NASA Technical Memorandum 79124

WIND TUNNEL PERFORMANCE OF FOUR ENERGY EFFICIENT PROPELLERS DESIGNED FOR M A C H 0 8 CRUISE

by Robert J J e r a c k i Daniel C Mikkelson, and Bernard J Blaha Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio

TECHNICAL PAPER to be presented a t the Business Aircraft Meeting sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers Wichita, K a n s a s , April 3-6, 1979

s p e e d turboprop. design s t a g e l e n g t h s . s e v e r a l a dvanced a e r o d y n a m i c a n d a c o u s t i c c o n c e p t s were evalu a t e d a nd u s e d i n d e s i g n i n g t h e p r e s e n t wind tunnel models.ered a i r c r a f t i s g e n e r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by a i r c r a f t c r u i s e s p e e d and o p e r a t i n g r a n g e . 790373 ogy ( 1 6 . 3 5 . t a i l o r e d n a c e l l e b l o c k a g e a nd s p i n n e r arear u l i n g t o reduce blade-to-blade choking and other compressibility losses i n the blade root r e g i o n . S p e c i f i c s t u d i e s and s u n a r i s s a r e g i v e n i n ~ e f s . 2 .THE ISCREASED E ? P W S I S c n f u e l c o n s e r v a t i o n has s t i n u l a t e d a renewed i n t e r e s t i n t u r b o p r o p powered a i r c r a f t . 2 3 . S t u d i e s by LASA and i n d u s t r y or a i r c r a f t d e s i g n e d f o r ?!ach 0 . The c u r v e s a r e b a s e d on e a r l i e r s t u d i e s w i t h b o t h 1 9 8 5 t e c h n o l o g y a s s u m p t i o n s an d a l s o 1 9 7 6 t e c h n o l *Numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s d e s i g n a t e R e f e r e n c e s a t end o f p a p e r . Very l o n g r a n g e a i r c r a f t c a n t a k e advantage of reduced f u e l consumption t o r e d u c e a i r c r a f t w e i g h t a2 d s i z e wh i ch g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l DOC r e d u c t i o n a s w e l l a s r e d u c i n g a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t and lower l i f e c y c l e c o s t . 1 f r o m R e f . e t c . To a c h i e v e t h i s l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a n acc e p t a b l e c a b i n n o i s e l e v e l . however.rsred a i r c r a f t . Boe ing a n d Lockheed examined 1985 t e c h n o l o g y l e v e l t u r b o p r o p e n g i n e s v e r s u s equivalent technology level turbofan engines.2 4 ) . r e f l e c t i n g the v a r i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s of p r o p e l l e r e f f i c i e n c y . t h e r e i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement f o r t h e t u r b o p r o p powered a i r c r a f t . Since f u e l c o s t s a b o u t 40% o f t h e d i r e c t o p e r a t i n g c o s t (DOC) of medium-to-short h a u l commercial a i r c r a f t . 2 .r a t i o JT8D t u r bofan e n g i n e s . The f u e l s a v i n g s a l s c i n c r e a s e s f o r s h o r t e r stage length operation because a l a r g e r portion o f t h e b l o c k time i s s p e n t a t c h e l o w e r s p e e d s of c l i m b and d e s c e n t where r u r b o p r o p p r o p u l s i o n o f f e r s e v e n l a r g e r a d v a n t a g e s . They i n c l u d e r e d u c e d b l a d e t h i c k n e s s a nd t i p sweep t o minimize c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y l o s s e s i n t h e o u t b o a r d p a r t o f t h e b l a d e s and t o reduce c r u i s e n o i s e . power ( d i s k ) l o a d i n g s s e v e r a l times h i g h e r t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l d e s i g n a r e r e q u i r e d . The Boe ing a i r c r a f t d e s i g n w a s b a s e d o n 1976 t e c h n o l o g y l e v e l s w h i l e Lockheed u s e d 1985 t e c h n o l o g y l e v e l s . D ougla s u s e d t h e DC9-30 as a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n and compared b o t h c u r r e n t t e c h n o l o g y t u r b o p r o p e n g i n e s a nd 1985 t e c h n o l o g y l e v 2 1 e n g i n e s t o t h e c u r r e n t DC9-30 c o n f i g u r a t i o n u s i n g l o w . 1 4 4 km (30 000 f t ) a l t i t u d e . F u e l s a v i n g s a r e g r e a t e r ( 2 2 ) f o r l o n g e r r a n g e a i r c r a f t and s o t h e DOC savi n g s a r e g r s a t e r . 8 . and d i r e c t o p e r a t i n g c c s t r e d u c t i c n s of t s r b o ? r o F porcered a i r c r a f t o v e r c o n ? a r a b l e t u r b o f a n ?o:. These c o n c e p t s have been disc u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s ( 1 . i s d i s c u s s e d i n Ref. .1. 8 c r u i s e a b o v e 9. I n a l l cases. a i r c r a f t configurations. m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s . F u e l s a v i n g s f r o m 15 tc 39': zt Xac?. F i g u r e 3 s c h e m a t i c a l l y describes these important design concepts f o r h i g h s p e e d p r o p e l l e r d e s i g n . 7 c r u i s e a i r c r a f t show l a r g e r f u e l s a v i n g s t h a n t h o s e d es i g n ec! f o r Xach 0 . a n d .: km ( 3 0 000 f t ) a l t i t u d e i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t ' c l o c k f u e l s av i . T h i s is especially true a t the shorter stage l e n g t h s making a d v a n c e d t u r b o p r o p s l o o k p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r t h e short-andmedium-range m a r k e t s . ( 2 ) . 5 % a t Mach 0 . The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e f u e l s a v i n g s cf t u r b o p r o p powered a i r c r a f t o v e r com? a r a b l e t e c h n o l o g y t u r b o f a n poi. a 20 t o 25% f u e l s a v i n g s r e s u l t s i n a n 8 t o 10% l o w e r DOC ( 2 ) . The v a r i a t i o n o f DOC s a v i n g s w i t h f u e l c o s t s f r o m R e f . The se h i g h l o a d i n g s then would r e q u i r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f b l a d e s t o a r o u n d 8 t c 1 0 t o ke e p i d e a l p r o p e l l e r e f f i c i e n c y h i g h . F i g . f u s e l a g e d e s i g n a nd w e i g h t f o r n o i s e a t t e n uation. Advanced p r o p e l l e r l n a c e l l e des i g n i s a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d procedure and i s Jeracki . A s can be s e e n . 8 s i n c e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e h i g h s p e e d turboprop propulsion sys ten over t h e turbofan i n c r e a s e s a s Zlach number i s d s c r e a s e d . a wide s p r e a d i n DOC s a v i n g s was a c h i e v e d . ( 2 ) . The Zlach C . ADVANCED DESIGN CONCEPTS Most of t h e a i r c r a f t s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n b a s e d on e s t i m a t e d p r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y from t h e p r o p e l l e r n e a r 7 9 . F u e l s a v i n g s o f o v e r 20% n a y b e r e a l i z e d a t Mach 0 . (I)* t o ( 3 4 ) . t h e u s e of a d v a n c e d a i r f o i l techn o i o g y . SAE P a p e r S o . 7 f o r r a n g e s t y p i c a l of b u s i n e s s j e t a i r c r a f t . m ir. T h es e p r o j e c t e d a i r c r a f t f u e l savings w i t h t h e high speed t u r b o p r o p h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n p a c t on t h e a i r c r a f t d i r e c t operating c o s t . r e c e n t s t a t u s r e p o r t o n I NASA's Advanced T u r b o T r c ? P r c j e c t .s .3 7 ) and w i l l m a i n l y b e summarized h e r e . 3 . Eigh speed turboprop p r o p u l s i o n h a s been s t u d i e d f o r a v a r i e t y of s u S s o n i c a i r c r a f t a p F i i c a t i o .3 i n t h e trend c u r v e s of b l o c k f u e l s a v i n g s v e r s u s o p e r a z i n g r a n g e s h o . ( 1 6 ) i s shown i n F i g .8 c r u i s e a b o v e 9 . To h o l d p r o p e l l e r d i a m e t e r a nd w e i g h t t o r e a s o n a b l e v a l u e s f o r Mach 0.. which i s p a r t o f i t s A i r c r a f t Energy E f f i c i e n c y Progra m .g . b o t h c i v i l a c d m i l i t a r y . 8 may b e r e a l i z e d by t h e u s e 05 a? a c v a n c e d h i g h .b y p a s s . This i s shov.

