . The i g n i t i o n w a s i n darkness, with shutdown i n the daylight. A spectacular s u n r i s e was sandwiched in'between t h e start a i d end of t h e translunar i n j e c t i o n maneuver. All onboard displays and t r a j e c t o r y monitoring w a s normal with both t h e e n t r y monitor system crd d i g i t a l s t a t u s keyboard confirming a good c u t o f f . The S-IVB stage sounded and responded very much l i k e it d i d while going i n t o e a r t h o r b i t with a noticeable low-frequency buzz t h a t w a s s i m i l a r t o t h a t reported by crews of previous miss i o n s . The a c c e l e r a t i o n during i g n i t i o n and i t s subsequent f i r i n g might be likened t o t h a t produced by an a i r c r a f t zfterburner. Following t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n c u t o f f , numerous l a r g e fragments seemed t o be coming o f f t h e S-IVB s t a g e . They were very b r i g h t and tumbled slowly as they moved , generally away from t h e launch vehicle/spacecraft combination.

10.5
. . .. .. . . .. . . . , .,,~
>
~

TRANSLUNAR FLIGHT

... ..... .. .
i

_.

10.5.1 Transposition, Docking, and Lunar Module Ejection
Spacecraft/launch vehicle adapter separation w a s characterized by an audible pyrotechnic a c t i v a t i o n p l u s a noticeable shock o r j a r r i n g i n t h e command and s e r v i c e module. The shock did not close any i s o l a t i o n valves. The shock broke loose many small p a r t i c l e s t h a t appeared t o be i c e c r y s t a l s , and t h e s e moved r a d i a l l y away from t h e vehicle. Command and s e r v i c e module t r a n s l a t i o n and a t t i t u d e maneuvers were audible and

10-5
t h e motion of t h e spacecraft w a s sensed a t the beginning and completion of t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n maneuver. The estimated closure r a t e of about 0.1 f t / s e c w a s maintained u n t i l docking probe contact. The S-IVB w a s very s t a b l e with no detectable o s c i l l a t i o n s o r motions within t h e deadbands. The s o f t docking w a s normal with no residual r a t e damping or a t t i t u d e corrections being required p r i o r t o hard docking. Docking l a t c h actuat i o n w a s heard as a loud bang followed by an immediate ripple f i r e of t h e remaining l a t c h e s ; however , the docking-system-A talkback indicator remained i n t h e barberpole position. The crew o p t i c a l alignment s i g h t showed a r i g h t yaw of about 1 degree on the t a r g e t during hard docking. Removal of t h e tunnel hatch went well and 7 of the 10 latches appeared t o be locked during t h e inspection. On each of t h e 3 latches which appeared t o be unlocked, the power bungee w a s v e r t i c a l , but the handle was not locked down, and the red button was showing. The handle was locked on l a t c h 1 0 by pushing it i n the outboard direction. Latches 7 and 9 were each recocked twice and then manually triggered. With t h e reactiva t i o n of l a t c h 9 , docking-system-A talkback indicated correctly. The v i s i b l e surfaces of the lunar Eodule were extremely clean and remained s o throughout the f l i g h t . Translunar Coast Operations i The chlorine ampules were a continuing problem throughout the f l i g h t . Between 50 and 70 percent of these ampules e i t h e r leaked d i r e c t l y o r leaked during t h e i n j e c t i o n i n t o the potable w&er system. Additionally, attaching t h e i n j e c t o r t o t h e bayonet f i t t i n g d i d not always cause a puncture o f t h e chlorine ampule and provide a path f o r the chlorine t o flow i n t o the water system (sec. 15.1.6).
10.522

Following t h e S-IVB evasive maneuver, the suits were doffed. The 9-inch addition t o t h e length of t h e L-shaped bag f o r stowing the s u i t s proved t o be b e n e f i c i a l . Even though it s t i l l took some e f f o r t , the t h r e e suits were stowed with t h e comfortable feeling t h a t they were not damaged during t h e stowing process. The 1-hour eating period, which w a s planned at 7 hours a f t e r launch t o shorten the long launch day, w a s of p a r t i c u l a r importance because of t h e 2-hour and 4O-ainute l i f t - o f f delay. Also, t h e planning t o include a short sleep period i n the first day allowed the crew t o r e t u r n t o a normal work-rest cycle.
A s l i g h t l y higher helium absorption i n t o t h e service propulsion system oxidizer tank, coupled with a s l i g h t l y lower-than-nomd caution and warning system pressure l i m i t , actuated the service propulsion system pressure l i g h t . The caution and warning system was placed i n t h e acknowledge mode u n t i l p r i o r t o lunar o r b i t insertion when a manual repressurization of t h e s e r v i c e propulsion system oxidizer system allowed a return t o t h e normal operational mode.

The a b i l i t y t o continuously observe the e a r t h from a distance o f f e r s numerous advantages over t h e o r b i t a l observation of t h e e a r t h . O f course, as t h e distance between t h e e a r t h and the spacecraft increased, the advantage decreased

.

10.5.3
.. .> . ..'.. .t .. .
.

Guidance and Navigation

... . .

A t 17 hours i n t o t h e f l i g h t , t h e transearth midcourse navigation t r a i n i n g w a s performed t o compare t h e Command Module P i l o t ' s determinat i o n of t h e earth's horizon d i f f e r e n t i a l - z l t i t u d e measurement with the value s t o r e d i n t h e computer. The a l t i t u d e measurement w a s determined t o be 25 kilometers; t h e r e f o r e , because of the small difference, the preloaded erasable memory value of 29 kilometers was retained i n the computer. The automatic routine t o maneuver t o the s u b s t e l l a r point was not always p r e c i s e l y on t a r g e t and t h e a t t i t u d e had t o be adjusted s l i g h t l y , using t h e minimum impulse control mode. This s l i g h t e r r o r may have been due t o spacecraft positioning within t h e selected deadband. The erasable memory program f o r c i s l u n a r midcourse navigation w a s u t i l i z e d throughout t h e mission and w a s very worthwhile. Only one e a r t h horizon was discerni b l e , and it was very easy t o see. The t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n maneuver was adjusted t o compensate f o r t h e delayed l i f t - o f f s o t h a t /the spacecraft would a r r i v e a t t h e moon a t t h e pre-planned Greenwich mean t i m e f o r lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n . The f l i g h t plan was updated with e s s e n t i a l l y no changes by eliminating the hour between 46 and 47 hours i n t h e f l i g h t plan. Then another hour and 40 minutes of t h e f l i g h t plan w a s eliminated at 66 hours and rescheduling of t h e onboard navigation t o 67 hours and 40 minutes returned t h e mission t o t h e original. f l i g h t plan timeline. S t a r s were not v i s i b l e out of t h e telescope a t any time when the lun a r module w a s attached; however, t h e pick-a-pair routine worked well and stars were always v i s i b l e i n t h e sextant. Passive thermal control mode w a s entered and e x i t e d according t o the checklist with excellent r e s u l t s .each t i m e . I n t r a n s l u n a r c o a s t , all i n e r t i a l measurement u n i t realignment option 1 changes i n s t a b l e member orientations were accomplished by gyroscope torquing and proved s a t i s f a c t o r y . The procedure was changed t o use coarse alignment f o r s t a b l e member reorientation when the spacec r a f t w a s i n darkness during l u n a r o r b i t . Af'ter coarse aligning, the s t a r s , i n all cases were e i t h e r within or j u s t outside t h e f i e l d of view of t h e s e x t a n t , i n d i c a t i n g less than 2 degrees of e r r o r .

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10-7 10.5.4 Lunar Module Checkout and Housekeeping

The probe, drogue, and hatch removal operations were accomplished without incident. A more d e t a i l e d investigation of t h e docking l a t c h e s revealed t h a t l a t c h 4 had not seated properly, although the hook was over t h e docking r i n g . The handle w a s pulled back t o the once cocked p o s i t i o n , and t h e hook e a s i l y pulled o f f t h e docking ring. The l a t c h was l e f t i n t h i s configuration u n t i l t h e second t r a n s f e r t o t h e lunar module when t h e l a t c h cocking sequence w a s completed. The f i r s t lunar module checkout proceeded according t o the procedures except f o r a temporary ground communicztions problem. The second l u n a r module e n t r y was i n accordance with the f l i g h t plan f o r telemetry activa t i o n . The l u n a r module cabin w a s very clean with t h e only debris being the usual r i v e t s , screws, e t c . , t o t a l i n g not more than a dozen items. 10.5.5 Midcourse Corrections

The only midcourse correction required during the translunar f l i g h t w a s performed at t h e second option point. The maneuver was a 2-second mini m u m impulse f i r i n g of t h e service propulsion system, and w a s performed on s i n g l e bank A . The maneuver provided a short , quick look a t the service propulsion system, which f'unctioned s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The gimbal t r i m checkout , both manual and 'automatic, w a s clearly evident by t h e f u e l c e l l and b a t t e r y current v a r i a t i o n s .
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10.5.6

Pre-Lunar Orbit Insertion Operations

Preparations and proceedings for s c i e n t i f i c instrument module door j e t t i s o n were normal. There w a s a d e f i n i t e physiological feeling and sound associated w i t h t h e j e t t i s o n i n g similar t o other spacecraft pyrotechnic flmctions. A s m a l l amount of debris accompanied the door upon j e t t i s o n i n g and t h e door slowly tumbled i n a random manner as it separ a t e d from t h e service module. Unlike previous f l i g h t s , Apollo 17 did not go i n t o a penumbra p r i o r t o l u n a r o r b i t i n s e r t i o n ; so daylight prevailed throughout t h e t r a n s l u n a r coast phase. Several hours p r i o r t o lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n , a very s m a l l crescent of t h e moon w a s v i s i b l e t o t h e crew. This limb grew rapidly and, at about 8000 miles, l u n a r topographic features were i d e n t i f i a b l e on t h e horizon. Observation of t h e approach towards a 50-mile perilune from s e v e r a l thousand miles away was quite spectacular.

10-8
10.6 10.6.1
LUNAR ORBITAL OPERATIONS PRIOR TO DESCENT

Lunar Orbit I n s e r t i o n and Descent Orbit Insertion

During preparation f o r l u n a r o r b i t i n s e r t i o n , t h e abort charts and curves were updated t o account f o r the launch delay. This a c t i v i t y required sdme t i m e t o copy and verif'y, but w a s handled very well by t h e ground personnel. Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n preparations went w e l l , i g n i t i o n w a s on time, and t h e maneuver w a s normal. The engine chamber pressure indication w a s approximately 87 p s i on bank A and increased about 5 p s i when bank B w a s armed 5 seconds l a t e r . The chamber pressure gradually increased t o about 96 t o 97 p s i , where it remained f o r t h e r e s t of the f i r i n g . A s l i g h t l y low gage b i a s w a s known p r e f l i g h t . P i t c h and yaw rates were s t a b l e ; however, r o l l r a t e s were about 0.2 t o 0.3 deg/sec. After t h e i n i t i a l trans i e n t s i n t h e propellant u t i l i z a t i o n gaging system which l a s t e d about 30 seconds, t h e system s t a b i l i z e d at 180 pounds decrease and then gradua l l y began diverging. When t h e unbalance reached 300 pounds, t h e flow valve w a s placed i n the decrease position. A t the t i m e of crossover, t h e flow had reversed t o about 100 pounds decrease where it appeared t o s t a b i l i z e and t h e switch was then placed i n the normal position where it remained f o r t h e rest of tqe f i r i n g . Just p r i o r t o the completion of t h e f i r i n g , t h e i n d i c a t o r moved towards decrease again with a r e s u l t i n g unbalance of about l l 0 pounds decrease. The f i r s t descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver w a s a 22-second guidance and navigation-controlled s e r v i c e propulsion f i r i n g with an automatic shutdown. With no t r i m , t h e r e s u l t i n g o r b i t was 59.1 miles by 14.9 miles. During t h e 4-engine 15-second u l l a g e , t h e spacecraft exh'ibited low r a t e s about all t h r e e axes. 10.6.2 Lunar Landmark Tracking

The first l u n a r landmark tracked was c r a t e r 5-3 on t h e t h i r d revolut i o n . This was a t r a i n i n g t a r g e t t o the e a s t of the landing s i t e and allowed t h e Command Module P i l o t t o become familiar with t h e telescope s h a f t and trunnion r a t e s while performing t h e low-altitude tracking. This provided confidence and enabled t h e Command Module P i l o t t o verify t h a t lowa l t i t u d e landmark tracking could be accomplished as planned. Even though t h e i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e w a s not exactly c o r r e c t , a landmark i n t h e a r e a of t h e landing s i t e was a l s o s e l e c t e d f o r tracking on the t h i r d revolution, and t h e r e f o r e , four o r f i v e marks were taken on c r a t e r F. Landmark 17-1 was observed i n t h e sunlight and t h e landmark tracking w a s s h i f t e d t o 17-1 f o r t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s tracking pass. The regular low-altitude landmark t r a c k on 17-1 during revolution 1 4 went well.

10-9
The high-alt i t u d e landmark tracking was e a s i l y accomplished; however , t h e t r a c k i n g of landmark RP-3, which WES very close t o t h e zero-phase p o i n t , disappeared a f t e r t h e point o f closest approach.

10.6.3

L u n a r Module Activation Checkout

. The l u n a r module a c t i v a t i o n and checkout was normal, except t h a t t h e lunar module tunnel venting required 1 0 t o 15 minutes longer than had been a n t i c i p a t e d because the command module simulator erroneously i n d i c a t e s an operation of about 1 t o 2 minutes.
The crew completed what w a s probably the smoothest i n f l i g h t l u n a r module a c t i v a t i o n and checkout ever performed. Procedurally , the timel i n e and a c t i v a t i o n book, as w r i t t e n , xere i n excellent condition. Howe v e r , t h e following minor conditions were noted.

a. During guidance computer powerup, when the lunar module guidance computer display and keyboard c i r c u i t breaker w a s closed, the r e s t a r t l i g h t d i d not illuminate and the keyboad displayed a 400 and R2.
b. During d i g i t a l a u t o p i l o t loacEng and v e r i f i c a t i o n , the p i t c h and yaw pre-set gimbal t r i m w a s i n the wrong r e g i s t e r s ; i . e . , R l was loaded with yaw and R2 w a s loaded with pitch. Since t h e a c t u a l numbers were near equal, t h e load w a s not changed and the gimbal was not retrimmed.

The secondary glycol loop had small pressure o s c i l l a t i o n s and c. a ragged sound at pump powerup. The sound ceased and the pressure stab i l i z e d a f t e r about 1 5 seconds. Undocking and separation were c o q l e t e d on t i m e . Following separat i o n , t h e l u n a r module crew v i s u a l l y tracked the command and service modu l e as it maneuvered f o r landmark tracking over the landing s i t e ( f i g . 10-2). The crew obtained a spectacular oblique view of the landing s i t e , w h i l e , p a s s i n g over it on t h e revolution p r i o r t o powered descent i n i t i a t i o n . The VHF communications were excellent, r e s u l t i n g i n an easy confirmation of t h e command and service module c i r c u l a r i z a t i o n maneuver p r i o r t o t h e second descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n . The second descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver of 7 f t / s e c , w a s s m a l l e r than predicted p r e f l i g h t , and was performed e a s i l y with t h e minus X lunar module reaction control system t h r u s t e r s . The primary navigation guidence system predicted a perilune of 7.0 miles with t h e abort guidance system being more accurate i n t h i s case by p r e d i c t i n g 6.7 miles.

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Figure 10-2.- Command snd service module over the landing s i t e .

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10.7
10.7.1

P W R D D S E T MID LANDING O EE EC N Preparation for Powered Descent

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A t acquisition-of-signal on the landing revolution, the primary navi g a t i o n guidance system s t a t e vector was uplinked t o t h e crew much quicker than had been expected or had ever been received i n t h e simulations. Aft e r a s l i g h t uplink problem due t o antenna switching, the uplink was received and t h e landing maneuver and braking phase program was subsequently s e l e c t e d f o r a comfortable and confident countdown t o powered descent ini t i a t i o n . Physiologically, both the Comander and the Lunar Module P i l o t sensed t h e ullage i g n i t i o n ; and it w a s a l s o evident on the computer keyboard. Descent engine s t a r t and throttle-up were on time and were verif i e d by t h e guidance computer. A downrange landing s i t e correction of +3400 f e e t w a s i n s e r t e d i n t o the primary guidance computer 2 minutes i n t o t h e maneuver. The next major event occurred at 4 minutes when the l u n a r module was yawed from 290 degrees t o 340 degrees with a simultaneous landi n g radar lock on. Just p r i o r t o t h i s yaw maneuver, t h e r e w a s an indicat i o n t h a t t h e radar w a s attempting t o hold a velocity lock. The radar data were accepted and t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a l t i t u d e display rapidly converged t o zero. The mountain peaks of t h e lunar t e r r a i n , smoothed over by t h e t e r r a i n model, were observed at approxinakely 30 000 t o 32 000 f e e t as the d i f f e r e n t i a l a l t i t u d e diverged t o between 2000 t o 2500 f e e t and then converged back t o zero v e h rapidly. From 30 000 f e e t down t o the lunar surf a c e , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a l t i t u d e remained near zero and t h e descent closely followed t h e p r e f l i g h t predicted t r a j e c t o r y . South Massif was e a s i l y observed out t h e Commander's window a t an d t i t u d e of 13 000 f e e t . A l i t t l e e x t r a e f f o r t i n looking out of t h e bottom half of t h e window provided a view of t h e western p a r t of t h e valley, the scarp, and t h e l i g h t mantle area. Throttle-down occurred on time , md pitchover followed s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r a t about 7500 f e e t a l t i t u d e . When pitchover occurred, it was almost immediately evident t h a t there were b e t t e r areas i n which t o land than t h a t s e l e c t e d p r e f l i g h t . A s the lziding point designator steadied and t h e t r a j e c t o r y could be v e r i f i e d , the targeted landing s i t e was t h e pre-mission predicted p o i n t . Several pitchup landing point designator commands were made s o as t o f l y t h e lunar nodule t o the desired spacec r a f t landing area. When t h i s redesignation was completed t o an area several hundred meters south of t h e targeted landing point, it was evident t h a t boulders and c r a t e r s were going t o be the determining f a c t o r s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e f i n a l landing point. A s t h e a l t i t u d e decreased and a more preferable landing spot within the new area could be seen, s e v e r a l additional landing point designator corrections were made t o pinpoint t h e exact landing location. The general slopes of the l o c a l t e r r a i n were d i f f i c u l t t o determine and indications are t h a t they were not a major f a c t o r i n determining t h e landing spot i t s e l f . Manual takeover occurred j u s t under 300 f e e t a l t i t u d e and the landing w a s completed w i t h

10-12 near zero l a t e r a l v e l o c i t y and a s m a l l forward velocity. The descent r a t e was approximately 3 f t / s e c . The shadow of the spacecraft was used t o a n t i c i p a t e touchdown. The somewhat higher-than-normal descent r a t e s a f t e r manual takeover, and t h e freedom i n maneuvering t h e spacecraft provided a comfortable and safe landing approach which w a s well within t h e c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y of both man and machine. This i s a t t r i b u t e d not only t o t h e lunar module simulator, but t o t h e t r a i n i n g t h a t w a s received flyi n g t h e 'lunar landing t r a i n i n g vehicle. T h i s vehicle i s considered, as has been s t a t e d by previous p i l o t s , an excellent t r a i n i n g device f o r t h e l a s t 300 o r 400 f e e t of t h e a c t u a l lunar landing phase. During the f i n a l phases of t h e landing, t h e Commander divided h i s a t t e n t i o n between looking Inside, the velocity crosspointers out-the-window and in-the-cockpit. and t h e a t t i t u d e display were monitored. This technique was used i n t h e l u n a r module simulator and i n t h e lunar landing t r a i n i n g vehicle. Dust w a s f i r s t observed at 60 t o 70 f e e t a l t i t u d e , as indicated on t h e tape meter. There were two unexpected incidents noted. During descent, the l a t e ascent b a t t e r y turn-on followed by slow battery conditioning resulted i n one descent b a t t e r y being turned o f f e a r l y i n the powered descent phase and then put back on the l i n e about 5 minutes l a t e r ; a l s o when the descent engine was armed, t h e descent quantity l i g h t was illuminated. (Note: Neither condition was abnormal). The warning l i g h t was r e s e t with the q u a n t i t y switch and therejwere no flcrther zctivations during powered des c e n t . Landing w a s complkted with an indicated 7 t o 9 percent of t h e prop e l l a n t remaining; however , several minutes a f t e r touchdown another descent quantity warning l i g h t w a s t r i g g e r e d , apparently caused by unequal tank q u a n t i t i e s due t o g r a v i t y s e t t l i n g . A t touchdown, t h e r e were no observed abnormalities i n spacecraft systems or associated measurements. The f i n a l a t t i t u d e of t h e l u n a r module a f t e r engine shutdown, was approximately 4 t o 5 degrees pitchup, zero r o l l , and near zero yaw. Subsequent inspection of t h e area during t h e extravehicular a c t i e t i e s showed t h a t t h e r e a r s t r u t of t h e spacecraft r e s t e d near t h e bottom of a 3- o r 4-meter diameter c r a t e r and produced t h e spacecraft pitchup a t t i t u d e ( f i g . 10-3). It i s assumed t h a t t h e descent engine shutdown occurred with approximately zero p i t c h , when t h e spacecraft h i t t h e surface, it pivoted on the forward '(+Z> s t r u t and produced a somewhat harder than anticipated aft impact. The rear strut may have stroked, but t h e other three did not.

10.8

LUNAR SURFACE OPERATIONS

10.8.1

Preparation and Post Extravehicular Activity

Pos landing a c t i v i t y and preparation f o r the first extravehicu .ar a c t i v i t y were i n i t i a t e d with t h e power-down of the spacecrart and comp l e t e d without incident. The crew was methodical i n t h e portable l i f e

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Figure 10-3.- Landing gear pad i n small crater. support system checkout, v e r i f i c a t i o n of suit i n t e g r i t y , and i n general houseke9ping f o r the lunar s t a y a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t of the methodic a l operation, the crew was about 30 minutes t o 1 hour behind the planned timeline, and they eventually commenced the f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y approximately 1 hour l a t e . The subsequent preparations and a l l post extravehicular a c t i v i t y operations went well.

10-14 The surface checklist was followed closely except t h a t the Commande r ' s oxygen hoses were disconnected from the suit during all t h e prepar a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The hoses were strapped against t h e environmental control system bulkhead and were allowed t o flow oxygen i n t o the cabin. To provide additional clearance i n t h e portable l i f e support system donning s t a t i o n and i n t h e forward cabin area, t h e suit hoses were not connected. The l i q u i d cooling garment pump c i r c u i t breaker was cycled f o r cooling'purposes and cooling w a s more than adequate. The Lunar Module P i l o t allowed h i s hoses t o remain connected t o the suit because it w a s t h e most convenient method t o handle these short hoses. The c h e c k l i s t f o r t h e preparation and post extravehicular a c t i v i t y operations , as w e l l as t h e general timeline , hed been w e l l considered and t h e p r e f l i g h t crew t r a i n i n g exercises were very worthwhile. Training emphasis was placed on preparations f o r the f i r s t extravehicular activi t y over a l l t h e o t h e r s , because t h i s was most t i m e - c r i t i c a l , due t o t h e lengthy landing day a c t i v i t i e s . There was no degradation i n performance during t h e second and t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y preparations o r t h e post extravehicular a c t i v i t y operations because of a l e s s e r amount of t r a i n i n g i n those areas. A p a r t i a l housekeeping configuration was establ i s h e d before t h e end of preparations f o r the first extravehicular activi t y and t h e balance of t h e configuration wzs completed during preparation f o r t h e s l e e p period. Tde s i z e of t h e lunzr module made it d i f f i c u l t f o r two crewmen t o f r e e l $ I move around. As a r e s u l t , all a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e cabin a r e accomplished slowly t o insure t h a t none of t h e equipment i s damaged. Much of t h e t i m e required for preparation and post-extraveh i c u l a r a c t i v i t y operations i s a r e s u l t of t h e constraining cabin space. A systematic stowage, unstowage, and interim stowage of gear i s required during t h e preparation exercise. The mission timer was r e t a i n e d i n a powered-up configuration f o r emergency l i f t - o f f purposes, although the numeric l i g h t i n g c i r c u i t breaker w a s disengaged. The computer clock was r e - i n i t i a l i z e d several times during t h e lunar s t a y . S u i t donning and doffing was accomplished e s s e n t i a l l y as planned. P a r t i c u l a r care was exercised i n t h e cleaning and l u b r i c a t i o n of zippers and o t h e r dust s e n s i t i v e portions of t h e extravehicular mobility unit. The dust p r o t e c t o r s on t h e wrist lock-locks were used on each extravehicular a c t i v i t y , but it i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine how much protection these provided. The conservative approach was t o use them; however, by t h e end of t h e second extravehicular a c t i v i t y and c e r t a i n l y by t h e end of the t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e wrist lock-locks had s t i f f e n e d considerably. However, t h e moving p a r t s of t h e extravehicular mobility u n i t seemed t o be usable f o r an i n d e f i n i t e number of extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s providing t h a t proper care w a s given t o them.

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The l i q u i d cooling garments were doffed at the end of each extraveh i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and t h e constant wear gament was donned for sleep. The crew believed t h a t t h e i r s l e e p was much more comfortable i n the constant wear garment p a r t l y because it was cleaner than t h e l i q u i d cooling garment. Also, t h e constant wear garment removed t h e general l e v e l of pressure t h a t a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i q u i d cooling garment exerts on t h e body. P r i o r t o ascent from t h e lunar surface, the cabin a c t i v i t i e s included covering a l l holes i n the lunar module floor i n t o which dust had c o l l e c t e d o r could be swept. Although considerable dust appeared i n the cabin upon i n s e r t i o n , taping the holes d e f i n i t e l y prevented a major dust problem i n zero-g.

10.8.2

Extravehicular Activity

F i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y . - The intended objectives of t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y were accomplished , including lunar roving vehicle deployment and preparation , experiment deployment , and post-experiment act i v i t i e s . The s o l e revision t o t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s the shortening of t h e geology t r a v e r s e t i n e , necessitated by delays i n the Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package deployment. The shortened t r a verse time required tqat s t a t i o n 1, originally planned f o r the e a s t side of Emory C r a t e r , be mqved t o a point about one h a l f t h e intended distance from t h e l u n a r module ' ( s e e f i g s . 4-1 and 4-2). It w a s , however , almost on t h e o r i g i n a l planned t r a v e r s e l i n e . The major sampling objectives of t h e Emory Crater s t a t i o n were accomplished a t a place l a t e r r e f e r r e d t o as s t a t i o n 1 A . The planned investigation of an apparent contact within t h e dark mantle u n i t , and t h e investigation of Emory Crater i t s e l f were not conducted

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The geological objectives met during the f i r s t extravehicular activi t y were connected primarily with the sampling and visual observations of t h e dark mantle u n i t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of the lunar module and near stat i o n 1 A . Blocks of subfloor gabbro i n t h i s area and along the traverse were a l s o investigated and sampled. The t o t a l duration of t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s 7 hours and 12 minutes and t h e lunar roving vehicle traveled approximately 3.5 kilometers. The t o t a l number of samples was 18 with a weight of approximately 31 pounds. Second extravehicular a c t i v i t y . - The plan f o r t h e second extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s performed e s s e n t i a l l y as intended. The t i m e extension granted at s t a t i o n 2 plus t h e addition of a new s t a t i o n (2A), between s t a t i o n s 2 and 3, eventually decreased the t i m e available a t s t a t i o n 4. S t a t i o n 2A was e s t a b l i s h e d t o provide additional information on a major

10-16
problem t h a t had been detected with the traverse gravimeter. The extravehicular a c t i v i t y was geologically s i g n i f i c a n t because of t h e extensive sampling of blocks which were c l e a r l y derived from t h e slopes of t h e South Massif , at s t a t i o n 2 , and because of t h e s m p l i n g and investigation of a mass of orange material on t h e r i m of Shorty Crater at s t a t i o n 4. It appears t h a t t h e orange m a t e r i a l w i l l prove t o be one of t h e most recently exposed geological u n i t s sampled on t h e l u n z surface during the Apollo program. The extravehicular a c t i v i t y a l s o provided additional s t a t i s t i c a l coverage and information on t h e l i g h t m n t l e u n i t , the dark mantle m i t , and t h e subfloor gabbro.
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A t t h e end of t h e second extravehiculLr z c t i v i t y , the L u n a r Module P i l o t returned t o t h e lunar surface experiment deployment s i t e for addit i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n on the deployment of the lunar surface gravimeter. The second extravehicular a c t i v i t y duration was 7 hours and 37 minutes during which time t h e lunar roving vehicle trcveled approximately 2G.b kilometers. A t o t a l of 60 samples were collected with an accumulated weight of approximately 75 pounds. A t the e2d of t h e extravehicular act i v i t y , all hardware systems were operating 2s expected, except f o r a noticezble d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e movement of sone mechanical p a r t s because of dust permeation.

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Third extravehicular a c t i v i t y . - The t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s conducted e s s e n t i a l l y bs planned and met all of t h e pre-mission traverse objectives. A minor' r e v i s i o n was made t o accomplish additional closeout a c t i v i t i e s , connected l a r g e l y with an e f f o r t t o solve t h e problems bei n g experienced by t h e l u n a r surface gravimeter. The closeout time f o r t h i s extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s a l s o lengthened t o account f o r additional e f f o r t required i n dusting t h e extravehiculzr mobility u n i t s . A t the end of t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y , several synbolic a c t i v i t i e s were conducted including t h e c o l l e c t i o n of a rock sample f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e foreign nations which were represented by young people v i s i t i n g t h e Mission Control Center during t h e mission, and t h e unveiling of a plaque commemorating t h e Apollo 17 l u n a r landing and all previous landings ( f i g . 10-4).
The t h i r d t r a v e r s e proceeded normally except f o r the elimination of s t a t i o n 1 0 , which r e s u l t e d , primarily, from the increased t i m e required f o r closeout a c t i v i t i e s , but also because of additional t i m e taken at o t h e r s t a t i o n s p r i o r t o s t a t i o n 10. The t r a v e r s e provided a comparative i n v e s t i gation of blocks of m a t e r i a l derived from t h e slopes of t h e North Massif, blocks of material at l e a s t s p a t i a l l y associated with t h e Sculptured H i l l s , and t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and sampling of what appeared t o be an extremely young impact c r a t e r . There was a l s o continued sampling and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of dark mantle materials and subfloor gabbro. The objectives at s t a t i o n 1 0 , which were eliminated, were l a r g e l y fblfilled by o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s duri n g all t h r e e of t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s .

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Figure 10-4.-

Commander unveiling plaque on lunar module.

The t o t a l time f o r t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s . ? hours and

15 minutes with a traverse distance covered of approximately 1 2 . 1 kilome t e r s . A t o t a l of 63 samples were collected and amounted t o about 137
pounds. I n summarizing t h e operations on all three extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s , one of .the most important ingredients for t o t a l efficiency w a s the crew staying near one another and working together, remaining i n close proximity when, required t o work independently, and complementing each o t h e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Only i n rare instances w a s there separation t o t h e extent t h a t t h e crew could not c o r r e l a t e each other's geological observations

10-18

and/or physically come t o one another's assistance. The t o t a l distance driven with t h e lunar rover w a s approximately 36.0 kilometers at an average speed of 8.2 kilometers/hour with an occasional peak speed of 18 k i l ometers per hour. The t o t a l weight of t h e returned payload was 243 pounds. 10.8.3 Lunar Surface Hand Tools and Auxiliary Equipment

The t o o l s provided f o r l u n a r surface operations, p a r t i c u l a r l y those required i n t h e sampling of l u n a r materials, all performed e s s e n t i a l l y as expected. The geological hammer w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful t o t h e Commander and usable when required by t h e Lunar Module P i l o t . However, f o r future designs it i s recommended t h a t t o o l s which required extensive gripping be custom f i t t o t h e dimensions of t h e crewmen's hands. The hammer was too l a r g e f o r use by t h e Lunar Module P i l o t ; however it was t h e r i g h t s i z e f o r t h e Commander.

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The l u n a r surface scoop was t h e primary sampling t o o l used by the Lunar Module P i l o t and it worked well. However, by t h e beginning of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , dust i n the scoop-locking mechanism prevented extensive use i n any of t h e multiple detents. Only t h e 45-degree p o s i t i o n was used during most of t h e t h i r d traverse.
I

For s p e c i a l sampling kasks, t h e Commander used t h e tongs e f f e c t i v e l y and t h e Lunar Module P i l o t used t h e rake, as required. The Lunar Module P i l o t a u x i l i a r y s t a f f , used f o r mounting maps, and t h e lunar roving veh i c l e sample bag, both worked as planned and f i t t e d t h e desired position exactly. The rover sampler met a l l requirements f o r u t i l i t y i n sampling from t h e rover, and i n a u x i l i a r y sampling while walking i n t h e areas of t h e Apollo lunar surface experiments package and surface e l e c t r i c a l prope r t i e s t r a n s m i t t e r . The dust brush w a s probably one of the most often used pieces of equipment. It w a s employed on t h e rover thermal surfaces and r e f l e c t o r s , f o r cleaning t h e t e l e v i s i o n camera l e n s , and by both crewmen i n an attempt t o minimize the dust carried i n t o t h e cabin. The geopallet w a s used as planned f o r the f i r s t two extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s . By t h e start of t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , most of t h e moving p a r t s of t h a t p a l l e t had begun t o bind because of dust permeat f o n along i n t e r f a c i n g surfaces.

10.8.4

Lunar Roving Vehicle

Lunar roving vehicle deployment and preparation f o r loading t h e t o o l s and experiments proceeded normally. The only discrepancy was t h a t s e v e r a l of t h e yellow hinge pins had t o be forcefully set t o assure t h a t t h e fore

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arid a f t chassis was locked. The manual deployment went well; hovever, tslreup reels o r closed-loop deployment czbles would have improved the operztion.
The l u n a r roving vehicle loading proceeded well with t h e ground cont r o l l e d t e l e v i s i o n assembly , lunar cornmications relay u n i t , d-1 a l l e t s , p and t h e experiments being e a s i l y attached. D i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n mating t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties receiver e l e c t r i c a l plug t o t h e v e h i c l e , but t h i s has been previously e q e r i e n c e d with t h i s type of elect r i c a l connector.
A l l lunar roving vehicle systems m c t i o n e d properly during powerup and t h e short t e s t drive. The only uneqected condition was a s l i g h t l y high b a t t e r y 2 temperature, and t h i s w2s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e delay on t h e launch pad and s l i g h t differences i n t h e nominal t r a j e c t o r y and sun a t t i tudes during translunar coast. This ultimately caused l i t t l e o r no problem because of t h e cool-down c a p a b i l i t y of the r a d i a t o r s during some of t h e long s t a t i o n stops.

