CLAUSES AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Mrs. Graham WBHS 2007

LET’S START EASY….
There are four types of sentences: Declarative (makes a statement) Ex: I have three pets. Imperative (gives a command or makes a request) Get off the table. Interrogative (asks a question) Ex: How many pets do you have? Exclamatory (expresses strong emotion) She is such a beautiful dog!

EVERY SENTENCE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE MAIN CLAUSE….(WHAT ARE THOSE?)

A clause: a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. A clause can function as a sentence by itself or as part of a sentence.

THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF CLAUSES…
MAIN CLAUSES The cast bowed The and the Every sentence must curtain have a main clause audience applauded. rose. Main clauses has a subject and a predicate The actors and and expresses a Unless Rachel crew smiled and complete thought. goes with us, we bowed, and the won’t know It is the only type of audience cheered how to get clause that can stand and clapped. there. alone as a sentence. A main clause can be Alex’s project, also called an which was a independent clause. demonstration of Conjunctions cannot be centrifugal force, included in your clauses.
won first prize.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
Subordinate clauses (also called dependent clause) has a subject and a predicate, but DOES NOT express a complete thought. It cannot stand alone as a sentence. There are 3 types of subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, adverb clauses, and noun clauses. In some cases, (see example 3) a relative pronoun can also function as the subject of both main and subordinate clauses.

When the dog barked, the baby cried. Whoever joins the circus will travel across the country.

Dogs that obey are a joy. Julie and her friends went to a movie that they had already seen.

Whenever it snows, Alfonso and Max head for the slopes.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES: ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
Magazines that inform and entertain are my favorites. Several writers whom I admire contribute to magazines. Adjective Clauses: a subordinate clause that modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun. May begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, and which) An adjective clause normally follows the word it modifies. Sometimes the relative pronoun is dropped from the beginning of an adjective clause. (See ex. 4)

The store where I buy magazines sponsors readings by contributors.

National Geographic is the magazine I like the best.

TWO TYPES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES….
Restrictive (essential)
Restrictive Clauses: an adjective clause that are necessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear It must not be set off by commas.
Example: Magazines that have no substance bore me. Many writers whose works have become famous began their writing careers at the New Yorker magazine.

Non-restrictive (nonessential)
Non-restructive Clauses: an adjective clause that is not necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear Always use commas to set off a non-essential clause.
Example: James Thurber, who was a famous humorist, wrote for the New Yorker.

**Use that to introduce an essential clause and which to begin a non-essential clause.

ADVERB CLAUSES
Adverb Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies (describes) a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions.
Before I took the test, I studied for hours. I was happy because I passed the test. I studied longer than I had ever studied before.

She can swim faster than I.

While walking, she listens to the radio.

NOUN CLAUSES
Whoever wins the election will speak. (Subject) The senator will give whoever asks an interview. (I.O) The reporter will do whatever is required to get an interview. (D.O) A news story should begin with whatever gets the reader’s attention. (Object of Prep)

Noun clauses: a subordinate clause that is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence You can use a noun clause as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate nominative.

That is why she included specific data in the article. (Predicate Nominative)

Words that can introduce noun clauses: how, however, if, that, what, whatever, when, where, wherever, whether, which, whichever, who, whom, whoever, whomever, whose, why

BACK TO THOSE SENTENCES….

There are four kinds of sentence structure: Simple Compound Complex Compound-complex

Simple Sentences

Compound Sentences
Contains two or more main clauses. May be joined in any of four ways:
With a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) With a semi-colon With a semi-colon and a conjunctive adverb (as, however, therefore, nevertheless) With a semi-colon and an expression such as for example

Contains only one main clause and no subordinate clauses. A simple sentence may contain a compound subject, a compound predicate, or both.
Ex:
Stories entertain. Stories and riddles entertain and amuse. Stories about the Old West entertain adults and children alike.

Examples:
Stories entertain me, and riddles amuse me, but poems are my favorite. Talented oral storytellers are rare; Spalding Gray is exceptional.

Complex Sentences

Compound-Complex Sentences

Contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses
Examples: I like Toni Cade Bambara’s stories Main because they have Clause good characters.
Subordinate Clause

Contains two or more main clauses and at least one subordinate clause
Examples:
Main Clause

Sub. Clause

I read Frankenstein, which Mary Shelley wrote, and I reported on it.
Main Clause

THE END!!