Far a s t r a i g h t propeller a t the design c o n d i t i o n o f ?tach 0 .o f t h e a d v a n c e d a e r z a y n a .c.r d i n g t i 1 2 s ? l n n e r an d n a c e l l e b l o z k a g e s u p p r e s s t h e l c c a l Xacn numbers i n :he ~ I G ? r s g i o r .. 4 (?ITIp 2 1 . The d e s i g n Ziach number o f 0 . more ad v an ced con0 c s ~ c was i n z o r p o r a t e d i n a $ 5 t i p sweep des i g n iSX-3) u s i n g t h e l i . . 3 3 s Ld'. :.2el.e a r a c c u s c i c a n a l y s i s of Xef.n ex ample o f t h i s i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e d u r e i s s i i o ~ ni n F i g . .. . 6 a i o n g w i t h t h e ?red i c t e d d e s i g n p o i A t e f f i c i e n c i e s f r o m t h e nechod of R e f . zp?iic&:ion of a c o u s t i c theor. A h i s t o r i c a l 2evelo. 2. w h e r e b l a d e scieep. Sw e e ping t h e t i p back causes i t s s i g n a l t o l a g (increased phase a n g l e ) t h e s i g n a l f r o m t h e mid b l a d e r e g i o n t h u s c a u s i n g p a r t i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e a nd a red u c t i o n i n n o i s e .z c. s :as 5. The s h o c k s t r e n g t h and t k e r e f o r e t . 8 m/sec (SO0 f t / s e c ) b l a d e t i p speed.. s e ? ~ . 1 . a p r o p e l l s r o 2 e r a z i n g w i t h a s l i g h t l y s u p r s o n i c ti? Zhch number.m i n F i g . .t o advanced p r o p e l l e r d e s i g n i s g i v e n i r . 8 c r u i s e a n d 2 d 3 . u i e z e r f z r t h i s r e a s o r . A l l d e s i g n s ixad t h i n a i r f o i l s w i t h w ide c h o r d s and had t w i s t a nd .. (i).-. The n o i s e f r o m o n e T r o p e l l e r b l a d e i s t h e v e c t o r s u n of t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s i n u s o i d a l wave ( a m p l i t u d e a n d p h a s e a n g l e ) from e a c h r a d i a l s t r i p . 1 4 ) t h e i n i t i a l a p p r s a c h f o r n o i s e r e d u c t i o n was t o a dd srceep and r e d u c e t h e s f f e c t i v e l o c a l s e c t i o n >:act n u n b e r t o b el o w t h e s e c z i o n c r i t i c a l Yach n n x b e r . 20 i and b l a d e cumber f o r a l l f o u r c e s i g s wzre t h e same. A r e a . This concept should h a v e a p p l i c a t i o n t o b o t h t h i c k n e s s a nd l o a d i n g n o i s e i n t h e n e a r and f a r f i e l d s . Thickness m i s e i s generally the d o m i n a n t n o i s e s o u r c e or. t h e ? r e a i c t e d c r u i s e n o i s e u s i n g t h e a c s u s t i c a n a l y s i s o f 2 e f .e f i l t z r e . a l l s e c t i o n relat i v e ?tach numbers (curvci A ) a r e a b o v e t h e d r a g d i v e r g e n c e Xach number ( c u r v e 3) of t!ie p r o p e l l e r w i t h SACA 1 6 . i ~ . 1 0 .si 2 .s c i r i s s a i r f o i l s e v e n when t h i n b l a d e s e c t i o n s a r e u s e s . c e r i o r n Q i s e l e v e l s c o m p e t i t i v e x i t h c u r r e n t \.d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n K e l .i c a n d a c o u s t i c cor. A l s o . . The p r e s e n t t h e o r y p r e d i c c s t h i c k n e s s (due t o b l a d e a i r f o i l t h i c k n e s s d i s t r i b u t i s n ) an d l o a d i n g ( d u e t o p r e s s u r e l o a d s on t h 2 h l a d e a i r f o i l ) n o i s e components from each r a d i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e blade. : &idition 1 ti-.l+).a c o u s t i c compromise was r e a c h e d i n t h e i n i c i a l p r o p e l l e r d e s i g n s which a l l o x e d t h e r e l a t i v e t i p Xach number t o b e s l i g h t l y s u p e r s o n i c ( a p p r o x . t h i s conc e p t xi11 b e a d d r e s s e u i. The n o i s e of t h e t o t a l p r o p e l l e r i s t h e p r o d u c t of t h e v e c t o r sum and t h e number o f b l a d e s . (C).. In order to keep t h e a i r p l a n e c a b i n n o i s e comparable t o p r e s e n t t u r b o f a n ? ow e re d a i r c r a f t . ( 3 9 ) .:?. t h e r e f o r e i l e a l e f f i c i e n c y was t h e saine f o r a l l o f t h e d e s i g n s . 8 a nd a l t i t u d e o v e r 9 .t.e f f i c i e n c y .-. Adding 30' o f siieep ( c u r v e C ) b r i n g s :he :-fach numbers near t h e t i p t o v a l u e s 1o:jer t h a n d r a g d i v e r g e n c e l e v e l s .. R e f . and a i r p l a n e s a f e t y n o t b e degraded w i t h a n advanced f u e l e f f i c i e n t turbop r o p . 8 . By p r o p e r l y s w e e p i n g t h e b l a d e ? i a z f o r m i t i s p o s s i b l e t o reduce n e a r .>.cepzs t:ere i n . b l r 3 e 6 e s i 3 n s w e r e e x p s c i e d :> b e ao n ewh at i . cabin e n v i r o n m e n t . . g p r e s s u r e . n c a r . (39) -_ a t :Ligb. a n a e r o d y namic .ment o f t h e . .n t e r f e r e n c e conc e t was u s e d i n t h e a c o u s t i c d e s i g n o f t h e 8 45 sw e pt p r o p e l l e r model (SR-3) t o r e d u c e t h e near-field cruise noise. 1 4 4 km (30 000 f t ) w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a l l o w t u r b o p r o p powered a i r c r a f t t o mesh w i t h t u r b o f a n powered a i r c r a f t .? s p r e c .es:igat21 i n t n e i i i n d t u n n e l m d e l p r o g r a m d i s c u s s e d h e r s w i t h t h e s x c e p r i o n o f ad v an c e d a i r f o i l s . with t h e requirement t h a t a i r p l a n e speed. d j e i s therehy reduced. (c1Jrve I)).i i e l 2 noise using t h e ?base i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n c e p t i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g .ice body a i r c r a f t and t o n i n i m i z e t h e n e e d f c r f u s e l a g e t r e a t a e n t . L-.I * L A > . The d e s i g n parame t e r s f o r t h e f o u r model p r o p e i l e r s t h a t were t e s t e d a r e shown in F i g . YODEL DESIGN Ah3 TESTS I n i t i a l d e s i g n s t u d i e s (36) f o r h i g h s p e e d p r o p e l l e r s w e r e b a s e d on c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h p r e s e n t da y t u r b o f a n powered t r a n s p o r t s . e r e s u l t i 7 . ZIach l. Cnder c u r r e n t XASA ? l a x .. 6 6 8 km (35 000 f t ) d e s i g n p o i n t .. l % t i x s a x L dis----. s p i n n e r a r e a r u l i n g and i n a c e l l e b l o c k a g e a r e u s e d t o m i n i m i z e comp r s s s i b i l i t y l o s s e s a c r o s s t h e co n i Tl et e b l a d e radius.7q7. 5. High p r o ? e l l e r power ( d i s k ) l o a d i n g i s r e q u i r e d w i t h o u t t h e s i z e and w e i g h t p e n a l t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h conventional propeller designs to achieve the Mach 0 .:. s t c r s ~ Z G T .e: l i a r r .. A l l t h e a d v a n c e d p r o p e l l e r d e s i g n s t h a t were t e s t e d ha d e i g h t b l a d e s w i t h b l a d e a c t i v i t y f a c t o r s n e a r 200 ( e x c e p t 2 3 5 f o r SR-3) t o meet t h i s high ioading requirement. S i n c e t h e b l a d e r e l a t i v e t i ? Xach num5 e r s a r e s l i g h t i y s u p e r s o n i c a s sho7.i'c g s a l s .i. T h i s p h a s e i .Ld .? :a >.t c z r . ( 3 8 ) . 30' t i p s v e e p .f i e l d soc~-.c o i s e c a r g e t l e v e l s were e s t a b i i s h e i L O kee.