Double Ackermann fore and a f t steering was used throughout all ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and it greatly enhanced t h e maneuverability of t h e vehicle when negotiating c r a t e r s and rocks. The acceleration was about as expected w i t h l a s l i g h t l y lower average speed, possibly because of t h e heavier loaded rover on t h i s mission. Slopes of up t o 20 degrees were e a s i l y n e g o t i a t e d ' i n a straight-ahead mode. While climbing such slopes at fuJ-1 power, t h e vehicle decelerated t o a constant speed of 4 t o 5 kilometers p e r hour. Coming down these slopes, the vehicle w&s ope r a t e d i n a braking mode with no indicztion of brake-fading, o r feeling t h a t t h e rover could not be controlled. Side slopes were negotiable, but not necessarily comfortable. During the second and t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e rover, both i n r i d i n g and i n driving, allowed t h e crew t o go places and negotiate side slopes t h a t engendered a g r e a t deal more caution during t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y . The b a t t e r i e s were not dusted u n t i l well i n t o the second extravehicu l a r a c t i v i t y ; however, a f t e r t h a t time, the b a t t e r y covers were brushed clean a t every stop. The cleanliness of the b a t t e r i e s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t that t h e covers were continually dusted and kept clean. Dusting w a s time-consuming, but it w a s no greater problem than anticipated pref l i g h t , and it was p& of t h e overhead i n system management t h a t leads t o successful vehicle operation. The r i g h t rear fender was accidentally knocked o f f by catching it with a hammer handle. This r e s u l t e d i n breaking about 2-inches off of t h e i n s i d e r a i l on t h e permanent fender. The fender extension w a s replaced and taped i n t o p o s i t i o n ; however, tape does not hold w e l l when placed over dusty surfaces. The fender extension was l o s t a f t e r about

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an hour's driving. P r i o r t o t h e second extravehicular a c t i v i t y , a t e m porary fender was made from maps and taped zr?d clamped i a t o position, where it worked s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Loss of the fender created concern t h a t t h e dust problem would severely l i m i t the crew's operation and the capab i l i t i e s of t h e rover systems , not only thermally , but mechanically. I n summary, t h e l u n a r roving vehicle operation was approached cautiously;'but during t h e second and throughout the t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y t h e vehicle w a s pushed t o t h e limits of i t s capability. Although t h e crew believed t h a t t h e rover could have negotiated slopes of 20 t o 25 degrees without great d i f f i c u l t y , s i d e sloae operation never became comf o r t a b l e . The r e a r wheels broke out only on exceptionally sharp t u r n s when t h e vehicle was moving at high speeds. Slippage seemed t o be minim a l . During t h e second, and p r i n c i p a l l y the t h i r d extravehicular activi t y , a l a r g e portion of driving time on the rover was spent negotiating boulder and c r a t e r f i e l d s , with one of t h e fear wheels bouncing off t h e surface at regular i n t e r v a l s . The rover i s i ~ n outstanding device which increased t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e crew t o e q l o r e t h e Taurus-Littrow region and enhanced t h e l u n a r surface data return by an order of magnitude and mwbe more.

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Experiments

General.- The majoriiy of t h e Apollo 17 lunar surface science requirements were successfully f u l f i l l e d during the t h r e e extravehicular act i v i t y periods. A new l u n a r surface experinents package w a s deployed and activated. O f t h i s package at t h e writing of t h i s r e p o r t , only the lunar surface gravimeter appears t o have f a i l e d t o perform i t s primary functions. I n addition t o t h e Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package, a cosmic-ray experiment and a subsurface neutron-flux e e e r i m e n t was activated and returned. Three t r a v e r s e experiments, which took advantage of the mobility and navigation p o t e n t i a l of t h e lunar roving vehicle, performed successf'ully i n a l l cases. However, thermal degredetion prevented t h e completion of a l l t h e planned data c o l l e c t i o n f o r the surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment. All major field-geology traverse objectives were achieved or adequate s u b s t i t u t e s were found. Only the polarimetric photography requirement of t h e field-geology experiment was not performed because of unanticipated and higher p r i o r i t y a c t i v i t i e s . The 142 lunar samples returned weighed 110.4 kilograms (243 pounds). This number included 115 documented rock and s o i l samples, 12 large rock samples, 2 s p e c i a l magnetic g l a s s samples, 1 Dermanently shadowed s o i l sample , 2 east-west s p l i t samples , 2 boulder-shielded s o i l samples, 3 double-core tube s o i l samples, 2 single-core tube s o i l samples, 1 vacuum core sample, 1 vacuum contamination sample and a 3-meter deep d r i l l core sample.
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The Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package c e n t r a l s t a t i o n w a s deployed and a c t i v a t e d ( f i g . 10-5); however, three problems prolonged t h e t i m e required f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . These problems are discussed i n t h e f o l lowing paragraphs.. Fuel cask dome removal.- After r o t a t i n g t h e f u e l cask dome removal tool. about 90 degrees, t h e dome removal t o o l came loose from the dome.

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Central s t a t i o n a f t e r activation.

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Upon inspection and f u r t h e r r o t a t i o n , the corner of t h e t o o l i n t e r f a c e with t h e dome w a s found t o be bent outward. The dome was p a r t i a l l y separ a t e d from t h e cask by rocking t h e t o o l and complete separation w a s accomplished using t h e c h i s e l end of t h e harnner. For f h r t h e r d e t a i l s , see section 15.4.4. Central s t a t i o n 1eveE.x.- Leveling of t h e c e n t r d s t a t i o n was diff i c u l t because of the presence of about 3 t o 5 centimeters of very loose top s o i l at t h e deployment s i t e ( f i g . 10-6). The l e v e l i n g was f i n a l l y

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10-23
accomplished by working t h e south edge of the s t a t i o n down t o a l e v e l below t h i s l a y e r of t o p s o i l and placing a l a r g e , r e l a t i v e l y f l a t rock under t h e northwest corner. I n the process of leveling, about 30 percent of t h e upper surface of t h e s t a t i o n sunshield w a s covered with a t h i n (approximately 0.5-mm) l a y e r of dust, and no attempt w a s made t o remove this dust. Also, s o i l became banked against the southeast and southwest corners and against t h e south edge of t h e s t a t i o n . Later, upon request from ground personnel, t h i s s o i l w a s removed by clearing a 15- t o 20-centimeter wide moat around those portions of t h e s t a t i o n . Some dust and s o i l s t i l l adhered t o t h e s i d e s of t h e s t a t i o n , but the white thermal coating w a s v i s i b l e through most of t h i s dust. Antenna gimbal 1evelinK.- During antenna gimbal leveling, both t h e north-south and t h e east-west l e v e l bcbbles appeared t o be sticky and prevented p r e c i s e leveling of the antenna gimbal- The north-south bubble eventually became free-floating , but the east-west remained at the e a s t end of t h e f l u i d tube. Precise antenna pointing was not v e r i f i e d , but ground personnel reported t h a t t h e signal strength appeared t o be adequate. With minor and generally predictable d i f f i c u l t i e s , the deployment and a c t i v a t i o n of t h e individual Apollo lunar surface experiments package experiments went as planned. Specific comments with respect t o each experiment a r e provided i n t h e following paragraphs.
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Lunar surface gravimeter.- There were no known anomalies i n t h e deployment of t h e gravimeter ( f i g . 10-7) t h a t would account f o r the problems encountered upon the commanded activation of the experiment (see sec. 15.4.1). The gimbal w a s observed t o be f r e e swinging a f t e r the i n i tial r e l e a s e and a f t e r all subsequent j a r r i n g s and shakings. A small amount of dust f e l l o f f t h e miversal. handling t o o l i n t o the gimbal housing during t h e f i n a l j a r r i n g of the gimbal, but a l l f i n a l alignments and l e v e l i n g by t h e crew were normal.
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Lunar mass spectrometer.- "he deployment of t h e lunar mass spectrome t e r ( f i g . 10-8) w a s as planned. A small amount of dust (appoximately 0.1-mm t h i c k ) covered about 30 percent of t h e north-facing surface of t h e experiment

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Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites experiment The lunar e j e c t a and meteori t e s experiment ( f i g . 10-9) w a s deployed west of a s m a l l low r i m c r a t e r about 3 meters i n diameter and about 3 meters northeast of a boulder t h a t projected about 0.3 meter above the surface and was about 1 meter wide i n t h e section i t presents t o t h e experiment. The discarded packaging mater i d f o r t h e Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package w a s placed about a s planned and i s shown i n f i g u r e 10-9.

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Figure 10-7.-

L u n a r s u r f w e gravimeter.

Heat flow e-xperiment.- Although the d r i l l i n g of t h e probe holes required more time than a n t i c i p a t e d , because of presently unknown s o i l chara c t e r i s t i c s at t h e deeper l e v e l s , t h e emplsceEent of t h e two heat flow probes w a s as planned ( f i g . 10-10). Lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment.- N major d i f f i c u l t i e s were eno countered i n t h e deployment of t h e a n t e w z or the geophones f o r the seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment ( f i g . 10-11). The geophones were oriented within

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Figure 10-8.- Lunar m a s spectrometer. a few degrees of v e r t i c a l and were conFletely buried, except f o r t h e i r t o p p l a t e . The geophones were located near t h e i r planned position, with a considerable amount of slack i n all l i n e s . A s a consequence of t h e ineffectiveness of the anchoring f l a g , the geophone module overturned duri n g geophone deployment. I n t h e subsequent confusion, t h e geophone 4 l i n e crossed under t h e l i n e f o r geophone 1. Photography.- Photography of the Ago110 lunar surface experiments package was c u r t a i l e d because of time constraints. However, i n t h e course of t h e t h r e e extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s , much of the' desired photography was obtained.

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Figure 10-9.- Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites experiment. Special experiments.- Two special hardware experiments were performed on the lunar surface. Deployment and r e t r i e v a l of these experiments was as planned or as revised by the ground controllers. The shade p l a t e of the cosmic ray experiment ( f i g . 10-12) was deployed on the forward lunar roving vehicle walking binge, and the sun p l a t e ( f i g . 10-13) was deployed on t h e strut of the lunar module minus Z landing gear. Neither p l a t e was touched during deployment and there w a s no
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Heat flow probes emplaced i n l u n a r surface.

observed contamination on e i t h e r p l a t e . Upon request of the Mission Cont r o l Center personnel, t h e experiment was terminated at the beginning of t h e t h i r d extravehicular . a c t i v i t y . The neutron f l u x experiment was properly activated and e a s i l y i n s e r t e d t o t h e f u l l depth of the deep d r i l l hole ( f i g . 10-14). The experiment w a s deactivated within a minute o r two after withdrawal from the hole, and w a s i n t h e shade of t h e lunar module within about 3 minutes. I n t h e area of long-term experiments, two s e l e c t e d pieces of discarded Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package hardware were positioned i n t h e l u n a r s o i l , o r i e n t i n g t h e i r broadside r e f l e c t i v e surfaces t o deep space. Photographs were taken showing t h e locations of these two a r t i c l e s relat i v e t o t h e experiments package array. The long-term e f f e c t s of the l u n a r environment on t h e surfaces w i l l be compared with t h e long-term e f f e c t s o f

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Figure 10-11.- Apollo lunar surface experiments s i t e with geophone f l a g i n foreground.

similar surfaces exposed f o r similar periods on earth. (Table 13-1). The L u n a r Module P i l o t ' s camera l e n s was not available f o r positioning on t h e lunar roving vehicle s e a t ; consequently, the 500-mm l e n s was positioned horizontally and facing south (approximately 192 degrees) i n t h e Commande r ' s s e a t pan with t h e seat up.

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Cosmic ray experiment showing shade p l a t e .

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The lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment and Traverse experiments the t r a v e r s e gravimeter operated as planned. The operational and thermal problems of t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment d i d not prevent t h e c o l l e c t i o n of data d o n g two legs of the second extravehicular activ-

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The deployment p o i n t s f o r the seismic p r o f i l i n g charges ( f i g . 10-15) were as required by pre-mission plans or as redirected i n real t i m e . Near complete’or complete photographic panoramas at each charge s i t e should est a b l i s h t h e i r exact positions. A t l e a s t i n the case of charge 1 (Victory Crater) and’5 ( V a n Serg Crater), there w a s no line-of-sight view t o the

Figure 10-13.-

Cosmic rq. experiment showing sun p l a t e .

antenna at the Apollo l u n a r surface experinents package s i t e . Charges deployed within line-of-sight of t h e Apollo lunar surface experiments package were deployed i n shallow depressions. The t r a v e r s e gravimeter (fig. 10-16) was operated normally, except where slopes were s t e e p and measurements were obtained w i t h t h e instrument mounted on t h e lunar roving vehicle. A l l but two planned gravity measurements were taken, and t h e s e were a second measurement at t h e Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package s i t e and a measurement at s t a t i o n 7 near t h e North Massif.

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Figure 10-14.- Neutron flu experinent emplaced i n lunar s o i l . The c o l l e c t i o n of data f o r the su_rface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment was l i m i t e d by temperatures i n excess of the operating limit of t h e tape recorder i n t h e receiver ( f i g . 10-17). The operating limit was apparently exceeded a t s t a t i o n 5 near C a e l o t ; however, several subsequent attempts were made t o c o l l e c t data. For one of t h e s e , the traverse from t h e l u n a r module t o s t a t i o n 6, the receiver was probably placed i n t'ne standby mode r a t h e r than i n t h e on mode as was requested by t h e f i s s i o n Control Center. The tape recorder was removed from the receiver at s t a t i o n 9 (Van Serg) and stowed under the lunar roving vehicle seat u n t i l it was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e equipment t r a n s f e r bag and ultimately i n t o t h e l u n a r module cabin. There were minor deployment problem with the surface e l e c t r i c a l prope r t i e s t r a n s m i t t e r ( f i g . 10-18). Three of t h e antenna r e e l s f e l l from

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Figure 10-15

.- Lunar

surface p r o f i l i n g experiment explosive package.

t h e i r stowage l o c a t i o n s when t h e reel r e t a i n e r was opened. S t i f f n e s s and memory i n t h e w i r e s between t h e fold-out s o l z r panels required t h e panels t o be taped at t h e hinge t o provide a more nearly f l a t surface. Neither of t h e s e problems prevented t h e normal deployment and operation of t h e transmitter.

10.9 SOLO OPERATIONS I N LUXAFi ORBIT
10.9.1
Command and Service Module Circularization Maneuver

The c i r c u l a r i z a t i o n maneuver w a s performed on t h e backside of t h e moon and t h e f i r i n g was normal. The procedures employed were t h e same as

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Figure 10-16.

- Commander place

t h e traverse gravimeter on t h e lunar surface.

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f o r all previous service propulsion system f i r i n g s . Mission rules dict a t e d t h a t t h e lunar module crew be informed of t h e successful c i r c u l a r i zation maneuver p r i o r t o t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e second descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver. Simplex A V F communications were maintained and t h e H Command Module P i l o t u t i l i z e d t h e voice-operated relay mode f o r transmitt i n g t o $he l u n a r module. Atimeline difference between the Apollo 17 mission and previous missions w a s t h a t the i n e r t i a l measurement u n i t realignment /crew o p t i c a l alignment s i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n was delayed u n t i l a f t e r t h e c i r c u l a r i z a t i o n f i r i n g because t h i s t a s k w a s o r i g i n a l l y within t h e time frame f o r lunar module separation. The Command Module P i l o t timel i n e f o r 7 t o 8 hours following lunar module separation was not overly

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Figure 10-17.- Lunar surface e l e c t r i c a l properties receiver on l u n a r roving vehicle. crowded; however, there w a s no scheduled eating period during t h i s t i m e , and a c t i v i t y prevented suit removal.

10.9.2

Visual Observations

The human observer's c a p a b i l i t y t o describe and i n t e r p r e t what i s being observed g r e a t l y enhances all e x i s t i n g , or proposed, imaging devices. The human eye can see and i d e n t i f y geological features which e i t h e r f a i l t o appear o r which appear, but can not be recognized on photographs. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when attempting t o describe subtle color differences.

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Figure 10-18.- Surface e l e c t r i c a l properties t r a n s m i t t e r show'ing taped panels. The eye can determine t h e s u b t l e color differences much b e t t e r than any onboard photographic device t h a t w a s available. Another advantage of t h e human eye i s t h e a b i l i t y t o almost simultaneously observe features i n a wide range of illumination. I n t h e low sun-angle observations, t h e eye could see d e t a i l i n t h e shadows. This i s primarily due t o r e f l e c t e d illumination from t h e other s i d e of t h e c r a t e r s ; however, d e t a i l i n shadow almost never shows i n t h e photographs. Good viewing of a p a r t i c u l a r spot on t h e l u n a r surface i s l i m i t e d t o about 1 minute. The observer must, t h e r e f o r e , develop t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o observe and describe at the same time. When u t i l i z i n g t h e comand module as 2. visual. observation platform, t h e r e are some compromises necessary; however, placement of the windows i s such t h a t usually one or two windows are directed toward the l m a r

10-36
surface. The technique of observation and simultaneously using a handheld camera requires t h a t the crewman s t a b i l i z e h i s body with h i s f e e t because both hands are always busy manipulating the camera. I n making v i s u a l observations, it i s easy t o position the body as required t o observe a p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t . Surface t a r g e t recognition i s more readily accomplished i n vehicle a t t i t u d e s which allow observation as t h e spacec r a f t approaches t h e t a r g e t . Forward viewing along t h e velocity vector provides’ rapid t a r g e t recognition and a l s o permits increased time f o r observation. Conversely , a t t i t u d e s which do not allow t a r g e t recognit i o n u n t i l t h e spacecraft i s e i t h e r over, o r has passed beyond t h e t a r g e t , provide t h e l e a s t amount of time for useful observation. The importance of e s t a b l i s h i n g a preflight v i s u a l observation plan and then following it throughout the f l i g h t cvlnot be overstressed. This was accomplished on the Apollo 17 mission by assigning 10 s p e c i f i c v i s u a l t a r g e t s . The visual. t a r g e t s were well planned p r e f l i g h t , and a l l v i s u a l t a r g e t s were discussed during t h e course of the mission. The moon i s a very i n t r i g u i n g body and the l i t t l e spare time w a s spent observing o r just looking out t h e windows and picking out unusual geological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , descriptions of which were recorded on the d a t a storage equipment tape or r e l a t e d over the air-to-ground network. P r e f l i g h t geological t r a i n i n g f o r v i s u a l observation w a s thorough. The p r e f l i g h t t r a i n i n g must bd thorough enough t o enable instantaneous r e c a l l of t h e general geography df t h e lunar surface. The effectiveness of t h e observational techniques can be improved by the use of o p t i c a l devices with image s t a b i l i z a t i o n and g r e a t e r magnification. The Apollo 17 landing s i t e w a s unique i n t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y of e a r t h illumination, or earthshine, w a s available during t h i s mission. Visual observations i n earthshine must be r e s t r i c t e d to. differences i n albedo c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; c r a t e r r i m s are very v i s i b l e , and t h e slopes and slumping associated with t h e c r a t e r w a l l s can be seen i n t h e l a r g e r crat e r s . The e j e c t e d ray material i s not v i s i b l e f o r more than about a quarter of t h e c r a t e r diameter beyond t h e c r a t e r . However, anything t h a t shows up a an albedo difference i n sunshine shows up as an albedo difs ference i n earthshine. The illumination of the lunar surface i n earthn shine i s b r i g h t e r than t h e b r i g h t e s t moonlit night observed on e a r t h . A attempt was made t o use t h e onboard color wheel t o determine colors and albedos of t h e l u n a r surface; however, none of the color chips approached t h e a c t u a l colors on the moon. Any f’urther attempts t o l a b e l t h e colors of t h e moon should be accomplished with a color wheel t h a t v a r i e s from very l i g h t t a n t o l i g h t browns. It should a l s o have t h e various colors of l i g h t gray t o blue-gray and tan-gray t o a darkish gray. One big problem of u t i l i z i n g a color wheel i s t h a t t h e color wheel should be exposed t o t h e same l i g h t as t h e object on t h e lunar surface.

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A t h i n cloud of s m a l l p a r t i c l e s could always be seen following t h e spacecraft from spacecraft sunrise and sunset t o t h e l u n a r surface termin a t o r crossing. These p a r t i c l e s had the same general appearance of waste water d r o p l e t s and would show up as a bright b l u r i n t h e sextant. A t tempts t o observe them with the binoculars gave e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same appearance as t h e unaided eye. They were assumed t o be i c e p a r t i c l e s and were always with t h e spacecraft. During the waste water dumps , they were o r i g i n a l l y very dense, but would l a t e r disseminate t o a wider area. This p a r t i c l e concentration w a s r e l a t i v e l y low; however , it remained constant a f t e r a steady-state period was reache? following t h e waste water dumps.

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10.9.3
Photography One s u n r i s e s o l a r corona photograDhic sequence and t h r e e sunrise zod i c a l l i g h t photographic sequences were accomplished. The sunset photography sequence w a s cancelled when it i n t e r f e r r e d with t h e t r i m adjustment maneuver p r i o r t o t h e l u n a r o r b i t plane change. The procedures f o r t h e s u n r i s e sequences were workable and could be memorized j u s t p r i o r t o ope r a t i o n . Photographs of t h e lunar surfzce i n earthshine were outstandi n g . The technique used was t o expose two frames with 1-second s e t t i n g s and an f s t o p of 1 . 2 , then photograph t3e same t a r g e t f o r 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.0625 second. The p i c t u r e s of the c r a t e r s Eratosthenes and Copernicus i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e 0.25-and 0.125-second exposures were the best.
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Some photographs of t h e earth-set terminator around t h e c r a t e r O r i e n t a l e are outstanding. These were taken with t h e l e n s f u l l y open and a 1/2-second exposure. E x t r a black and white film i n t h e d i n l i g h t magazines were used f o r nearside and farside photography. The outstanding r e s u l t s of t h e s e photographs a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c a p a b i l i t y of throughthe-lens viewing and t o t h e i n t e r n a l light-meter adjustment. These a r e t h e only good far-side terminator pictures. The camera s e t t i n g s f o r t h e 70-mm near-side and far-side terminator were mostly good; however, a l l could have been good if t h e r e had been 2 c a p a b i l i t y t o view t h e photographic t a r g e t through t h e l e n s and s e t the exposure by means of an int e r n a l l i g h t meter.
A l l s c i e n t i f i c photographic t a r g e t s were completed, and two e x t r a A t l e a s t one more magazine of color e x t e r i o r film could have been used. Several good near-terminator photographs were taken of t h e lunar surface with the 35-rmn camera and c o l o r i n t e r i o r f i l m .

70-mm magazines were exposed on t a r g e t s of opportunity.

10.9.4 S c i e n t i f i c Instrument Module
Operation of t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module experiments w a s normal.

All p r e f l i g h t planned t a s k s were accomplished and a d d i t i o n a l u l t r a v i o l e t

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passes were obtained. The l a s e r a l t i m e t e r wzs turned on f o r one complete s l e e p period and as a result, 3769 a l t i t u d e measurements were made on t h e flight. The l u n a r sounder antennas presented some d i f f i c u l t i e s . O H ann F tenna 1, t h e barberpole i n d i c a t i n g f u l l r e t r a c t d i d not work c o r r e c t l y ; a l s o H antenna 2 seemed t o s t a l l during extension. Not withstanding t h e F extension and r e t r a c t i o n problems, t h e boons were f u l l y extended o r f u l l y r e t r a c t e d when r e q u i r e d , and a l l scheduled 1-mar sounder operations were completed. The extension and r e t r a c t i o n of t h e mapping camera required a3out 4 minutes i n s t e a d of about 2 minutes. Although it d i d f u l l y extend and r e t r a c t , t h e number of cycles w a s changed t o prevent excessive operat i o n . After lunar rendezvous, t h e mapping c m e r a reaction c o n t r o l system plume s h i e l d door appeared t o be f u l l y open -&en t h e mapping camera was f u l l y r e t r a c t e d ( s e c . 15.1.7). During t h e t r z n s e a r t h extravehicular act i v i t y , t h e mapping camera and t h e plume s h i e l d door were f u l l y r e t r a c t e d . No v i s i b l e evidence of previous binding could be observed during t h e ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . Also, t h e r e w a s no v i s i b l e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system contamination i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay.

10.9.5
i

F l i g h t Planging

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P a r t of t h e p r e f l i g h t t r a i n i n g w a s devoted t o checking f l i g h t p l a n development i n t h e Cape simulator. Several small e r r o r s became evident i n t h e preliminary f l i g h t plans during these t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , and they were r e a d i l y corrected. This method of f l i g h t plan development helped considerably i n having a f i n a l f l i g h t plan t h a t was i n excellent shape. Very few changes had t o be made during t h e mission, and t h e small number t h a t were incorporated were minor i n nature. U t i l i z a t i o n of time during t h e Command Module P i l o t ' s solo a c t i v i t i e s was very e f f i c i e n t .

10.9.6

O r b i t a l T r i m and Plvle Change Maneuvers

The plane change maneuver w a s performed t h e day of lunar l i f t - o f f and rendezvous. The command and s e r v i c e module o r b i t did not decay at t h e planned rate; t h e r e f o r e , a 9 f t / s e c reaction control system height a d j u s t maneuver w a s performed 1 hour p r i o r t o t h e l u n a r o r b i t plane change t o a t t a i n an optimum command and s e r v i c e mociule o r b i t f o r t h e rendezvous. The r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system f i r i n g was accom9lished with no problems. A f t e r maneuvering t o t h e planned f i r i n g a t t i t u d e , a 30-degree r o l l w a s i n i t i a t e d t o keep t h e s u n l i g h t away f r o m t h e Sw-oraxnic camera. The plane change maneuver w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished v i t h about a 20-second firi n g of t h e s e r v i c e propulsion engine.

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10.10 ASCENT, rnNDEZVOUS, AND DOCKING

10.10.1

Ascent

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The l u n a r module a c t i v a t i o n procedures f o r ascent proceeded smoothly and were on time through l i f t - o f f . Lift-off provided a dynamic physiologi c a 1 e f f e c t w i t h no f e e l i n g of spacecrzft s e t t l i n g . The primary n a v i g a t i o n guidance system appeared t o be f l y i n g t h e l u n a r module along t h e p r e s c r i b e d t r a j e c t o r y through i n s e r t i o n and all displays were converging a t shutdown. Residuals i n t h e X axis were l e s s t h m 2 f t / s e c ; t h e r e f o r e , no t r i m maneuv e r w a s r e q u i r e d . The v e r n i e r adjustnent maneuver w a s performed s h o r t l y a f t e r i n s e r t i o n with -4.0 f t / s e c i n t h e X axis, -9.0 f t / s e c i n t h e Y a x i s , and +1.0 f t / s e c i n t h e Z axis, r e s i d u a l s of which were all nulled t o l e s s t h a n 0 . 2 f t / s e c . This out-of-plane buildup w a s seen throughout t h e ascent on t h e a b o r t guidance system, and it now aDpears t h a t t h e abort guidance system would have i n s e r t e d t h e ascent s t a g e i n t o a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r i n plane o r b i t . Following t h e t r a j e c t o r y adjustment, t h e approach p a t h w a s nominal f o r t r a c k i n g and t h e subsequent terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n . Upl i n k communications w i t h t h e ground were l o s t following pitchover; howe v e r , it w a s subsequently l e a r n e d t h a t the. ground monitored all t h e downl i n k t r a n s m i s s i o n s . The problem w a s determined t o be ground s t a t i o n op1 erations.
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Rendezvous

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Tracking from t h e l u n a r module w a s i n i t i a t e d w i t h a rendezvous r a d a r Raw range, range r a t e , s h a f t , and trunnion data were automatic lock-on. v e r i f i e d on t h e d i s p l a y keyboard p r i o r t o accepting marks. The f i r s t few marks produced acceptable r e s u l t s . Automatic a b o r t guidance system upd a t e s were accepted w i t h no subsequent v a r i a t i o n from normal i n e i t h e r system. The computer r e c y c l e at 17 narks produced t h e expected s o l u t i o n s . Continuous manual p l o t t i n g of p o s i t i o n throughout t h e t r a c k i n g sequence u n t i l j u s t b e f o r e t e r m i n a l phase i n i t i z t i o n followed t h e planned d i r e c t rendezvous t r a j e c t o r y . The s u n l i t command module w a s v i s i b l e from t h e l u n a r module a t approximately 110 miles. A f t e r e n t e r i n g darkness, t h e command module w a s l o s t and w a s not seen again u n t i l t h e f l a s h i n g l i g h t became f a i n t l y v i s i b l e at a d i s t a n c e of 30 t o 40 miles. Approximately 8 minutes p r i o r t o t e r m i n a l phase i n i t i a t i o n , with about 2.5 marks i n t o t h e computer and an almost equal number of marks i n t o t h e abort guidance system, f i n a l computation were i n i t i a t e d and t h e l u n a r module w a s manua l l y maneuvered i n yaw and r o l l i n t o t h e f i r i n g a t t i t u d e f o r t e r m i n a l phase i n i t i a t i o n . The s o l u t i o n s , given by t h e ground computer, t h e a b o r t guidance system, and t h e command module computer a r e shown i n t a b l e 8 - V I I I . A f t e r t h e t e r m i n a l phase i n i t i a t i o n maneuver, t h e r e s i d u a l s were somewhat h i g h e r t h a n expected; approximately +7 f t / s e c i n t h e X axis and 4 f t / s e c i n Y and Z a x e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These were quickly trimmed t o less t h a n

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0.2 f t / s e c . Radar lock with t h e command and service module was maintained throughout t h e terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n maneuver.

The command module a t t a i n e d VHF tracking of the l u n a r module immedia t e l y after i n s e r t i o n at a range of approximately 155 miles. The VHF ranging broke lock during t h e l u n a r module vernier maneuver, w a s r e s e t , then broke lock again. A f t e r t h e second r e s e t , it remained locked on f o r t h e remainder of t h e rendezvous. The lunar module could not be seen through t h e sextant o r telescope i n daylight. Once t h e l u n a r module was i n darkness, t h e tracking l i g h t w a s v i s i b l e i n the sextant as a star about 1/4 t h e magnitude of S i r i u s . The l i g h t w a s not v i s i b l e i n t h e telescope u n t i l t h e range w a s reduced t o about 60 o r 70 miles. Following t h e terminal phase i n i t i a t i o n maneuver, t h e lunar module was allowed t o automatic t r a c k throughout the midcourse d a t a gathering period. The midcourse s o l u t i o n s were all l e s s than 1.6 f t / s e c , with very good agreement between t h e primary navigation guidance system and t h e abort guidance system. The command module computer midcourse solutions a l s o compared well with t h e exception of an 8 f t / s e c difference i n d i f f e r e n t i a l v e l o c i t y i n t h e 2 axis f o r t h e second midcourse correction. The l u n a r module r e l a t i v e motion p l o t agreed with the center of the nomi n a l t r a j e c t o r y and had t h e expected range r z t e s . Braking gates were performed as planned and t h i s provided a confortable xendezvous through stationkeeping. A s l i g h t \innovation trained f o r but not included procedurally, was t h e incorporation of three mvlual marks i n t o t h e abort guidance system a f t e r t h e second midcourse correction. The objective w a s t o maintain t h e c r e d i b i l i t y of t h e abort guidance system s t a t e vector throughout t h e braking phase. The success of t h i s technique i s evident i n t h e 2 f t / s e c range r a t e and l e s s than 1 / 2 mile i n range a t t h e termination of braking. 10.10.3 Docking

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After a flyaround inspection proved the s c i e n t i f i c instrument modu l e bay ( f i g . 10-19) t o be i n o r d e r , t h e lm-ar module was maneuvered t o t h e docking a t t i t u d e and stationkeeping responsibility was given t o t h e command and service module. The closure r a t e was very slow, probably l e s s than 0 . 1 f t / s e c , with some s m a l l t r a n s l a t i o n corrections required because of t h e l u n a r module deadbanding. Cspture was not accomplished y on t h e first contact probably due t o t h e slow closure r a t e . B increasing t h e closing v e l o c i t y , capture w a s positive on the second attempt. Because t h e lunar module w a s d r i f t i n g i n p i t c h and yaw, a t t i t u d e hold w a s r e i n i t i a t e d momentarily i n t h e l u n a r module t o allow t h e command and service module t o n u l l all r a t e s p r i o r t o probe r e t r a c t i o n . A l l 1 2 docking l a t c h e s f i r e d and seated properly.
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Figure 10-19.- S c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay view from the lunar module.

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10.11

LUNAR ORBITAL OPERATIONS POST-DOCKING TO TWSEARTH INJECTION

-

10.11.1 Post-Docking Activities
The.post-docking a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e lunzr module and t h e command and service module were accomplished as planned with t h e checklist as an inventory l i s t and as a backup t o common sense. The vacuum cleaner w a s ope r a t e d continuously i n t h e l u n a r module t o remove dust f l o a t i n g i n t h e cabin. A s a r e s u l t of t h i s operation and the s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n paid t o the bagging and s e a l i n g of t h e samples p r i o r t o t r a n s f e r , t h e command module remained remarkably dust f r e e . Duriog vacuum cleaner checkout, a main bus B undervoltage l i g h t w a s illuminzted; however, t h e r e were no caution and warning l i g h t s when t h e vacuum cleaner was used f o r t h e lunar module post-docking a c t i v i t i e s . Preparetion f o r lunar module jettisoning was normal through hatch closure.
10.11.2

..- . . . .. . ._.

. .

.

. .
.~

. .; ..

.

.

.. .~ .
.
-.

. ,

.-

Lunar Module J e t t i s o n

Tunnel venting and pressure s u i t i n t e g r i t y checks were slow and t e d i ous, but were accomplished i n an orderly f s h i o n r e s u l t i n g i n t h e lunar 1 module being j e t t i s o n e d 017 time. The lunar module d r i f t e d away from t h e command and service module and it w a s evident t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e control system w a s functioning properly. 10.11.3 Orbital Observation/Scientific Instrument Module Bay Operations

9-

_-

.

.. . . .. .- .
..
'
1

-. . ..

The planned e x t r a day i n lunar o r b i t was the f i r s t t i m e t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h r e e f u l l - t i m e l u n a r o r b i t observers w a s exercised. It became r e a d i l y apparent t h a t t h e combined operation of t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay with e f f e c t i v e v i s u a l observation of the lunar surface would require a n orderly system. Therefore, the Commander stayed primarily i n t h e l e f t s e a t handling spacecraft operations and systems and keeping t h e mission revolving around t h e f l i g h t plan timeline, while t h e Command Module P i l o t and Lunar Module P i l o t used t h e i r geologicel background f o r o r b i t a l observations and operating t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay as d i c t a t e d by f l i g h t plan and procedures.

