Wing Tip Attachments and Arrangements Induced Drag Induced Drag In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag

, vortex drag, or, sometimes, drag due to lift, is a drag force that occurs whenever a moving object produces Lift. This drag force occurs in airplanes due to wings or a lifting body redirecting air to create lift. With other parameters remaining the same, as the angle of attack increases, induced drag increases. It is not possible to have a wing of infinite span. However, the characteristics of such a wing can be measured on a section of wing spanning the width of a wind tunnel, since the walls block spanwise flow and create what is effectively a two-dimensional flow. There is no induced drag in the case of an infinite wing. On a wing of finite span, due to pressure distribution around the wing, some air "leaks" around the wingtip from the lower surface to the upper surface producing a wingtip vortex. The deflection of the airflow by the vortices produces a down flow or 'downwash' behind the wing. Looking at a cross-section of the wing, the Lift force will be tilted aft (due to downwash), producing a horizontal component called “induced drag”. The magnitude of induced drag depends on the amount of lift being generated by the wing. Long, thin wings have low induced drag and short wings with a large chord have high induced drag. Also, at zero- lift condition, there will be no induced drag. Wingtip Fence The wingtip fence generates non-planar lift using stable vortical flow from a small delta wing. Due to the high leading-edge sweep-angle of the upper fence, the flow separates just downstream of the leading edge and rolls-up into a leading-edge vortex. The outboard side of the lower fence also features a leading edge vortex but smaller in size due to the gradual reduced sweep angles while approaching the lower fence tip. A relative weak interference shock on the inboard side of the upper fence is noticed. The small span and leading edge vortical flow results in two wing-tip vortices. The near wake development of the fence vortices indicates that the upper vortex persists longer than the lower vortex (see figure 3) while they curl around each other. Advantages • Both surfaces are shorter than or equivalent to a winglet possessing similar aerodynamic benefits • The fence will not suffer stall as readily as a winglet, and the impact on the wing bending moment is extremely small. • Used on the A300/A310, A320, and A380, useful for retrofits since the impact on the wing load is small. • Used on the A380 since it is already span limited (gate clearances) to give an effective wing span optimum for the aircraft. • Lower gain in simple drag terms, but brings a substantially lower weight penalty with no geometric span increase.

Canted/Conventional Winglets Summary • Conceived by NASA's Dr. Richard Whitcomb in the 1960’s and implemented on the 747-400 in the late 1980’s • Provided greater efficiency when compared to aircraft without winglets. • The upward angle, or “cant”, gives the canted winglet its unique look.

use of a winglet instead of a span extension will provide a performance increase without increasing the bending moment applied at the wing root as much. high-angle-of-attack conditions were also factors in implementing a lower winglet to the MD-11. Blended Winglet The most profound characteristics of the blended winglet is that they are built deeply into the wing rather than just used as an addition. The aircraft will have the benefit from. The lower winglet offered a greater cruise drag benefit because of the added span.• • • • The MD-11 was fitted with a canted upper winglet and a lower winglet. increased range. in addition to the induced drag reduction which all winglets provide. The favorable aerodynamic interactions between the upper and lower winglets at low-speed. and flutter. with an airfoil shape implemented in the design. Blended winglets have a structure similar to that of the wing. Forcing this vortex out creates a longer effective span and therefore making the wing more effective because there is less induced drag and the vortices don’t affect the wing tips to the same degree as before. and there is no sharp angle at the winglet-wing joint. less induced drag. A great advantage of using winglets instead of increasing span is operational – if the span of the wing is kept similar. Blended winglets are most notably in use on the Boeing BBJ and 737-series. The wing with the raised tip will be able to benefit from ground effect slightly more during takeoff giving a shorter ground roll. This allows for a reduction in interference drag. slightly higher cruise speed. While the raised tip will allow for slightly short landing due to less floating in ground effect. With drooped or raised wing tips. The main advantage of implementing blended winglets over conventional winglets is reduction in interference drag – a component of parasite drag. The three loads which affect the structure and may require reinforcement of wing parts are: static loads. For airlines. The current blended winglets can also be retrofitted on previous manufactured aircraft which were produced without winglets. leading to creation of vortices. the plane will be able to access all the gates at airports which it previously could. Interference drag is created when airflow strikes a sharp angle between two contacting surfaces. Also. the vortex is forced further out. and better takeoff performance while also adding an aesthetic value to the aircraft. Blended winglets are 60 percent more efficient than the conventional winglets. Hoerner Wing Tip .. greater rate of climb. blended winglets represent fuel savings. Finally the ground roll for both wings will lower but to different degrees. more stability particularly with aileron control since the vortices are being pushed away from the wing tips where the ailerons are located. dynamic flight loads. Drooped and Raised Wing Tips In order to minimise tip vortices. engineers designed special shapes for the wing tips. The main concern surrounding retrofitting was that previous models which had been certified without winglets would require wing structure modification due to increased wingletinduced loading. but winglets are added.