85. 1 0 . The a c o u s t i c p h a s e i n t e r f e r e n c e conc e p t discussed earlier was used i n t h e design o f t h e p l a n f o r m s h a p e ( c h o r d an d s w e e p ) . The w ind t u n n e l t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d a t z e r o model i n c i d e n c e t o t h e f r e e . t h e p r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e p r o p e l l e r b l a d e s a l o n e .r u l e d s p i n n e r s . c o n f i g u r a t i o n s showed a b o u t a 2 % i mp r ove m e nt compared t o t h e s t r a i g h t SR-2 p r o p e l l e r . A r o t a t i n g b a l a n c e l o c a t e d j u s t a f t of t h e s p i n n e r m e a s u r e d b o t h t h r u s t a nd t o r q u e . C o n f i g u r a t i o n SR-2 w a s a s t r a i g h t b l a d e w h i c h w a s d e s i g n e d and t e s t e d w i t h a n a r e a . F i g u r e 9 s h o u s t h e 45O s w e p t SR-3 model i n s t a l l e d or.6 t o 0.5 i n . t h i s w a s accomplished by reducing t h e t w i s t and i n c r e a s i n g t h e c a n b e r n e a r t h e t i p comp a r e d t o SR-1. 1 as ercent1 a g e s o f d e s i g n l o a d i n g p a r a m e t e r Cp/J (= 0. a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e SR-1 d e s i g n w i t h h i g h e r loading near the t i p . The b l a d e a n g l e m e a s u r e d a t 314 p r o p e l l e r r a d i u s (B3/4) was s e t a t v a r i o u s a n g l e s and d a t a were t a k e n o v e r a r a n g e i n Mach number from 0. 7 . The 45’ sweep SR-3 p r o p e l l e r showed even h i g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f i c i e n c y rem a i n e d a b o v e 80% o u t t o Mach 0. 7 . 7. That i s . A t e a c h b l a d e a n g l e a nd Mach number t h e p r o p e l l e r s were o p e r a t e d a t a number o f power levels t o obtain the variation of net effic i e n c y a nd power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h a d v a n e r a t i o shown i n F i g . 6 t o 0.85. 8 a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Fig. A t t h e i r d e s i g n a d v a n c e r a t i o (J = 3. For r e f e r e n c e t h e i d e a l e f f i c i e n c y l e v e l (85. SR-3 was p r e d i c t e d t o h a v e a n o i s e l e v e l a b o u t 6 dB b e l o w t h e s t r a i g h t b l a d e d SR-2 d e s i g n .camber d i s t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h w e r e b a s e d o n t h e p r o p e l l e r o p e r a t i n g i n t h e flow f i e l d around a s p e c i f i c s p i n n e r and n a c e l l e . N a c e l l e f o r c e s were d e t e r m i n e d f r o m p r e s s u r e integration.r u l e d s p i n n e r (AR-3). The p r o p e l l e r d i a m e t e r c h a n g e s w i t h b l a d e a n g l e s e t t i n g d u e t o t h e b l a d e sw e e p. As s h o w i n Fig. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h The 30’ s w e p t sweep a p p e a r e d a b o v e Mach 0 .r u l e d s p i n n e r (AR-2). A s shown i n F i g . ( 4 1 ) t o ( 4 3 ) . 2 c m (24.85..s t r e a m c o n d i t i o n s a s : 5 From t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p l i n e s o f c o n s t a n t power l o a d i n g have b e e n a dde d t o F i g .06) and power c o e f f i c i e n t ( C p = 1 . 7 ) t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f i c i e n c i e s are presented i n Fig.1%) i s shown w h i c h w a s b a s e d on a n optimum b l a d e l o a d i n g w i t h z e r o b l a d e d r a g . SR-3 had 45’ o f t i p sweep an d w a s t h e most a d v a n c e d d e s i g n s o f a r . SR-lm was t e s t e d w i t h b o t h t h e c o n i c a l a n d a r e a . 2 cm ( 2 4 . F o r c e s on t h e p r o p e l l e r a nd s p i n n e r s were m e a sured u s i n g two s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s . t h e PTR. AERODYNAMIC TEST RESULTS The wind t u n n e l p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a i n t h i s p a p e r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f p r o p e l l e r n e t efficiency. For t h e swept models t h e d i a m e t e r a t c r u i s e b l a d e a n g l e s was s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h i s . The 6 2 . ) which w a s t h e a c t u a l d i a m e t e r w i t h the b l a d e s i n t h e approximate f e a t h e r p o s i t i o n . The buoyancy c o r r e c t i o n f o r c e was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e method o f R e f s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s were b a s e d on a r e f e r e n c e p r o p e l l e r d i a m e t e r o f 6 2 . A c u t a w a y d r a w i n g oL t!ie PTR i s shown i n F i g .05933) d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e d e s i g n o p e r a t i n g 5 Jeracki 3 .A a = l mean l i n e f o r SR-1) f r o m t h e 37% radius to the root with a transition fairing between.s t r e a m f l o w . Power l o a d i n g (SHP/D ) c a n b e w r i t t e n i n terms o f p r o p e l l e r c o e f f i c i e n t s and f r e e .:ere NACX s e r i e s . 5 i n . 8 a t freestream ?lach numbers f r o i n 0 . Net e f f i c i e n c y (‘INET) a nd power c o e f f i c i e n t (Cp) p l o t s a t Mach 0 . 0 SR-1 h a d 30 o f t i p sweep and w a s d e s i g n e d a nd SR-lm was t e s t e d v i t h a c o n i c s p i n n e r (C-1). SR-3 w a s d e s i g n e d and t e s t e d w i t h a n a r e a . The b l a d e geometry c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l f o u r b l a d e d e s i g n s a r e shown i n F i g .1 6 f r o m t h e t i p t o t h e 5 3 % r a d i u s (454 f o r SR-1) a nd XACA s e r i e s 65 w i t h c i r c u l a r a r c mean l i n e (3AC. a f t e r c o r r e c t i n g f o r i s o l a t e d s p i n n e r d r a g and t h e buoyancy i n t e r a c t i o n f o r c e f r o m t h e n e a r b y n a c e l l e . 6 . The p r e d i c t e d e f f i c i e n c i e s were a l l h i g h a t l o w Mach numb e z s w i t h t h e 45’ sweep SR-3 p r o p e l l e r a nd t h e 30 sweep SR-lm p r o p e l l e r j u s t a b o u t 1% b o v e a ’ t h e 30’ sweep SR-1 a n d 0 sweep SR-2 p r o p e l l ers. The p r o p e l l e r m ode ls w e r e d r i v e n by a t h r e e s t a g e 6 2 (450 p s i ) a i r t u r b i n e u s i n g a 3 . 1 0 3 ~ 1 0 N/m c o n t i n u o u s f l o w a i r s u p p l y s y s t e m . A l o a d c e l l l o c a t e d I n t h e v e r t i c a l s t r u t was u s e d t o m e a s u r e a x i a l f o r c e . t h e p r e d i c t e d d e s i g n p o i n t e f f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e d as t h e amount o f sweep was i n c r e a s e d . 6 a nd 0 . ) d i a m e t e r p r o p e l l e r m o d e l s w e r e a l l t e s t e d i n t h e XASA L e w i s 8-by-6 f o o t wind t u n n e l ( 4 0 ) o n t h e 1000 hp p r o p e l l e r t e s t r i g ( P T R ) . 11. A i r f o i l s e c t i o n s f o r t h e b l a d e d e s i g n s . 1 1 f o r SR-3.