10.11.4

Transearth Injection

The only noteworthy item, during an otherwise perfect t r a n s e a r t h inj e c t i o n maneuver, w a s t h e unexpected observance of 50.4-degree r o l l rate

across. t h e deadband. P i t c h and yaw r a t e s were s t a b l e . The service propulsion system again operated normally with t h e propellant u t i l i z a t i o n gaging system i n decrease f o r the e n t i r e maneuver and gradually s t a b i l i z i n g t h e o x i d i z e r / f u e l r a t i o t o near zero at the end of the f i r i n g .
TRANSEARTH FLIGHT

10.12

Operation of t h e s c i e n t i f i c instruzlent module bay u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometers and i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer was the most time consuming act i v i t y during t h e t r a n s e a r t h coast phase of t h e mission. To add t o t h e science information gained i n lunar o r b i t , several t a r g e t s were s e l e c t e d f o r observation during t h e t r a n s e a r t h cozst phase. This a c t i v i t y required t h e spacecraft t o be maneuvered repeatedly t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and required close monitoring because of the proximity of the a t t i t u d e t o gimbal lock. However, t h e r e w a s never z problem other than the requirement f o r t h e crew's continuous a t t e n t i o n t o the maneuvers. The spacecraft w a s i n a t t i t u d e s f o r long periods of t i n e t h a t were not i d e a l f o r passive thermal c o n t r o l , and as a r e s u l t , the czbin temperature dropped t o an uncomfortably cold l e v e l and the s i d e hatch i n t e r i o r became blanketed with moisture. A t t h e conclusion of the experiments, a normal a t t i t u d e f o r passive thermal c o n t r o l was used and the thermal problems disappeared. During checkout f b r t h e f i n a l midcourse correction, the entry monitor system d i d not pass t h e n u l l bias check (see sec. 15.1.5). A reaction c o n t r o l system f i r i n g of 2 f t / s e c w a s performed successfully, although t h e e n t r y monitor system provided an erroneous reading.
10.12.1

i

Extravehicular Activity

The t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y preparation and the checkout w a s normal. The counterbalance was removed f r o m t h e s i d e hatch by backi n g out t h e p i n which locks t h e two b e l l crank assemblies together. Removal and r e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h i s pin w a s simple. Using the pin allows t h e hatch t o be closed by p u l l i n g on the D-ring t h a t hooks onto the counterbalance assembly. Cabin depressurization was nominal with no debris noticed going towards the hatch depressurization valve. The hatch had a tendency t o open as soon as the latches were disengaged, because of t h e s t a b i l i z e d r e s i d u a l pressure i n the cabin produced by the flow through t h e Command Module P i l o t ' s s u i t . While the hatch w a s held i n a p a r t i a l l y open p o s i t i o n , numerous d r o p l e t s of i c e streamed through the opening. The v i s i b i l i t y during the extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s good with t h e hatch open. The sun was shining from off of the Command Module P i l o t ' s r i g h t lower q u a r t e r as he stood i n the extravehicular a c t i v i t y s l i p p e r s . Raising t h e gold v i s o r on t h e lunar extravehicular v i s o r allowed adequate

10-44

v i s i o n i n t o t h e shadows of t h e s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay. Moving about during t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y was easy, but it should be s a i d )I take it nice and slow--don't be i n any hurry, and don't t r y t o make m y jerky fast motions . I ' The umbilical did not torque o r maneuver t h e Command Module P i l o t , provided adequate r e s t r a i n t was available. Retrieval of the lunar sounder c a s s e t t e , and t h e panoramic and mapping camera f i l m c a s s e t t e s w a s easy and was accomplished as it was i n t r a i n i n g . The Lunar Module P i l o t found t h a t there w a s l i t t l e or no problem i n receiving t h e c a s s e t t e s from t h e Command Module P i l o t i n t h e hatch area. However, t h e Lunar Module P i l o t noted a r e s t r i c t i o n t o r o t a t i o n a l and late r a l movements because of t h e s t i f f n e s s of the spacecraft hoses. The workload requirements on t h e Commmd Module P i l o t were never t o o great when moving about slowly w i t h everything working well. Unless workloads demands are beyond t h e Apollo 17 experience, gas cooling with t h e oxygen umbilical i s completely adequate. The c a l i b e r , amount, and type of t r a i n i n g f o r t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s adequate t o produce a comfortable and complete job.
I

, .

..

~

,.

10.13

ENTRY, LANDING, AXD RECOVERY

'.

Entry stowage preparation had been underway f o r t h e day and a h a l f following t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y , and on t h e night before entry almost everything was stowed and t i e d down with t h e exception of t h e l a r g e bulky bags which covered t h e s t i l l necessary stowage containers. Final stowage w a s completed i n accordance with the checklist on the morning of e n t r y with some e f f o r t taken t o organize and inventory the stowage l o c a t i o n s . This-proved t o be very b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e recovery crew. The only problem associated with e n t r y stowage evolved around t h e s u i t bag. The l u n a r extravehicular visors and helmets would not f i t i n t h e bag along with t h e s u i t s , rocks, and other miscellaneous gear. T o v i s o r s , w with helmets, were strapped t o stowage containers on t h e right-hand s i d e o f t h e cockpit and they were adequately restrained during entry.
The command and service module separation w a s normal. While using t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and control system minimum impulse t o control t h e com-

mand module a f t e r separation, t h e r e was an apparent t r i m away from t h e plus yaw and minus p i t c h axes; i . e . , a constant correction had t o be app l i e d i n t h e yaw r i g h t and p i t c h down directions t o maintain t h e desired e n t r y a t t i t u d e . The command module t h r u s t e r s were always audible no m a t t e r which one w a s f i r e d .

. .

.,__

.

. .

.

. . . . .. .

. .

*

., -..- .-.>-_. ..__:-.. -.

_.

10-45

During t h e e n t r y monitor system entry t e s t , t h e 0.05-g l i g h t w a s illuminated i n t e s t p o s i t i o n 1. Because of t h e previous accelerometer anomaly along with t h i s discrepancy, t h e entry monitor system was l e f t TNB i n t h e ENTRY and S A D Y p o s i t i o n u n t i l 0.05-g t i m e when it w a s switched t o NORMAL. Tne 0.05-g l i g h t illuminated on time, and t h e entry monitor system operated normally. Entry simulations should be accomplished without ink i n t h e s c r o l l pen, because t h e only s c r i b e v i s i b l e on the e n t r y monitor system p a t t e r n i s a s l i g h t t e z r on t h e p a t t e r n i t s e l f . The command module o s c i l l a t i o n s , once t h e drogue parachutes were deployed, were moderate t o v i o l e n t with higher than expected amplitudes. The command module r e a c t i o n control system i s o l a t i o n valves were closed while s t i l l on t h e drogue parachutes. There w a s no subsequent venting of t h e l i n e s through hand c o n t r o l l e r Ectuation. Main parachute deployment w a s on time with one parachute disreefing s e v e r a l seconds a f t e r t h e o t h e r two had f i l l y i n f l a t e d . The landing ( a t an a l t i m e t e r reading of 100 f e e t ) w a s sharp with no discomfort o r d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . The main parachute r e l e a s e c i r c u i t breakers were closed within 1 o r 2 seconds a f t e r touchdown, t h e parachutes were j e t t i s o n e d , and t h e spacecraft remained i n the s t a b l e I a t t i t u d e . Once t h e hatch w a s opened, t h e recovery crew passed i n a bag containing t h e Mae West's, a temperature measuring u n i t , a d a container i n which t o t r a n s f e r n t h e cosmic ray crystal;. I n t h e f u t u r e , i f a instrument such as a tempera t u r e measuring u n i t i s used a f t e r landing, a simple bungee s t r a p should be provided t o secure t h e u n i t . Two of the three Me West's had t o be ina f l a t e d manually. The Command Module P i l o t wore a o r t h o s t a t i c countermeasure garment which w a s donned 2 hours p r i o r t o entry. It w a s pumped up before the Command Module P i l o t l e f t t h e couch a f t e r landing. The pressure was maint a i n e d i n t h e garment throughout the recovery operation and through about 3 hours o f t h e post-recovery medical debriefing. The garment which was s l i g h t l y t i g h t on t h e l e g s became somew3at uncomfortable at the end of t h e 3 hours. The e n t i r e recovery a c t i v i t y , including t h e medical protocol and ship-board o b l i g a t i o n s w a s handled well.

- . _.. .

.. _.

10-46
Revolution count Revolution count

time
Lift-off

N

N

5-1~6 evasive maneuver

Day Night

-

Insertion and systems checks

Platform realignment

1

Doff suits

P l a t f m realignment Eat

I

Translunar injection pepqation

i

I

Translunar injection maneuver Platform realignment

S-IT6 maneuver to separation attitude
Initiate passive thermal control Cmmand and service module/S-IPB separatioi Television

T

Charge battery B Change lithium hydroxide canister Prc-deep checklist Sleep

Spacecraft eretion from

S-ID

u !
( a ) 0 t o 1 0 hours. Figure 10-1.- Flight plan a c t i v i t i e s .

..

. .

10-47
Revolution count $ m n d elapsed time

4

Revolution count p n d elap;ed time Ni

4

r l 0 STDN

N

Cislunar navigation

I Ni

Charge battery A

1

Waste water and urine dump Cycle film in panoramic and mapping cameras

Fuel cell purge (oxygen)

Initiate passive thermal control

Postsleep checklist

Platform realignment

I
Eat

Change lithium hydroxide canister

-control passive thermal Terminate
,. . . ... . .. .

. ..

.

Cislunar navigation

I

(b) 10 to 23 hours.

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

10-48
Revolution count n d ;; $ elapsed time

.$

t

Revolution count $mind elapwd time

Ni(
Platform realignment

N

N

Pre-sleep checklist Charge battery A

i
Sleep Eat

First midcwrse correction (MCC-2)

Charge battery A

hlaneuver to earth viewing attitude

Post-sleep checklist

Change lihium hydroxide canister

I
. .. .

1

Maneuver to lunar module checkout attitude
% ..

Platform realignment

Terminal passive thermal control

Reparation for intravehicular transfer Rersurire lunar module

Fuel cell p r g e (hydrogen and oxygen)

Waste water and urine dump

LM crew transfer to lunar module

(C>

23 to 40 hours.

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

..

.

.

. .

time

D

Revolution count d ; $ elapzed time

+

I

Nig

I

Platform realignment Change lithium hydroxide canister

Ni

Lunar module housekeeping Heat flow and cwvection demonstration'

1

Communications check
~

LM

crew transfer to cmmand module

i

Pre-sleep checklist

Heat flow and convection demonstration

Cycle film in panoramic and mapping cameras Initiate passive thermal control

1

'

Port-sleep checklist

-

1

L45

.

Change lithium hydroxide canister

.

-j
(a)
40 to

58 hours.

F i gure 10-1

.- Continue d .

..

..

..

..

10-50
Revolution count Ground elapsed time

0
Nig

Revolution count elap:ed time

N

Platform realignment Fuel cell purge (oxygen) Waste water and urine dump

4

;n; ; !

Ni

Terminate passive thermal control Maneuver to lunar module checkout attitude Charge battery B Pressurize lunar module Preparations for intravehicular transfer L M crew transfer to lunar module Ememory dump

Lundmodule telemetry checkout

7I
'

iE
Spacecraft clock advanced 2 hwrs and 40 minutes A p i l o light flash I nomenon experiment

L M crew transfer to cmmand module, Test pessure garment assemblies

i I

--

Cycle film in panoramic and mapping caneras

Initiate passive thermal control

P l a t f m realignment

( e l 58 t o 68 hours.

Figure 10-1.-

Continued.

10-51
Revolution count Ground elapsed time Revolution count ,n ;$ ; eIap2ed time

*@ r
5

Da Nigt

+

Change lithium hydroxide canister

r

Eat

I
Eat Fuel cell p r g e (oxygen and hydrogen) Urine dump Terminate passive lhermai COntrOl Scientific instrument module door jettison

Day Nigi

V -

Lunar module pessurization

Platform realignment

Pressurize service populsion system

I
(f) 68 to 84 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

. . . .

.

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.

...

,

.

.

.

. . . , .

-

. . .

.

.

.
.

.
.

10-52
Revolution count
$oo;d elapsed time
N

4

I Ni!

Revolution count Croirnd elapsed time
orbit insertion Platform r e a l i g m n t

I’
.. . . . :-. . . ....

Ultraviolet of dark moan Platform realignment

5

Descent orbit insertion

. . .. . .

Preparations for lunar orbit insertion

-.., 5.5 ... . . .
. .

. -_ . .

Landmark observations

. .. . .. i- . - :. ..< .

Lunar orbit insertion maneuver

i
I

Fuel cell purge (oxygen) Waste water dump Maneuver to ultraviolet spectramet?r m o d e m attitude

-._ :._ ..

<

i

I

I
Terminator photographs

.

~

Change lithium hydroxide canister Orbital science visual observations

Platfam realigment

STDN

Ultraviolet spectremew

f

. -

Orbital science photography

Mapping camera panoramic camer laser altimeter, ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radiwnete!

t

p’
(g) 84 t o 94 hours.

-

lE

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

10-53

Revolution count p o n d elapsed time

4

Revolution count Ground elapsed time
Ultraviolet ( spectrometer o Infrared radiometer on

I
Nil

11

I
I
I

Ni

STDN

Commander and Lunar Module Pilot don suits Platform realignment Maneuver to undocking attitude Command Module Pilot don suit

Commander and Lunar Module Pilot transfer to lunar module Change lithium hydroxide canister Lunar module activation and peparations for undocking

radi

kr on

-

-106
STDN

I

I

107

Lunar module ydocking Abort guidance system activation

IN

Lunar module p i a t f m realignment

Platform realigrment Preparations for CSM circularization maneuver

-

Descent orbit insertion preparations

(h) 94 to 109 hours.

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

_- .

R

lution count Ground elapsed time

91 0'

STDN
CSM circularization maneuver Maneuver to landmark tracking attitude

Day Night

Revolution count p n d dap;ed time

+

0
Ultraviolet spctrmter and infrared r a d l First Nig extravehicular activity

114 STDN

Mapping camera, laser altime.er, and panoramic c 1

LM descent orbit insertion maneuver Platform realignmen VHF voice check Powered descent preparations

c

VHF voice check
Landi k tracking

Don helmets and gloves

1

Visual orbital science
~

Powered descent Lunar landing Doff helmet and gloves Lunar module power down

Purge fuel cells (oxygen and hydrwenl Waste water and urine dump Orbital science photography

Televisior

Lunar rounder to standby

u

Ultraviolet spectmmetei and infrared

i
Lur under on

1
Doff suit
I

I

N

1
Preparation! for extravehicul activity

Orbital science photography

.

.

... -..

...
.
Lunar sounder EM1 test

S
118
Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radiometer on

-1
Mapping camera, laser altimeter. and panoramic camera on

CSM crew exercise period

1

Teninator photosraphy Earthshine

.

..

-

119

( i ) 109 t o 119 hours.

Figure 10-1.-

Continued.

-.

.

10-55
Revolution count

R
time
First extraveivity hicular

ution count Ground elapsed time

s

Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radio er on

Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radiometer

on

vePaste hicular activity

-

N

N

Post-sleep activities

-1
124

Debriefing Change lithium hydroxide canister

Load extravehicular trmsfer bag

ST

(j) 119 to 130 hours.

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

10-56

I

.,,-.--. ... ... .. .. . . . . ... .
,
I
I..

[

1

S
spec1 radio andi ieter wed .er on

Ni!

Platfm realignment

Zodiacal light photwraphy (red)

Extravehicular activity planning LM crew don suits and change lithium hydroxide canister

Mapping camera and laser altimeter

Extravehicular

activity peparations

1

r m sounder idby

Mapping

sounder pera-

camera (40' oblique)

T

Mapping camera and laser altim-

Tel

sio

Second extravehicular activily

I

Postactivi

-

Eat

& .

(k) 130 to 140 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

. ....

Revolution Count

'-

Revolution count
Di

STDN I

I
Mapping camera and laser altimeter on

It

Tele

Ultrz

spec
and I radic

-- I
-141

I

t !ter ,ed 'r on

Post extravehicular activities

Nigl

Charge lithium hydroxide canister Platform realignment Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared iadion

- L -

I

Second exbawhic-

LM suits doff crew

c

ity

-

L
Load extravehicular tran b bag

1
L
Portable life suppat system recharge

3? .

i !
32

N

Pie-sleep activities

I
L +
Sleep

I Sleep

-

I

Pre-s Ieep
activities

-

,

. .

-...
.
. -. .

I

. - .- .., .: . . ..... .. . . *.
... :,.
,

(1)140 t o 150 hours.
Figure 1 - . Continued. 01-

.. .

. .,.. .., .~*..,.,.,....,,.....

..

.

10-58
iolution count Ground elapsed time

Revolution count
Ultraviolet spec1 meter and i wed radio !er on

'

*150

STDN

Sleep

S

J

,I*
151

tI Post-sleep activities

I
1% 157

,5 15

M
C#

in9 a on

Ultraviolet rpectraneter and inhared radiaeter

'n I p

1
Lunar sounder

Lunar sounder to standby

HF target

Terninator photography Purge fuel cells (oxygen and hydrogen) Waste water and urine dump

Lunar sounder to standby

i

I

STON

I

1

I
--L

Post-deep activities

.

.

.

..-.

Lunar sounder VHF target Ultraviolet spectraneter and infrared radimeter on Platform realignment Orbital science photography

1-

L
Eat

camera and Mapping laser altimeter.on

!

Mapping camera on

-.I1

!1
ant Extravehicular activity plannin

1

2

Ultraviolet spectraneter and inhared radioyeter on

I

I

Extravehicular

'- 1"r

(m) 150 to 160 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

x

.. . _. ..... , . . . .. ,,
.

'.

~

._
.. . - .
. ..

... .
: A

...

10-59
f l u t i o n count Ground elapsed time

Re 0
Extraveki ular activity pepara tions
1

ition count
Ground elapzed time
retraction Ultraviolet spearmeter and infrared radio
c'Y 1 tIt

'

I60 STDN

Ultraviolet ~ ' P p ~ : : ~ ~ spectrometer ~ ~ and infrared eter on radiometer on

Third ex- T travehic- w i ular ac-

1

1 1 6 1 with blue filter sounder Maneuver to lunar
receive attitude

Zodiacal light photography

Third extravehicular acti,

ider r

Tele!

on

-

t.
167

Platform realignment

Post extravehicular activities

.. .. ... . : . -.....; ,
7 .

. .

.. .

._ .

i

.. .

,.

.

i
I
activities

Jettison equip-

I
~

18 6

Doff suits
Orbital science visual observations

Cmprter clock Lunar sounder update

E

1' 6

Lithium hydroxide canister change

Infrared radimeter and ultraviolet specmeter

mt

-1

(n) 160 to 170 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

.......

. .

. . . . . . . . . . .,.

.

. . .

......

,

......-.-.-...I..

........

.

.

.

......
:

10-60
Revolution count
Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared ter on radi Lithium hydroxide canister change

..

1

N

-178

STDN

Ni
Waste water and urine dump Lithium hydroxide canister change

S

Trim maneuver preparations

1 1 7 9 F 1 7 1
Pre-sleeu act ies

Trim maneuver

-

-7 12
.
i

.... .< : .

. ....
:.:

.

.

-

..

-

i
I

-

Post-s activtt

5

!=

Power
lunu m

Platfw realiga

1

..

Don sui

1
( 0 ) 170

1

to

183 hours.
. . . .... ..

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

. .... : " ....

Revolution count Ground elapsed time ?I83 STDN Landmarktracklng
VHF voice check

'

10-61
Da
VHF chec

.I
Cabin clean up and peparations for ascent

Niit

1 stw nd samples

piatfwm realignment Calibrate crew optical alignment sipht

rendezvous attitude Re vous

L
Ascent from lunar surface Lunar orbit insertion Lunar module closecut

186
Terminal phase initiation Lunar module jettism separation maneuver

Midcourse cwrections

Doff suits

Urine dump

Braking maneuvers

-

Docking

Maneuver to lunar module jettison attitude

Lithiunhydmxidc canister change

Lunar module dewbit maneuwr
L

( p ) 183 t o 193 hours.

Figure 10-1.-

Continued.

.,.-_

.:.._ .

,

. . . ...

.. . .

--.

,

.

,I

.-,

.. .
.

.
I

10-62
R

. . ..
-:.

I

E
Nic

ition count Ground elap:ed

' , r

time
Eat Ultraviolet and infrared :trometer liometer on

E
Ni(

STDN

- canister hydroxide Lithium change
Ultraviolet scan Luna on Terminator photography Mapping camera and laser altimeter on Panormic

Urine dump Charge battery 8

Orbital science visual observations

N

I
207
Clock synchronization Orbital science visual observations

-I
51

Pie-sleep activities

Ultraviolet spectraneter and infrared radk ter on

Platform realignment

1

I

I
Ultraviolet scan attitude

1

Panoramc camera on

N

Maneuver to lunar scunder receiver attitude

ti
sc er receiver only on

' r _ E

. -

STDN

-

(q) 193 to 210 hours.

Figure 10-1.- Continued.

.. . . .-...-.
\ .

,

.

Revolution count $; ;d w elapsed time

Revolution count
D Nig

#

0
Nicj
Ultraviolet spectraeter and infrared radiaeter an

F

LUl

so1

on

S

1

211
64

Fuel cell oxygen purge Waste water dump

-

-212

-

-

-

-, -

I

Maneuver for 40' north oblique photography attitude

STDN

cmerr ' I
On

Mapping

-213
65

-TOn

Pre-sleep activities

i

Ultraviolet spectraneter and infrared radii

Ultraviole spectrane and infrar radiomete

Sleep

Crew exercise

Mapping camera and laser altimeter on

1
(r) 210 to 227 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

- .. ,

10-64
Revolution count
Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrar radiometer on Platform realignmen'

.. .. _..-..-_. .; . .-? . :..
~

.I.

\

Revolution count

Ni

Infrared radiMVtfxM

Ni

Fuel cell oxygen and hydrogen purge Waste water and urine dump Lithium hydroxide canister change

T

1

STDN

Pre-tlansearth inpction checks U a x u w r to trans-

e s h inpction
mttu2C

1
Infrared radiometer on Ultraviolet Tele,vision

Lunar sounder

on in various
modes

Ultraviolet spectrometer and inhar radiometer on Trmseanh injection mameuver Maqewer to television attitude
Mi

i
t
STDN
Mapping camera and laser altim eter on

S

yonT
Panoramic Maneuver to Lyman Alpha region viewing attitude

1
4

spectmmeter and infrared radianeter on

1

Ultraviolet spectmmeter and infrared radianeter on Ultraviolet specmeter of Lyman Alp region and in fiared radian

I

Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrari radiometer on

I

-

Coupled attitude roll maneuver Panoramic camera Infrared radiometer

Platfwm realignment

231

hianeuwr to ultraviolet earth viewing attitude Crew exercise Terminator photography Platform realignment Eat

1
Ultraviolet spectrameter of earth and infrared radt-

.I I'
(s) 227 t o 237 hours.

Figure 10-1.

-

Continued.

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~

.

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~~

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Revolution count time
Mapping camera on

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,-249

!

N

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N
Ultraviolet spectrometer c f galactic sc w

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Ultraviolet spectrometer of moon and infrared radi-

Lithium hydroxide canister change

Maneuver to passive thermal c m k o t sleep attitude

ometeroI 1 1

I

P l a t f m realignment Lithium hydroxide canister change Maneuver to midcwrse c w m t i o n attitide

Infrared radi-

meter

4
on

Fuel cell oxygen purge

Waste water and urine dump

Cabin peparations f transearth a extravehicular activity Pre-sleep activities

Ultraviolet spectrome t i r on for passive thermal control galactic scan Television and camera preparations

f extravehicular activity w

Equipment preparation fw extravehicular activity

Post-sleep activities

Don suits

Maneuver to e*avehicular

attitude

Extravehicular activity systems checks Cumnunications checks

(t) 237 to 254 hours.
Figure 10-1,- Continued.

.. . .

-

. .

..

,

. .

.

.

.-I

__... .
. .

ic--66
Revolution count
IN
System preparations for depressurization Don oxygen plrge system Maneuver to ultraviolet stellar calibration (60 x 60) attitude Tele Transearth extravehicular
I

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j

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r
2 5 9 ,

IN

Ultravioiet stellar calibration

Nic

.

4

Suit integrity checks

Ultraviolet stellar calibration

Cabin depressurization and hatch opening

Crew xercise

Install television camera and data acquisition camera

activir
Maneuver to ultraviolet Alpha ERI attitude

Retrieve cassettes from lunar sounder, panaamic camera, and mapping camera

Hatch closing Post extravehicular activity pocedures

4 .

-

-

Ultraviolet Alpha ERI mearurments

t
Maneuver to uitraviolet/passiw thermal control attitude
I

I

Doff suits Stow equipment

I

i
I
Maneuver to ultraviolet coma cluster attitude Ultraviolet coma cluster Lithium hydroxide canister change Platform realigment

Ultraviolet/ passive them control m a s urements f a Alpha ERI and Alpha GR

I

. ...
Maneuver to ultraviolet
~

1
Ultraviolet Stellar calibration

Maneuver to uitraviokt/passive ttrermal control attitude Ultraviolet/ nassive them

stellar calibration (60 x 14) attitude

-

Re-rleep activities

I
. .. . . _ .. .- - . . _... .. ..

(u) 254 to 264 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

.

Revolution count

Revolution csunt

Day Night

F

rl

Entry flowage

activities

trol g;

ic scan

Maneuver to thermal attitude Crew exercise

1

Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radiometer on
1 -

I Ni!

*

1

Ultraviolet spectraeter and infrared

Ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared radiometer m Apollo light flash observation investigation Post-sleep activities

Lithium hydroxide canister change Entry monitm system check

I 1
Ultraviolet atmospheric calibration and infrared radimter a

P l a t f m realignment

Ultra

!t spec
Maneuver to ultraviolet Virgo cluster attitude

Charge battery A On Fuel cell oxygen and hydrogen Ultraviolet spec purge trwneter and inWaste water Entry frared radiometei and urine dump stowage Maneuver to view ultraviolet dark north

trometT On

I1
I

Ultraviolet dark north and inhared radiometer o

L

Ultraviolet spectraete Virgo clusto

1

(v) 264 to 280 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Continued.

.

I

10-68

Revolution count P n d elapsed lime

4

Revolution count P n d elap:ed time Ni
Ultraviolet smctrometer on Virgc cluster Charge battery B

4

IN

Eat

)N

1

Lithium hydroxide canister change Platfam realignment

Ultraviolet/pi

Ni

siw thermal c

Mancuver to ultravioiet/passive Ultr2 thermal control sleep attitude siw

!Up2 nal c tic s

Ultraviolet spectrometer viewing dark south

1
I

Pre-sleep activities

!
Maneuver to uitraviolet/passive thermal control attitude

i
I
UItraviolet/passive thermal c m trol operations

Maneuver to ultraviolel attitude for Spica

1
Ultraviolet specbaneter w Spica and infrared radiometer on

Post-sleep activities

i
Eat

1
Sleep

1

1_
Maneuver to ultraviolet/parsin thermal control attitude Ultraviolet spec-

(‘w> 280 t o
. . . .

297 hours.

Figure 10-1,,- Continued.

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M

- Maneuver to midcwrse
cmrectim attitude

Urine dump

Second midcarrte c w e c t i m

-

-

Platfwm realignment compute aiignment

Command module/service n&k

separation

Entry interface

-

Landing

(x) 297 to 302 hours.
Figure 10-1.- Concluded.

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11-1

11.0

BIOMEDICAL EVALUATION

This s e c t i o n summarizes t h e mediczl findings of the Apollo 17 mission based on a preliminary analysis of the biomedical data. The t h r e e astronauts accumulated 913.5 man-hours of space f l i g h t experience during t h e 12.6-day mission. The Commander and L u n a r Module P i l o t each accumul a t e d approximately 22 hours of extravehicular a c t i v i t y time on t h e lunar surface and t h e Command Module P i l o t accumulated 1 hour and 6 minutes of extravehicular a c t i v i t y during the transearth coast phase. All i n f l i g h t medical o b j e c t i v e s were successfully coigleted. A l l physiological parame t e r s remained within t h e expected ranges, and no medically s i g n i f i c a n t arrhythmias occurred during t h e mission.

Two b i o l o g i c a l experiments and a l i g h t f l a s h investigation were conducted during t h e mission t o gather datz on s o l a r radiation e f f e c t s on b i o l o g i c a l systems. These a r e reported i n section 6.
1 . BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATIOX AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA 11

All physiologic@ measurements rezzined within expected l i m i t s . The Commander's h e a r t r a t e during lunar descent and ascent i s shown i n f i g u r e 1 - . The metabolic knergy expenditure of the crewmen was determined f o r 11 t h e four periods of extravehicular a c t i v i t y and i s summarized i n t a b l e s 1 - and 1 - 1 During t h e lunar surfzce extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s , t h e 11 11 . average metabolic r a t e s were obtained by measuring t h e oxygen usage and heat l o s s of t h e crewmen. The b e s t estimate of t h e metabolic r a t e f o r d i s c r e t e a c t i v i t i e s during t h e lunar surface extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s i s based on h e a r t r a t e . The change i n he& r a t e along with the change i n metabolic r a t e measured both p r e f l i g h t end p o s t f l i g h t are referenced t o t h e average metabolic r a t e and h e a r t r z t e measured during each extravehicular a c t i v i t y (see f i g s . 11-2 through 11-4). Heart r a t e i s responsive t o s e v e r a l parameters i n addition t o work r a t e ; therefore, the c o r r e l a t i o n of h e a r t rate t o metabolic r a t e f o r a single point during an extravehicular a c t i v i t y can involve considerable e r r o r . O n l y t h e heart r a t e was a v a i l a b l e f o r assessing t h e metabolic r g t e of t h e Command Module P i l o t during t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y .
The metabolic r a t e s during the lunar surface extravehicular activi t i e s were a l i t t l e higher than predicted, but well within t h e range experienced during previous missions. The predicted average r a t e was 892 Btu/hr, and t h e measured r a t e was 951 Btu/hr. The metabolic r a t e during t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y was near t h e predicted value.

11-2
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100

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110:18

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110:26

Time, hr:min (a) Lunar descent.

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110

5 100
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90

80

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185:20

185:22

185:24

18526

185:28

185:30

185:32

Time, hr:min

(b) Lunar ascent.

Figure 11-1.- Commander's heart r a t e during lunar descent and ascent.

11-3

TABLE 11-1.- AVERAGE METABOLIC MTE AND HEART RATE DURING A L EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES L

i
Elapse( : h e , Activity

Lunar Mo rate, beatslmin Heart rate, beatslmin

: Pilot

Cormand Module Pilot

h: r:

start

End
1

Duration, min

let abolic rate, Btulhr

Heart rate, beatslnin

Metabolic rate, Btulmin

First extravehicular Second activity extravehicular activity

114 :21

1 2 1:33

432

102.3

102.4

1074

137 :55

145:32

457

103.0

88.5

835

mira extravehicular activity Toansearth extravehicular activity

160:53

168 :08

435

100.6

9. 00

942

254:54

256 :00

67

-

03.3

569

115

<12w

TABLE ll-11.- METABOLIC ASSISSMENT SUMMARY DURING ALL SURFACE EXTMVEHICULPlR ACTIVITY
i

Commander Activity a Actual Btu/hr Prelaunch prediction Btu/hr
~~

Lunar Module P i l o t
Actual
Btu/hr Prelaunch prediction, Btu/hr

L u n a r roving vehicle traverse
Geological s t a t i o n activities Overhead Apollo lunar surface experiments package activities A l l activities

479
1036

550
950

447 1189
ll30 U04

550
950

1200
1129

1050

1050 1050

1050

946

892

950

892

aAveraged values.

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Time, hcmln

245

114:OO 1 1 4 3 0 115:OO 1 1 5 3 0 ll6:OO 116:30

121:OO 121:30 122: :oc

( a ) Commander.

Figure 11-2.-

Heart rates and c a l c u l a t e d metabolic rates during f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y .

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115:30 116:OO 116:30 117:OO 117:30 11800 118:30 119:OO 119:30 120:OO 12030 121:OO 121:30
Time, hr:niin

114:OO 114:30 115:OO

(b) Lunar Module Pilot.
F i g u r e 11-2.Concluded.

1574 r

h

181

30

la) Commander

( a ) Commander.

Figure 11-3.- Heart r a t e s and c a l c u l a t e d metabolic r a t e s during second extravehicular a c t i v i t y .

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Figure 11-3.- Concluded.

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Figure 11-4

.- Heart

r a t e s and c a l c u l a t e d metabolic r a t e s during t h i r d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y .

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Figure 11-4.- Concluded.

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11-10
11.2

MEDICAL OBSERVJ2IONS

11.2.1

Adaptation t o Weightlessness

Two of t h e t h r e e crewmen experienced t h e t y p i c a l f'ullness-of-thehead sensation , one immediately a r t e r earth-orbital i n s e r t i o n and t h e o t h e r a f % e r a 6-hour exposure t o weightlessness.

Based on t h e crew's p o s t f l i g h t comments, t h e adaptation t o weightl e s s n e s s required approximately 1 1 / 2 days. There were no instances of nausea, vomiting, o r d i s o r i e n t a t i o n ; however, a l l t h r e e crewmen d i d experience t h e need t o l i m i t t h e i r movements and perform t h e necessary movements slowly during t h e i n i t i a l period of adeptation. I n addition, all t h r e e crewmen had varying degrees of "stomech awareness" and a decreased a p p e t i t e f o r t h e f i r s t 1 1 / 2 days of f l i g h t . Once adapted, t h e crewmen were able t o perform all types of movements without r e s t r i c t i o n s . No readaptation t o weightlessness was required a f t e r r e s i d i n g f o r 75 hours on t h e moon at 1/6-g.

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11-11

11.2.2

Medicztions

The medications taken by each crewman a r e presented i n t h e following table :
U n i t s taken

Medi c a t ion Commander

Command Module Pilot

Lunar Module Pilot

Seconal (Sleep 1 Sirnethicone (Antiflatulence) Dexedrine scopolamine (Antimotion sickness ) Aspirin (Headache )
I Lomot i1 (htiperistdsi!s)

3
29

1
0

0

Afrin nose drops (Decongestant ) Actifed (Decongestant )

0

0

More medications were taken on t h i s f l i g h t than on any previous mission. The i n t e r m i t t e n t use of Seconal for sleep by all t h r e e crewmen and t h e d a i l y use of Simethicone f o r symptomatic r e l i e f of g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l f l a t ulence by one of t h e crewmen were the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s contributing t o t h e high intake of medications. The Command Module P i l o t and the L u n a r Module P i l o t experienced one loose bowel movement each, on t h e eleventh and twelfth days of f l i g h t , respectively. I n each case, Lomotil was taken as a preventative measure and w a s e f f e c t i v e . The Commander used one Dexedrine-Scopolamhe t a b l e t on the second day of f l i g h t as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the Simethicone t a b l e t s which he could not l o c a t e i n i t i a l l y .

11-12
. .... .,. . . : I .. . . , ,
I

--. : -.
. I

- _

I n addition t o the medications c i t e d previously, skin cream was used by all t h r e e crewmen t o reduce i r r i t a t i o n at the biosensor s i t e s .
11i2.3

. i i. ,i -;. .. > -.

. . . .. ,. ... -.. .

. . ... .
5 i

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Sleep

~: .

A s on previous missions, displacement of the t e r r e s t r i a l sleep cycle contributed t o some l o s s of s l e e p . I n addition, changes t o t h e f l i g h t plan occasionally impacted previously planned crew s l e e p periods. I n general, however, an adequate amount of good sleep w a s obtained by all crewmembers. The estimates of s l e e p duration made by ground personnel were i n general agreement w i t h t h e crew's subjective evaluations.
A l l t h r e e crewmen averaged approximately s i x hours of s l e e p per day throughout t h e mission. Only during t h e f i r s t sleep period w a s t h e amount of s l e e p obtained (approximately t h r e e hours) inadequate from a medical point of v i e w .

The crew reported t h a t t h e Seconal e f f e c t i v e l y induced sound and undisturbed s l e e p f o r a period of four t o f i v e hours. Sleep r e s t r a i n t s were used f o r every s l e e p period by all t h r e e crewmen. The Commander a l s o emphasized t h e importance of programming an eight-hour sleep period each day.

i
I

11.2.4

Radiation

The personal r a d i a t i o n dosimeters showed the t o t a l absorbed dose t o t h e crew w a s s l i g h t l y l e s s than 0.6 rad at skin depth. T h i s i s well below t h e t h r e s h o l d of detectable medical e f f e c t s . The L u n a r Module P i l o t ' s personal radiation dosimeter read higher than t h e o t h e r two crewmens' u n i t s , due t o ety-pical performance of t h e dosimeter at low dose r a t e s .

ll.2.5

Cardiac Arrhythmias

N medically s i g n i f i c a n t arrhythmias occurred during t h e mission, o but i s o l a t e d premature h e a r t beats were observed i n two of t h e t h r e e crewmen. The f a c t t h a t t h e frequency (less than one per day) and character of t h e s e p r e m a t u r i t i e s remained consistent with electrocardiographic d a t a obtained on t h e s e same crewmen during ground-based t e s t s , c l e a r l y indicates t h a t they were not r e l a t e d t o or r e s u l t a n t from space f l i g h t . I n addition., one crewman demonstrated t e n i s o l a t e d i n t e r m i t t e n t contractions of t h e a u r i c l e s t h a t were not transmitted t o the v e n t r i c l e s (non-conducted P-waves). This benign conduction defect was associated with an increased discharge of t h e vagus nerve (vagotonia). (Note: A non-conducted P-wave

11-13

causes t h e h e a r t t o skip a b e a t ) . This condition commonly occurs i n athl e t e s and i s not medically s i g n i f i c a n t . The same arrhythmia w a s observed on t h i s crewman during extravehicular t r a i n i n g and the countdown demonstration test.

11.2.6

Water

Crew comments indicated t h a t t h e potable water from both t h e command module and lunar module systems t a s t e d good. However, there was a l a r g e amount of dissolved gas i n t h e command module water.
A modified Skylab beverage dispenser was used f o r measuring t h e crew's potable water intake during t h e mission.

A l l p o s t f l i g h t chemical and microbiological data indicated t h a t t h e potable water f o r t h e command module remined within acceptable l i m i t s , and a measurable f r e e chlorine r e s i d u a l of 0.01 % / l i t e r w a s obtained.
11.2.7
I

Food

The menus f o r t h i $ mission were designed t o meet physiological requirements of each crehember as well as requirements of the food compati b i l i t y assessment study. T h i s study was implemented t o determine t h e following :
a.

Metabolic requirements of space f l i g h t . Compatibility of menus with respect t o g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l function. Endocrine control of metabolism.

b. c.

.

I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d a t a required t h a t nutrient intake l e v e l s be cons t a n t and t h a t a l l food and f l u i d intake be measured f o r the f l i g h t as well as f o r a short period before and a f t e r f l i g h t . This controlled study included t h e d a i l y amounts specified i n the following table : Nutrient Daily range
100

..... Calcium, mg . . . . Phosphorus, mg . . . sodium, mg . . . . . Potassium, mg . . . Magnesium, mg . . .
Protein, g
F

- 120 750 - 850

1500

- 1700 3000 - 6000
300

Not l e s s than 3945

-

400

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11-14
Some of t h e beverages were f o r t i f i e d with potassium gluconate t o meet t h e minimum d a i l y requirement of 3945 mg of potassium. The d a i l y energy intake s p e c i f i e d was approximately 300 k i l o c a l o r i e s l e s s than t h e calculated one-g energy requirements f o r each crewman. Individual menu design w a s based on age, body weight and adjusted according t o d i e t a r y performance on t h e six-day control study. A d a i l y c a l o r i c intake of 2660 k i l o c a l o r i e s f o r t h e .Commander, 2520 k i l o c a l o r i e s f o r the Command Module P i l o t , and 2550 k i l o c a l o r i e s f o r t h e Lunar Module P i l o t was provided. Preliminary estimates of food consumption i n d i c a t e t h a t an average of 1902, 2402, and 2148 k i l o c a l o r i e s per day were consumed by the Commander, Command Module P i l o t , and Lunar Module P i l o t , respectively.
A l i m i t e d number of pantry items (snacks end beverages) were supplied and could be used t o s u b s t i t u t e or supplement t h e normal meal items as long as t h e n u t r i e n t intake f o r a 24-hour period w a s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d . In-suit food bars and water for the in-suit drinking device were supplied and used by t h e s u i t e d crewmen while on the lunar surface. Also, each crewman had an i n - s u i t drinking device f i l l e d with water f o r consumption during t h e prelaunch countdown period.

N w foods f o r t h i s mission included rehydratable t e a and lemonade, e

thermostabilized/irradiated ham, nutrient-complete f r u i t c a k e , and ascept i c a l l y packaged butterscotch pudding i n aluminum cans. For the f i r s t time, t h e bread was kept krozen u n t i l it WES stowed on the spacecraft approximately 24 hours before launch. This chenge i n procedure w a s i n i t i a t e d t o allow packaging s e v e r a l weeks p r i o r t o f l i g h t without l o s s i n break q u a l i t y ; however, t h e procedure was not as e f f e c t i v e as expected. After menu s e l e c t i o n w a s completed, each crewman p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a six-day food control study t o e s t a b l i s h baseline d a t a on the excretory l e v e l s of e l e c t r o l y t e s , nitrogen, and various hormones. During t h i s sixday period, one crewman experienced g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l discomfort following each meal. T h i s discomfort p e r s i s t e d and was a t t r i b u t e d t o gastrointest i n a l gas and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o eliminate t h e gas. Modifications were made t o t h e menus t o eliminate usual gas-forming food items. I n addition, Simethicone t a b l e t s were provided t o a l l e v i a t e symptoms, i f they occurred i n flight. The p r i n c i p a l medical problem experienced during t h i s mission was t h e presence of a g r e a t e r amount of g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l gas than a n t i c i p a t e d , n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e one crewman who had these symptoms p r e f l i g h t . O t h e second day of' f l i g h t , similar symptoms of g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l d i s t r e s s occurred. The crewman consumed Simethicone t a b l e t s following each meal and t h i s medication r e l i e v e d , but never completely eliminated h i s symptoms. I n a d d i t i o n , belching provided f u r t h e r r e l i e f . Mild g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l dist r e s s w a s experienced by t h e o t h e r two crewmen; however, they were able t o e f f e c t i v e l y eliminate the gas, and a t no time were t h e symptoms severe

11-15
enough t o i n t e r f e r e with t h e operation81 duties of t h e crew. The exact cause of t h e g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l f l a t u l e n c e during t h e mission i s unknown, but t h e problem w a s probably aggravated by t h e oxygen gas noted i n t h e potable water supply of t h e command module.
A s on previous f l i g h t s , negative nitrogen and potassium balances occurred and confirmed a l o s s i n t o t a l body protein. I n addition, a l o s s of body calcium and phosphorus w a s noted. Although some of t h e observed weight loss can be a t t r i b u t e d t o changes i n t o t a l body water, t h e hypoc a l o r i c regimen, i n conjunction with t h e well-known tendency t o l o s e body t i s s u e under hypogravic conditions, indicates t h a t a considerable portion of weight l o s s i s from f a t t y and muscle t i s s u e s .

_ ..

Water i n t a k e and output d a t a were generally consistent throughout t h e f l i g h t . However, when i n s e n s i b l e wcter l o s s i s considered, t h e crew on t h i s mission were i n a s t a t e of mild negative water balance. These data a r e c o n s i s t e n t with water-balance dgta from Apollo 16. During t h e immediate p o s t f l i g h t period, only t h e Lunar Module P i l o t ' s urine volume w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased; t h e other two remained normal. T h i s postf l i g h t f i n d i n g , along with t h e s l i g h t decreases i n t o t a l body water, confirms t h e normal t o decreased l e v e l of a n t i d i u r e t i c hormone. T h i s obs e r v a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h e Apollo 1 5 mission where high urine volumes and increased l e v e l s o f a n t i d i u r e t i c hormone were observed. The more complete data from t h i s mission' suggests t h a t the major component of weight l o s s w a s t i s s u e mass r a t h e r ' t h a n t o t a l body water. The lack of weight gains during t h e f i r s t 24 hours a f t e r t h e f l i g h t provides a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r t h e f a c t t h a t f a t t y and muscle t i s s u e s mass were l o s t . The endocrine d a t a shows a normal t o increased excretion of glucoc o r t i c o i d s and mineral conserving hormones. Previous Apollo data showing an increased f r e e urinary hydrocortisone l e v e l i n the presence of a low t o normal t o t a l 17-hydroxycorticoids was confirmed. The metabolism o f s t e r o i d hormones appears t o be a l t e r e d by space f l i g h t , but t h e exact mechanisms are unknown.
A sodium conserving s t e r o i d hormone, aldosterone, w a s decreased during t h e e a r l y p o r t i o n of f l i g h t , but increases were noticed l a t e r i n t h e f l i g h t . These d a t a support t h e hypothesis t h a t aldosterone l e v e l s were t h e major cause of t h e s l i g h t l y negative potassium balance. The s i g n i f i cantly decreased l e v e l s of s e m potassium during p o s t f l i g h t t e s t s a r e cons i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e data. As on t h e Apollo 1 5 mission, a decrease i n t o t a l body exchangeable potassium w a s observed. Nonetheless, t h e elevated d i e t ary potassium, coupled with an adequate f l u i d intake, were apparently suff i c i e n t t o preserve normal c e l l u l a r e l e c t r o l y t e concentrations. This contrasts t o previous Apollo observations i n which a l t e r a t i o n s i n c e l l u l a r homeost at i s w r e mani f e st ed e

.

'

: .. . .. ,

'.

11-16
11.3 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
Comprehensive physical examinations were performed on the Commander and Command Module P i l o t 30 days p r i o r t o launch and on the Lunar Module P i l o t 26 days p r i o r t o launch. These examinations were repeated 15 days and 5 days before launch and d a i l y t h e r e a f t e r . The comprehensive physic a l examinations conducted s h o r t l y af%er recovery showed t h e crew t o be i n good general h e a l t h and physical condition. Body weight l o s s e s during t h e mission were 10-1/4 pounds f o r t h e Commander, b 1 / 2 pounds f o r t h e Command Module P i l o t , and 5-1/2 pounds f o r the Lunar Module P i l o t . The Lunar Module P i l o t suffered moderately severe skin i r r i t a t i o n caused by prolonged contact with the biosensors, and the Commander evidenced a much milder reaction. Both of t h e s e crewmen exhibited subunguial hematomas from t h e pressure suit gloves, but these were more extensive and apparent on t h e Lunar Module P i l o t . The Commander had a herpetic l e s i o n ( f e v e r b l i s t e r on t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e upper l i p , and it w a s approximately 72 hours o l d at t h e time of recovery. Only one of t h e crewmen was within h i s p r e f l i g h t baseline during p o s t f l i g h t bicycle-ergometry t e s t s . The other two crewmen returned t o t h e i r b a s e l i n e by t h e second day a f t e r recovery.
I

O r t h o s t a t i c tolerance w a s decreased and returned t o p r e f l i g h t basel i n e values by t h e second! day a f t e r recovery.

9

11.4 VESTIBULAR
Two c f f e r e n t f l i g h t ; the f i r s t , of v i s i o n , and t h e induced by c a l o r i c

FUNCTION

types of v e s t i b u l a r function t e s t s were performed pret o - t e s t p o s t u r a l s t a b i l i t y with and without t h e a i d second graphic recordings of nystagmus (eye movement) i r r i g a t i o n of t h e r i g h t and l e f t ear canals.

The results of t h e s e t e s t s indicated t h a t p o s t u r a l equilibrium, with t h e eyes open or closed, was within normal limits f o r all crewmen. One crewman exhibited poor eyes-closed postural equilibrium, e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e examination 5 days p r i o r t o f l i g h t . Nystagmus responses t o c a l o r i c i r r i g a t i o n were normal f o r all crewmen. N v e s t i b u l a r f’unction t e s t s o were conducted p o s t f l i g h t . O t h e b a s i s of crew comments, it i s known n t h a t all t h r e e crewmen experienced very mild v e s t i b u l a r h y p e r s e n s i t i v i t y during.the first two days of f l i g h t . However, t h e symptoms d i s s i p a t e d with adaptation t o weightlessness and did not reappear.

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ii-17
SKYLABMOBILE LABORATORIESOPERATIONAL TEST

11.5

A n o p e r a t i o n a l t e s t of t h e Skylab trlobile Laboratories was conducted i n conjunction with t h e Apollo 17 recovery. The objective of t h i s t e s t w a s t o perform a l l operational procedures associated with Skylab recovery operations, both for a normal e n d - o f - ~ s s i o n recovery (primzry recovery s h i p ) and contingency recovery (C5A a i r c r a f t ) . A l l t e s t objectives were s a t i s f i e d and many equipment and procedural changes resulted from t h e t e s t . During t h e Apollo 17 recovery, e l l s i x Skylab Nobile Laboratories were used t o conduct t h e i n i t i a l p o s t f l i g h t medical examinations and debriefings.

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12-1
12.0

MISSION SUPPOFT P R O M N E EFR AC
12.1 FLIGHT CONTROL

, F l i g h t c o n t r o l provided s a t i s f a c t o r y operational support during t h e mission. Only anomalous operations a r e described; discussion of routine support a c t i v i t i e s a r e not included. 4- number of problems t h a t were encountered a r e discussed elsewhere i n t h i s report. Only those problems t h a t are unique t o f l i g h t control or hzyze operational considerations not previously mentioned a r e presented i n t'his section.

The launch delay due t o the autonz5ic sequencer f a i l u r e caused no s i g n i f i c a n t problems. The 2-hour 40-minute l a t e l i f t - o f f w a s subsequently compensated f o r (during t h e translunar coast) by a r e s e t t i n g of t h e m i s s i o n clocks on t h e spacecraft and i n the Control Center. During t h e f i r s t lunar module activation at about 40 hours, t h e l u n a r module cabin r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n function was i n i t i a t e d unexpectedly. The command module environmental control system normally r a i s e s t h e cabin pressure of both vehicles, t o 5.0 p s i during t h e l u n a r module checkout period. However , t h e a c t i v a t i p n procedure was k i n g completed ahead of schedule and t h e l u n a r module babin pressure had not reached t h e minimum l i m i t of 4.0 p s i when t h e lunar module emergency repressurization system was act i v a t e d during t h e procedure. Consequeztly, t h e system automatically i n i t i a t e d t h e r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and resulted i n t h e premature use of about 1.7 pounds of descent s t a g e oxygen. The crew d i d not respond t o t h e morning wakeup c a l l on t h e t h i r d day. The Command Module P i l o t had a c c i d e n t d l y turned o f f the audio power switch, and t h e ground c a l l s and crew d e r t tone were not g e t t i n g through. The crew woke up about 1 hour l a t e and re-established communications. The planned a c t i v i t i e s through t r m s l u n a r c o a s t , l u n a r o r b i t insert i o n , and t h e l u n a r landing were accomplished without any s i g n i f i c a n t difficulties. The f i r s t l u n a r surface extravehicular a c t i v i t y was about 1 hour behind t h e t i m e l i n e because of t h e crew leaving t h e lunar module l a t e and t h e longer time required t o complete the i n i t i a l t r a v e r s e preparation act i v i t i e s and Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package deployment. A s a r e s u l t , it w a s necessary t o eliminate some of t h e planned a c t i v i t i e s and t o shorten t h e geology t r a v e r s e t o make up f o r t h e l o s t time.

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12-2 'During t h e second extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s receiver and t h e l u n a r roving ve'nicle b a t t e r i e s operated at higher temperatures than expected. The traverse during t h i s second ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because it u t i l i z e d t h e equipment t o i t s operational l i m i t . The distance t o s t a t i o n 2 (7370 meters) w a s almost at t h e maximum l i m i t ; t h e times of departure from stat i o n s 4 and 5 a l s o were at the l i m i t ; and a l l planned a c t i v i t i e s were accomplished. The t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y w a s conducted i n a routine manner, although some replanning was necessary due t o g e t t i n g behind t h e planned timeline and t h e extremely high temperature of the surface e l e c t r i c a l properties receiver. Preparations f o r l u n a r module ascent and rendezvous were accomplished normally. However, an a d d i t i o n a l unplanned command and service module orb i t shaping maneuver w a s made p r i o r t o t h e planned plane change. The command and s e r v i c e module o r b i t had been perturbed i n such a way t h a t it w a s more e c c e n t r i c than expected, and it w a s decided t o make t h e o r b i t more c l e a r l y c i r c u l a r f o r t h e rendezvous.
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During l u n a r module a s c e n t , t h e ascent feed w a s terminated e a r l y by request of t h e l u n a r module f l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r because of a p o t e n t i a l mixt u r e r a t i o problem. The rendezvous and the remainder of t h e mission w a s routine and according t o p l a n , with the exception of some inadvertent switch a c t i v a t i o n s by t h e crew.
12.2

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The Mission Control Center and t h e Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network supported t h e Apollo 17 mission s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Although no network problems caused s i g n i f i c a n t mission impact , the following problems were experienced. During t h e terminal countdown, two t e l e v i s i o n channels were shown at once on one console i n t h e Mission Control Center. A t t h e same time, t h e channels on a l l o t h e r consoles could not be switched. The simultaneous f a i l u r e s were caused by a malfunctioning clock d r i v e r module and a switch module. The modules were replaced and normal operation was res t o r e d p r i o r t o launch.
An antenna on t h e Vanguard tracking ship began a high-frequency osc i l l a t i o n during t h e launch phase, causing the loss of some spacecraft d a t a at t h i s s i t e . Since t h i s s t a t i o n was not prime, no d a t a were l o s t at t h e Mission Control Center. The problem disappeared and tracking was reacquired. The problem was caused by a noise burst i n t h e antenna feed system.

_ _ --

12-3

A t a c q u i s i t i o n - o f - s i g n a l on t h e f i r s t l u n a r o r b i t , 4 minutes were r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h two-way communicztions with t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The problem was caused by improper p o i n t i n g of t h e prime antenna a t Goldstone. A handover w a s made t o t h e J e t Propulsion Laboratory wing antenna and norm a l o p e r a t i o n s were resumed.
O l u n a r module a s c e n t , two-way lock w i t h t h e l u n a r module transponder n w a s ' l o s t . This r e s u l t e d i n a 4-minute loss of uplink v o i c e , and t r a c k i n g d a t a during a s c e n t . It was necessary t o have t h e Command Module P i l o t pass comments from t h e ground t o t h e l u n a r module crew during t h i s p e r i o d . 12.3 R C V R OPERClTIONS EOEY

*

-

.

.

The Department of Defense provided recovery support i n accordance 1 7 mission planning. Recovery s h i p support f o r t h e p r i mary l a n d i n g a r e a i n t h e P a c i f i c Ocezy was provided by t h e a i r c r a f t carrier USS Ticonderoga. Active a i r support c o n s i s t e d of f o u r SH-3G h e l i c o p t e r s and one E-1B a i r c r a f t from t h e primary recovery s h i p and one HC-130 rescue a i r c r a f t s t a g e d from American Samoa. Three of t h e helicopt e r s c a r r i e d underwater demolition t e r n personnel. The f i r s t , designated lt Recovery", a l s o c a r r i e d t h e f l i g h t s-ngeon and w a s used f o r both command module and f l i g h t cr4w r e t r i e v a l operztions . The h e l i c o p t e r , designated It Swim" served as a backup t o "Recovery" and aided i n t h e recovery of t h e forward h e a t s h i e l d . The t h i r d helicoDter , designated "ELS" ( e a r t h landi n g system), aided i n t h e r e t r i e v a l of t h e main parachutes. The f o u r t h h e l i c o p t e r , designated "Photo", served zs a photographic platform f o r both motion p i c t u r e photography and l i v e t e l e v i s i o n coverage. The E-1B airc r a f t , designated "Relay" served as a communications r e l a y . The HC-130 a i r c r a f t , designated "Samoa Rescue l", w a s p o s i t i o n e d t o t r a c k t h e command module a f t e r it had e x i t e d from S-band blackout, as w e l l as t o prov i d e pararescue c a p a b i l i t y had t h e comand module landed uprange of t h e t a r g e t p o i n t . Figure 12-1 shows t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of t h e recovery s h i p , i t s a i r c r a f t , and t h e HC-130 a i r c r a f t p r i o r t o landing. The recovery f o r c e s assigned t o t h e Apollo 17 mission a r e shown i n t a b l e 12-1.
w i t h t h e Apollo

12.3.1

Command Module Location and R e t r i e v a l

Radar c o n t a c t w i t h t h e command module w a s r e p o r t e d by t h e Ticonderoga December 19. Visual s i g h t i n g of t h e command module occurred by t h e Ticonderoga and t h e Photo h e l i c o p t e r . The i n i t i a l s i g h t i n g occurred s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e mzin parachutes were deployed. Twoway voice communications were e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e Apollo 17 crew and t h e reco+ery f o r c e s approximately 2 minutes later.

at 1915 G . m . t . at 1920 G . m . t .

12-4
TABLE 12-1.- N POL LO 17 RECOVERY SUPPORT

Type ship/ type a i r c r a f t
ARS

Number

Ship namelaircraft s t aging base
USS Recovery

Responsibility h u n c h s i t e recovery ship and sonic boom measurement platform

1

.

MSO

1

USS Alacrity

Sonic boom measurement platform on launch groundtrack. Sonic boom measurement platform on launch groundtrack. Sonic boom measurement platform on launch groundtrtrck. Sonic boom measurement platform on launch groundtrack. Sonic boom measurement platform on launch groundtrack. Refuel primary recovery ship. Primary recovery ship. Launch s i t e area. Launch s i t e area. Launch abort area and west Atlantic recovery area. Launch abort a r e a and contingency landing support. Mid-Pacific e a r t h o r b i t a l recovery zone, deep space secondary landing area on mid-Pacific l i n e , and primary end-of-mission landing area. Deep space secondary landing a r e a and primary endof-mission landing area. Communications r e l a y f o r primary end-of-mission landing area.
:

MSO

1

USS F i d e l i t y

MSO

1

USS Assurance

MSO

1

USS Adroit

LST

1

USS Saginaw

A0

1
1

USS Camden
USS Ticonderoga
P a t r i c k Air Force Base Patrick A i r Force Base Eglin Air Force Base
RAF Woodbrid'ge , England

cvs
HH-5 3c
MI-1
HC-130 PIN HC-130 HC-130

2& 2
la
la

1

Hickam Air Force Base

SH-3G

4

U S Ticonderoga

E-1B

1

USS Ticonderoga

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12-5

West longitude

163' 6'0 160 30 18 6'
West longitude

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Figure 12-1.- End of mission recovery support.

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12-6 The command module landed at 1925 G . m . t . December 19, 1973. Based upon a navigation s a t e l l i t e (SRN-9) f i x obtained at 1818 G.m.t., the Ticonderoga's p o s i t i o n at t h e time of landing was determined t o be l 7 degrees, 55 minutes south l a t i t u d e and 166 degrees Oh minutes 18 seconds west longitude. Using t h i s f i x of t h e s h i p ' s position, plus visual bearings and radar ranges, t h e landing point coordinates of Apollo 17 were determined t o be 17.degrees 53 minutes south l a t i t u d e a d 166 degrees 8 minutes 36 s e conds west long it ude

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The command module landed normally and remained i n the s t a b l e I att i t u d e . Swimmers were deployed t o t h e comvld module at 1926 G . m . t . and The f l i g h t t h e f l o t a t i o n c o l l a r was i n s t a l l e d and i n f l z t e d by 1940 G.m.t. crew w a s delivered aboard t h e Ticonderoga by the recovery helicopter a t 2017 G . m . t . I n addition Command module r e t r i e v a l w a s accomplished at 2128 G . m . t . t o t h e command module, all t h r e e main parachutes and t h e forward heat s h i e l d were recovered.
Table 12-11 shows a chronological l i s t i n g of recovery and post-recovery events.
i

12.3.2 i,Postrecovery Inssection

Visual. inspection of t h e command module revealed t h e following discrepancies :
a. One square foot of t h e a f t bulkhead ablator f e l l o f f when t h e command module w a s placed on t h e dolly.
b.

Each of t h e command module windows was fogged. There w a s 0.35 inch of water on t h e z f t bulkhead.

c.
. . .. .

. d. The rock bag stowed i n t h e bottom of the pressure garment assembly bag was damp.

12-7

TABLE 12-11.- SIGNIFICANT RECOnRY-POSTRECOVERY EVENTS

Event

Time, G . m . t . December 19, 1972

Time r e l a t i v e t o landing day:hr:min

Radar c o n t a c t by Ticonderoga Visual c o n t a c t V F recovery beacon c o n t a c t by H Ticonderoga Voice c o n t a c t w i t h Apollo 17 crew Command module l a n d i n g Swimmers deployed t o command modulc F l o t a t i o n c o l l a r i n s t a l l e d and inflated Hatch opened f o r crew e g r e s s F l i g h t crew aboard h e l i c o p t e r F l i g h t crew aboard Ticonderoga Command module aboard Ticonderoga
i
I

1914
1920 1921 1922 1925

-0 :00 : 1 1 -0 :00 :05 - 0 : O O :Oh -0 :00 :03 0: 00: 00 0 :00 :10 0 too 3 6 0 : 00: 29 0: 00 :41 0: 00 :52 0: 02 :03

1935 1941

1954
2006 2017 2128

December 20, 1972
1725 0:22:00

F i r s t sample f l i g h t departed s h i p

Cecember 21, 1972 F i r s t sample f l i g h t a r r i v e d H a w a i i F l i g h t crew departed s h i p F i r s t sample f l i g h t departed Hawai: F i r s t sample f l i g h t a r r i v e d Houstoi F l i g h t crew a r r i v e d Houston
0000 0038 0310 1016 1550

1 04 :35 : 1 :05 :i3 1:07 :45 1 :5 1 :14 1 20 :25 :

December 27, 1972 Command module a r r i v e d North I s l a n d , San Diego, C a l i f o r n i a
1930 8:00:05

December 20, 1972 Command module d e a c t i v a t e d
2200

ll :02 :35

January 2, 1973 Command module departed San Diego Command module a r r i v e d Downey
1900 2200

1 3 :23 :35 1 4 :02: 35

13-1
13.0

ASSESSMENT OF MISSION OBJECTIVES

The t h r e e primary mission objectives were assigned t o the Apollo 17 mission ( r e f . 4) were: a. Perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials and surface f e a t u r e s i n a pre-selected area of t h e Taurus-Littrow region
,

b.
c.

Emplace and a c t i v a t e surface experiments. Conduct i n f l i g h t experiments m d photographic tasks.

Table 13-1 includes t h e e i g h t detziled o b j e c t i v e s , which were derived from t h e primary o b j e c t i v e s , plus nineteen experiments and one i n f l i g h t demonstration ( r e f . 5) which were conducted. Preliminary indications a r e t h a t adequate data were obtained t o successrully complete a l l objectives except as noted i n t h e t a b l e . The Department of Defense and the Kennedy Space Center performed e i g h t o t h e r t e s t s which a r e as follows: a. b.
C.

Chapel B e l l { C l a s s i f i e d Departlrent of Defense t e s t ) Radar s k i n t r a c k i n g Ionospheric disturbance from missiles Acoustic measurement of missile exhaust noise Army acoustic t e s t Long-focal-length o p t i c a l system

a.
e.
f.
Q e

Sonic boom measurement Skylab Medical Mobile Laboratory.

h.

_,_ .

. - .

13-2
TABLE 13-1.- DETAILED OBJECTIVES AHD EXPERIMENTS

Description

Complet e d

Service module o r b i t a l photographic t a s k s Visual l i g h t f l a s h phenomenon Command module photographic t a s k s Visual observations from l u n a r o r b i t Skylab contamination study Food compatibility as se ssment P r o t e c t i v e pressure garment Experiments Heat flow (S-037) Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites (s-202) Lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g (S-203) Lunar atmospheric composition (S-205) Lunar surface gravimeter (S-207) Lunar geology investiga4ion (S-059) S-band transponder (comrhand and s e r v i c e module/ l u n a r module) (S-164) Far u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer (s-169) I n f r a r e d scanning radiometer (s-171) Traverse gravimeter (S-199 ) Surface e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s (S-204) Lunar sounder (S-209) Lunar neutron probe (S-299) Cosmic ray d e t e c t o r ( s h e e t s ) (S-152) Biostack I I A (M-211) Biocore (M-212) Gamma-ray spectrometer ( s-160 ) Apollo window meteoroid ( S-176) S o i l mechanics (S-200)

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes a Partial Yes Yes bpart i al Yes Yes

.

..

t

. . .7

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Heat flow and convection

Yes

Long term l u n a r surface exposure

Yes

a Operation r e s t r i c t e d during l u n a r day due t o overheating.
b P a r t i a l (obtaining d a t a i n t h e seismic and free o s c i l l a t i o n channels only).

14-1

1 4 .O

LAUNCH PKPSE S M A Y U MR
WEATHER COHDITIONS

14.1

The broken high clouds were s u f f i c i e n t l y t h i n and t h e low s c a t t e r e d clodds were s u f f i c i e n t l y s p a r s e i n t h e launch area t o permit a spectacul a r view of t h e launch. A gentle north wind w a s blowing at t h e surface l e v e l and t h e temperature was mild. Tne w a r m moist air m a s s over F l o r i d a w a s separated from an extremely cold air nass over t h e r e s t of t h e south by a cold f r o n t , o r i e n t e d northeast-southwest and passing through t h e F l o r i d a Panhandle
A flurry of i s o l a t e d , very l i g h t , a d short-lived rainshowers began soon af'ter sundown i n t h e middle p a r t of t h e s t a t e and moved toward Cape Kennedy at about 10 k n o t s . A few showers reached t h e west bank o f t h e Indian River, b u t none occurred e a s t of t h e Indian River (Launch Complex a r e a ) . The m a x i m u m cloud tops reached 1 2 000 f e e t a l t i t u d e , and had t h e showers occurred i n t h e launch area they would have, at most, required only a s h o r t delay of launch.

1

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.

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f

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. > .. . 1 . ... . .. .

The maximum wind speed observed i n t h e troposphere w a s 90 knots; from 310 degrees and a t an a l t i t u d e of &out 39 000 f e e t .

. .. . ..
... .

14.2

LAUNCH VEHICLE PERFORMANCE

The performance of t h e launch vehicle w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y and all Mars h a l l Space F l i g h t Center mandatory and desirable objectives were accomp l i s h e d except t h e p r e c i s e determination of t h e S-IVB/instrumentation u n i t lunar impact p o i n t . Trajectory assessments i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f i n a l . impact s o l u t i o n w i l l s a t i s f y t h e mission objective. The ground systems supporting t h e countdown and launch performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with t h e exception of t h e terminal countdown sequencer This malfunction resulteci i n a 2-hour 40-minute unscheduled malfunction hold. The hold w a s caused when t h e terminal countdown sequencer f a i l e d t o command p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e S-IVB l i q u i d oxygen tank. This command closes t h e l i q u i d oxygen tank vent; opens t h e l i q u i d o v g e n tank pressuri z a t i o n valve; and asms t h e S-IVB l i q u i d oxygen tank pressurized i n t e r l o c k . The tank w a s p r e s s u r i z e d manually, thus s a t i s f y i n g t h e f i r s t two items, but t h e absence of t h e t h i r d item prevented actuation o f t h e i n t e r l o c k i n t h e S-IVB ready-to-launch l o g i c t r a i n . The r e s u l t w a s automatic cutoff at T-30 seconds. The launch w a s accomplished with t h e i n t e r l o c k bypassed by a jumper. I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e s cause o f f a i l u r e t o be a defective diode on a p r i n t e d c i r c u i t card i n t h e terminal countdown sequencer.

14-2 The vehicle w a s launched on an azimuth 90 degrees east of north. s e r t i o n conditions were achieved 4.08 seconds e a r l i e r than nominal.
A

roll maneuver was i n i t i a t e d at 13.0 seconds t h a t placed t h e vehicle on a f l i g h t azimuth of 91.504 degrees east of north. Earth parking o r b i t in-

In accordance with p r e f l i g h t t a r g e t i n g objectives, t h e t r a n s l u n a r inj e c t i o n maneuver shortened t h e t r a n s l u n a r coast period by 2 hours and 40 plinutes-to compensate f o r t h e launch delay so t h a t t h e l u n a r landing could be made with t h e same l i g h t i n g conditions as o r i g i n a l l y planned. Transl u n a r i n j e c t i o n conditions were achieved 2.11 seconds l a t e r than predicted with an a l t i t u d e 313 miles g r e a t e r than predicted and v e l o c i t y 16.7 ft/sec l e s s than predicted.
A l l S-IC propulsion systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , with t h e propulsion performance very close t o t h e predicted nominal. The s-I1 propulsion systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e f l i g h t with all parameters near p r e d i c t e d values. Engine nainstage performance w a s sati s f a c t o r y throughout f l i g h t y and engine t h r u s t buildup and cutoff transi e n t s were within t h e p r e d i c t e d envelopes.