r u l e d s p i n n e r t o SR-lm im proved its performance about an a d d i t i o n a l percgnt t o n e a r 78%. The e f f e c t o f p a r e r l o a d i n g a n d a d v a n c e r a t i o on n e t e f f i c i e z c y a t ?lac:'. Perf o r m a n c e a t c o n s t a n t power l o a d i n g were p l o t t e d f r o n t h e s e b a s i c d a t a c u r v e s . A t :. 8 i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a c h s t e p i n d e s i g n improvement d i d y i e l d a n improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y t h a t a p p r o a c h e d t h e s t u d y v a l u e s u s e d i n f u e l e f f i c i e n c y c om paris o n s b e t w e e n t u r b o p r o p a n d t u r b o f a n powered a i r c r a f t . a r e . a n c s Loss a t t h e h i g h a d v a n c e r a t i o s t h a n Sil-1 w:?ich a a y b e d u e t o a n o r e o?timurn twist ar. T h e s e res u l t s a r e q u i t e e n c o u r a g i n g a nd f u t u r e m odels w i t h 1 0 b l a d e s a nd lower power l o a d i n g s h o u l d have even h i g h e r performance.. A d d i t i o n o f t h e a r e a . 8 5 . 8 % . a nd a l s o a t o t h e r Xach numbers f r o m s i m i l a r c r o s s p l o t s .b y . T:. x v e .f o o t w ind t u n n e l on t h e f o l l o w 0 i n g m o d e l s : SR-2 (0 sweep). Though t h e porous-walled t u n n e l does n o t have a c o u s t i c damping m a t e r i a l o n a n y o f i t s w a l l s and abs o l u t e n o i s e l e v e l s may b e s u b j e c t t o q u e s t i o n b e c a u s e o f r e f l e c t i o n s . w h m c o n p a r e d t o t h e j e s t 3C' s w e p t model ( S R . X e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e made w i t h t i e p r o p e l l e r s o p e r a t i n g a t n e a r . Iiowever. 6 t o 0 . 6 a n d 0 . 6 t o 0 .ith t n e a r e a . Each p r o p e l l e r / s p i n n e r c o x b i n a t i o n t n a r was t e s t e d i s presen:ed a s a s e p a r a t e ? l o t . t h e a i r c r a f t t r a d e o f f t h a t o c c u r s i s i n c r e a s e d p r s p e l l e r s i z e w h L ~ hc a n a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l a i r p l a n s d e s i g n an d .nay c a u s e i n c r e a s e d weight and c o s t p e n a i t i e s . Xach 0 . Comparing t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a t Mach 0 .r u l e d s ? i n n e r a p p e a r e d t o g e t most o f ICSn c e b e n e f i t a t l o w ad:.2 cainjer d i s t r i b u t i o n . . r e s ? e c t i v e l y . 1 2 2nd 1 3 . g e n e r a l t h e e f f e c t of r e d u c e d power n l o a d i n g I J ~ Sa n i m pr o v emen t i n p e r f o r m a n c e .iach G . 8 i s shown i n F i g s . 8 a nd ha d s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t o u t t o Nach 0 . The r e d u c t i o n from t h e peak w i t h i n c r e a s i n g ad v an ce r a t i o i s due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o w e r i d e a l e f f i c i e n c i e s d u e t o i n c r e a s e d swirl 2nd l o w e r b l a d e sectional l i f t t o drag r a t i o s (fron increasing l o c a l a n g l e s o f a t t a c k ) . ed t o h a v e l e s s ? e r f o r . 8 5 .06 a n d Cp = 1 . 1 5 . model (SR-3) wh i ch ha d 271 a r z a . t h e d a t a obtained indicated t h a t i n f o r m t i o n about t h e n o i s e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t!iree p r o p e l l e r s was usable. . 7 t h e SR-lm (0 3' sw e e p) a n d SR-3 (45' sw e e p) c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h a d n e a r l y t h e same e f f i c i e n c y o f a b o u t 81%. a nd SR-3 (45 s w e e p ) . 8 5 i s p r e s e n t e d in F i g . 1 2 a n d 1 3 . 1 4 . 8 f r o m icw t o h i g h a d v a n c e r a r i o s i n d i c a t i n g a 2 o s s i b i e r e d u c t i o n i n losses i n t h ? b l a d e r o o t regid?.pical v a r i a t i o n of e f f i c i e n c y w i t h ad v an ce r a t i o a t a c o n s t a n t power l o a d i n g i s a. P e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e 100% power l o a d i n g and d e s i g n a d v a n c e r a t i o o f 3.ance ?erfsrma ratios. The im prove m e nt o v e r t h e SR-2 (0' sw e e p) c o n f i g u r a t i o n w a s a b o u t 3% a t d e s i g n .o f f w i t h d e c r e a s i 2 g a d v a n c e r a t i o i s due t o i n c r e a s e d con?ressibility losses zsscclated with the j i g h e r t i p r o t a t i o n a l speeds and/or again lower b l a d e s e c t i o n a l l i f t ts d r a g r a t i s s ( f r o m decreasing l o c a l angles of arzack). SR-lm (30' swegp) w i t h t h e z o n i c a l s p i n n e r . Addi n g t h e a r e a . a n d a l s o a t f e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e SR-3 m ode l. 8 SII-lm a p p e a r . The inc r e a s e d p e r f o r m a n c e may more t h a n make up f o r t h i s p e x a i t y . Xarrow band a n a l y s i s from 0 t o 1 0 000 Hz. b u t t h i s w i l l depend o n t h e s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n . The SR-3 model w i t h i t s 4 5 o f sweep a nd a r e a . A t Mach 0 . p eak ed c . 6 a n d 0 .d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n o v e r t h e Mach number r a n g e from 0 .. T h i s i n d i c a t e s b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n c r e a s e 3 sweep i n r e d u c i n g o n s e t of c o c p r e s s i k i l i t y l o s s e s a t the blade tips. A thorough a i r p l a n e m i s s i o n a n a l y s i s study can determine t h e desirab i l i t y of modifying t h e p r o p e l l e r "design Foint" t o o p t i m i z e t h e o v e r a l l performance. 7 % ) a t t h e d e s i g n Mach number of 0 . The f a l l .l a ) r.c o n d i t i o n s o f J = 3.r u l e d s p i n n e r h a d t h e h i g h e s t p e r f o r m a n c e ( 7 8 . a c o u s t i c m e a s u r e m e n t s were a l s o made i n t h e Le w is 8 . 7 .06 were o b t a i n e d from t h e c r o s s p l o t s i n F i g s . A d e s i g n l o a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e summary of m e a s u r e d n e t e f f i c i e n c y o v e r t h e Mach number r a n g e from 0 .6 . The 30' sweep o f SR-1 and SR-lrn y i e l d e d a b o u t 1% prove m e nt ( 77%) o v e r t h e im s t r a i g h t SR-2 b l a d e e f f i c i e n c y o f 7 5 . ACOUSTIC TEST RESULTS I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e performance d a t a . w i t h a b a n d w i 6 t h o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26 Hz. Zt botb.r u l e d s p i n n s r .0 . T h e s e d a t a were o b t a i n e d f r o m s i x wall-and-ceiling-mounted p r e s s u r e transd u c e r s a s shown i n F i g . 8 t h e 2 e r f o r r n c e d r o p a t l ow advance r a t i o s appeared y o r e s e v e r e f o r t h e s t r a i g h t SR-2 n o d e l t h a n f o r t h e s w e p t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s Cost l i k e l y indica:ing e a r l i e r o n s e t of c o x p r e s s i b i l i t y losses i t h e b l a d e t i p rez gior.he L5L swe?-.r u l e d s ? i n n e r t o t h e SR-lm model i n p r o v e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a t Xach 0 . 6 a n ? 0.