The S-IVB propulsion system performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e o p e r a t i o n a l phase of f i r s t and second f i r i n g s and had normal start and cutoff t r a n s i e n t s . S-IVB f i r s t f i r i n g time was 138.8 seconds. This d i f ference i s composed of mipus 4.1 seconds due t o t h e higher than expected S-II/S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n v e l o c i t y and plus 0.4 second due t o lower than pred i c t e d S-IVB performance. Engine r e s t a r t conditions were within s p e c i f i e d limits. S-IVB second f i r i n g time w a s 351.0 seconds. This difference i s primarily due t o t h e lower S-IVI3 performance and heavier vehicle mass duri n g t h e second f i r i n g . The S-IC t h r u s t c u t o f f t r a n s i e n t s experienced by t h e Apollo 17 veh i c l e were similar t o those of previous f l i g h t s . The maximum l o n g i t u d i n a l dynamic responses at t h e instrument u n i t were 20.20 g and +O.27 g at S-IC c e n t e r engine cutoff and outboard engine c u t o f f , respectively. The magnitudes of t h e t h r u s t cutoff responses were normal. During t h e S-IC s t a g e boost 4- t o ?-hertz o s c i l l a t i o n s were detected beginning at approximately .lo0seconds. The m a x i m u m amplitude measured at t h e instrument unit w a s k0.06 g. O s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e 4- t o 5-hertz range have been observed on previous f l i g h t s and a r e considered t o be normal vehicle response t o t h e f l i g h t environment. Longitudinal o s c i l l a t i o n s did not occur during S-IC or S-I1 s t a g e boost. The navigation and guidance system successfully supported t h e accomplishment of all mission o b j e c t i v e s with no discrepancies i n performance of t h e hardware. The end conditions a t parking o r b i t i n s e r t i o n and t r a n s l u n a r . injectJon were a t t a i n e d with i n s i g n i f i c a n t navigational e r r o r s .

!

. .--- .

- . _.

The S-IVB/instrment unit lunar impact mission objectives were t o i m pact t h e stage w i t h i n 350 kilometers of the t a r g e t , d e t e e n e t h e impact time within 1 second, and determine t h e impact point within 5 kilometers. The f i r s t two objectives were met, but f'urther analysis i s required t o satis* t h e t h i r d o b j e c t i v e . Based on present a n a l y s i s , t h e S-IVB/instrument u n i t impacted t h e moon Deceder 1 0 , 1972 at 20:32:40.99 G . m . t . a t 4 degrees 1 2 minutes south l a t i t u d e and 1 2 degrees 18 minutes west longitude. This l o c a t i o n i s 155 kilometers (84 miles) from t h e t a r g e t of 7 degrees south l a t i t u d e and 8 degrees west longitude. The velocity of t h e S-IVB/instrument unit at impact, r e l a t i v e t o t h e lunar surface, w a s 8346 f't/sec. The incoming heading angle was 83.0 degrees west of north and t h e angle r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l w%s 35.0 degrees. The t o t a l mass impacting t h e moon was approximately 1 3 900 kilograms (approximately 30 700 lb).

I

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.

.

.

..

.

.

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.

-

.. . .

....

.

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15-1

15.0 ANOMALY SUMMAXY

This s e c t i o n contains a discussion of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t anomalies t h a t occurred during t h e Apollo 17 mission. The discussion i s divided i n t o f i v e major s e c t i o n s : command and service modules , lunar module, government-furnished equipment, l u n a r surface experiments, and o r b i t a l experiments.

: . :: -. -. : ,~...

.

. -..:

.

15.1

COMMAND AND S E R V I C 3 MODULE ANOMALIES

15.1.1 Spurious J k s t e r Alarms
Several spurious master alarms without t h e accompanying caution warning l i g h t s were reported after e a r t h o r b i t i n s e r t i o n . The alarms could be i n i t i a t e d by tapping on panel 2 , i n d i c a t i n g a s h o r t c i r c u i t t o ground i n t h a t panel. The main bus A undervoltage warnhg l i g h t f l i c k e r e d coincident with one a l a r m . Several t i m e s , t h e a l a r m occurred coincident with t h e crew switching of t h e cryqgenic pressure i i d i c a t o r switch from p o s i t i o n surge/3 t o p o s i t i o n 1/2. Hoyever, no alarms occurred when t h e switch WES t r a n s f e r r e d from p o s i t i o n 1/2 t o p o s i t i o n srrrge/3.
. . , . . ..... < . .. . _.i . . , . . *.. .. _.:.
_ I
I..

. -

The spurious master alarms a r e i r 0 i c a t i v e of an i n t e r m i t t e n t groundi n g of t h e c i r c u i t which i s possible i2 various l o c a t i o n s i n t h e system.
An i n t e r m i t t e n t short-to-ground i n t h e main bus A undervoltage warni n g c i r c u i t ( f i g . 15-1) would cause tkt alarm and t h e main bus A undervoltage warning l i g h t t o f l i c k e r . The short could be i n t h e wiring or could be conductive contamination i n the main A r e s e t switch. P o s t f l i g h t i n s p e c t i o n of all wiring on panel 2 re-realed no problems. Also, t h e main A r e s e t switch l o c a t e d on panel 3 w a s disassembled and no contami n a t i o n w a s found.

. .
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An i n t e r m i t t e n t ground i n e i t h e r t h e cryogenic pressure i n d i c a t o r switch, or i n t h e wiring from t h e switch, or i n t h e cryogenic oxygen press u r e meter ( f i g . 15-2) would cause the alarms t h a t occurred when t h e switch was placed t o p o s i t i o n 1/2. The s w i t c i and t h e meter were disassembled, but no contamination or problems were found. The wiring was a l s o inspected f o r s h o r t s t o ground without success.

15-2

Lamp limits current to

Turn on when main

T o $ alarm master

A voltage less than

26.5 Vdc for more than 25 milliseconds

Suspected area of
short to ground

Figure 15-1.-

Main bus A undervoltage warning c i r c u i t .

To oxygen tank 1
pressure transducer
!

r
I
I

- - - - - - -- - - - - - Panel 2 Suspected area of short to ground

1

I
II

I I

I
SRG/3
Cryogenic pressure indicator switch
W Cryogenic oxygen pressure meter

I

= I
I

I

5 To caution and warning system
Figure 15-2.- Cryogenic oxygen pressure monitoring c i r c u i t .
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15-3
The alarms must have been caused by some i n t e r m i t t e n t ground on panel 2 which depended upon zero-g conditions t o occur. The spurious warnings were only a nuisance and v a l i d warnings could not be i n h i b i t e d by t h i s type of grounding problem. There i s not a s a f e t y hazard associated w i t h grounding t h e c i r c u i t because of t h e inherent current-limiting characteri s t i c s of t h e lamp (see f i g . 15-1). Corrective action i s not necessary f o r t h e Skylab or Apollo-Soyuz spacecreft. T h i s anomaly i s closed.

.: :,., -.-.-

15.1.2 Mission Timer Slow The mission timer i n t h e lower equipment bay w a s 15 seconds slow a t 1 hour and 58 minutes a f t e r 1if"c-off. The timer was r e s e t and worked properly f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. P o s t f l i g h t t e s t i n g has been performed on t h e timer normally. The c i r c u i t r y has been analyzed t o determine of t h e time loss with t h e r e s u l t t h a t the most probable t e r m i t t e n t i n one of t h e i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t s within the d i t i o n may have been caused by mechaniczl imperfections s t r u c t i o n of t h e c i r c u i t .
I

and it operated possible causes cause was an i n timer. T h i s conwithin t h e con-

There i s another'mission timer on panel 2 and event timers i n t h e lower equipment bay as w e l l as on panel 1. Consequently, t h e l o s s of one timer i s not c r i t i c a l f o r Skylab or t h e Apollo-Soyuz missions, and c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n i s not necessary. This anomaly i s closed.

15.1.3

Retract Limit Switch O L u n a r Sounder H n F Antenna Boom 1 Did Not Actuate

The r e t r a c t l i m i t sensing switch on HF antenna boom 1 f a i l e d t o ope r a t e , r e s u l t i n g i n telemetry and command module display data t h a t indicated t h e boom had not f u l l y r e t r a c t e d .

The boom was one of two H antennas, each u t i l i z i n g two nested F 0.008-inch by 4.00-inch s t e e l elements t o form an extendable/retractable t u b u l a r antenna 410 inches i n length. Two l i m i t switches were used, one t o sense extension, and t h e o t h e r t o sense r e t r a c t i o n . Each microswitch w a s operated by a cam which w a s r o t a t e d by a spring-loaded cam follower a r m (see. f i g . 15-3). One element has a, s l o t at t h e t i p and another ne8r t h e r o o t . Each s l o t w a s aligned with one of t h e two arms so t h a t at t h e appropriate, extension l e n g t h , t h e follower arm dropped i n t o t h e s l o t and r o t a t e d t h e cam t o a c t u a t e t h e l i m i t switch.

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I

Microswitch actuating arm

(a), Limit switch actuating mechanism.

II

I

75

60

45

30

15

0

15

30

Actuation arm angle (el, degrees (b) Limit switch actuation mechanism forces at laboratory ambient conditions.

Figure 15-3.- L i m i t switch.

15-5
Current data of t h e e x t e n d / r e t r a c t motor i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e antenna did f u l l y r e t r a c t ; i .e. , t h a t t h e motor s t a l l e d a f t e r r e t r a c t i n g f o r a nominal p e r i o d . This v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e antenna motor/gear b o x / r e t r a c t o r mechanism was o p e r a t i n g normally and confined t h e problem t o t h e r e t r a c t l i m i t switch system. Several l i k e l y problems with t h e l i m i t switch syst e m are:

a.

Abnormal f r i c t i o n on t h e limit switch cam follower arm.

15-3 shows t h e t o r q u e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s p r i n g and t h e torque required t o
r o t a t e t h e cam. A t t h e nominal p o s i t i c ? angle f o r capture by t h e e l e n e n t , t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e margin of 8 t o 1.)
b.
c.

(Fig.

Defective s p r i n g . Misaiignment of t h e hole i n the element. I n t e r n a l l i m i t switch assembly mdlfunction.

d.

A l l o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e problem a r e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d without a most-likely cause being e s t a b l i s h e d . Mechanical mechanisms r e q u i r i n g m u l t i p l e o p e r a t i o n and t h a t are exposed d i r e c t l y t o t h e space environment have, on s e v e r a l occasions w i t h i n a r e l s t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e , e x h i b i t e d slow o p e r a t i o n or have not 1 operated. Exam~$-es r e t h e mapping camera mechma i s m , t h e l a s e r a l t i m e t e r plume p r o t e c t i o n door, and t h e high frequency antenna booms. Since t h i s device i s no: t o be flown on f u t u r e missions, no f u r t h e r a c t i o n i s x a r r a n t e d . T h i s anomaly i s closed.

F 15.1.4 Lunar Sounder I Antenna Boom 2 Deployment W s Slower Than Expected a
Extension of t h e l u n a r sounder HF antenna boom 2 at approxinately The motor s t a l l e d a f t e r approximately one-half deployment. Motion w ~ re-established by cycling t h e s power switch u n t i l t h e unit f'ully deployed. Subsequent extensions repeated t h e condition.

191:38 r e q u i r e d more t i m e t h a n expected.

'

The two h a l v e s of t h e "bi-stem" antenna were s t o r e d on two spools which were simultaneously d r i v e n t o extend or r e t r a c t t h e elements through t h e guide/antenna forming assembly (see f i g . 15-4). The guide/antenna forming assembly i s normally t h e predominant f r i c t i o n source i n t h e mechanism, and components i n t h e mechanism a r e believed t o be s e n s i t i v e t o a thermal/vacuum environment i n an as y e t u n i d e n t i f i e d manner. I n any e v e n t , c u r r e n t d a t a shows that t h e l o a d on t h e motor was g r e a t e r than expected.

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15-6

f

Drive motor connector

Motor drive steel tapes

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Figure 15-4

.- Lunar

sounder antenna deployment mechanism.

Increased and varying loads i n a thermd./vacuum environment are a p e c u l i a r i t y experienced i n mechanisms severzl times on Apollo ( r e f s . 6 and 7). The assembly i s not planned t o be used f o r any future mission. Consequently, f u r t h e r analysis on t h i s s p e c i f i c mechanism will not be performed.
T h i s anomaly i s closed.

15.1.5

Entry Monitor System Accelerometer B i a s S h i f t

The e n t r y monitor system accelerometer n u l l b i a s s h i f t e d p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s e a r t h midcourse correction maneuver. Throughout t h e mission, P r i o r t o t h e midcourse t h e bias was measured t o be plus 0.01 f't/sec2. c o r r e c t i o n , t h e b i a s was plus 0.66 f t / s e c 2 and a f t e r the maneuver, it had s h i f t e d t o plus 0.20 ft/.sec2.

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15-7
During s t e p 1 of t h e system t_;t p r i o r t o e n t r y , t h e O.O5g l i g h t illuminated erroneously, i n d i c a t i n g an a c c e l e r a t i o n l e v e l g r e a t e r than O.O5g. A l a r g e accelerometer n u l l b i a s , as indicated i n t h e e a r l i e r b i a s t e s t s , can account f o r t h e sensed 0.05-g l e v e l . The e n t r y procedures were rev i s e d t o circumvent t h e premature 0.05-g i n d i c a t i o n during e n t r y . Postf l i g h t , t h e system w a s removed from t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t e s t e d . The system parameters and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were normal. The accelerometer c o n s i s t s of a c y l i n d r i c a l c o i l bobbin suspended i n a magnetic f i e l d as shown i n f i g u r e 15-5. Acceleration f o r c e s along t h e

I-

Pivot

ailanct and test soi Is

1 iator coi 1 P

Figure 15-5.-

Entry monitor system accelerometer.

15-8
bobbin a x i s move t h e bobbin. A s t h e bobbin moves, a f e r r i t e p l a t e attached t o t h e bobbin changes t h e air gap, a d consequently, the inductance of a c o i l which i s p a r t of an o s c i l l a t o r c i r c u i t shown i n f i g i r e 15-6. The r e s u l t i n g o s c i l l a t o r frequency change i s detected and converted t o a voltage t h a t i s applied t o t h e rebalm-ce c o i l wound on t h e bobbin. Thus, t h e bobbin motion i s stopped and t h e bobbin i s forced t o a new balance p o s i t i o n . The voltage applied t o t h e rebalance c o i l i s , t h e r e f o r e , proporti-onal t o t h e sensed a c c e l e r a t i o n .
Possible leakage

. .. ...

Function switch SelF-test coil Rebalance coil

rJn" nJn -

-

t Amplifier
Analog to digital converter

To 0.059

detect%

t To

display

Figure 15-6

.- Entry

monitor system accelerometer c i r c u i t r y .

For a self t e s t of t h e system, a voltage i s applied t o a second c o i l wound on t h e bobbin and t h i s - voltage causes a displacement force on the bobbin by motor a c t i o n . The rebalance c i r c u i t again forces t h e bobbin t o a new n u l l p o s i t i o n .
and then disappear a r e schematically shown i n f i g u r e s These possible causes a r e :

Three p o s s i b l e conditions t h a t could cause a b i a s s h i f t at one time, 15-5 and 15-6.

a. A contaminant p a r t i c l e o r bubble i n the damping f l u i d i n which t h e accelerometer i s immersed. The bubble o r p a r t i c l e could migrate i n t o

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.

.

.

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.

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15-9
t h e magnetic gap or become trapped i n the balance h a i r springs shown i n This would cause an o f f s e t force on the bobbin. Acceptance figure 15-5. t e s t s a r e designed t o d e t e c t t h i s condition, but these t e s t s were rerun on t h e accelerometer during p o s t f l i g h t t e s t s and the accelerometer was normal.
b. A i n t e r m i t t e n t open i n the terqerature compensation c i r c u i t of n t h e accelerometer rebalance c i r c u i t ( f i g . 15-6) could have existed; however', c i r c u i t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t only h d f of t h e b i a s s h i f t observed i n f l i g h t would r e s u l t .

c. An i n t e r m i t t e n t s h o r t between contacts of t h e 12-position r o t a r y function switch ( f i g . 17-61 could supply a small current t o the accelerome t e r s e l f - t e s t torquer c o i l . During p o s t f l i g h t t e s t i n g , however, the switch w a s normal i n a l l respects.

No f u r t h e r action w i l l be taken since

, with

a similar problem:

a. The accuracy of t h e velocity counter w i l l be reduced during serv i c e propulsion system maneuvers, but i s acceptable.
b. The accuracy of t h e velocity counter w i l l be reduced t o a point where t h e counter will be meaningless during 2- or 4-thruster plus- o r minus-X axis t r a n s l z t i o n .
i

c . The Skylab entry p r o f i l e can t o l e r a t e t h e inaccuracy from t h i s condition. Additionally, the entry monitor system i s a backuF t o the primary guidance system. This anomaly i s closed.

15.1.6

Chlorine Anpile Leaked

Leakage occurred i n and around the casing assembly of the i n j e c t o r mechanism. D i f f i c u l t y was a l s o noted occasionally i n r o t a t i n g the knob which advances t h e i n j e c t o r piston. Thirteen chlorine ampules and t h i r t e e n buffer ampules were used during the mission. S i x of t h e chlorine a q u l e s and five of t h e buffer ampules had bladder tears around t h e perishery of t h e adhesive bond between t h e bladder and t h e end cap, o r t h e bladder a d t h e front surface of t h e ampule b o r e , as shown i n f i g u r e 15-7. The process used t o bond t h e bladder t o t h e f r o n t face of the ampule and t o t h e end cap was changed f o r t h i s mission. During previous missions t h e bonds f a i l e d i n many cases and the end caps came loose. As a r e s u l t of the change, t h e adhesive bond no longer f a i l s . However, a high-stress

,

\

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Figure 15-7.-

Chlorine ampule f a i l u r e .

tension-to-shear t r a n s i t i o n region occurs i n the bladder at t h e periphery of t h e adhesive bond when the ampule i s pressurized while t h e end cap i s f r e e , i . e . t h e p i s t o n i s not against the end cap. This occurs because t h e bladder balloons as shown i n f i g u r e 15-8. I n a t e s t of two ampules t h a t were bonded using t h e new process, t h e bladders t o r e around t h e periphery of t h e adhesive bond a t 1 and 17 p s i d , r e q e c t i v e l y . The t e a r s were s i m 1 i l a r t o those experienced during f l i g h t . F,.io other ampules bonded using t h e previous process, sustained 27 and 29 p s i d , respectively, before f a i l ure. The end caps came loose before the bleciders f a i l e d , and the t e a r s t h a t occurred were tension t e a r s . During i n j e c t i o n , t h e ampule i s placed i n t h e i n j e c t o r and t h e inj e c t o r p i s t o n i s advanced u n t i l t h e crewman can f e e l t h e piston contact t h e ampule end cap. The piston knob i s then r o t a t e d an additional 1/8 t u r n t o compress t h e bladder. This procedure will i n some cases allow a s m a l l amount of bladder ballooning t o remzin. When t h i s occurs, the bladder should t e a r when t h e i n j e c t o r assembly i s mated t o t h e needle assembly, s i n c e t h e water system supplies a 20 p s i d back pressure t o t h e ampule.

.

-.
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.

15-11

Figure 15-8.- Bladder ballooning i n s i d - ? chlorine i n j e c t o r asseably. The i n j e c t o r needi,e assembly outer needle w a s bent. As a r e s u l t , when t h e i n j e c t o r asse4bly w a s mated t o the needle assembly, the needle entered t h e ampule gland off center and t o r e a hole through the gland septums ( f i g . 15-9). I n several cases, when r o t a t i n g the knob t o advance t h e piston w a s d i f f i c u l t , t h e crew demated t h e i n j e c t o r from the needle assembly, removed t h e ampule from the i n j e c t o r , and then repeated the comp l e t e i n j e c t i o n procedure. I n one case, t h i s r e s u l t e d i n two needle holes t o r n through t h e gland septums. Septum t e a r s , however, could only r e s u l t i n minor leakage. For t h e Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions, t h e crew will be i n s t r u c t e d t o screw t h e i n j e c t o r piston down far enough t o remove a l l bladder balloon i n g before connecting t h e i n j e c t o r t o the needle assembly. I n addition, t h e needle assembly w i l l be inspected after the l a s t ground chlorination t o assure t h a t t h e needle i s s t r a i g h t . In any event, i f ampule leakage r e c u r s , chlorination can s t i l l be accomplished since spare ampules a r e c a r r i e d aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t . This anomaly i s closed.

15.1.7 Mapping Camera Reaction Control System Plume Shield Door Failed t o Close
Photographic d a t a taken from the lunar module during rendezvous shows t h e mapping camera r e a c t i o n control system plume s h i e l d door i n the open p o s i t i o n with t h e mapping camera apparently r e t r a c t e d .

.

.

15-12

Figure 15-9.. . . - . -.-... .... . ._
,
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Chlorine a m p l e f a i l u r e .

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.

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The door i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e spacecraft with a hinge t h a t includes a t o r s i o n s p r i n g t o close t h e door when t h e c a e r a i s r e t r a c t e d ( f i g . 15-10). The door i s pushed open by t h e camera when it i s deployed. The photcgraphs show t h e camera t o be f u l l y r e t r a c t e d which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e problem i s with t h e door i t s e l f . Other mechanical systems anomalies hm-'2 occurred on Apollo 1 5 , 1 6 and 17 which suggests a common f a c t o r which i s as y e t unknown. I n all c a s e s , some degree of s l i d i n g between metal surfaces w a s required, which i s t h e case with t h e door hinge. It i s t h e r e f o r e conceivable t h a t t h e f r i c t i o n between t h e s e s u r f a c e s may have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased by t h e e f f e c t s of t h e space environment, but t h e s e e f f e c t s have not been d u p l i c a t e d i n ground t e s t i n g . Since t h i s w a s t h e last mission f o r t h i s device, no f u r t h e r action

will be taken.
This anomaly i s closed.

15-13

I
Figure 15-10.-

I

Reaction control system plume s h i e l d door.

1 5 .l. Pressure Operating 3eadbmd For Hydrogen 8
Tanks 1 And 2 Shifted Cryogenic hydrogen system operation was normal until approximately The operating pressure range (deadband) a f t e r t h i s time decreased from about 16 p s i (238-254 p s i ) t o approximately 3 p s i (244-247 p s i ) by 1 3 hours ( f i g . 15-11) and continued i n t h i s mode u n t i l autometic h e a t e r operation f o r tanks 1 and 2 w a s termineted a t about 1 5 hours. Autometic h e a t e r operation w a s resumed i n tanks I and 2 at about 24 hours. Only about f i v e automatic h e a t e r cycles (all normal) occurred i n tanks 1 and 2 before approximately 71 hours because t3e fans were i n the autoroatic node i n tank 3, and t h e tank 3 pressure switch controlled at a higher pressure than tanks 1 and 2. A t t h a t time, t h e tank 3 fans were turned off and t h e operating pressure deadband again decayed t o 3 p s i (248-251 p s i ) as shown i n f i g u r e 15-11. This deadband was maintained u n t i l automatic heater ope r a t i o n w a s terminated i n tanks 1 and 2 a t 87 hours. Hydrogen system pressure w a s maintained f o r t h e remainem ofthe mission by use of manu a l fan operation i n tanks 1 and 2 and automatic fan operation i n tank 3. Hydrogen system operation w a s normal i t h i s mode. z
1 2 hours.

15-14

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Individual pressure switches monitor pressures i n tanks 1 and 2 as shown i n f i g u r e 15-12. When automatic hPater or fan operation i s s e l e c t e d , both switches must be i n t h e low-pressure position t o apply power t o t h e h e a t e r s or fans i n each tank. When e i t h e r switch t r a n s f e r s t o the high pressure p o s i t i o n , t h e motor switch t r m s f e r s and removes power from the heaters and fans. Figure 15-13 i s a cutmay sketch of one of the pressure switches i n t h e low-pressure position. Decreasing or r e s t r i c t i n g t h e full eownward t r a v e l of the stop w i l l increase t h e pressure at which t h e s h a f t t r a n s f e r s t o the upper position. Decreasing or r e s t r i c t i n g the full upward t r a v e l of t h e stop w i l l decrease t h e pressure a t which t h e s h a f t t r a n s f e r s t o the lower position. Consequently, hard p a r t i c l e s f l o a t i n g i n the stop mechanism area shown i n f i g ure 15-13 can have a v a r i a b l e e f f e c t which can appear and disappear dependi n g on t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e f l o a t i n g p a r t i c l e s .
The s i z e of t h e p a r t i c l e s required t o change t h e pressure s e t t i n g s i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The f u l l t r a v e l of the stop may be as s m a l l as 0.007 inch. The pressure change t o move from one stop t o t h e other is about 15 p s i . Consequently, t h e upper limit can be reduced t o about 7 p s i with a piece of m e t a l about 0.004-inch i n s i z e between the stop on t h e s h a f t and t h e upper case stop.

.I

1

The toggle plates! are pin-joined t o the s h a f t at one end and t o a horseshoe-shaped s p r i n g at t h e o t h e r end as shown i n figure 15-13. Grooves a r e formed i n t h e opposite edges of the toggle p l a t e s by a coining opera t i o n . Figure 15-14 shows t h e toggle p l a t e taken from a switch which w a s disassembled f o r inspection. I n this instance, burrs were found t h a t were about t o break o f f . The p a r t i c l e s could then move around and become trapped i n t h e stops under zero-gravity conditions. Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s were investigated, however, only contamination satisfies all of t h e p e c u l i a r f l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and data.
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Further inspection of assembled pressure switches i s not necessary -independent of t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y of performing such an inspection, because f o r Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz Test Program a problem of t h i s nature can be handled by manual c o n t r o l of t h e fans and heater cycles.
~

This anomaly is closed.

Hydrogen tank 2 heater

P vl I P

cn

Switches shown in low pressure position

Hydrogen to fuel cells

Main A

Hydrogen tank 1 heater

Figure 15-12.-

Cryogenic system pressure c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y .

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15-17

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Figure 15-13.Hydrogen tank pressure switch cutaway. ..

15-18

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Figure 15-14.- Pressure switch toggle plate.

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15-19
15.1.9
Temporary Dropout O S e v e r d Instrumentation Parameters f

Erroneous readings occurred on several command and service module measurements between 191:40 :39 and l 9 l :k2 :32. Data received at two diff e r e n t ground s t a t i o n s indicated the problem existed on the downlink sign a l . The measurements a f f e c t e d were l M t e d t o t h e one sample per second chanpels. P o s t f l i g h t t e s t s were perfomed on the spacecraft, and a l s o on t h e bench where the pulse code modulztion u n i t was subjected t o shock and vibration. The system operated nomally during both t e s t s . Data shows t h e problem t o be with the timing pulse network which cont r o l s t h e word matrices. Consideration i s being given t o providing a workaround i n t h e event a s i m i l a r condition occurs on Skylab or Apollo-Soyuz missions. This anomaly i s open. 15.1.10 Water/Gylcol Temperatwe Control Valve Failed To Maintain The EvaporEtor Temperature

During four e a r l y l u n a r o r b i t revolutions, t h e water/glycol tempera t u r e c o n t r o l valve f a i l e d t o open properly as the r a d i a t o r o u t l e t temperature decreased. The mixed coolant temperature momentarily f e l l as much as 4" F below t h e specification control band of 42" t o 48' F during mixing s t a r t u p .
N o corrective action w a s taken and i n i t i a t i o n of mixing was proper during all subsequent l u n a r o r b i t s and during t r a n s e a r t h coast. The syst e m behavior i n d i c a t e s t h a t some s l i g h t sticking occurred i n the valve gear t r a i n a f t e r having been driven h a d against t h e f u l l closed stop during t h e hot portions of t h e lunar o r b i t s . A l a r g e r than normaltemperature e r r o r and modulated e l e c t r i c a l signal t o t h e valve were required t o f r e e t h e gear t r a i n s o t h a t the valve would start t o drive open.

During checkout on previous spacecraft, these valves have occasiona l l y stuck when driven hard against e i t h e r the full open o r f l d l closed stop. Manual disengagement of the valve clutch mechanism relieves the back pressure on t h e gears and frees the gear t r a i n . This occurred duri n g checkout on t h e Apollo 17 valve and w a s accepted f o r f l i g h t because of t h e manual operation c a p a b i l i t y and demonstration of manual operation during t h e Apollo 16 mission. Dimensional checks have shown t h a t the p i t c h c i r c l e s of two of t h e gear p a i r s i n t h e valve gear t r a i n are not tangent ( f i g . 15-15). This r e s u l t s i n s l i d i n g r a t h e r than r o l l i n g action between contacting t e e t h . One valve which previously experienced the sane s t i c k i n g has been disassembled and t h e gears were normal, although the d r y lubricant was scraped

. ._ . .

..: ..

15-20

Motor

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Figure 15-15.- Water/glycol temperature control valve drive.

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15-21
off t h e gear t e e t h i n the a r e a of tooth-to-tooth contact. Sliding f r i c t i o n between t h e unlubricated gear t e e t h may have been high enough t o cause t h e s t i c k i n g experienced. Since manual valve operation i s s z t i s f a c t o r y for the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions, no f u r t h e r action i s necessary. ' T h i s anomaly i s closed.

15.2
15.2.1

LUNAR M O D U ~ AJTOMALIES

Battery 4 Voltage Reading Ws Lower a Than That Of Battery 3

A t approximately 108:06,the lunzr module b a t t e r y 3 and b a t t e r y 4 voltage d a t a indicated a voltage difference of approximately 0.5 v o l t , with b a t t e r y 3 voltage g r e a t e r than t h a t of b a t t e r y 4. Previously, batt e r y 3 and 4 voltages were equal.

B a t t e r i e s 3 and 4 a r e p a r a l l e l a ~ should r e f l e c t equal voltages. d Reverse current from b a t t e r y 3 t o batte,ry 4 would have been indicated by t h e reverse current tTiggering t h e battery malfunction l i g h t . This a l z r m i s t r i g g e r e d by reverse current of mor2 than 1 0 amperes f o r 4 t o 6 seconds which w a s exceeded by b a t t e r y 4 c w r e n t readouts. The b a t t e r y curr e n t measurement does not i n d i c a t e current d i r e c t i o n . Since no alarm occurred, b a t t e r y 4 was delivering positive current t o t h e bus, indicating t h a t t h e b a t t e r y 4 voltage readout w a s not a t r u e reading. This 0.5-volt difference a l s o appeared on t h e b a t t e r y open c i r c u i t voltages. The b a t t e r y 4 voltage measurement i s conditioned by a signal condit i o n e r which c o n s i s t s of an input r e s i s t i v e divider network feeding a dc-to-dc converter ( f i g . 15-16). ~n izcrease of r e s i s t a n c e of 1 percent i n t h i s network would account f o r the observed change. Another p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e e x i s t s i n t h e zero-adjust network. I n any event, no furt h e r action i s required because t h i s c i r c u i t r y will not be flown on any planned f'uture mission. This anomaly i s closed.
15.2.2

Oxygen Demand Regulation Leakage

While using demand r e g u l a t o r A for cabin depressurization i n preparat i o n f o r t h e t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e d a t a show the suit loop t o be leaking at a 0.04 l b / h r rate. The crew switched t o regulator B f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission.

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15-22

Battery 4

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Figure 15-16

.- Volt age n e a s u r a e n t

circuitry.

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T h e s u i t loop leakage could have been czused by either contamination of the r e g u l a t o r A s e a t or the crew could hwe inadvertently bumped the regulator handle during cabin a c t i v C t i e s , e l t h m g h the l a t t e r i s not consl'dered l*elg. S p e c i f i c i a l l y , t h e leakage could have occurred i f a part i c l e of 2.5 microns became lodged between the regulator ( b a l l ) poppet and t h e s e a t . The upstream contamination l e v e l i s 25 microns, which w a s cons i d e r e d adequate due t o t h e l o w probability of p a r t i c l e entrapment i n a

15-23 ball-type s e a t . One previous instance of regulator leakage caused by a p a r t i c l e trapped i n t h e s e a t . I n t h a t case, t h e p a r t i c l e was b u i l t i n t o t h e r e g u l a t o r during manufacture since it w a s too l a r g e (0.04-inch) t o pass through t h e f i l t e r s . Corrective action w i l l not be required as t h i s equipment i s not t o be used on f u t u r e s p a c e c r a f t .
This anomaly i s closed.

15.3

GOVERNMENT W I S H E D ZQUIPI?ENTANOMALIES

15.3.1 No Extravehicular Activity Warning Tone I n Command Module P i l o t ' s Cornmications Carrier
A t 253 :44 , during preparation and checkout f o r t h e t r a n s e a r t h coast extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e Command Module P i l o t could not hear t h e caut i o n and warning tone i n h i s communications c a r r i e r , although h i s t r a n s mission and reception were apparently normal. For t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y , t h e Command Module P i l o t used the Lunar Module P i l o t ' s communications c a r r i e r which operated normally, including t h e caution and warni n g tones. i
I

After t h e extravehicular a c t i v i t y , the Command Module P i l o t p a r t i a l l y removed t h e sleeve covering h i s comunicztions c a r r i e r e l e c t r i c a l p i g t a i l and found t h a t of t h e nine leads (twisted shielded p a i r s ) making up t h e p i g t a i l s , two were broken ( f i g . 15-17). P o s t f l i g h t discussions with t h e Cornand Module P i l o t indicated t h a t t h e p i g t a i l l e a d became t w i s t e d and wound up t o the point of knotting due t o h i s t w i s t i n g and t u r n i n g while perfoming h i s normal cabin functions. Additionally, t h e Command Module P i l o t did not w e a r the i n f l i g h t coverall garment and t h e constant wear garmer?t e l e c t r i c a l harness was not res t r a i n e d . I n t h i s configuration, twisting of t h e leads i s possible and could l e a d t o t h e f a i l u r e observed. The communication c a r r i e r was designed f o r use primarily i n t h e pressure garment where space r e s t r i c t i o n s make t h e s m a l l f l a t cable d e s i r a b l e and where ample support f o r the wire i s provided. When used with t h e c o v e r d l o r constant wear garment, it m u s t be anchored t o t h e garment t o provide s t r a i n r e l i e f and control against twisting. F a i h r e a n a l y s i s of t h e returned f l i g h t item has shown t h a t t h e f a i l e d wires were broken about 1 / 4 inch below t h e i r e x i t point from t h e p o t t i n g o f t h e flex relief attached t o t h e lower end of t h e communications c a r r i e r s p l i c e block. The break occurred where these wires l a y across an adjacent s e t of wires i n a braided configuration. The functions c a r r i e d by t h e s e wires were caution/warning tone and l e r t earphone c i r c u i t s .

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. i .

15-25
Repeated t w i s t i n g and k n o t t i n g of similar wire bundles t o t h e e x t e n t described by t h e crewman has demonstrated t h a t t h e p o i n t of breakage was i n h e r e n t l y t h e most h i g h l y loaded due t o t h e geometry of t h e p i g t a i l , and thereby was s u b j e c t t o f l e x / t e n s i l e f e l u r e . S w l a b t r a i n i n g and f l i g h t procedures a r e being r e v i s e d t o r e f l e c t a harness configuration t h a t prevents t h e t w i s t i n g of t h e wire harness. For normal Skylab o p e r a t i o n s , t h e t r a i n i n g and f l i g h t procedures desi g n a t e t h e l i g h t w e i g h t h e a d s e t , which i s designed f o r t h i s type of use. For occasions when it i s necessary t o use t h e communications c a r r i e r , when not wearing t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t , both t h e c a r r i e r harness and crew garment have a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r attechment. This anomaly i s c l o s e d .

15.4
15.4.1

LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMEIfl EQUIPMENT ANOMALIES

Lunar Surface Gravimeter Sensor Beam Cannot Be S t a b i l i z e d I n t h e Null P o s i t i o n

Centering t h e sensor beam c a p a c i t o r p l a t e i n t h e proper s t a b l e posit i o n between t h e f i x d d c a p a c i t o r p l a t e s ( f i g . 15-18) could not be accomWhen t h e comand was p l i s h e d following t h e i n i t i a l experiment turn-on. given t o add any o r all of t h e masses t o t h e sensor bean assembly, t h e data i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e bean would not move away from t h e upper c a p a c i t o r p l a t e . The only way t o b r i n g t h e b e m down w a s by caging it a g a i n s t t h e lower c a p a c i t o r p l a t e . For normal o p e r a t i o n , t h e sensor beam must be h o r i z o n t a l , with t h e c a p a c i t o r end-plate c e n t e r e d between t'le two f i x e d c a p a c i t o r p l a t e s . Adjustment of t h e suspension p o i n t of t h e sensor s p r i n g and t h e a d d i t i o n and removal o f i n d i v i d u a l masses are provided t o assist i n centering t h e beam i n i t s r e f e r e n c e p o s i t i o n , e q u i d i s t a n t between t h e two c a p a c i t o r p l a t e s . Small changes i n t h e v e r t i c a l component of l o c a l g r a v i t y tend t o d i s p l a c e t h e beam upward or downward. The displacement i s sensed as a czpacitance change between t h e c e n t e r or beam p l a t e and each of t h e two fixed o u t s i d e p l a t e s . A voltage proport i o n a l t o t h i s displacement i s generated by t h e capacitance change and i n t e g r a t e d t o supply a feedback voltage which e l e c t r o s t a t i c a l l y f o r c e s t h e beam p l a t e back t o t h e c e n t e r of t h e gap. Review of sensor records revealed t h a t a mathematical e r r o r r e s u l t e d i n t h e s e n s o r mass weights being about 2 percent l i g h t e r than t h e proper

15-26

Mass weights Special caging

Figure 15-18.-

L u n a r s u r f a c e gravimeter sensor beam centering.

nominal weight f o r 1/6-g operation of t h e f l i g h t u n i t . The sensor mechanism allows up t o only k1.5 percent adjustment from t h e nominal by ground command f o r p o s s i b l e inaccuracies. The e r r o r was made i n t h e conversion c a l c u l a t i o n s from l-g t o 1/6-g mass f o r t h e f l i g h t u n i t by including an erroneous value i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s from t h e uncorrected c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r the qualification unit. Because t h e mass weights do not provide enough downward f o r c e , t h e beam has been balanced and centered by applying a load on t h e beam through t h e mass support springs. This i s accomplished by s p e c i a l caging of t h e mass weight assembly with ground commands t o t h e mass cage motor as shown I n t h i s configuration, the mass spring permits balance i n f i g u r e 15-18.

15-27 of t h e beam and f'unction of t h e instrument. However, the spring constant of t h e mass s p r i n g considerably reduces the s e n s i t i v i t y of the system. This anomaly i s closed.
15.4.2

Surface E l e c t r i c a l Properties Receiver Temperature Higher T h v l Predicted

The receiver temperature w a s about 5' F l e s s than normal at t h e end of t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y as shown i n figure 15-19. However, during t h e r e s t period between the f i r s t a d second extravehicular activi t i e s , t h e temperature rose t o 80' F instead of dropping t o about 28' F

140

120

100

80

k
E

5

60

c 0

c
40

20

0

-20

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Lunar stay, hwrs

Figure 15-19.-

Surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment r e c e i v e r temperature data.

as predicted. Between t h e second and t h i r d extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s , t h e temperature dropped about 8 O F instead of t h e expected drop of about 50' t o 60' F.
m d bag ( f i g . 15-20).

The receiver w a s protected by a multilayered aluminized Kapton t h e r The thermal bag had two f l a p s which protected t h e

.

...

... .

.

_ _ . . . . . ., . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

15-28
o p t i c a l solar r e f l e c t o r ( m i r r o r ) on top of t h e r e c e i v e r from lunar dust accumulation. A dust f i l m of about 1 0 percent on t h e mirror surface could r e s u l t i n t h e i n d i c a t e d degradation of thermal c o n t r o l and a f i l m of t h i s amount may not be apparent t o t h e crew. Folding back one, or b o t h , f l a p s during r e s t periods w a s t o r e s u l t i n cooling of t h e r e c e i v e r by r a d i a t i o n of heet energy t o deep space. With normal system e f f i c i e n c y , and t h e experiment turned o f f , opening t h e t a b A cover ( f i g . 15-20) at t h e end of the f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y should have r e s u l t e d i n t h e predicted temperature drop t o about minus 1' F by t h e s t a r t of t h e second e x t r a v e h i c u l u a c t i v i t y . Opening both 4 t h e A and B f l a p s was provided f o r contingencies r e q u i r i n g more rapid cooling. This procedure w a s used throughout t h e remainder of t h e mission when t h e l u n a r roving vehicle w a s not i n notion. Cover design depended upon Velcro s t r q s a d pads t o hold t h e Kapton f l a p s t i g h t l y closed t o keep out dust and s m l i g h t ( f i g . 15-20). The
.

.-. . .
. .... . . ..

.

.

:

&

Kapton covers-

/ \

T

Velcro hook tab

Velcro hook tab

mirror
switch
. .
..
... -. .

. ... . .. .

_. . .

Kapton bag LVelcro pile patches
(came off bag)
Figure 15-20.Surface e l e c t r i c a l properties experiment receiver.

- . .. . ..,

.. . . . ..

:. . .
.

/
8 .

.. :.= . .

--.-;
.,

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15-29 Velcro p i l e pad w a s bonded t o t h e Kapton bag and t h e Velcro hook s t r a p w a s bonded t o t h e Kapton f l a p s . The bond of the Velcro pads f o r both f l a p s had already f a i l e d before t h e Lunar Hodule P i l o t configured t h e r e c e i v e r at t h e end of t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y , thus r e s u l t i n g i n dust accumulation on t h e mirror surface under both f l a p s . The bond of t h e Velcro pads t o t h e Kapton f a i l e d , leaving no t r a c e of t h e adhesive on t h e Kapton, and t h e pads remained attached t o t h e s t r a p s . The polyurethane FR-127 A and B bonding m a t e r i d used w a s acceptable and recommended f o r bonding Velcro t o Kapton. The f a i l u r e most l i k e l y r e s u l t e d from a weak bond caused by improper bonding preparation or procedure. The mixing and timing of t h e bonding application and mating are c r i t i c a l , as well as maintaining t h e surface f r e e of contamination. This experiment i s not scheduled for a f u t u r e mission; however, s i m i l a r bonding configurations w i l l require s t r i n g e n t q u a l i t y c o n t r o l of t h e bonding process.
This anomaly i s closed.

.

< _

15.4.3

Lunar E j e c t a And Meteorite Experiment Temperature High

The temperature t h e l u n a r e j e c t a znd meteorite experiment w a s higher than p r e d i c t e d ' d u r i n g t h e f i r s t a d second lunar days ( f i g . 15-21). The high temperatures occurred with a l l combinations of experiment modes: on, o f f , and standby, with all dust cov2rs on, with only t h e sensor covers on, and with all covers o f f . Whenever the experiment w a s i n t h e "operateon" mode, t h e science d a t a i n d i c a t e d n o m d operation of t h e experiment. The m a x i m u m allowable temperature for s w v i v a l of the e l e c t r o n i c components has not been exceeded, however, it was necessary t o command t h e experiment from "operate-on" t o "off" a t a sun angle of about 153 degrees during t h e f i r s t l u n a r day and at a sun m g l e of about 16 degrees during t h e second lunar day. Following sunrise of t h e second l u n a r day, t h e tem' ' p e r a t u r e rose from 0 F at 0 sun angle t o about 1-68' F a t 15' sun angle ( f i g . 15-21). The instrument w a s commcl?ded t o standby and then t o off because t h e temperature continued t o r i s e . I n t h e off mode, with no power t o t h e instrument, t h e temperature r i s e r a t e was lower. The experiment temperature was cooler during t h e morning of t h e t h i r d l u n a r day as compared t o t h e second. T h i s could be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e procedural change which turned t h e experiment off f o r 11/2 hours through s u n r i s e and sunset. Data from t h e suprsthermal ion detector and charged p a r t i c l e l u n a r environment experiments, deployed on previous Apollo miss i o n s , i n d i c a t e t h a t a f l u x of -100 t o -750 v o l t s can occur near t h e opt i c a l terminator (before o p t i c a l sunrise and a f t e r o p t i c a l s u n s e t ) . Duri n g t h e l u n a r day, t h e surface i s s t a b l e with photo e l e c t r o n l a y e r i n g at
.

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15-30
200

180

160

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100

80

60

40

20 0 20 40 60 80
100 120 140 Sun angle, degrees

160

180

200

220

240

._

Figure 15-21.- Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites experiment temperature datz. +10 t o +20 v o l t s . It i s postulated t h a t when t h e experiment i s on (sensor film at -3 v o l t s and suppressor g r i d at -7 v o l t s ) , the charge d i f f e r n e n t i a l observed at these t i m e s may r e s u l t i n a accretion of lunar dust on t h e east and west sensors. Based on t h i s , the experiment was turned o f f each sunset and sunrise a f t e r t h e second lunar day. The presence of dust on t h e sensor film and g r i d would degrzde the thermal control system and r e s u l t i n higher experiment temperatures during the lunar day. The current thermal p r o f i l e permits eqeriment operation f o r 100-percent of t h e nighttime and 30 percent during the lunar day. If t h e thermal p r o f i l e does not improve, consideration w i l l be given t o thermal t e s t i n g on t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n u n i t t o a s c e r t a i n whether o r not t h e temperature limits can be r a i s e d t o permit additional dzytime operation. Preliminary

” _ .. .. .. .

-. .

15-31
r e s u l t s from an examination of t h e science data i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n s t r u ment i s operating properly. Since t h e experiment i s not scheduled f o r f'uture missions, no corr e c t i v e actions w i l l be taken.

This anomaly i s closed.

15.4.4

Cask D m Removd Ws D i f f i c u l t o e a

The Lunar Module P i l o t w a s not zble t o remove t h e cask dome with t h e removal t o o l . The socket on t h e removal t o o l c m engage t h e nut on t h e done before t h e pins on t h e t o o l lock i n t o t h e recess i n the dome ( f i g . 15-22). The Lunar Module P i l o t d i d not v e r i f y t h a t the pins were locked. I n t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n , r o t a t i n g t h e t o o l clockwi,se w i l l r o t a t e t h e nut on t h e dome. A 90-degree r o t a t i o n of t h e nut r e l e a s e s t h e dome r e t a i n i n g s t r a p s , as noted by t h e crew. This r e l e a s e allows t h e dome t o r o t a t e when t h e t o o l i s r o t a t e d another 60 degrees, thus disengaging t h e threaded dome/ cask i n t e r f a c e . However, with t h e pins not locked i n t o t h e dome r e c e s s , t h e dome could be cocked, but not withdram. The dome w a s e a s i l y wedged o f f t h e cask with t h e ] hammer. The sequence can be duplicated with e i t h e r broken pins or by incomplete i n s e r t i o n and locking of t h e t o o l p i n s .

N f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be performed since t h e cask w i l l not o be flown on f'uture missions.
This anomaly i s closed.

15.4.5

Background Noise i n the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment Data

A zero o f f s e t was noted i n p a r t of the lunar atmospheric composition experiment d a t a on t h e mid-mass and low-.ass channels ( f i g . 15-23), and occasionally on t h e high mass channel. This o f f s e t was t h e r e s u l t of background noise i n t h e d e t e c t o r system. The condition i s s t a b l e and has caused no l o s s of data. However, it w i l l require a d d i t i o n a l process i n g during d a t a reduction.
Analysis of t h e d a t a and t h e sensor c i r c u i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o f f set i s ' t h e r e s u l t of e l e c t r o n i c noise coupling between t h e unshielded high voltage wires ( f i g . 15-24) and t h e unshielded c o l l e c t o r s i n t h e sensor package. *Commands t o e i t h e r of t h e sensor ion sources o r t h e sensor elect r o n i c m u l t i p l i e r s does not a f f e c t a change i n t h e o f f s e t ; however , t h e presence o f t h e o f f s e t i s a f f e c t e d by t h e voltage l e v e l t o t h e sensors ( f i g . 15-23).

15-32

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Figure 15-22.-

Fuel cask dome release mechanism.

Since t h e d a t a are usable and t h e o f f s e t i s a s t a b l e condition, no corrective action i s necessary. This anomaly i s closed.

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15-33

High-mass channel

110 to 27 atomic mass units

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Mid-mass channel 48 to 12 atomic mass units

Low-mass channel

4 to 1 atomic mass units

Ion source sweep voltage Steps 1to 1350

Figure 15-23.- Zero offset i n lunar atmospheric composition e x p e r b e n t data.

15-34

Figure 15-24

.- Lunar
15.5

atmospheric composition experiment detection system.

ORBITAL EXPERIMENT EQUIPMENT ANOMALIES

15.5.1
.

Panoramic Camera Velocity/Altitude Sensor Operated E r r a t i c a l l y

: .

.. . . ,

-

-

Telemetry data from t h e second panoramic camera pass on revolution 13 indicated t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e sensor output w a s e r r a t i c . The vel o c i t y / a l t i t u d e sensor measured t h e rate of t r a v e l of t h e spacecraft r e l a t i v e t o t h e lunar surface. The output signal from the sensor ( f i g . 15-25) controls t h e cycling r a t e of t h e camera and the forward motion compensat i o n , as w e l l as t h e exposure since the width of t h e exposure s l i t i s dependent upon t h e scanning r a t e of t h e lens. The sensor operates i n the range from 45 t o 80 miles a l t i t u d e . An override switch i n t h e spacecraft provides t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r locking out the sensor and s u b s t i t u t i n g pres e t voltages which correspond t o rates f o r the 55- and &-mile a l t i t u d e s . I n accordance with t h e f l i g h t plan, t h e v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e sensor w a s not used during t h e first panoramic camera operating period; instead, t h e

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15-35

+12v

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Lens drive control

Film metering control Framing control

1
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4

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Lens, metering, frame, exposure scaling

4)

Exposure control

1
Figure 15-25

.- Velocity/altitude

output circuitry.

override switch w a s used t o s u b s t i t u t e a preselected v e l o c i t y / a l t i t u d e value and thereby achieve t h e d e s i r e d forward motion compensation. The sensor w a s used i n t h e normal mode during t h e second camera operating p e r i o d , but due t o an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e normal mode was operating e r r a t i c a l l y , t h e override c a p a b i l i t y w a s used f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. Data a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e r r a t i c operation may have r e s u l t e d from a downward s h i f t i n t h e s c a l i n g of t h e sensor output s i g n a l . If s o , t h e s h i f t was most l i k e l y caused by a component f a i l u r e within t h e sensor c i r c u i t r y . Because t h i s w a s t h e l a s t mission f o r t h e panoramic camera, no f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s necessary. This anomaly i s closed.

15.5.2

Mapping Camera Exposure Pulse Absent A t Low Light Levels

One of t h e mapping camera telemetry chzmels incorporates a pulse whose presence each time t h e film i s exposed confirms t h a t l i g h t has been t r a n s m i t t e d through t h e metric l e n s and s h u t t e r t o t h e film. This expos u r e pulse f a i l e d t o appear a t t h e lower l i g h t l e v e l s .
I

. ., -. .

The pulse i s generated by a l i g h t sensor and associated a m p l i f i e r and a one-shot multivibrat'or ( f i g . 15-26). The l i g h t sensor c o n s i s t s of f o u r photo diodes, with one near each edge of t h e 4-1/2 by 4-1/2 inch p i c t u r e format ( f i g . 15-27). A l l f o u r diodes a r e connected i n s e r i e s .

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One shot multivibrator '

Metric exposure

Gate

I

Telemetry t

I

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t

. . .. . .
. ,

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Figure 15-26

.- Light

sensor c i r c u i t r y .

.. - -.

During Apollo 1 5 and 16, t h i s pulse WES absent only at t h e very l o w l i g h t l e v e l s , thereby i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e Ayollo 17 discrepancy may have been due t o a t h r e s h o l d s h i f t i n t h e l i g h t sensor c i r c u i t r y . A 50-foot

15-37

Rotated 90" for clarity

L Silicon photocells

13

Location of cells outside of metric film format

Light

+
Shutter (contra-

Figure

15-27.- Light e n e r g path t o photocells.

s t r i p of metric photography from revolution 62 was processed i n order t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h i s w a s the case o r some o t h e r problem was a c t u a l l y reducing t h e l i g h t being transmitted t o the film. The t e s t s t r i p i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f i l m had been properly exposed, thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e l i g h t sensor c i r c u i t r y had indeed experienced a t h r e s h o l d s h i f t . This s h i f t could hzve been t h e r e s u l t of a photo diode f a i l u r e or a change i n t h e performmce of t h e amplifier, t h e one-shot m u l t i v i b r a t o r , or t h e c i r c u i t r y between these two elements. Since t h i s w a s t h e l a s t mission f o r t h i s camera, no f'urther analysis i s necessary. This anomaly i s closed.

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15-38

15.5.3

Panoramic Camera Gimbal Drive Failure

The panoramic camera l o s t i t s s t e r e o capability 8 minutes p r i o r t o completion of i t s f i n a l photographic pass i n lunar o r b i t . Stereo photography i s achieved by gimbaling t h e l e n s assembly fore and a f t between exposures so t h a t one picture of a s t e r e o p a i r i s taken with t h e ' l e n s viewing ahead of t h e nadir and the other p i c t u r e i s taken with t h e l e n s pointing behind t h e nadir. Two independent telemetry points indicated t h a t t h e l e n s assembly had ceased t o gimbal ( f i g . 15-28). These were t h e forward motion compensation tachoneter voltage and the automatic exposure command voltage. Monographic photography continued, but it was degraded somewhat by the associated l o s s of forward motion compensation t h a t i s achieved by slowly gimbaling the l e n s during film exposure.

.

i

l

amplifier I

motor
r

I
Tachometer

Velocity feedback

--

To Telemetry

Figure 15-28.- Panoramic camera gimbal drive system. This i n a b i l i t y t o gimbal the of a failure i n e i t h e r t h e gimbal t h a t provides power t o the motor. t h e motor brushes a r e l i m i t e d - l i f e l e n s system was apparently the r e s u l t drive motor o r t h e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t r y Most l i k e l y , t h e motor f a i l e d since items.

Since t h i s w a s t h e l a s t mission f o r t h i s camera, no f u r t h e r analysis will be performed. This anomaly i s closed.

.

"

15-39

15.5.4

Ultraviolet Spectrometer Temperature Measurement Failures

Both u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer i n t e r n a l temperature measurements ( e l e c t r o n i c s and motor) f a i l e d simultaneously near the end of t h e mission at approximately 282:20. A t the same time, the input current t o t h e spectrometer increased about 1 0 milliamps (qproximately 4 percent ). Since these temperatures were f o r housekeeping purposes and t h e i r c i r c u i t r y i s independent of t h e s c i e n t i f i c data c i r c u i t r y , t h e i r failure did not aff e c t t h e performance of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer science mission. A n e x t e r n a l temperature measurement attached t o t h e instrument case continued t o provide thermal s t a t u s a f t e r the l o s s of the i n t e r n a l measurements.
A block diagram of t h e temperature sensing c i r c u i t s i s shown i n f i g ure 15-29. Each thermistor temperature sensor i s connected t o i t s own bridge network which i n t u r n drives a d-c operational amplifier whose 0t o 5-volt output i s then telemetered. Both temperature c i r c u i t s are ident i c a l and independent except t h a t : (1)they share common r e t u r n s , ( 2 ) they share common 215 v o l t power supplies, and ( 3 ) each bridge network i s biased with a common plus 1-volt precision s t a b l e reference. The plus 1-volt reference i s derived via a temperature-stabilized Zener diode and an inv e r t i n g d-c amplifier powered from the minus 15-volt supply.

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A t t h e time of f a i l u r e , t h e temperature indications changed dramati c a l l y i n a 1-second i n t e r v a l . Such a change was not consistent with the thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer. Since the p r i mary indications were the f a i l e d temperature channels coupled with t h e s l i g h t increase i n input c u r r e n t , the f a i l u r e most l i k e l y occurred i n one of t h e c i r c u i t s common t o t h e temperature signal conditioners.

Further analyses and t e s t i n g with the prototype u l t r a v i o l e t spectrome t e r i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e anomaly was the r e s u l t of a f a i l u r e of a component o r a s h o r t i n t h e c i r c u i t wiring i n t h e 1-volt reference voltage o r the minus 15-volt supply voltage.
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Since t h i s w a s the only mission f o r t h i s instrument, no f u r t h e r analysis w i l l be accomplished.
T h i s anomaly i s closed.

15.5.5

Mapping Camera Deploy/Retract Times Were Excessive

The first and t h i r d extensions of the mapping camera were nominal, but a l l other deploy and r e t r a c t times were longer than expected. The behavior was q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t during t h e Apollo 15 and 16 missions. The cause of t h e Apollo 15 and 16 anomalies has not been i d e n t i f i e d , but as a result of extensive investigations, several precautionary f i x e s

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Electronic housing thermistor Bridge network

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Figure 15-29.- Block diagram of u l t r z v i o l e t spectrometer temperature sensing c i r c u i t s . had been implemented, such as removal of the no-back device, improved contamination covers, and a change i n t h e lubricant on t h e drive screw a l l apparently t o no a v a i l . Dynamic t e s t i n g i n included thermal-vacuum no clues t o explain t h e E i t h e r t h e s e t e s t s were t i f i c instrument module t o r was involved. support of t h e Apollo 15 and 16 investigations and simulated zero-g t e s t s . These t e s t s provided sluggish behavior of t h e deployment mechanism. not capable of s u f f i c i e n t l y simulating the scienbay environment o r m o t h e r , as y e t unknown, fac-

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Other anomalies have occurred with s c i e n t i f i c instrument module bay equipments, t h u s s u g g e s t i n g a common f a c t o r . The mapping camera r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system plume s h i e l d d i d not p r o p e r l y c l o s e on Apollo 1 5 and 17, and t h e mapping camera s t e l l a r g l a r e shade f a i l e d t o r e t r a c t on Apollo 16. The l u n a r sounder h i g h frequency antenna e x h i b i t e d s l u g g i s h deployment on Apollo 17. I n a l l c a s e s , some degree of s l i d i n g between metal s u r f a c e s w a s - r e q u i r e d . It i s , t h e r e f o r e , conceivable t h a t t h e f r i c t i o n between t h o s e s u r f a c e s may have been s i g n i f i c m t l y i n c r e a s e d by t h e e f f e c t s of a h a r d vacuum t h a t i s unobtainable i n ground t e s t i n g . Since t h i s w a s t h e l a s t mission f o r t h i s device, no f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be performed on t h i s s p e c i f i c device. However, t h e g e n e r a l problem a r e a i s b e i n g s t u d i e d f o r Skylab and f u t u r e missions and a treatment of t h e s u b j e c t w i l l be covered i n a sepz-rate r e p o r t . This anomaly i s c l o s e d .

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16-1

16.0 CONCLUSIONS
A l l f a c e t s of t h e Apollo 17 mission were conducted with s k i l l , prec i s i o n , and r e l a t i v e ease because of e q e r i e n c e d personnel and excellent performance of equipment. The following conclusions a r e drawn from t h e information contained i n t h i s report.

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1. The Apollo 1 7 mission was the most productive m d trouble-free manned mission. This represents t h e cdmination of continual advancements i n hardware, procedures , t r a i n i n g , planning , operations , and scient i f i c experiments.
2. The Apollo 17 f l i g h t demonstrrted t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y of t r a i n i n g s c i e n t i s t s t o become q u a l i f i e d astronmxLs and yet r e t a i n t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and knowledge i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d .

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3. S t a r s and t h e horizon are not v i s i b l e during night launches , t h e r e f o r e out-of-the-window alignment techniques cannot be used f o r att i t u d e reference.

4. The dynamic ,environment within the cabin during the e a r l y phases of launch i s such t h q t system troubleshooting or corrective actions by t h e crew are not p r a c t i c a l . Therefore, e i t h e r t h e ground control o r automation should be r e l i e d upon f o r syster? troubleshooting and, i n some c a s e s , corrective actions.
5. As a result of problems on t h i s and other missions, f’urther research i s needed t o increase t h e dependability of mechanisms used t o repeatedly extend and r e t r a c t equipment i n the space environment.
One Apollo program record and fear World c l a s s records were exceeded on t h e Apollo 17 mission. The collected samples o f 110.40 kilograms (243 pounds) e s t a b l i s h e d a new Apollo orogram record f o r t o t a l weight of returned lunar samples. Pending approval of t h e formal application, t h e following items w i l l c o n s t i t u t e new World records:

1. The t o t a l t i m e of 21 hours 49 minutes and 24 seconds f o r one crewmm o u t s i d e t h e spacecraft on a s i n g l e mission.
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The t o t a l time of 147 hours

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3. The maximum radial distance oI” 7370 meters traveled away from a spacecraft on t h e l u n a r surface.

4. The elapsed t i m e of 301 hours 51 minutes and 59 seconds f o r t h e t o t a l duration o f a l u n a r mission.

11-1 APPENDIX A

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VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
1

T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n changes t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r systems s i n c e t h e Apollo 16 mission. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s c i e n t i f i c experiment equipment and equipment flown f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t h e Apollo program i s d e s c r i b e d .
The Apollo 17 command and s e r v i c e nodule (CSM-114) w a s o f t h e b l o c k I1 c o n f i g u r a t i o n , b u t w a s modified t o e s s e n t i a l l y t h e Apollo 1 5 configu r a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t a g r e a t e r range of l u n a r o r b i t a l s c i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t h a n had been programmed on missions p r l o r t o Apollo 15. The laurlch escape system and s p a c e c r a f t / l a u n c h v e h i c l e a d a p t e r were unchanged. The l u n a r module (LM-12) w a s modified, as were t h e Apollo 15 and 16 l u n a r modules, t o i n c r e a s e t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e s t a y t i m e and r e t u r n a l a r g e r s c i e n t i f i c payload. The S a t u r n V launch v i h i c l e used f o r t h i s mission w a s AS-512, and t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n changes f o r t h a t v e h i c l e are given i n r e f e r e n c e 2.

Many minor changes were made because of problems which occurred duri n g t h e Apollo 16 mission. Not a l l of t h e d e t a i l s of t h e s e changes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t as t h e anomaly summary of t h e Apollo 16 m i s s i o n r e p o r t ( r e f e r e n c e 7) c o n t a i n s d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . j T h i s r e f e r e n c e should be used i f t h e d e t a i l e d i n formation i s r e q u i r e d .
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COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE3

Four p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r s were added t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n system t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l d a t a d u r i n g prelaunch checkout and lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . Two of t h e s e t r a n s d u c e r s were added i n t h e l i n e s between t h e helium check v a l v e s and proDellant tanks of t h e comuand module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system. These t r m s d u c e r provided d a t a f o r d e t e r mining d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e a c r o s s t h e t a n k b l a d d e r s d u r i n g prelaunch checkout. The remaining two p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r s were added t o t h e s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n system manifold t o p r o v i d e redundant p r e s s u r e r e a a n g s d u r i n g t h e lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n f i r i n g . An automatic r e l i e f valve w a s added i n series with t h e e x i s t i n g manual v e n t valve t o t h e e n t r y battery manifold overboard dump l i n e as a result o f t h e h i g h b a t t e r y manifold p r e s s u r e s experienced on t h e Apollo 16 mission. The manual v e n t valve was l e f t open during t h e mission.

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A n o r t h o s t a t i c countermeasure garment was Command Module P i l o t during e n t r y and recovery intended use was t o evaluate i t s effectiveness t h e e f f e c t s of p o s t f l i g h t o r t h o s t a t i c problem tended space f l i g h t .

provided for use by t h e operations. The garment's i n preventing o r lessening t h a t may r e s u l t from ex-

Additionally, t h e length of t h e pressure garment assembly stowage bag i n t h e command module w a s increased 9 inches t o ease suit handling when placing them i n t h e bag. Also, t h e e x t r a length w i l l reduce t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of suit damage when placing t h e suits i n t h e bag. A.2
LUNAR MODULE

The lower edge of t h e thermal shields on the aft equipment rack w a s redesigned t o prevent exhaust gases from entering the cavity behind t h e s h i e l d s , and a d d i t i o n a l vents were added t o the thermal blankets t o i n crease venting during e a r t h launch. This modification resulted from t h e loose thermal s h i e l d s noted i n t h e Apollo 1 6 mission.

A.3

LUNAR SURFACE MOBILITY SYSTEMS I Extravehicular Mobility Unit

A.3.l

The extravehicular mobility u n i t was modified t o improve i t s operat i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t changes were as follows :

a. The zipper r e s t r a i n t patches on the pressure garment assemblies were strengthened t o preclude t e a r i n g , as noted during p o s t f l i g h t inspect i o n of t h e Apollo 1 6 s u i t s .
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b. A piece of Velcro w a s added t o t h e feedport on t h e inside of t h e Commander's helmet t o a c t as a nose scratcher. c. The lanyard on t h e purge valve w a s shortened and s t i f f e n e d t o preclude inadvertent removal as occurred on t h e Apollo 16 mission. As an added precaution, t h e i n t e r n a l spring, which forces t h e valve open upon actuation , w a s removed. d. A removable cap was added t o t h e i n - s u i t drink-bag port and t h e tilt valve stem w a s reclocked t o prevent s p i l l a g e of l i q u i d as noted on t h e Apollo 16 mission.

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e. D u s t covers were added t o t h e wrist rings on t h e pressure garment assemblies.

A- 3 A hook was added t o t h e p r e s s u r e garment assembly z i p p e r as a donning a i d .
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g . One s p a r e o q g e n purge system antenna w a s packed i n t h e buddy secondary l i f e support system bag on t h e l u n a r roving v e h i c l e . This add i t i o n a l antenna will e n a b l e t h e antenna t o be changed, i f breakage such as experienced on Apollo 16 s h o u l d occur.

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h . Spring-loaded c l i p s were added t o t h e t o p o f t h e svnple c o n t a i n e r bag h o l d e r and a spring-loaded hook t o t h e bottom. Also, t h e p u l l f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o a c t u a t e t h e q u i c k - r e l e a s e shackle has been i n c r e a s e d .
i. One of t h e two s e t s o f s p a c e r s , which were s u b j e c t t o g a l l i n g from d u s t , were removed from t h e l u n a r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r v i s o r assembly.
j . The cover gloves t h a t are worr. over t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l e r gloves were modified t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r hand mobility.

A.3.2

Lunar Roving Vehicle

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The t h i r d l u n a r Foving v e h i c l e was e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged f r o m t h e () l u n a r r o v i n g v e h i c l e . 2 flown on Apollo 16. Fender extension s t o p s were added t o each f e n d e r %o p r e v e n t l o s s of t h e fender e x t e n s i o n , and a s i g n a l cable w a s added t o p r o v i d e n a v i g a t i o n information from t h e lunar rovi n g v e h i c l e n a v i g a t i o n system t o t h e s u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t y e x p r i ment t a p e r e c o r d e r . I n a d d i t i o n , a decal was added t o t h e a f t c h a s s i s t o a i d t h e crew i n l o c a t i n g t h e p r o p e r hole i n which t o p l a c e t h e p a l l e t s t o p tether. E x t e n s i v e changes were made t o t h e e q e r i m e n t p a l l e t c a r r i e d on t h e l u n a r r o v i n g v e h i c l e t o accomodate t h e Apollo 17 unique experiments. Also, an i n d e x r i n g was added t o t h e low-gain antenna alignment d i a l t o f a c i l i t a t e azimuth p o i n t i n g .

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A. 4 . 1

EXPERIMENT EQUIPMENT

Lunar Surf ace Science Equipment

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The l u n a r s u r f a c e s c i e n c e complement contained e l e v e n experiments. Seven of t h e s e experiments were flown f o r t h e f i r s t time on Apollo 17. These were t h e lunar s e i s m i c p r o f i l i n g experiment, t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e gravimeter experiment, t h e l u n a r atmospheric composition experiment, t h e lun a r e j e c t a and m e t e o r i t e s experiment, t h e s u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s experiment, t h e l u n a r n e u t r o n probe experiment, and t h e traverse gravime t e r experiment.

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The f o u r remaining Apollo 17 l u n a r surface experiments plus t h e l u n a r surface t o o l s were flown previously. S i x of t h e experiments were performed by t h e crew while on t h e l u n a r surface. The o t h e r f i v e experiments contained i n t h e Apollo lunar surface experiments package will remain on the l u n a r surface i n an operative s t a t e t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r about two years. These l a t t e r five experiments were deployed and configured f o r a c t i v a t i o n by ground command. Lunar geology and s o i l mechanics experiments.- The hardware used t o perform t h e l u n a r geology and s o i l mechanics experiments w a s stowed i n a vacuum-tight container t o p r o t e c t t h e contents from t h e e a r t h environment p r i o r t o launch and on r e t u r n t o e a r t h . A t a b u l a t i o n of t h e hardware used i n performing t h e s e experiments ard a b r i e f description of each i s contained i n t h e following paragraphs. Apollo l u n a r sample r e t u r n container: The Apollo lunar sample r e t u r n container was made of aluminum with e x t e r i o r dimensions of 19.0 inches i n l e n g t h , 11.5 inches i n width, and 8.0 inches i n height ( f i g . A - 1 ) . The i n t e r i o r volume w a s approximately 1000 cubic inches. The major components of t h e container were t h e handle and l a t c h p i n s , s e a l s , s e a l p r o t e c t o r s , York-mesh l i n e r , and s t r a p - l a t c h system. T’ne two l a t c h pins operated from a c e n t r a l l e v e r which also served as a carrying handle f o r t h e container. The pins and linkage syst{m supported t h e container i n t h e l u n a r module and command module stowage compartments under all v i b r a t i o n and g-force conditions. A t r i p l e - s e a l arrangement maintained a vacuum during transl u n a r and t r a n s e a r t h f l i g h t . S e a l p r o t e c t o r s were a l s o provided t o prevent l u n a r dust from g e t t i n g on t h e s e a l s . The strap-latch system cons i s t e d of f o u r s t r a p s and two cam l a t c h e s . When closing the container, t h e crewman engaged t h e cam l a t c h e s , thus t i g h t e n i n g t h e s t r a p s over t h e
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Sample c o l l e c t i o n bags: The sample c o l l e c t i o n bags ( f i g . A-1) were constructed of vulcanized Teflon sheets having a consistency of heavy o i l c l o t h . Each bag had a full-opening f l i p - t p e cover f o r i n s e r t i o n of bulk samples and a diagonal s l i t i n t h e cover f o r i n s e r t i o n of s m a l l s i n g u l a r samples. Three i n t e r i o r pockets were incorporated f o r holding t h e d r i v e tubes. E x t e r i o r pockets were provided t o hold t h e s p e c i a l environmental sample container and a d r i v e tube cap dispenser. Two s t r a p s on t h e f r o n t of t h e bag f a c i l i t a t e d handling t h e bag. Three r e s t r a i n t points were provided on t h e back of t h e bag f o r attachment on t h e s i d e of t h e portable l i f e support system and t h e Apollo l u n a r hvld t o o l c a r r i e r o r lunar roving vehicle p a l l e t . S p e c i a l environmental sample container: The s p e c i a l environmental sample container ( f i g . A-1) was a thin-walled s t a i n l e s s - s t e e l can with a k n i f e edge machined i n t o t h e t o p r i m . A griy assist w a s attached t o t h e bottom of t h e container body t o a i d i n generating s u f f i c i e n t torque f o r

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Special environmental sample container Documented sample bag dispensers

Apollo lunar sample return container

Drive tubes and tube cap

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L u n a r geology and s o i l mechanics hardware.