treats performance. t h e b u i l d u p of a high r e v e r b e r a n t l e v e l . D i r e c t i v i t y and n o i s e f a l l o f f w i t h distance indicate that the tunnel reflections d 3 23t everywnere dominate d i r e c t i n c i d e n t noise signals. a nd i n c r e a s e d sw eep. The p r o p e l l e r n e e d s t o be designed i n t e g r a l l y with t h e l o c a l n a c e l l e f l o w f i e l d a nd t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a l l t h e aerodynamic s u p p r e s s i o n p o s s i b l e t o overcome t h e i n h e r e n t c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y l o s s e s a t t h e s e h i g h c r u i s e s p e e d s . F u t u r e NASA p l a n s f o r t h i s p r o j e c t i n c l u d e t e s t i n g of four additional p r o p e l l e r models t h a t w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g advanced f e a c u r e s : i n c r e a s e d b l a d e number. The p h a s e .i n t e r f e r e n c e . Each d e s i g n c o n c e p t a p p e a r e d t o g i v e some p e r f o r m a n c e b e n e f i t . c o n c e p t f o r n o i s e r e d u c t i o n u s e d i n SR-3 Jeracki 5 The a d v a n ced t u r b o p r o p p r o j e c t h a s b e e n f o c u s e d on t h e t e c h n o l o g y n e e d s o f f u t u r e a d v a n c e d c o n m e r c i a l a i r c r a f t . a n d a f r e q u e n c y domain acoustic analysis with nonlinear quadrupole n o i s e s o u r c e s (39). CONCLUDING REMARKS F o r t h e a dva nc e d t u r b o p r o p t o b e c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h p r o p o s e d a d v a n c e d t u r b o f a n powered a i r c r a f t . However.b l a d e d p r o p e l l e r m ode ls were d e s i g n e d e m p l o y i n g v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s t o r e d u c e c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y losses. The p r o p e l l e r b l a d e p a s s a g e t o n e and h a r m o n i c s a r e v i s i b l e a bove t h e background l e v e l ( b l ad e a t f e a t h e r ) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t u n n e l b ack g r o u n d n o i s e was n o t a p r c b l e m i n co mp ar i n g r e l a t i v e t o n e l e v e l s . Seve r a l advanced p r o p e l l e r aerodynamic and a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s progra m s h a v e r e c e n t l y b e e n d e v e l o p e d o r are u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t s h o u l d e n h a n c e t h e d e s i g n of t h e s e new m o d e l s . a t h r e e dimensional transonic l i f t i n g s u r f a c e a n a l y s i s . 7 power c o e f f i c i e n t ) .p r e s e n t e d i n F i g .A c o m p a r i s o n o f meas u r ed n o i s e r e d u c t i o n r e f e r e n c e d t o SR-2 (0' s weep ) i s g i v e n i n F i g .: el o ci t y d i d n o t allot. Though i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r o v e c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t the tunnel noise data a r e f r e e Jf r e f l e c t i o n caused e r r o r s . . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e planned work i n a e r o d y n a m i c s a nd a c o u s t i c s . The a d v a n c e d p r o p e l l e r t e c h n o l o g y work u n d e r t h i s p r o j e c t can b e extended t o lower speed g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n a i r c r a f t . a e r o a c o u s t i c . Work p r e s e n t l y underway a t NASA a n d i n c l u d e d i n p l a n s f o r a p r o g r a m c a l l e d GAP. These progra m s i n c l u d e : a n i n t e g r a t e d p r o p e l l e r / n a c e l l e a n a l y s i s f o r s i n g l e a nd d u a l r o t a t i o n propellers. SR-3 (45 sweep) w a s a b o u t 5 t o 6 dB q u i e t e r t h a n SR-2 a t t h e b l a d e p a s s a g e tone.e c e i l i n g p r e s s u r e s f u r t h e r documented i n Ref. 8 c r u i s e a b o v e 9 . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t n o i s e reduct i o n was i n good a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r e d i c t e d v a l u e f r o m t h e a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s p r o g r am ( F i g . 1 4 4 km (30 000 f t ) a l t i t u d e w i t h a n a c c e p t a b l e c a b i n n o i s e environment. t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e problem v a s n o t s e v e r e . The aeroa c o u s t i c a l l y d e s i g n e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n (SR-3) w i t h 4' o f t i p sweep a nd a n a r e a .caves on 0 t h e 30 s w e p t b l a d e t i p . where a phase i n t e r f e r e n c e concept w a s u s e d t o a c o u s t i c a l l . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e wind t u n n e l t e s t s were encouraging. 7 % a t Mach 0 . 6 ) . Data from t h e s i d e v a l l t r a n s d u c e r s a l s o indicated a reduction i n noise level with d i s t a n c e . b l a d e s t r u c t u r e s a nd f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . t h e enc s u r a g i n g p r o p e l l e r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d n o i s e res u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p a p e r s h o u l d h a v e a pplication t o business a i r c r a f t especially those i n t h e h i g h e r performance c a t e g o r i e s . t h e Adv a n c e d T u r b o p r o p P r o j e c t w i l l a d d r e s s advanced technology i n p r o p e l l e r a e r o e l a s t i c s . and 1 . w i t h a n im provement o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3% o v e r t h e s t r a i g h t b l a d e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n (SR-2). a e r o e l a s t i c s . T h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t i v i t y i n d i c a t e d by t!-.06 a d v a n c e r a t i o .l m (30' s w e e p ) i s s e e n t o h a v e b e e n s l i g h t l y q u i e t z r t h a n SR-2. I t ma). S R . f o r G e n e r a l A v i a t i o n P r o p e l l e r technology. 3. ( i s ) . and composite s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s lower speed range. . The a e r o d y n a m i c sweep o f SR-lm was e x p e c t e d t o r e d u c e t h e n o i s e l e v e l somewiiat d u e t o l o w e r s t r e n g t k s h o g k '. 8 . n o i s e .r u l e d s p i n 5 ner yielded the highest propulsive efficiency ( 7 8 . Four 8 . This goal r e q u i r e s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of s e v e r a l a d v a n c e d a e r o d y n a m i c and a c o u s t i c c o n c e p t s . 1 7 from t r a n s d c c e r p c s i r i o n 3 . d e s i g n SR-3. 1 6 c o m p a r i n g SR-3 (5 4' s w e e p ) a t c r u i s e an d f e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c e i l i n g . i t must h a v e h i g h p r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y a t Mach 0 . These o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t a t least r e l a t i v e t o n e l e v e l c o n 7 a r i s o n s between b l a d e d e s i g n s a r e good. b e t h a t t h e t u n n e l b l e e d h o l e s a n d h i g h t u n n e l . FUT!'RZ PLANS a i r f o i l s . l o w e r power l o a d i n g a n d a l t e r n a t e d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s .m o u n t e d t r a n s d u c e r s l i g h t l y d ow nstre a m o f t h e p r o p e l l e r p l a n e .

) Mach number [cT J L H LV M A noise amplitude 1 1 ' AF blade activit:. cm (in. cm (in. m/sec ( f t / s e c > b l a d e r o t a t i o n a l t i p v e l o c i t y . m/sac (f t / s e c ) a x i a l d i s t a n c e from p r o p e l l e r p l a n e of r o t a t i o n . a aspect r a t i o e l e m e n t a l b l a d e c h o r d .2 cm (2A. m/sec ( f t / s e c ) f r e e .s t r e a m velocity. cm ( i n . C o n t i n u e d r e f i n e m e n t i n c l u d i n g adv a n c e d a i r f o i l s . ) P pow e r. cm (in. deg Teracki 5 PTR R CP power c o e f f i c i e n t = ? / c n D o 3 5 XEF 'LD elemental blade design l i f t coefficient i-ntegrated design l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t r SHP 'Li SR T c- t::rust cJeffiiient = 2 4 n i~ o REF t : 1 3 b l a d e t i p d i a x e t e r .) l o c a l v e l o c i t y . l a r g e r b l a d e n u m b e r . deg e f f e c t i v e b l a d e t w i s t . ) direct operating cost reference blade t i p diameter = 62. newtons ( l b ) e l e r c e n t a l b l a d e t h i c k n e s s .) s h a f t power. cn ( i n .y i e l d e d a b o u t 5 t o 6 dB r e d u c t i o n compared t o SR-2. VO/nDREF h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e f r o m PTR c e n t e r l i n e . cm (in. revolutions per second . Advanced a e r o d y n a m i c and a c o u s t i c design t e c h n i q u e s h a v e i mp r o v ed p r o p e l l e r p e r f o r m a n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r h i g h speed a p p l i c a t i o n s . ) v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e from PTR c e n t e r l i n e . and l o w e r t i p s p e e d s and power l o a d ir ? g s cap b e e x p e c t e d t o make f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i n t h i s i m p o r t a n t area o f T o r e e n e r g y e f f i c i e n t propulsion systems. cm ( i n . kW ( f t . ) b l a d e a n g l e a t 7 5 t r a d i u s . (:in ( i n .) radius. k (hp) W single rotation t h r u s t . factor = e l o c a l Mach number f r e e .l b / s e c ) propeller test r i g blade t i p radius.5!12 ft) decibel elemental poker c o e f f i c i e n t p p = [dCp/d(r/R)] d ( r / R )] vO DOC "TIP 2 'REF dB dCp!d (r!R) P 3/4 i3 .s t r e a m Xach number r o t a t i o n a l speed. i n c r e a s e d s weep . SY?!BOLS dCT/d(r/R) elemental t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t [(dCT/d (r/R)) d k/N] = advance r a t i o .

R. UTRC-R76-912036-16." Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. Dugan. 1977. 15. also NASA CR-138877. Witherspoon. Gatzen. 1 2 . Kraft and W. E. F. C. also NASA CR-137926. Nored. MDC-J7340-Vol-l. SAE Air Transportation Fleeting.. June 1976. "Fuel ConserlTative Propulsion Concepts for Future Air Transports. D. Gobetz and A. E. New York. Kraus. SAE Air Transportation Meeting. et al. F. also NASA CR-137927. 9. Johnston. LR-27769-2." SAE Paper 780995. Hirschkron." United Air Lines. Jr. "Cost/ Benefit Trade-offs for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Commercial Air Transportation (RECAT). "Prop-Fan Propulsion .a Key to Fuel Conservation: An Aircraft Manufacturer's View. G." General Electric Co. SAE Aerospace Yeeting. R. Fass and J.-717. E. 16. Yay 1976. "Study of Unconventional Aircraft Engines Designed for Low Energy Consumption. "Study of Unconventional Aircraft Engines Designed for Low Energy Consumption. New York. blikkelson. R76AEG597. New York. LR-27769-1. apparent efficiency = (TApp ' LrUj/P 'i ideal propulsive efficiency = * V ) / P (excludes (Tideal . 3 . Aug. L.. E. . R. 1978." LockheedCalifornia Co. S. June 1976. Dec. also NASA CR137878. Nov. May 1976. J." NASA TM-78962. "Study of Cost/ Benefit Tradeoffs for Reducing the Energy Consumption of the Commercial Air Transportation System.APP v . Gray. Hirschkron and R. W. "Study of the Cost/Benefit Tradeoffs for Reducing the Energy Consumption of the Commercial Air Transportation System Summary Report. P. D. "Study of the Cost/ Benefit Tradeoffs for Reducing the Energy Consumption of the Commercial Air Transportation System Final Report. "Fuel Conservative Potential for the Use of Turboprop Powerplants. "Cost/Benefit Tradeoffs f o r Reducing the Energy Consumption of the Commercial Air Transportation System. Hopklns.'' Lockheed-California Co. kglm (slugs/f t3) phase angle REFEESCES 1. also XASA CR-135136. R. Dubin. 1976. "Energy Consumption Characteristics of Transports Using the Prop-Fan Concept. Gray and J. June 1976. 13. and R. "Alternative Concepts for Advanced Energy Conservative Transport Engines. F." NASA TM >. B. deg 3 free-s:rean density. also XASA CR-137937. Stern. 2 ... 1976. and Tn. P. SAE Air Transportation Meeting. R. 10. "Aircraft Propulsion . P. Bogetz and A. 5. 8. Aug. W. also NASA CR-137923.8 Cruise. June 1976. San Diego. Inc. 1: Technical Analysis. Hopkins. E. 1976. Inc. Jeracki 7 . also NASA CR-135065. "Preiiminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption. "Cost/ Benefit Trade-offs for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Commercial Air Transportation: Final Report.o blade profile drag and compressibility losses) net efficiency = 'net (Tnet * vo)/l' nominal a n g l e of pressure transducer position from propeller. W. also NASA CR-137891. D. 86-75780." Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. J." SAE Paper 760537. UTRC-R76-912036-17. 17. P. "Design and Perforxance of Energy Efficienr Propellers for Yacn C. 14. E. Sep. Vol. 11.. Wharton. J. C." United Technologies Research Center. LeShane. L. J. "Fuel Conservative Aircraft Engine Technology. A. May 1975." United Technologies Research Center.. May 1976. et al. F. D. PU-5434. A . :. A . SAE Air Transportation Meeting. 1978. New York....Its Status and Potential." Douglas Aircraft Co.." S A E Paper 760535. Adamson.. Oct. Seitzel. Strack. Hopkins and H. June 1976. Coykendall. Neitzel. 3. 1976. E. P. May 1976." NASA TN X-73612.0." SAE Paper 760538. 6." SAE Paper 760536.

Kraus and J . Hc. " D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t C o . Foss a n d J .: T r a d e o i f s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e Energy Cons u m p t i o n o f t i i d C s m m e r c i a l Air T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systrm. P . P .c r a f t E n g i n e s 3 e s i g n e d f o r Lox E n e r g y Cons u m p t i o n . " Lockheed-California C o . E. Gra:. "Study of t h e C o s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e Energy Cons u m p t i o n o f t n e Commercial A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. E. Aug. R. J o h f i s t o n . W h a r t o n .4S. also NASA CR-137937. T u l l i s . Vanabkoude. " SAE P a p e r 760537. J u n e 1 9 7 6 . E. " E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Final T r a n s p o r t s U s i n g t h e Prop-Fan C o n c e p t . J.C a l i f or ni a C o . 2 : M a r k e t 2nd Economic A n a l y s e s . j. . New York. J. a l s o NASA CR-137925. Dec. 32. . F i n a l R e p o r t .-2. Rohrbdcii. 30. 3 5 . H o p k i n s . " L o c k h e e d . " S t u d y of U n c o n v e n t i o n a l A i r c r a f t E n g i n e s D e s i g n e d f o r Low E n e r g y Cons u m p t i o n . ClDC-J. SAE A i r T r a c s p o r t a t i s n I l e e t i n g . PWA-5318. " Lock'needC a l i f o r n i a C o . SAE Air T r a n s p o r t a t i o n M e e t i n g . "Energy C o n s u m p t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T r a n s p o r t s U s i n g t h e Prop-Fan C o n c e p t . " P r a t t h I f i i t n e y A i r c r a f t . C. 33. "A R e p o r t o n t h e Aerodyn a m i c D e s i g n and Wind T u n n e l T e s t o f a P r o p Fan ? l o d e l . LR-2T769-2. " G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c C o . " C o s t / S e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n o f Commercial A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. a l s o NASA CR-137924. . R. 1 9 7 6 . 1 8 . E . iR-23253: Aug. S I V . P.C a l i f o r n i a Co. F. D ." B o c i n g Commercial A i r p l a n e C o .i S 3-I 3 7 9 2 7 . g r a y . H o p k i n s and H . " SAE P a p e r 760537. a l s o NASA CR-135136. I n c . 31. E. J o h n s t o n . . 23. 2 2 . 3 : Summary t l e p o r t . "Study of t h e C o s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f o r Reducing t h e Energy C o n s u m p t i a n o f t h e Commercial A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. "Energy C o n s u m p t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T r a n s p o r t s U s i n g t h e Prop-Fan C o n c e p t . LR-27769-1. C . I ' D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t Co. J . T a ! c A i c o . May 1 9 7 6 . 9 7 6 . . K h a r t o n . Summary R e p o r t . Vol. H i r s c h k r o n . . Hopkins. 2 9 .-e ? ~ ~ s n t i a cl r :he Is? o f Turbof p r o s P > r . . . R e v e l 1 and R . a l s o NASA CR-137938. 1 9 7 6 . " C o . D67 5 7 8 0 .A Key t o F u e l C o n s e r v a t i o n : An A i r c r a f t N a n u f a c SAE P a p e r 760538." B o e i n g Commercial A i r p l a n e C o . LR-27769-2. 1 2 1 . R76AEG432. 2 5 . K76AEG597.-1. . XASA CR-135065. P . C . J . also NASA CR-137937. J .kins. F .6 6 ? . " AIX-2 P a p e r No. c r p l a n t s . Nov. 1 9 7 7 . 1 9 7 6 . " Douglas A i r c r a f t C o . Summary A e p o r c . D . . 1 9 7 6 . a l s o NASA CR-137927. S e i t z e l . 28.. " C o s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n o f Comm e r c i a l A i r T r a n s p o r c a t i o n S y s t e m . H .I' 1 . i ' a n a b k o u d e . Final Report. D67 5 7 8 0 . 2 4 . . " P r a t t & Whicney A i r c r a f t . P. a l s o S. 34. D675780. " LockheedC a i i f a r n i a i o . J u n e 1 9 7 6 . E . . ." B o e i n g Commercial A i r p l a n e C O ..01. " F u e l Csnserva:i. NASA CR135001. F s s s a n d J. J u n e 1 9 7 6 . R . Summary R e p o r t . J u n e 1 9 7 6 . . PUA-5434. l i i c . J u l y 1976. R . "Stud. i F i . .d o f t h e C o s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e E n e r g y Cons u m p t i o n o f t h e Commercial A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. .sumption o f t h e Comrnerical A i r T r a n s p o r : a t i o n S y s t e m . " D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t C o . A G g . 11: M a r k e t and Economic A n a l y s i s . " C o s t / Benrf. E. L r a y .'SAE 1 2 t h Propulsion C o n f e r < > n c e . P . X e i t z e l . S t e r n .\IrL1. H i r s c h k r o n . 1 9 7 6 . F i n a l Report. 1'9-5. 2 6 . May 1 9 7 6 . o c k h s e d . " P r a t t & Whitney A i r c r a f t . May 1 9 7 6 . " S t u d y o f U n c o n v e n t i o n a l . Yay 1 9 7 6 . 1 9 7 6 . NDC-J7340Vo1. J u E e 1 9 7 f 7 . " General E l e c t r i c C O . J u n e 1 9 7 6 . " F u e l C o n s e r v a t i z n .J .se o f Turbop r o p P o w e r p l a n e s . PWA-5434. " E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T r a n s p o r t s E s i n g t h e Prop-Fan C c n c e p t . "Study of T u r b o f a n Engines Designed f o r Low E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n . N e w Y o r k . i. " S t u d y of t h e C o s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f f s f c r Reducing t h e E n e r g y Cor. >LISA CR-135053. 7 6 . Sumnary Report. " F u e l C o n s e r v a t i o n P o t e n t i a l f o r t h e l. I : T e c h n i c a l A n a l y s i s . Z. ?. . 3 . h . H o p k i n s a n d H. . " S t u d y o f U n c o n v e n t i o n a l A i r c r a f t Eng i n e s D e s i g n e d f o r Low E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n . a l s o XASA Cii-152096. Aug. 1 9 7 6 . @ c t . 4 u g . C . Report. Vol. P . E. s t / B e n e f i t T r a d e o f i s f o r R e d u c i n g t h e Energy C o n j u m p t i a n o f t h e Commercial A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S y s t e m . Aug. 19. 20. a l s o NASA CR-13792-. . LX-27759-1. O c t . K r a u s . T . "Study o f T u r b o f a n E n g i n e s D e s i g n e d f o r Low E n e r g y C o n s u m p t i o n . a l s c XASA CR-135065. a l s o NASA CR137926. D6-75780. . NDC-J7340-Vol-2. a l s o NASA CR-137923. D. Vanabkoude. 1 9 7 6 . S A E A i r T r a n s t u r e r ' s View. a l s o NASA CR-137938. L. i n c . a n d R. V o l . " A i r c r a f t P r o p u l s i o n . also YASA CR137926. L.':erits o f Advanced T u r b o p r o p T r a n s p o r t A i r c r a f t .340. 'I B o e i n g Commercial A i r p l a n e C o . ." p o r t a t i o n M e e t i n g . H o p k i n s . MDC-J7340-LTol. 2 7 . I n c . and R . E.