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s e a l i n g . A three-legged p r e s s assembly was a t t a c h e d t o t h e l i d and used t o e x e r t a f o r c e between t h e l i d and t h e body. A machined groove i n t h e l i d w a s f i l l e d w i t h an Indium-Silver a l l o y gasket i n t o which t h e k n i f e edge c u t t o e f f e c t a s e a l f o r e a r t h r e t u r n . During stowage, both t h e l i d and t h e k n i f e edge were p r o t e c t e d by Teflon s e a l p r o t e c t o r s . Each o f t h e s e p r o t e c t o r s had a t a b s t i c k i n g out t o f a c i l i t a t e removal upon completion of t h e sample c o l l e c t i o n .
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Core sample vacuum c o n t a i n e r : The core s a p l e vacuum container ( f i g . A-1) c o n s i s t e d o f t h e t o p p o r t i o n of t h e s p e c i a l environmental sample c c n t a i n e r t h a t w a s t a p e r e d t o accomodate a &rive tube without t h e adapter plug. The c o n t a i n e r had an i n s e r t t h a t h e l d t h e k n w l e d s e c t i o n of d r i v e tube and provided l a t e r a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s t r a i n t . Documented sample bag d i m e n s e r : The docmented s m p l e bag dis-oenser ( f i g . A-1) c o n s i s t e d o f 20 Teflon bags and a mounting bracket. Each bag WES 7.5 inches wide and 8.0 i n c h e s high and 7 8 s designed t o c o n t a i n a 4.5-inch diameter rock sample. The bags were pre-iiumbered t o i d e n t i f y t h e sample and had two Teflon tabs. One t a b was a t t a c h e d t o t'ne dispens e r and w a s t o r n when t h e f l a t bag w a s p u l l e d open. The o t h e r w a s used by t h e crewmen t o p u l l open t h e bag. After sample c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r i m of t h e bag w a s r o l l e d down and Z-crimped t o r e t a i n t h e samples.
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Drive t u b e s : The d r i p t u b e s ( f i g . A - l ) c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e major components ; t h e d r i v e t u b e , d r i v e tube t o o l , and cap dispenser. The d r i v e tube was a hollow aluminum tube 16 inches long and 1.75 inches i n diame t e r with an i n t e g r a l coring b i t . The tube could be attached t o t h e t o o l extension t o f a c i l i t a t e sampling. A deeper core sample w a s o b t a i n a b l e by j o i n i n g t h e tubes i n s e r i e s . The d r i v e tu5e t o o l w a s used t o p o s i t i o n t h e d r i v e t u b e keeper a g a i n s t t h e c o r e samgle t o preserve sample integr i t y . A cap d i s p e n s e r , which mounts on t h e Apollo l u n a r hand t o o l carr i e r , c o n t a i n s t h r e e Teflon caps t o s e a l t h e tube a f t e r sample c o l l e c t i o n . Organic sampler: The o r g a n i c sampler ( f i g . A-2) c o n s i s t e d of s i x

rolls of York mesh packing m a t e r i a l i n a Teflon bag which-served as a
g u a n t i t a t i v e c o l l e c t o r of hydrocarbons and o t h e r organic compounds during t h e mission. There were two i d e n t i c a l samplers used. One w a s analyzed and s e a l e d as a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of contamination before f l i g h t . The second sampler w a s placed i n t h e sample r e t u r n c o n t a i n e r and handled l i k e o t h e r sample bags, i n t h a t it w a s taken o u t on t h e lunar s u r f a c e , s e a l e d , and r e t u r n e d t o t h e c o n t a i n e r . The sampler bag w a s s e a l e d when t h e cont a i n e r w a s f i r s t opened on t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e t o prevent lunar d u s t from g e t t i n g on t h e s i x r o l l s .

. .

Round documented sample bag: Each round documented sample bag (cup) ( f i g . A-3) was 3.25 inches i n diameter and 5.25 inches deep with 1 2 bags t o a group and 4 groups or 48 bags t o t a l . The i n d i v i d u a l bags were packed i n a t e l e s c o p e m a n n e r with a Teflon spacer between each group. Each bag

A-7

Figure A-2.-

Organic sampler.

had an aluminum supported rim t o f a c i l i t a t e s e a l i n g a f t e r the sample had been c o l l e c t e d from the l u n a r surface. Lunar geolopy and soil mechanics t o o l s : The geological t o o l s used t o sample o r probe t h e l u n a r surface a r e l i s t e d . A notation of t h e s p e c i f i c design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each i s contained i n t h e following paragraphs. Hammer: The hammer ( f i g . A-3) head was made of t o o l s t e e l suitable f o r impact use and coated with vacuum-deposited aluminum t o minimize s o l a r heating. The handle w a s made of aluminn. The end of the hammer head opposite t h e s t r i k i n g surface was shaped f o r use as a pick or c h i s e l , and when attached t o t h e t o o l extension, as a hoe f o r trenching o r digging. Lunar rake: The rake ( f i g . A-3) was adjustable for stowage and sample c o l l e c t i o n . The s t a i n l e s s - s t e e l t i n e s were formed i n the shape of a scoop. An aluminum handle, approximately 1 0 inches long, was attached t o the t o o l extension f o r sample collectfon.

Lunar surface rake Spring scale

d
32-inch tongs

Hand tool extension handle

Adjustable sampling scoop

u
Core tubes

-

FFP

Gnomon/color patch assembly
U

II

Lunar surface drill and associated equipment

Lunar roving vehicle soil sampler

Figure A-3.-

L u n a r geology and s o i l mechanics tools.
I

A- 9

Sample s c a l e : The sample s c a l e ( f i g . f l - 3 ) had graduated markings i n increments of 5 pounds. Maximum weight capacity of the'sample s c a l e w a s 80 pounds. The sample s c a l e w a s stowed i n t h e l u n a r module ascent s t a g e where it w a s used t o weigh lunar samples. Adjustable sample scoop: The a d j u s t a b l e sample scoop ( f i g . A-3) w a s about.11-3/4 i n c h e s l o n g . The pan of t h e scoop had a f l a t bottom, f l a n g e d on both s i d e s w i t h a p a r t i a l cover on t h e t o p . It was used t o r e t r i e v e l u n a r samples t o o s m a l l f o r t h e t o n g s . The pan w a s a d j u s t a b l e from 0' ( h o r i z o n t a l ) t o 55' for scooping and t o 90' f o r t r e n c h i n g . The handle had a t o o l e x t e n s i o n a d a p t e r . The pan a d a d j u s t i n g mechanism were made of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l and t h e handle w a s made of aluminum. Tongs: There were two p a i r of tongs ( f i g . A-3) and each c o n s i s t e d o f a s e t o f opposing spring-loaded f i n g e r s z t t a c h e d t o a 28-inch handle. The t i n e s were made of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l and t h e handle of aluminum. The tongs o p e r a t e d by squeezing t h e handles t o a c t u a t e t h e c a b l e t h a t opened t h e fingers. Tool e x t e n s i o n s : The t o o l e x t e n s i o n ( f i g . A-3) provided 30 i n c h e s of l e n g t h t o t h e h a n d l e s of v a r i o u s t o o l s . The lower end of t h e t o o l extens i o n had a quick-disconnect mount and l o c i f o r a t t a c h i n g t h e scoop, hamner, d r i v e t u b e s , and r a k e . The upper end w%s f i t t e d w i t h a s l i d i n g "T" bar t o assist w i t h t o r q u i n g o p e r a t i o n s . There xere two t o o l extensions.

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Gnomon: The gnomon ( f i g . A-3) was a s t a d i a rod mounted on a t r i p o d . It w a s c o n s t r u c t e d such t h a t t h e rod rig'nted i t s e l f and p o i n t e d t o t h e vert i c a l when t h e l e g s were p l a c e d on t h e lrunar s u r f a c e . The gnomon i n d i c a t e d t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l v e c t o r , and provided accurate v e r t i c a l r e f e r e n c e and c a l i b r a t e d l e n g t h f o r determining t h e s i z e and p o s i t i o n of o b j e c t s i n nearf i e l d photographs. It w a s p a i n t e d i n shades of gray ranging i n r e f l e c t i v i t y from 5 t o 35 p e r c e n t i n 5-percent increments, and a c o l o r s c a l e of b l u e , orange, and green. The c o l o r s c d e provided a means f o r accura t e l y d e t e r m i n i n g c o l o r s i n c o l o r photograghs. The rod was 18 inches l o n g , and t h e t r i p o d base f o l d e d f o r congact stowage. Lunar r o v i n g v e h i c l e s o i l sampler: The lunar roving v e h i c l e s o i l samp l e r ( f i g . A-3) c o n s i s t e d of a r i n g t h a t holds twelve p l a s t i c cups. The r i n g could be a t t a c h e d t o t h e u n i v e r s a l handling t o o l . The s o i l sampler, w i t h t h e u n i v e r s a l h a n d l i n g t o o l a t t a c h e d on a handle, allowed t h e crewmen t o t a k e samples from t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e without g e t t i n g o f f t h e l u n a r roving v e h i c l e . A s each sample was t a k e n , t h e cup c o n t a i n i n g t h e sample w a s removed from t h e s t a c k of twelve i n d i v i d u a l l y s e a l a b l e cups. S u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s (S-204).- The equipment used t o conduct t h e s u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s experiaent c o n s i s t e d of two u n i t s a f i x e d - l o c a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r , and a t r a n s p o r t a b l e r e c e i v e r and r e c o r d e r capab l e o f b e i n g mounted on t h e l u n a r roving v e h i c l e . The experiment w a s performed by s e q u e n t i a l l y t r a n s m i t t i n g (from @ f i x e d l o c a t i o n on t h e lunar

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A-10

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s u r f a c e ) a series of multiple wavelength signals at each of s i x d i f f e r e n t 0 ' t r a n s m i t t i n g frequencies , and a l t e r n a t e l y r o t a t i n g t h e energy plane 9 by means of two standard dipole transmitting antennas t h a t were l y i n g at r i g h t angles t o each other on t h e lunar surface. The receiver, mounted on t h e lunar roving vehicle, received two radiated energy p a t t e r n s - one from t h e ground wave transmitted along the lunar surface, t h e other from t h e r e f l e c t i o n of t h e transmitted energy from any subsurface layering. A operational configuration of t h i s experinent i s shown i n figure A-4. n Any moisture present was e a s i l y detected by t h i s experiment because even minute amounts of water i n rocks or t h e subsoil can change t h e e l e c t r i c a l conductivity by several orders of magnitude. The receiver (at any given point i n t h e t r a v e r s e ) received , through three orthogonally arranged loop antennas , energy at varying phase relationships , amplitudes , and d e n s i t i e s . Using s i x d i f f e r e n t channels (corresponding t o t h e s i x transmitting frequencies) , the receiver t r a n s l a t e d these varying s i g n a l l e v e l s

. . .

Figure

A-4

.- Surface e l e c t r i c a l properties

experiment (operational configuration on lunar surface).

A-11 i n t o a 300- t o 3000-hertz audio tone t h z t v a r i e s i n accordance with t h e s i g n a l s t r e n g t h . The r e s u l t a n t audio output w a s recorded along with the l o c a t i o n of t h e l u n a r roving vehicle on magnetic tape mounted i n t h e receiver u n i t . The lunar roving v e h i c l e ' s navigation system provided posit i o n d a t a t o t h e data storage assembly. A t the end of the experiment, t h e recorder/storage unit was removed from the receiver housing and returned t o e a r t h f o r subsequent data analysis. The lunar neutron probe exLunar neutron probe experiment ( S - 2 2 9 ) periment consisted of a c y l i n d r i c a l probs shown i n figure A-5 t h a t was ins e r t e d i n t h e core stem hole on the 1une.z surface. The instrument action within t h e probe provided data from which the r a t e of neutron capture i n l u n a r materials can be c a l c u l a t e d , and veriations of the capture r a t e with t h e depth beneath t h e surface could be &termined, as well as information on t h e l u n a r neutron energy spectrum. The 2-centimeter diameter, 2.3-meter long probe was made up of two s e c t i o n s , which when assembled by the crew, were lowered i n t o the core stem hole. The cap The lower section had a point at the bottom end ( f i g . A-5). w a s removed from t h e top of the lower section and inverted and used as a t o o l t o r o t a t e t h e exposed end of t h e i m e r rod f o r activation o r deactiva t i o n of t h e section. The upper section had a handle at the top which could be used f o r t h e same purpose.

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Each rod s e c t i o n had a 12-station inner rod, a 12-station r i b cage cylinder over t h e inner rod with windows a t each s t a t i o n , and a protect i v e o u t e r cylinder. Boron-10-coated semi-cylinders of t e n t a l u m were bonded t o 23 of the s t a t i o n s on t h e i n n e r rods s t a r t i n g at the bottom of the lower section. Cellulose t r i a c e t a t e film covered all 2h s t a t i o n s on the rib-cage cylinders t o record t h e alpha p a r t i c l e t r a c k s r e s u l t i n g f-romthe neutron boabardment of t h e boron t a r g e t s when t h e boron w a s aligned with the cage windows i n t h e a c t i v e p o s i t i o n ( f i g . A-5).

Two mica sheets were bonded at each of eight s t a t i o n s o n ' t h e inner rod on t h e opposite s i d e from t h e boron 1 0 t a r g e t s . Uranium 235 f o i l , bonded t o t h e cage cylinders at these s t a t i o n s , covered the windows. The windows wer8 aligned with the mica when the inner rod was r o t a t e d t o t h e a c t i v e p o s i t i o n ( f i g . A-5).
The boron 1 0 c e l l u l o s e t r i a c e t a t e provided t h e most accuracy i n t r a c k d e n s i t i e s i n t h e range above 103/cm2. However, degradation of the d a t a occurs above 70' C , s o four temperature sensors were mounted on t h e inner rod, one on t h e opposite s i d e from t h e boron t a r g e t s , one at t h e bottom, and one at t h e middle and t o p of t h e probe.

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A-12

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r U r a n i u m 235 foil

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Or, Relative positions of sensors before and after activation

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.- L u n a r

neutron probe.

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A-1 3

The mica-uranium 235 provided more accurate data f o r t r a c k d e n s i t i e s i n t h e range of lo2 t o 103/cm2 because the f i s s i o n fragment data tracks i n t h e mica a r e e a s i e r t o identi* and count.

t Three uranium 238 wagers, mounted z three s t a t i o n s on t h e same side of t h e inner rod as t h e boron t a r g e t s , yrovided an alpha p a r t i c l e r e f e r ence ( f i g . A-5).
Three n i c k e l capsules, containing potassium bromide , were mounted i n t h e bottom end of t h e i n n e r rod of the lower s e c t i o n , i n the bottom end of t h e i n n e r rod of t h e upper s e c t i o n , m d i n the handle. These capsules provided a measure of t h e neutron f l u x i n the 30 t o 300 eV range by analysis of t h e krypton produced by t h e reaction of the neutrons with the p o s a s s i m bromide; whereas, t h e boron 1 0 t a r g e t s respond t o neutrons below 1 0 eV. The capsule i n t h e handle served as a. control sample t o correct f o r krypt o n produced by neutrons from t h e radioisotope thermoelectric generator and t h e l u n a r module. The lower s e c t i o n of t h e experiaect was activated by r o t a t i n g t h e inner rod 180° from o f f t o on, after which the two sections were mated and t h e upper s e c t i o n was a c t i v a t e d by r o t a t i n g the inner rod 180° from o f f t o on. Following a c t i v a t i o n the probe was lowered i n t o the core stem hole. I To r e t r i e v e t h e !experiment , the ssembly i s withdrawn from the hole t h e two s e c t i o n s separated, and each deactivated.

,

The traverse gravimeter exTraverse gravimeter experiment (S-199 ) periment ( f i g . A-6) w a s a portable self-contained gravimeter t h a t was a l s o lightweight and operated automatically , once activated on the lunar surface. Power f o r experiment operation w a s provided by a 7.5-volt b a t t e r y located i n s i d e t h e experiment package. The emeriment provided measurements of l o c a l g r a v i t y at various s t a t i o n s along t h e t r a v e r s e and i n the immediate area of t h e l u n a r module. A l l gravity readings were made by the crew and relayed by voice communications t o the earth-bound s c i e n t i s t s . The cosmic ray detector Cosmic ray d e t e c t o r ( s h e e t s ) emeriment experiment consisted of a t h i n aluminurz box with a s l i d i n g , removable cover. Four p a r t i c l e d e t e c t o r sheets , consisting of platinum, aluminum, glasses , and mica were attached t o t h e bottom of the box. Two platinum s t r i p s were mounted on t h e s i d e s of t h e box. Fear p a r t i c l e detector sheets consisting of platinum, g l a s s e s , p l a s t i c , and micz were attached t o t h e inner surface of t h e cover. P u l l r i n g s mounted on the opposite ends of t h e cover and box were uti’lized t o s l i d e the cover f r o m t h e box. Figure A-7 shows the inner surfaces of t h e box and cover.

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Figure A-6

.- Traverse gravimeter experiment.

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The experiment was stowed i n t h e lunar module and deployed during t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y period. The crew removed t h e cover and using t h e Velcro s t r a p , hung t h e box on a s t r u t of t h e landing gear, oriented s o t h a t t h e detector sheets faced d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e sun with minimum obstruction t o t h e f i e l d of view. The cover w a s hung i n a location t h a t w a s shaded from t h e sun at d l times and oriented s o t h a t the exposed d e t e c t o r sheets faced away from t h e sun with a v i e w of t h e dark sky

A-15

5 glass
strips

Cover

5 glass strips

,

Figure A-7.-

Cosmic ray detector sheets.

and with minimum obstruction t o t h e f i e l d of v i e w . The experiment was ret r i e v e d and placed i n a p r o t e c t i v e bag f o r transport back t o e a r t h f o r analysis Apollo l u n a r surface experiments pzckage.- The Apollo lunar surface experiments package w a s divided i n t o two subpackages which contained f i v e experiments and t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n . A description of t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n and experiments i s contained i n the following paragraphs. Central s t a t i o n : The c e n t r a l s t a t i o n ( f i g . A-8) was e s s e n t i a l l y subpackage no. 1 without t h e experiments mounted on it. The c e n t r a l s t a t i o n consisted of t h e d a t a subsystem, h e l i c e l antenna, power conditioning u n i t , and experiment e l e c t r o n i c s . There were provisions for thermal control of t h e e l e c t r o n i c s , f o r alignment of t h e antenna, f o r e l e c t r i c a l connections t o t h e experiments and t h e radioisotope thermoelectric generator, and f o r t h e a c t i v a t i o n switches. A more d e t a i l e d description of t h i s subpackage i s i n appendix A of reference 6.

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A-16

Active seismic Experiment mounting brackets

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Figure A-8.-

Central s t a t i o n deployed.

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A-17
Heat flow experiment ( S - 0 3 7 ) : The mjor components of t h e heat flow experiment ( f i g . A-9) were two heat f l o a probes and an e l e c t r o n i c s package. The probes were f i b e r g l a s s tubular s t r u c t u r e s which supported t h e temperature sensors , h e a t e r s , and associated e l e c t r i c a l wiring. Each probe s e c t i o n contained two gradient sensors , one l o c a t e d at each end, t h a t were wired i n a d i f f e r e n t i a l bridge configuration. Each of t h e grad i e n t sensors w a s surrounded by a 1000-o’m h e a t e r c o i l t h a t could be act i v a t e d on command from e a r t h . I n addition, two smaller r i n g sensors f o r

Middle radiation shield

Solid faced bit
Figure A-9.Heat-flow probe deployment configuration.

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measuring thermal conductivity were located 1 0 centimenters from each end of t h e probe section. Four thermocouples, located i n t h e cable connecting t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t o t h e probes, measure t h e absolute temperature as a funct i o n of t i m e i n t h e upper portion of the bore hole. Placement of t h e heat flow e l e c t r o n i c s package required about 9 met e r s separation from the Apollo l u n a r surface experiments package c e n t r a l s t a t i o n , ' and alignment i n an east-west direction. The separation required f o r t h e two bore holes f o r t h e heat flow probes w a s a minimum of 9 meters and no l e s s than 5 meters from t h e electronics package. Lunar seismic p r o f i l i n p experiment (S-203) : The lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g experiment hardware ( f i g s . A-10 and A-11) consisted of four geophones , - marker f l a g s , a geophone mod.ule with marker f l a g , and an e l e c t r o n i c s pack: age i n t h e Apollo lunar surface experiment package c e n t r a l s t a t i o n , a t r a n s m i t t e r antenna, and e i g h t explosive packages. The four geophones sensed the seismic signals as each of t h e eight explosive packages were detonated, and the signals were telemetered back t o e a r t h through t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n along with timing data.

. . .

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All experiment components w i t h t h e exception of t h e explosive packages were deployed during :the f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y . The explos i v e packages consisted of a receiving antenna, a receiver, an explosive t r a i n , a s i g n a l processor: and a f i r i n g pulse generator. These were deployed a t designated s i t e s during t h e three lunar surface t r a v e r s e s . The packages were detonated by e a r t h command at a designated time s h o r t l y aft e r t h e crew l e f t t h e lunar surface.
Lunar surface gravimeter (S-027): The lunar surface gravimeter ( f i g . ,A-12)experiment w a s a spring-mass type of t h e gravity sensor t h a t required f i n e l e v e l i n g f o r proper operation. Also t h e experiment temperature w a s maintained within very close l i m i t s . The gravimeter was mounted i n t h r e e containers, one i n s i d e another. The three containers were an i n n e r h e a t e r box , a pressurized intermediate instrument housing container , qnd an outer case. The intermediate box was suspended i n t h e sealed instrument housing t h a t was evacuated and back f i l l e d with nitrogen t o a pressure of 1 0 t o r r . This provided the damping necessary f o r operating of t h e sensor and servo systems. The electronics package was mounted on top of t h e instrument housing. The t o t a l instrument housing and electronics assembly was suspended from a gimbal f o r self-leveling. For f i n e edjustment, t h e center of gravi t y of t h e gimbal-suspended m a s s w a s adjusted by driving s m a l l , weighted motors attached t o t h e h e a t e r box along a screw t o a new position. Clearance between t h e instrument housing and the outer container permitted a swing of s l i g h t l y more than 3 degrees i n all directions.

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A-19

Geophone flags (sto

Geophone cable reels (geophones stowed in reel center cavity)

Geophone module. (cover removed)

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Figure A-10.- Lunar seisrtic p r o f i l i n g experiment 6geophone module.

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A- 20

Antenna extended -+

Grip ring

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Figure A-11

.- Lunar

seismic p r o f i l i n g e q e r i m e n t e x p l o s i v e package.

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A-21

Figure A-12.- Lunar surface gravimeter experiment.
. .

The container t h a t enclosed t h e e n t i r e suspended mass w a s composed of i n s u l a t i o n between two aluminum s h e l l s . Four l e g s , used f o r lunar surface emplacement, projected from t h e bottom of the container. The top had a cavity t h a t contained the thermal radiator and t h e gimbal-actuator mechanism. Located on t h e top of t h e u n i t w a s a bubble l e v e l , the handling t o o l socket, t h e sun s h i e l d with i t s tilt mechanism, t h e tilt i n d i c a t o r s , and detents f o r locking i n a t i l t e d pcsition. A ribbon cable interconnected t h e wit with t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n . The u n i t required alignment t o within 23 degrees of t h e sun l i n e using t h e sunshield shadow.

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A-22

Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (S-205) : The lunar atmosp h e r i c composition experiment equipment ( f i g . A-13) was composed of two primary systems - t h e gas analyzer and t h e e l e c t r o n i c s package with h e a t e r s . The e l e c t r o n i c s system was contained i n a t h e m a l bag, covered by a second-surface-mirror r a d i a t o r p l a t e t o provide thermal control and maintain t h e e l e c t r o n i c s system temperature between 0 F ( l u n a r n i g h t ) and ' 150' F (Lunar day). The gas analyzer s y s t e l contained no thermal control and was s u b j e c t t o t h e lunar temperature r z g e of -300' F t o +250° F.
Gas molecules entered t h e gas analyzer and were ionized i n t h e ion source, drawn out of t h e source, focused i n t o m ion beam, and accelerated through a s l i t assembly l e a d i n g t o t h e d r i f t tube. I n t h e d r i f t tube, t h e ions were d e f l e c t e d by a permanent magnet ei+?d collected by t h r e e e l e c t r o n m u l t i p l i e r s (Neir-typ 90-degree magnetic-sector field-mass analyzers ) a t t h r e e e x i t - s l i t l o c a t i o n s . The mass s p e c t r m was scanned by varying t h e i o n a c c e l e r a t i n g voltage i n t h e ion source i n a stepwise manner and counti n g t h e number of ions impinging on each detector at each voltage s t e p . The magnitude of t h e count determined t h e concentration of each constitue n t of t h e gas sample i n t h e ion source, and the voltage s t e p n u h e r w a s c a l i b r a t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h a t constituent.

.

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Figure A-13.- Lunar atmospheric composition experiment.

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A-2 3
A vent valve w a s provided t o allow t h e escape of the Krypton gas with which t h e experiment w a s f i l l e d on earth. The experiment required l e v e l ing within 215 degrees and power was received from the c e n t r a l s t a t i o n . The dust cover w a s closed on deployment f o r release by e a r t h command a t an appropriate time a f t e r l u n a r module zscent stage l i f t - o f f .

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. Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites e x p e r b e n t (S-202) : The experiment hardware ( f i g . A-14) consisted of a deployz'ole unit with detector p l a t e s elect r i c a l l y connected t o t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n . Approximately 20 percent of the exposed o u t e r surface of t h e u n i t wzs opened t o admit microparticles through t h e top e a s t and west sensors. Two of the three sensors had d u d f i l m assemblies t o measure the t i m e h i s t o r y of t h e p a r t i c l e f l i g h t . The t h i r d has a r e a r array only. One of the dual-film sensors faced up when deployed on the lunar surface and the o-lher faced eastward. The singlef i l m sensor faced westward. When a p z r t i c l e struck the front f i l m of any sensor with s u f f i c i e n t momentum, it penetrated t h e very t h i n f i l m and cont i n u e d on toward t h e r e a r impact p l a t e . A s t h e metallized t h i n film w a s penetrated, an ionized plasma was produced and the p a r t i c l e l o s t some of i t s k i n e t i c energy. The p o s i t i v e ions a d electrons i n the plasma were c o l l e c t e d by t h e e l e c t r i c a l l y biased f i b s and g r i d s , respectively, producing two coincident pulses. These were individually amplified and processed i n t h e experiment e l e c t r o n i c s t o i d e n t i f y the area of impact, t o i n i t i a t e time-of-fligpt measurement, an5 t o analyze the pulse height of t h e p o s i t i v e film s i g n a l (which i s r e l c t e d t o t h e p a r t i c l e energy loss). Some of t h e p a r t i c l e s ' t h a t penetrate the front film intercepted t h e r e a r film a l s o , depending on t h e i r t r a j e c t o r y angle, and generated a plasma and a microphone pulse. These coincidezt s i g n a l s were individually amp l i f i e d and processed i n the experiment electronics f o r t r a n s m i t t a l through t h e c e n t r a l s t a t i o n back t o earth.
The experiment required positioning so t h a t no objects were above a 10-degree azimuth from a horizontal p l m e through the detector p l a t e s . Leveling and alignment of t h e u n i t was Ferformed with a bubble l e v e l , shadowgraph, and gnomon. The detector o l a t e s were shielded by a dust cover t h a t w a s opened by e a r t h command z f t e r lunar l i f t - o f f .

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A.4.2

Medical Eqeriments

Two medical experiments were flown. One was flown previously on Apollo 16 and t h e o t h e r was flown f o r the first time on Apollo 17.
Biostack experiment (M-211) The biostack experiment w a s flown on Apollo 16 and no change was made i n the experiment hardware f o r Apollo 17 however, two b i o l o g i c a l specimens and one radiation detector were added. The b i o l o g i c a l specimens added were colooda cucullus (protozoa cycts u n i c e l l u l a r organisms ) and tribolium castaneum (eggs of a f l o u r b e e t l e ) . The r a d i a t i o n d e t e c t o r was a salt substence made of silver chloride.

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A-24

Central station interface bracket

Jcture

Cable to central

Universal hand tool

Figure A-14.

- Lunar e j e c t a and meteorites

experiment.
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A-25

B i o l o g i c a l cosmic r a d i a t i o n experiment (M-212) The b i o l o g i c a l cosmic r a d i a t i o n experiment ( f i g . A - 1 5 ) , flown f o r t h e f i r s t time, w a s a rad i a t i o n experiment u s i n g mice. The hardware c o n s i s t e d of a hermatically s e a l e d , c y l i n d r i c a l aluminum c a n i s t e r t h a t contained seven p e r f o r a t e d , c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e s . Attached t o one end of t h e c a n i s t e r were redundant p r e s s u r e r e l i e f valves and two manually c o n t r o l l e d purge valves. S i x of t h e seven t u b e s were arranged around t h e i n s i d e w a l l of t h e c a n i s t e r . The seventh tube w a s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e six-tube c i r c u l a r arrangement. Five of t h e s i x t u b e s contained a mouse and i t s food supply. The s i x t h tube w a s flown empty because t h e oxygep generating c a p a b i l i t y of t h e environmental c o n t r o l system i n d i c a t e d a margin& supply of oxygen f o r 6 mice. The t u b e i n t h e c e n t e r contained potassium superoxide granules f o r l i f e support and o p e r a t e d by converting t h e carbon dioxide from t h e mice i n t o oxygen. A r a d i a t i o n dosimeter w a s implanted beneath t h e s c a l p of each mouse, and a s e p a r a t e dosimeter was included i n t h e stowage l o c k e r

.-

!

Figure A-15.-

B i o l o g i c a l cosmic r a d i a t i o n experiment hardware.

A-26 next t o t h e hardware. Two self-recording temperature sensors were locat e d i n two of t h e mouse tube end caps. Perbgnathus longimembris ( l i t t l e pocket mice) were selected as the animal species because of t h e i r s m a l l s i z e , no requirement f o r water, and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l a r g e quantity of background data. Five mice, from a l a r g e number of mice having s u r g i c a l l y i-lanted subscalp radiation dosimeters, were s e l e c t e d f o r f l i g h t specimens three days p r i o r t o launch and loaded i n t o t h e c a n i s t e r . The canister w a s placed aboard t h e command module 30 hours p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f . The eqeriment was completely passive and required no crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The experiment w a s secured i n the comnmd module with i t s longitudin a l axis perpendicular t o t h e t h r u s t a x i s &.ring launch and entry. Locat i o n of t h e experiment w a s i n an area shielded no more than 50 gm/cm2. P o s t f l i g h t analysis of the subscalp dosimeters w i l l provide informat i o n t h a t w i l l p e d t sectioning of the mouse brain and eyes i n such a manner as t o maximize t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of loczting abnormalities ( l e s i o n s ) caused by heavy cosmic p a r t i c l e s . The subsczlp dosimeters w i l l indicate t h e type , i n t e n s i t y , and t r a j e c t o r y of hezry cosmic p a r t i c l e s traversing and stopping i n t h e animals' brains and eyes. The self-recording temperat u r e sensors t h a t were located i n the experinent hardware and t h e radiat i o n dosimeter l o c a t e d i n / t h e locker will p-ovide environmental data necessary f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e data provided by examination of the mouse tissues.

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A.4.3

I n f l i g h t Science

The s c i e n t i f i c instrument module experiments, excluding the panoramic and mapping cameras and l a s e r altimeter flown on Apollo 1 5 and 16, were replaced by t h r e e new experiments. The three new experiments, which were t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer, i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer, and the lunar sounder , c o l l e c t e d data on t h e physical progerties and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e moon. The u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer was used t o measure the moon's atmospheric density and composition. The i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer mapped t h e i n n e r surface thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e lunar sounder's developed a geological model of t h e lunar surface. The S-band transponder t h a t used t h e command and s e r v i c e module communications system w a s not changed. Descriptions of t h e equipment used for each o f these experiments are contained i n t h e following paragraphs. Far u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer.- The far u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer was an electro-optical device t h a t detected u l t r a v i o l e t energy i n the 1180 Angstroms region a f t e r being re-radiated from p a r t i c u l a t e i n the lunar atmosphere. The spectrometer measured t h e i n t e n s i t y of r a d i a t i o n as a f'unction of t h e wavelength. The instrument ( f i g . A-16) w a s a 0.5-meter focal-length

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A-27

Photomultiplier

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Baffle

Ebert mirror

310

Entrance slit

Figure A-16

.- !Schematic of

far u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer.