" NASA TM-79046. A i e l l o . J e r a c k i . Kenyon. J . S a m o n d s . 38.F an . "The Pr o p . ?lay 1 9 7 4 . Jeracki 9 .I' 4 1 . I. a n d R . B e r l i n : J u l i u s S p r i n g e r . 3 7 . & . D urand. " Aerodynamic Tlie ory. F. 4 2 . Mar. H. F . J . D . B. Menthe. C h a p t . Apr. S e p .8 Mach number. An ah e i m . '' AIM 7 9 . W. Swallow a n d R. 4 3 . I . A I A A / S A E 1 2 t h Prop u l s i o n C o n f e r e n c e . 1979. B l a h a ." NASA CR-3047.3 6 . M.A c o u s t i c s C o n f e r e n c e . Dec. B.R o t a t i o n P r o p e l l e r i n C o m b i n a t i o n With a n NACA 1 . 1 9 7 8 . "Tone N o i s e of T h r e e S u p e r s o n i c H e l i c a l T i p Speed P r o p e l l e r s i n a Wind Tunne l a t 0. R. B. Body a nd Wing I n t e r f e r e n c e . Div. C . C . G l a u e r t . W. D. B. T a i o A 1t o . AIAA/SAE 1 1 t h P r o p u l s i o n Conf e r e n c e . " X X . 4 4 .2. 1 9 7 j . b l et zg er a n d C . " A I A A P a p e r 76-565. J u l y 1 9 7 6 . Hanson.S e r i e s D-Type Cowling a t Mach Numbers Up t o 0 . " NACA UU53B06. and G . H . Rohrbacli. R .ind 'n'ind T u n n e l T e s t o f a Prop-Fan ?lode1 AIX\ P a p e r 76-667.85. P l e t z g e r .0 6 1 0 . 2 t o 0. 3 9 . I V . a n d H. A . 1978. S e a t t l e . J u l y 1 9 76. 1953. Rohrbach and F . V I I I . L e u i s 8. e d i t o r .A c o u s t i c s C o n f e r e n c e . . "Aeroa c o u s t i c D e s i g n of t h e P r o p . "RASA R J ! . "Aerodynamic Doesign a nd P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t i n g of an Advanced 30 Swept. "i\ R e p o r t o n t i l e Aerodynamic D e s i g n .A New Look i n P r o p u l s o r s . E i g h t Bladed P r o p e l l e r a t Mach num be rs from 0 . " A I M P a p e r 75-1208.F a n . "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a Four-Blade S i n g l e . B l a c k . R o h r b ach . W a i n a u s k i . L . M . C. S e p . R e y n o l d s . 1 T?! ?:--15.b y 6-Foot S u p e r s o n i c Wind T u n n e l . AIAA 3 r d A e r o . "Xear F i e l d No i s e o f High T i p Speed P r o p e l l e r s i n Forward F l i g h t . AIM 5 t h A e r o . " A i r p l a n e P r o p e l l e r s . S . J . 1935. R . D i t t m a r . 8 3 . V o l . P a l o A l t o .

1 10 r DOUGLAS DC 9-30 P R 0 P -FAN TSFC = 0. n mi km 1000 1852 531 s 880 2718 963 1852 -_ 0 0 .. .Advanced turboprop (prop-fan) a i rc ra ft operating cost savings. . n mi m Figure 1. oigallon (1973 CURRENCY) 60 Fiqure 2. . km I I 16 OOO 4ooo ooo 0 20oo 4OOo 6000 OPERATING RANGE..0.65 --A / 290 415 1500 STAGE LENGTH.Fuel saving trends of advanced turboprop (prop-fan 1 powered a i rc ra ft over comparable turbofan powered aircraft.8 M A C H CRUISE 60 Ti r SHORT-HAUL AIc MIUTAR Y LONG ENDURANCE AIRCRAFT 7 CLIMB & DESCENT DOMINATED I 0 - CRUISE DOMINANT I 8000 12 OPERATING RANGE.1 M A C H CRUISE 0. _- 520 1000 c3 z d I W F 41 P o I - y = Q 2c I \--- -I A -3 I /-/: / .. I * ! I L/ 1 I 0 “20 30 40 50 FUEL PRICE.

. .Advanced aerodynamic concepts for improving propeller performance. CURVE A B C D SECTION MACH NUMBER.Effects of advanced aerodynamic concepts on blade section Mach number distributions. NO VELOCITY SUPPRESSION OR SWEEP DRAG DIVERGENCE M A C H NUMBER [NACA 1bSERIES) SECTION M A C H NUMBER WITH 30’ TIP SWEEP EFFECTIVE SECTION M A C H NUMBER (WITHSUPPRESSION AND SWEEP) A 1.21- Figure 4.REDUCED THICKNESS L BLADE SWEEP & 0 NACELLE BLOCKAGE SPINNER AREA RULING ADVANCED AIRFOILS Axc Figure 3. .

*JEL AT A PC. PR 0 PELLER {b) STRONG CANCELLATION OF ACOUSTICALLY SWEPl PROPELLER.5) 8 45 - P--I TIME LEVEL---. OF BLADES TIP SWEEP ANGLE. dB Figure 6.O c N A I SR-2 244 ~ 8 0 0 ) 301 (37. RESULTANT IS (SUMOF STRIP RESULTS ABOVE PRESS UP^ I. STK IP RESULTS-. PID'. Yo DESIGN NOISE LEVEL.M.Acoustic s t r i p analysis technique duction.5) 8 0 C-lE-ZIZl TIP SPEED.3 143 81 137 - Design characteristics and planform of high-speed propeller Figure 5.9. 1M 244 (800) 301 (37. models. ~ A ~ R -.. for near-field noise r e - . STAT'oN / ' ' /-. kW/m2 (shpift*) NO. .6 143 78..5) 8 30 ) r (P9-- SR-3 244 (800) 301 (37. . SR-1. deg DESIGN EFF. misec (ftisec) POWER LOADING.r C H O S t N NWR THE PROPELLER BLADE 76.n. 79. \ i TIP '\ I i t ' + ~ 00 T R ES ULTANT AM PLITUDE iar POOK CANCELLATION OF UNSWtPT PI<0 PELLER.

ti COMPARISON.“CIRCULAR ARC MEAN LINE EXCEPT SR-1 WHICH HAS a = 1. 3 . .2 I .6 . -u 8: r i W 3 v) n d w i * -2of zoP 0 / ’ -40 . r l R (c) AERODYNAMIC SWEEP ANGLE COMPARISON. Figure 7.0 $ 1 i 2 0 c l I 00 -10 L TR IB UTlON COMPARISON.9 1.5 . 8 .7 . . .Blade geometry characteristics.0 BLADE RADIUS.4 .

2 cm (24.75 MACH NUMBER.7 D = 62.06.7 .85 .7 SWEEP SR-2 00 SR-1 30' SR-lM.r? 8. . 1 J A B C D J = 3.65 .rcpeller model ir the Leuis 8-by-6 foot w i n d tunnfl.06 C P = 1.= 3.3 .l M ..Irjt>!la!i3n cf j R . . . Figure Q.Predic!ed performance o f 8 bladed propellers.C-l 30" E S R .b . M . AR-2 300 F SR-3 4 9 86-____________----A IDEAL EFFICIENCY BLADE DRAG 84- = 0 6 Figi.5 in. Cp = 1.

Cutaway vier.DRIVE AIR 7__. of s t r u t . 7 FLEXURE _--LOAD CELL NACELLE iPRESSLRE IhlSTRLMENTED IW A S REMOVED DUSItvG TESTS1 S PINNE . Figure 10.m o u n t e d Lewis propeller test rig. / -/ = . . ..". .

1 60. - F i g u r e 11.9 62.0 3.8.9 m D r . 19 58-50 59.8 -4.05933 z .5 in.9- PERCENT DESIGN '\POWER LOADING DESIGN LOADING PARAMETER CplJ3 = 0. 9 54.9 61. 4 9 swept propeller.9 v 0 0 63.9 54. (b) Mo 0.4 850 ( 7% "Ap ! 650 550 ftlsec 110668m 000 f t ) ALTITUDE) .40 61. 2.9 64.40 51.2 cm (24.6. o 0 0 A Q 0 P 0 60.6 3.1 4 .4 3.70 51.30 60.0 5.4 0 5. J ~~ 5. 6 ADVANCE RATIO. - 0.40 DREF = 62. . .30 60.9- : w L (a) M .Basic measured performance for SR-3.

2.l M .Effect of power loading and advance ratio on net efficiency at Mach 0. ) 82 . .4 (c) S R .5 in. 82- z c kbLL w 2 V > s 8078 .6. DESIGN LOADING PARAMETER C@J3 = 0.05933 PERCENT DESIGN POWER LOADING 80. 70 3.2 ADVANCE RATIO. 70 . J 84 z t . Figure 12. 3@ SWEEP. C-1.8 I 3.DREF = 62.0 3.+. I 78 2.6 .6 3. 8 0 - 78 .2 cm (24. .

05933 j. AR-2.0 3.2 cm ( 2 4 5 in. 450 SWEEP.4 2. J 3.- 1 2. 3@ SWEEP.2 2. Figure 12.2 ADVANCE RATIO. 1 DESl N LOADING PARAMETER cdJ = 0. w U U W z u 8 4 r 76 . .6 3.88r 84 F DREF = 62.6 i 3.Concluded. . AR-3.8 leJ SR-3. >- ’ 82 t I I I 8 0 1 7 8 1 I \ (d) SR-lM.4 2.8 3.

300 SWEEP. @ SWEEP. J (c) SR-IM.6 3.Effect of power loading and advance ratio on net efficiency at Mach 0.DREF = 62.5 in. AR-2. 00 SWEEP. 1 DESlfN LOADING PARAMETER CplJ 0.8 3.8. Figure 13. . 80 74 2.2 3.8 ADVANCE RATIO. C-1.0 3.6 2.05933 PERCENT DESIGN POWER LOADING - 14 (a) SR-2. .4 3. C-1. "r U U- (bl SR-1.2 cm (24.

.65 .7 62. Figure 14. .06.7 .2 cm (24.5 in.W LL s I - 80- ia76 SWEEP SPINNER AREA RULED CONIC CONIC AREARULED AREA RULED 0 SR-2 0 SR-1 SR-1M fi SR-1M 0 SR-3 d) @ M" 3@ 450 J D 'L = = .85 MACH UUMBER. ) 3 v l 76- 5 s 74.8 .284 i ---------------IDEAL EFFICIENCY BLADE DRAG = 0 3.75 .High speed propeller performance summary. Cp = 1. M .6 .

4 36.06 105.953 0.375 45.8 104.436.0 10.2 4.4 41.491.P r e s s u r e transducer positions.5 2.PROPELLER CENTERLINE OF TOP WALL- CENTERLINE OF POSITIONS Z 1 -27.7 2 3 4 5 6 1 L H -10. .0 91.4 41.1 -0.15 -0. .2 17.54 1.62 3.9 0.0 31.0 Figure 15. 7.512.0 .

Typical comparison of SR-3 propeller a t cruise and feather.. .Measured noise comparison of propeller models.l . / COMPRESSOR /.8 DESIGN CONDITIONS Figure 17. Hz (TRANSDUCER POSITION 3.-TUNNEL 1M.1 Figure 16.‘. . I Mo = 0. . .-PROPELLER BLADE PASSAGE TONE 1101 0 I -L1 I I I 1 I I I 1000 2000 3ooo 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 000 FREQUENCY.

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D C . Daniel C. ( o f this wgel 21 NO of Pages 22 Rice' Unclassified L'nclassified .7 9 1'71 4 1 3 Reclpaent's Cataioq No T ~ l ' eand Subtifir: W S D r l T X E L PERFORMASCE OF FOL. Perforning Organitatton Code 8 Performing Organization Repor1 hro. Robert J.4 TlI.Aeronautics and Space Administration IVashington.1 Qeoort M. Ohio 44133 1 2 Scarso. 8 CRV'ISE 7 Ad!hOr s I~ 5 Report Date 6. Blaha 9 PerforTipg Organ za.unlimited STAR Category 0 2 Clarslf i o f this repurr1 20 Security Classif. SIikkelson. 30546 7 Key Words (Suggested by Authoris) 1 18 Distribution Statement Fuel conservation Advanced turboprop P r o p e Ile r Noise reduction 9 %Curtly Unclassified .11 EKERGY EFFICIENT PROPELLERS DESIGSED FOR lLACH 0 . on Lame and Address E-9960 10 Work Unit No 1 I 4 S at i o n al Aeronautics and Space . and Ber n ar d J. J e r a c k i . Lame and Address 11 Contract or Grant No I 13 Type of Report and Per od Covered I Technical Memorandum 14 Sponsoring Agency Code Sational . ng Agenc.Administration Lenis Research Center Cle\e!and. 2 Government Accession No S A 5.

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