Ebert spectrometer whose o p t i c a l components consisted of an external b a f f l e , entrance s l i t , Ebert mirror, scvlning d i f f r a c t i o n grating, e x i t s l i t mirrors, e x i t s l i t , and photoelectric sensor (photomultiplier t u b e ) . The e x t e r n a l b a f f l e was a multiple-angled horn that greatly attenua t e d t h e l i g h t o r i g i n a t i n g from sources outside the specified f i e l d of view. The Ebert mirror collimated the radiation admitted by t h e entrance s l i t and r e d i r e c t e d the r a d i a t i o n onto the d i f f r a c t i o n grating. The mirr o r a l s o refocused the d i f f r a c t e d radiation onto the e x i t s l i t . The speci f i e d entrance and e x i t s l i t dimensions and the Ebert mirror dimensions were designed t o maximize the energy transmission. The inclusion of t h e e x i t s l i t mirrors reduced t h e o p t i c a l vignetting v i r t u a l l y t o zero. The d i f f r a c t i o n g r a t i n g had an area of 100 square centimeters w i t h 3600 grooves per millimeter. The d i f f r a c t i o n grating was cycled through t h e 1180 Angstroms t o

1680 Angstroms wavelength range by a grating mechanism consisting of a
motor, gear reducer d r i v e , cam, cam follower, grating housing, and fiduc i a l mark generator. A synchronous motor and gear reducer unit drove t h e cam i n one d i r e c t i o n at a uniform r a t e t o repeat the wavelength scan cycle once p e r 1 2 seconds. As t h e cam rotated, the cam follower t i l t e d t h e g r a t i n g back and f o r t h within t h e spectrum l i m i t s . A f i d u c i a l mark was

A-28
generated by passing l i g h t from a gallium ersenide diode through a s m a l l hole i n t h e cam t o a photodiode d e t e c t e r . The f i d u c i a l mark indicated t h e end of scan and i t s output synchronize6 the d a t a word format. The photomultiplier tube produced an e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l t h a t w a s rel a t e d t o t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e incident l i g h t . The e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l w a s processed by t h e e l e c t r o n i c s module f o r t e l e n e t r y . The electronics module contained a pulse a m p l i f i e r and discriminzkor, a high-voltage supply f o r t h e photomultiplier tube , a low-voltage dc/dc converter, pulse counting c i r c u i t r y , and telemetry preconditioning c i r c u i t r y .
A p r o t e c t i v e cover over t h e entrance of the e x t e r n a l b a f f l e shielded t h e p h o t o e l e c t r i c sensor from d i r e c t sunlight ixpingement and contamination from s p a c e c r a f t e f f l u e n t sources and reaction control system exhaust produ c t s . The cover was opened and closed fro= t h e command module.

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I n f r a r e d scanning radiometer.The h f r a r e d scanning radiometer basica l l y consisted of a telescope with an e l e c t r o n i c thermometer at i t s f o c a l p o i n t . The device measured-energy radiated from a given spot on the l u n a r surface. Hardware components of t h e syste-. were a continuously r o t a t i n g , time-referenced beryllium scan mirror; a Cmsegrain telescope; a s i l i c o n hyperhemispheric immersion l e n s ; a thermistor balometer ( s e n s i t i v e thermometer) ; t h r e e b u f f e r amFlifiers ; and t h e zttendant s i g n a l conditioning I equipment. I Light e n t e r e d t h e telescope from a moter-driven mirror. The mirror r o t a t e d s o t h a t t h e spot on t h e moon's surfEce, as seen by t h e telescope, w a s scanned across t h e ground t r a c k of the spacecraft. The l i g h t passed through t h e various mirrors, b a f f l e s , and lens of t h e telescope t o the thermistor ( d e t e c t o r ) . The d e t e c t o r , which w a s a s o l i d state thermometer, r e l a t e d t h e r a d i a n t energy t o an e l e c t r i c z l s i g n a l t h a t w a s amplified, t e l emetered, and recorded f o r post-mission conversion t o l u n a r surface temperat u r e data. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the o r b i t h a spacecraft t o the area scanned by t h e experiment i s shown i n f i g u r e A-17. The f i e l d of view of t h e telescope wzs such t h a t t h e surface resolut i o n of t h e n a d i r w a s approximately 2 k i l o n e t e r s , temperatures were recorded over a range of - 1 ' C t o +l2To C with an zccuracy of one degree. 23
A sensor p r o t e c t i v e cover, operated from t h e command module when required, provided p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e o p t i c a l scanning u n i t from d i r e c t sunl i g h t impingement and spacecraft contamination sources such as e f f l u e n t l i q x i d s and r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system products.

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Lunar sounder.- The l u n a r sounder equipment ( f i g . A-18) consisted of a coherent s y n t h e t i c a p e r t u r e radar system t h a t operated at e i t h e r 5 MHz, 15 MHz, or i n the very high frequency band of 150 M z and transH mitted a s e r i e s of swept frequency pulses.

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A-29

Scanning Collecting Motor

Direction /
of travel

I I I

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<vertical

Local (nadir)

I

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I I I

pattern

Figure A-17.-

Scanning r e l a t i o n for t h e i n f r a r e d scanning radiometer.

A- 30

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Coherent synthetic
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1

Figure A-18.- Lunar sounder experiment. The l u n a r sounder transmitted electromagnetic pulses from the spacec r a r t during l u n a r o r b i t . A s m a l l p a r t of the pulse energy was r e f l e c t e d from t h e lunar surface and subsurface f e a t u r e s , and subsequently detected by a r e c e i v e r on t h e spacecraft. The o p t i c z l recorder recorded t h e radar video output from t h e receiver on film. The film c a s s e t t e was r e t r i e v e d during t h e t r a n s e a r t h extravehicular a c t i v i t y . The recordings were time referenced f o r l a t e r data reduction and analysis. The shape, amplitude, and t i m e of arrival of t h e detected pulses r e l a t i v e t o t h e shape, amplitude, and time of transmission provided data which may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of t h e t h r e e dimensional d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c a t t e r i n g centers. T h i s information together with calculated electromagnetic parameters will be used t o produce a s t r u c t u r a l model of t h e moon t o a depth of one kilometer.

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A- 31 Two r e t r a c t a b l e antennas were used by the high-frequency radar and a Y a g i antenna w a s used by the very high frequency radar. The high-frequency antenna assembly w a s deployed at the moldline of the service module s o t h a t t h e antennas, when deployed, werc a t 90' t o the service module center axis and 180° a p a r t . The overall span of both antennas, when deployed, w a s 80 f e e t . The time required f o r deployment or r e t r a c t i o n was approximately 2 minutes. The very high frequency antenna was mounted on t h e a f t s h i e l d and consisted of a spring-loaded 274-centimeter boom with I n t h e deployed position, the antenna extended beyond seven cross-bars. t h e s e r v i c e module moldline and a t r i g h t angles t o the service module tent e r a x i s . Deployment occurred automaticiLly when the spacecraft/launch veh i c l e adapter panels were j e t t i s o n e d .
Mapping camera and laser altimeter.- Iqrovements t o the mapping camera and l a s e r a l t i m e t e r equipment weri made t o correct anomolous performances experienced on previous f l i g h t s . The abnormal behavior of the mapping camera deployment mechanism was corrected by modifying the gear box s e a l and removing t h e locking r o l l e r s and excess l u b r i c a n t s . The degraded performance of t h e l a s e r altimeter (low output power) was corrected by using a b e t t e r grade of quartz i n the f l a s h tube and changing t h e pulse forming voltage. Contamination of o p t i c a l surfaces within the l a s e r module w a s reduqed by placing a cover over t h e drive mechanism a d using l u b r i c a n t impre nated bearings. Heat flow and convection demonstretion .- A heat flow and convection demonstration device w a s flown. The apgzratus was similar i n operation and design t o the one flown on Apollo 14. Crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n and photographic coverage w a s required.
I

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A.5

PHOTOGRAPHIC TASKS -9ND EQUIPMENT

The majority of t h e mission a c t i v i t i e s required photographic coverage. Cameras were l o c a t e d i n t h e service modde , command module , lunar module, and on t h e lunar surface t o accomplish munerous t a s k s . Table A-I l i s t s t h e cameras, l e n s , and films used t o accomplish t h e s p e c i f i c t a s k s of most photographic a c t i v i t i e s .

~ . 6 MASS PROPERTIES
Mass p r o p e r t i e s for t h e Apollo 17 d s s i o n are summarized i n t a b l e A-11. These data represent the conditions as determined from p o s t f l i g h t analyses of expendable loadings and u s q e during t h e f l i g h t . Variations i n t h e command and s e r v i c e module and luaar module mass properties a r e

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A- 32

,

TABLE A-I.-

PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMEXI!

Subject S c i e n t i f i c Instrument Module photographic t a s k s

:amera type (a) P C
MC

Lens

Film type (b)

2L inch

LBW

sc
S o l a r and Lunar s u r f a c e photographic t a s k s from t h e command module KEC
DAC

3 inch 3 inch
80-nrn l8-E.UU 55-rrm 250-m 250-m 12.3 cm 60-RU!l
60-ZRD

Bw (3400) BW (3401)
VHBW

VHBW
VHBW

35
HEC HEC

VHBW CEX
TVBW
HCM

Lunar sounder ALSEP/central s t a t i o n Radioisotape t h e r m o e l e c t r i c generator Heat flow Lunar geology S o i l Mechanics Traverse gravimeter
i

CRT
KEDC
HEDC

HCEX

IIEDC HD EC HEDC HEDC HEDC
HEDC

60-nun 60-nun

HCEX BW (3400
B (3401 W
B (3410 W

60-nun
60-DRII c;O-?lI@l
60-DRII
~O-ERR

HCEX
HEX

~ u n a r j e c t a and m e t e o r i t e s e Lunar s u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l properties Lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g

HD EC
HEDC
HEDC

HCEX
HCEX HCEX

60-DRII

60-~;rm

Lunar atmospheric composition
Lunar s u r f a c e gravimeter
a

HEDC

60-nun
60-m

XCEX

KEDC

HCEX

Camera nomenclature :

Panoramic canera Mapping camera SC S t e l l a r camer HC E E l e c t r i c camera HEDC E l e c t r i c d a t a camera DAC Data a c q u i s i t i o n canera 35 35-nun camera ORCRT O p t i c a l r e c o r d e r cathode r a y tube
MC

PC

bFilm nomenclature :

LBW B W VHBW CX E TVBW HCEX

Low speed b l a c k and white Medium speed black and white (3400 en.6 3h01) Very high speed black and white . Color e x t e r i o r T e l e v i s i o n b l a c k and white High-speed c o l o r e x t e r i o r

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A-33
TABLE A-11.- MASS PROPERTIES

-Conmand and service MC --Lift-Of f Earth o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Transposition end dockirg: C o r m a d k s e r v i c e modLt Lunar zodule T o t a l dcsked Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n Descent o r b i t i n s e r t i o r . Separarian C o z a a z d md s e r v i c e circvlari ration Co-rd
m0d.L-

1 2 3 8 778 768 200
83 2ei 26 237
1 239 235

.16 265
.07 161

843.2
804. 5

3.1 3.3 5.0 -. 07 3.0 29 . 1.9 1.8 3.8 38 .

2.5

4232 6487
-2083 -517

0 2: 0

2.7
4.5
0.3

768 679
82 004 27 lh)

1 58:
171
221

& 533 5 . 36 29L
.03 167
.02 639

931.1 1233.1 1oi1.0 10-1.6 10?!4.0 ioa3.2 9LL.1

3.1

576 019 574 LO>
hh2 736

578 692 -11 35 577 170 -11 17. 448 763 439 371 6h 736 -870.3 -7924 -2419
-2L27

-57ii:

3.5
2.1

-599i

76 358

->h6!
-17j1

74 7.52
37 $60 37 :ilr

20 . 3.1 3L .

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and s e r v i c e m0elle pla-e change
=dale:

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Ascen:
stage

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Docking Jettison

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A-34
determined f o r each s i g n i f i c a n t mission phase from l i f t - o f f through landing. Expendables usage are based on reported real-time and p o s t f l i g h t d a t a as presented i n other sections of t h i s report. The weights and center-of-gravity of t h e individual modules (command, service, ascent s t a g e , and descent stage) were measured p r i o r t o f l i g h t and i n e r t i a values were calculated. A l l changes incorporated zfter t h e a c t u a l weighing were monitored, and t h e mass properties were updzted.

....

.

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:

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-

B-1

APPENDIX B

-

SPACECFJ-3' HISTORIES

The h i s t o r y of command and service module (CSM-114) operations at t h e manufacturer's f a c i l i t y , Downey, C d i f o r n i a , i s shown i n figure B-1, and t h e operations at Kennedy Space CeErLer, Florida i n figure B-2. The h i s t o r y of t h e lunar module (2C12) a t t h e manufacturer's f a c i l i t y , Bethpage, Nw York, i s shown i n fF,cure B-3, and t h e operations a t e Kennedy Space Center, Florida, i n f i g w e B-4.

. ..-. . ~. ...--. . '. . + _.. . .. . _ . .-.._. ._ .. .. <~.. ..... . I,_
.. . -.
i . . . >-

. .

.._ -

'.. _..

1972 August January February March September October November December

ebruary Individual and combined systems checkout and individual tests -Data review Integrated systems test Demate

March

April

May

June

1971 July

-Retest

?ressure vessel and reaction control system checkout Interior closeout and equipment fit checks-

=I
Panel rework and lunar sounder modificationsPreparations for storage= Storage Top deck buildup

Command module

=
Weight and b a l a n c e l Thermal paint applicationm Preparation for shipment and s h i p 6

jervice propulsion system function test Lunar sounder modificationsPreparations for storageServict module Storage

Modifications and sector

I and E rework
.', !

Thermal paint application

=1
Weight and balance! Preparation for shipment and s h i p 1

-

Figure B-1.-

Checkout flow for command and service module 114 at contractor's facility.

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April

I
May June July August September October November December

I

1

I

I
I

I

I

ImmEquipment installation and checkout

=
Cotiibinctl systems test

Altitude chamber runs

u-E<pet%ment

equipment Fit and Functional checks

I Lunar roving vehicle installation
ILunar module/adapter mate

=
1

Mission simulation and Flight readiness test

Spacecraft propulsion leak checks and propelland loading

a
Coutdown demonstration test

I
Couiitdown

Note:

Lunar modiile shipped to I<enncdy Space Center June 14, 1971. Vehicle in storage t~tttllApril 17, 1072.

LrrilllCll

Figure B-4.-

Lunar module 1 2 checkout h i s t o r y a t Kennedy Space Center.

c-1
APPENDIX C

- POSTFLIGHT TESTING

P o s t f l i g h t t e s t i n g and inspection of t h e command module and crew equipment f o r evaluation of t h e i n f l i g h t performance and investigation of t h e f l i g h t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s were conducted at t h e contractor's and vendor's f a c i l i t i e s and at t h e Manned Spacecraft Center i n accordance with approved Apollo Spacecraft Hardware U t i l i z a t i o n Requests (ASHUR's 1. The t e s t s performed as a r e s u l t of i n f l i g h t problems a r e described i n t a b l e C - I and discussed i n t h e appropriate systems perfommce secitons of t h i s r e p o r t . Tests being conducted f o r o t h e r purposes i n accordance with other ASHUR's and t h e b a s i c contract a r e not included.

.

.

TABLE C-I.- POSTFLIGHT TESTING SUMMARY

TABLE C-I.-

POSTFLIGHT TESTING SUMMARY

ASHUR no.
Purpose T e s t s performed Results

I
Perform bench t e s t s and a n a l y s i s .

I

I

114015

114508
E l e c t r i c a l Power Perform f u n c t i o n a l t e s t s .

Determine cause of unexplained accelerome t e r b i a s s h i f t s i n t h e e n t r y monitor system.

Bench t e s t i n g d i d not r e v e a l any malfunct i o n . The i n f l i g h t problem could not be duplicated.

114016

Determine cause of p a n e l 306 mission t i m e r being 15 seconds slow. Perform f u n c t i o n a l t e s t s i n command module. Remove panel and i n s p e c t wiring, s o l d e r j o i n t s , connectors, and switches. Disassemble and i n s p e c t suspect switches and oxygen p r e s s u r e meter f o r contamination. Communications R ~ n c t i o n u l l yt c u t t.hc pul uc codc moAihrrLlo n cqutpmcnl I n Lhc comrnund ntodulc. Remove aseembly from command modulc and t c u t f o r prencnce of conLnminntiori.

Timer operated normally during all t e s t i n g , maintaining c o r r e c t t i m e t o t h e second. T e s t s i n command module d i d d u p l i c a t e t h e anomaly. I n s p e c t i o n of w i r i n g and connect o r s and examination o f suspect switches d i d not d i s c l o s e any abnormal conditions. Testing is not complete.

114017

Determine cause of spurious master alarms without accompanying matrix l i g h t l i g h t and momentary main A undervolt light.

114020

Determine cauue f o r louu of ucvcrnl inotnimcntntion purumctcru durl rig u two-minute period.

Sprwccrnl'L tcuLn d i d not r c v c n l t h e cnuec. 'I'cuLLne i u noL complcte.

114018

Determine cause f o r gray t a p e not s t i c k i n g properly.

Perform p u l l t e s t i n g on tape from same l o t a s t h a t on Apollo 17. Examine r e t u r n e d hardware.

Bonding p r o p e r t i e s were w i t h i n s p e c i i i c a tion. Examination i s not complete.

114021

Determine why s e t screws on 18-m l e n s i n t e r f e r r e d with mounting 16-mr~ camera on r i g h t angle mirror.

D-1
.. .. ..
. >

. ... ., . ... .

APPENDIX D - DATA AVAILABILITY
There was no d a t a processed f o r A p o l l o 17 f o r postmission evaluat i o n . The following t a b l e contains t h e times t h a t experimental data were made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l investigctors f o r s c i e n t i f i c analysis. Time, h r :min From
To

-.-...
.

81:23 104:lO 110:51 115 :40 120:25 132:30 136 :36 161 :15 187 :41 192 :25 193:30 194:25 195 :51 208 :35 212 :1 227 :42 0 229 :11 253 :37 256 :35 299 :32
i

E-1
APPENDIX E

-

MISSION FEPORT SUPPLEIBPTS

Table E-I contains a l i s t i n g o f all r e p o r t s t h a t supplement t h e Apollo 7 through Apollo 17 mission r e p o r t s . The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e present s t a t u s o f each r e p o r t not y e t completed and t h e publication date of t h o s e which have been published.

I

E-2

TABLE E-I.-

MISSION REPORT SUPPLEMENTS Title Public a t ion date /s t atus

Supplement number

~

Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Communication System Performance Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Performance Analysis Reaction Control System Performance Cancelled Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analys i s Apollo 8

M y 1969 a June 1969 November 1969 August 1969 December 1969

1
2

3

4

6.
7

Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Guidance , Navigation, and Control System Performance and Analysis Performance of Command and Service Module Reaction Control System Service PropulBion System Final Flight Evaluation I Cancelled Analysis of Apollo 8 Photography and Visual Observations Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analysis

December 1969 November 1969

September 1970

I

December 1969 December 1969

Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Command and Service Module Guidance, Navig a t i o n ¶ and Control System Performance Lunar Module'Abort Guidance System Performance dndysis Performance of Command and Service Module Reaction Control System . Service Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Performance of Lunar Module Reaction Control System Ascent Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Descent Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluat ion Cancelled

November 1969 November 1969 November 1969 April 1970 December 1969 August 1970 December 1970 December 1970

Supplement number
10 1 1

Title

Publi cation date /st atus December 1969 December 1969 December 1969

12

Stroking Test Analysis Communications System Performance Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analysis

1
2

3
f

. I .

. ... . .
...

4
5
6

7

a
9
10 1 1
~

Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Guidance , Navigation, and Control System Perf ormanc e Analysis Performance of Command and Service Module Reaction Control System Service Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation , Performance of Lunar Module Reaction Control System Ascent Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Descent qropulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Cancelled Analysis of Apollo 1 0 Photography and Visual Observations Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analysis Communications System Performance
~~

March 1970 December 1969 August 1970 September 1970 August 1970 January 1970 January 1970

August 1971
Decenber 1969

Apollo 1 1 Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Performance Analysis Performance of Command and Service Module Reaction Control System Service Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Performance of Lunar Module Reaction Control System Ascent Propulsion System Final F l i g h t Evaluation Descent Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation Cancelled Apollo 31 Preliminary Science Report

May 1970
September 1970 December 1971 October 1970 December 1971 September 1970 September 1970 December 1969

E-

4
TABLE E-I

.- MISSION REPORT SUPPLEGNTS (Continued)
Title
P u b l i c a t i on d a t e/s t z t u s
~~~

Supplement number

10 1 1

.

Communications System Performance Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analysis Apollo 1 2 T r a j e c t o r y Reconstruction and Pns?lysis Guidance , Navigation, and Control System Performance Analysis S e r v i c e Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluat i o n Ascent Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Descent Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Apollo 1 2 Preliminary Science Report Landing s i t e S e l e c t i o n Processes
I

January 1970 A p r i l 1970

September 1971 September 1971 December 1971 Publication Publi c a t i o n July 1970 F i n a l Review
. .

I

Apollo 13 September 197( October 1970 Cancelled

1
2

3

Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Performance Analysis Descent Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Entry P o s t f l i g h t Analysis Apollo

14
~~ ~ ~~~

1
2

3

4
5
6 7

a

Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Performance Analysis Cryogenic Storage System Perfomance Analys i s S e r v i c e Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Ascent Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Descent Propulsion System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Apollo 14 Preliminary Science Report Analysis of I n f l i g h t Demonstrations Atmospheric E l e c t r i c i t y Experiments on Apollo 13 and 1 4 Launches

January 1972 March 1972 May 1972 May 1972 Publication

June 1971 January 1972 January 1972

E-5
.

TABLE E-I

.- MISSION

REPORT SWPLEMENTS (Continued)
Title Apollo 15 P u b l i c at i o n d a t e /s t atus

Supplement number
-~

~

Guidance, Navigation and Control System P e r f orman c e Analy si s S e r v i c e P r o p u l s i o n System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Ascent P r o p u l s i o n System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluat i on Descent P r o p u l s i o n System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Apollo 1 5 P r e l i m i n a r y Science Report P o s t f l i g h t A n a l y s i s of t h e E x t r a v e h i c u l a r Commimications System - Lunar Module Communications Link Analysis o f Command Module Color Telev i s i o n Camera Apollo 16
~

October

1972

Preparation October October

1972 1972

A s r i l 1972 January 1972 Cancelled

Guidance, Navigation and Control System Performance Analysis S e r v i c e P r o p u l s i o n System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Ascent P r o p u l s i o n System F i n a l F l i g h t Evaluation Descent P r o p u l s i o n System Fin23 F l i g h t Evaluation Apollo 16 P r e l i m i n a r y Scieace Report Microbial Response and Space Environment Experiment (S-191) Analysis of F l u i d E l e c t r o p h o r e s i s Demonstration

I

Noveaber

1972

Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation

Apollo 17 P r e l i m i n a r y Science Report Cosmic R a d i a t i o n E f f e c t s on B i o l o g i c a l Systems Exposed on Apollo 16 and 17 F u r t h e r Observations on t h e Pocket Mouse Experiment (BIOCORE-M212) Results of Apollo Light Flash Investi g a t ions

Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation

E-6
TABLE E-I
Supplement number
__

.- MISSION REPORT SUPPLET4ENTS (Concluded)
Title Publicat ion dat e / s t at us Prep ar a t ion Preparation P r epar at ion

I

~

-~

5

6 '
I I

7

Results of Apollo 17 Heat Flow and Convect i on Demon s t r a t i on Apollo 17 Calibration Results f o r Gamma R a y Spectrometer S i l v e r Iodide Crystal Meteorological Observation and Forecasting During t h e Apollo 17 Mission

- . . -. . .

-'

F-1

APPENDIX F Ackermann s t e e r i n g Agglutinate Albedo

-

GLOSSARY

A type of linkage t h a t provides a high wheel response f o r a small s t e e r i n g motion.
A deposit of o r i g i n a l l y molten e j e c t a .

Relative brightness, defined as t h e r a t i o of rad i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d from a surface t o t h e t o t a l amount incident e o n it.
A s t e r o i d hormone extracted from t h e adrenal cort e x t h a t i s very zctive i n regulating the salt and water balance i n t h e body. A granular %extured igneous rock regarded as havi n g s o l i d i f i e d a t considerable depth. It i s composed almost e n t i r e l y of a soda-lime feldspar.

Aldosterone

Anorthositic gabbro

Ant i d i u r e ti c Arrhythmia Atomic
Basalt

Suppressing the secretion of urine. :Any v a r i a t i o n f r o 2 the normal rhythm of the h e a r t ;beat. Having i t s atoms i n an uncombined form (atomic hydrogen )

.

Any fine-grained dark-colored igneous rock t h a t i s t h e extrusive equivalent of gabbro.
A c i r c u l a t i o n phenomenon associated with convect i v e heating i n l i q u i d flow.

Benard Bimodal Bouguer c o r r e c t i o n s

Possessing two s t t r t i s t i c a l modes. Empirical adjustnents t o r e l a t i v e g r a v i t y values f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e density of material from t h e d e n s i t y of material from t h e reference point ( l u n a r module s i t e ) .
A rock consisting of sharp fragments embedded i n

B r e c c i as
Bungee
.

a five-grained matrix.
A l a t c h loading mechanism f o r locking t h e docking

ring latches.
.. .

. ..-. -.
I _

..

.. ; : . .

Bungee s t r a p

E l a s t i c i z e d cord used

BS

a fastener.

.

-. _ .

. .

GLOSSARY
Clast

- Continued

A d i s c r e t e fragment of rock or mineral included i n a l a r g e r rock. -'
A mass s t r o n g enough t o transmit t h r u s t e f f e c t i v e l y and s u s t a i n t h e weight of overlying strata.

Competent lava Continuum of morphologies Cort i c o i d s

Continuous charges i n geological and topographic a l structure.
A term applied t o hormones of t h e s t e r o i d adrenal

convex or any other n z t u r a l or synthetic compound having a s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y . Cortisone
Crat e r l e t s A c o l o r l e s s c r y s t a l l i n e s t e r o i d hormone of t h e adrenal cortex. L i t t l e craters.

Dacite domes

Mounds present i n volcvlic fields formed by t h e volcanic extrusion of d a c i t e , a type of rock t h a t i s / h i g h l y viscous.
A s m a l l dike 2 t o 3 centimeters i n width.

"

.-

f

Dikelet Down-sun

I n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as the s o l a r vector and used i n specifying l u n a r surface photography requirements.
Illumination of t h e coon's surface by sunlight r e f l e c t e d from t h e e a t h ' s surface and atmosphere. The g r e a t c i r c l e of t h e c e l e s t i a l sphere t h a t i s . t h e apparent path of the sun among t h e stars or of t h e e a r t h as seen f r o m t h e sun. Material thrown out from volcanic action or met e o r o i d impact. S e c r e t i n g i n t e r n a l l y ; applied t o organs whose funct i o n i s t o s e c r e t e i n t o t h e blood.
A table of t h e computed positions of c e l e s t i a l bodies at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s .

.

Earthshine Ecliptic

Ejecta
I .

.. ...

.

Endocrine Ephemeris Euthanat i z e d

_ .. ..

.. :... .
.
. I

.

..

Put t o death i n a p a i n l e s s humane fashion.

. ...

<-.-..

F-3
GLOSSARY

-

Continued

Feldspar

.
Fillet
c

A group of m i n e r d s , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n c r y s t a l l i n e form, t h a t e r e t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of n e a r l y all c r y s t a l l i n e rocks. They have a g l a s s y l u s t e r and break r a t h e r e a s i l y i n two dir e c t i o n s at approximately r i g h t angles t o each other

Debris ( s o i l ) p i l e d a g a i n s t a rock. Crack
O f o r having g s i n t h e stomach o r i n t e s t i n e s .

Fissure F1at ulen ce Free air c o r r e c t i o n

Adjustments t o r e l a t i v e g r a v i t y values f o r d i s t a n c e s above t h e reference l e v e l ( l u n a r module site).
An inflammatory v i r u s d i s e a s e of t h e s k i n .

Herpetic Homeost a t i c Hornfelsic Hummocks Hypogravic Ilmenite In situ I n s e n s i b l e water Irradiated Isophote

S t a b i l i t y i n t h e normal body s t a t e s of t h e organism. Resembling a fine-grained s i l i c a t e rock.

Low rounded h i l l s o r knolls.
P e r t a i n i n g t o lo-< g r a v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e low g r a v i t y experienced i n space.
.A mineral, r i c h i n t i t a n i u m and i r o n , and u s u a l l y b l a c k with a subr?etallic l u s t e r .

I n i t s o r i g i n a l ?lace o r n a t u r a l l o c a l e . Not appreciable 'by or p e r c e p t i b l e t o t h e senses. The a p p l i c a t i o n of r a y s , such as u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s , t o a substance t o i n c r e a s e i t s vitamin e f f i c i e n c y .
A l i n e o r surfzce on a c h a r t forming t h e l o c a l i t y o f p o i n t s of e q u d i l l u m i n a t i o n or l i g h t i n t e n s i t y from a given source. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Apollo l u n a r e x p l o r a t i o n s m i s s i o n s f o r which provisions were made f o r extended lunar surface s t z y t i m e , surface vehicular m o b i l i t y and communications, and more extensive science data a c q u i s i t i o n . A;cllo 15 , 16, and 17 were o f t h i s classification.

J-Mis sion

. -

I

,

. .. ’.
...
1

F-4

GLOSSARY
Krytox o i l Libration

-

Continued

Fluorinated hydrocarbon lubricant. Any of several phenomena by which an observer on e a r t h , over a period of time, can observe more than one hemisphere of the moon.
The outer edge of the apparent disc of a c e l e s t i a l body such as t h e moon or e a r t h , o r a portion of t h e edge.

Limb

Lineament Lithic Lithology

The distinguishing topographic or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of a mass. Stone l i k e . The character of a rock formation or of rock found i n a geological area expressed i n terms of i t s physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The, period of one revolution of t h e moon about t h e , e a r t h with respect t o t h e sun. A period of 29 /lays 1 2 hours 44 r5nutes 2.8 seconds. Black isometric mineral of t h e s p i n e l group. An non-important i r o n ore t h a t i s strongly a t t r a c t e d by a magnet and somethes possesses p o l a r i t y . The i n n e r p a r t of a t e r r e s t r i a l - l i k e planet lying between t h e c r u s t and the core. Large mass concentrations beneath t h e surface of t h e moon.
A feldspar found i n n e t e o r i t e s . A l a r g e fault block of mountainous topography displaced as a u n i t without i n t e r n a l change.

Lunation

-

1

_.

Magnetite

Mantle Mascon Maskelynit e

Massif
Microdens it omet r y Morphology

An instrument t h a t measures o p t i c density.
The e x t e r n a l structure of rocks i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e development of erosional forms or topographic features. Marked with blotches o r spots of d i f f e r e n t colors o r shades.

Mottled

I

. .

F- 5
GLOSSARY

-

Continued

Nadir Newton r i n g s

The point on the c e l e s t i a l sphere t h a t i s v e r t i c a l l y downward from the observer. Colored rings due t o l i g h t interference e f f e c t s from r e f l e c t e d or transmitted l i g h t rays t h a t a r e seen about the contact of a convex l e n s with a plane surface, o r of two lenses d i f f e r i n g i n curvature.
A v a r i e t y of grsllular igneous rock composed essent i a l l y of a calcim-sodium s e r i e s t h a t usually contains a ferronagnesium mineral. A non-metallic n i n e r a l (see pyroxene).

Nori t e

Orthopyroxene
O r t hos t at i c

Pertaining t o or caused by standing e r e c t .
A p a r t i a l l y i l l u n a t e d region on e i t h e r s i d e of a completely dark shadow cast by an opaque body , such as a planet o r s a t e l l i t e .

Penumbra

P e r i st al s i s

i

l

Wavelike motion of the w a l l s of hollow organs cons i s t i n g of a l t e r n a t e contractions and d i l a t i o n s of transverse and longitudinal muscles.
A feldspar minerzl composed of varying amounts of sodium and calcium with aluminum s i l i c a t e .

P1agi oclas e Platelets Potassium gluconate
r

Small f l a t t e n e d masses.
A salt o f c r y s t d l i n e acid.

Pre-Imbrian P-wave

Older than the s t r a t i g r a p h i c t i m e of Imbrian age.
A d e f l e c t i o n i n an electrocardiographic t r a c i n g t h a t represents euricular appendix a c t i v i t y of the heart.
A mineral occurring i n s h o r t , t h i c k prismatic c r y s t a l s o r i n square cross s e c t i o n ; o f t e n lamina t e d ; and varying i n color from white t o dark green o r black ( r a r e l y blue).

Pyroxene

Radon atmosphere

A radioactive gaseous environment of radon formed by t h e radioactive decay of radium.

F-6
GLOSSARY
Ubiquitous Vagotoni a

-

Concluded

The s t a t e , f a c t or capzcity of being everywhere at t h e same time.

A hypertension c o n d i t i o l i n which t h e vagus nerve dominates t h e general functioning of t h e body organs.
A wandering nerve. I t s length and wide d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e i n t h e brain. A snall c a v i t y i n a mineral or rock, o r d i n a r i l y

Vagus nerve
.. ." . . ..

.
Ve si c l e s

produced by expansion of vapor i n a molten mass. Ves i c u l a r

A mineral or rock c o n t d n i n g s m a l l c a v i t i e s produced o r d i n a r i l y by the e q a n s i o n of vapor i n t h e molten mass.
Inner e a r cavity. P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e progressive reduction i n t h e i n t e n s i t y of illumination f a l l i n g on a photographic f i l m toward the edges of t h e frame due t o t h e obstruction of oblique l i g h t beams.
A s m a l l c a v i t y i n a rock.

Vestibular Vignetting

Zap p i t t i n g

Impacts from p a r t i c l e s t r a v e l i n g at extremely high v e l o c i t i e s t h a t lezve small glass-lined depressions i n rocks.

Zodiacal l i g h t

A f a i n t glow extending zround t h e e n t i r e zodiac, but showing most prominently i n t h e a r e a of t h e Sun.

R-1

1. Johnson Space Center: Apollo 17 Preliminary Science Report. be p u b l i s h e d as a NASA S p e c i a l P u b l i c z t i o n . )

(To

2. Marshall Space F l i g h t Center: Satllrn V Launch Vehicle F l i g h t E v a u a t i o n Report AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission. MR -SAT-FE-73-1. P February 28, 1973.

-

3. Boeing Company: AS-512 F i n a l P o s t f l i g h t T r a j e c t o r y . ument ( t o be p u b l i s h e d ) .

Unnumbered doc-

4. NASA Headquarters: Mission Implenentation Plan f o r Apollo Unnumbered document. Revision 3. October 1972.
5.
5-3 Type Mission.

17 Mission.

Manned S p a c e c r a f t C e n t e r : Mission Requirements SA-512/CM-114/LM-12, MSC-05180 , Chaage D. March 1 6 , 1972 ( r e p r i n t e d September 18, 1 9 7 2 ) . Apollo 1 5 Mission Report.

6. Manned S p a c e c r a f t C e n t e r : December 1971.
I

Bc-05161.
Y6C-07230.

7. Manned S p a c e c r a f i Center: I August 1972.

Apollo

16 Mission

Report.

. .._ -: . . ..:.. .._ .... . : ..,.. . '.. .._ ,,1.
I

.. _. .
,
. .

I . 2

NASA J S C

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