this reduces wing tip vortices and improves aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft. With a small radius at the bottom and a relatively sharp top corner. we found our study of the raked tip to be the most appealing due to the relative ease of fabrication. In general. The disadvantages include increased skin friction and interference drag. a major disadvantage of raised and drooped wing tips is that they will both cause an increase in weight. they have the same effect as adding 10ft to the wing in only half the space and less weight. Reduction in induced drag is due to increased effective aspect ratio of the wing and reduced amount of lateral airflow moving over the tip of the wing. the air from the secondary flow (air from under the wing) travels around the rounded bottom but can't go around the sharp top corner and is pushed outward. Local coefficient of lift is increased due to reduced downwash. An easier and lighter method is by cutting the wing tip at 45-degree. Tip-tanks The main purpose of the external fuel tanks is to increase the amount of fuel available on an aircraft. Raked Wingtips Raked Wingtips are a relatively new type of wingtip device. The biggest benefactor of this highly swept wingtips are high altitude commercial jets. Newer designs incorporate streamlined tanks and use fillets at the tip tank-wing junction to reduce parasite drag as much as possible. the true airspeed of an aircraft will be slightly lower than the true airspeed of an unmodified aircraft. Because of their swept back design. and the fact that the tip is currently being used on production civilian aircraft. the true airspeed of an aircraft will be slightly higher when compared to similar aircraft which is not fitted with tip tanks. Modern tip-tanks decrease induced drag and increase local coefficient of lift near the wing tips. When compared to other types of wing tip attachments raked wingtips reduce the loading on the main wing and subsequently reduce the bending moment that the inboard wing attachment must support.However. this is called the Hoerner tip. At certain airspeed. parasite drag starts to affect the aircraft more than induced drag. and thus increased effective angle of attack. Similarly to winglets. Since wing tip tanks reduce induced drag. induced drag accounts for the major portion of the total drag which affects the aircraft. which in turn increases said aircraft’s range. At lower speeds. They benefit from the increased lift-todrag ratio caused by the reduction in induced drag together with a small increase in CL that raked wintips offer. After this airspeed. Advantages with the Hoerner tip are similar to the drooped and raised tips discussed above while also including lighter weight. Most manufacturers design the tip tanks in such a way that at normal cruise altitude and normal power settings the .

seen from below. these tip feathers bend upwards and spread out vertically. The C-Wing concept This concept was first explored as an alternative wing design for very large transport aircraft. This design consists of a rotating four blade turbine and a generator. Close Coupled Biplane Interference from each wing segment acts like slots on a feathered tip. In other words. essentially creating a closed loop wing locally at the wingtip. however such an increase would result in a need for stronger wing structure. Two operating modes: locked and free. Wingtip Vortex Generator This is a ‘windmill’ attached to the wingtip at the trailing edge. Also non-planar wing designs are used for favorable stability and control characteristics.Planar Wing Arrangements A non-planar wing tip is one in which the local dihedral of the wing is increased. Wing tip sails are small wing attachments oriented in such a way that they use the local airflow around the tip to create a small thrust. but also – because of the downward moment of the horizontal component – reduces the root bending moment. therefore the wing structure can be lighter. Induced drag may be reduced by extending the span of a planar wing. These tip feathers act as winglets in that they reduce the induced drag caused by lift creating wings Wing Tip Sails Wing tip sails – as the name implies – have nautical roots. This shape achieves a large reduction in induced drag. As the name suggests. The explanation for this is that “…the induced drag of a multi-plane is less than that of a monoplane of equal span and total lift because the non planar system can influence a larger mass of air. allowing the performance of the aircraft to remain the same Non. these tip feathers form obvious slots during gliding. A planar wing span increase of 10% can give a 17% reduction in vortex drag at the same speed and coefficient of lift. the wing is bent up or down at the tip instead of being a straight line from root to tip. extensive optimization is necessary to minimize the risks of this new design from issues such as flutter. . However. imparting to this air mass a lower average velocity change. Spiroid The Spiroid is a wingtip that loops back on itself. The concept involves a winglet like structure at the wing tip. Seen from in front. the idea of wing tip feathers was taken from observing nature. the span of which would be constrained by airport size. and aeroelastic phenomena. and are inspired by the sails of a boat. structural integrity.positive effects of reducing induced drag and adverse effects of increasing parasite drag negate each other. with a horizontal component forming a C-shape. and therefore less energy and drag” Wing-tip Feathers One type of experimental wing tip arrangement is wing tip feathers. and consequently heavier weights which would increase fuel consumption and reduce payload. Flight tests have shown a marked 10% reduction in fuel consumption.

while generating the most power. . Studies found that there is a trade off with turbine blade pitch angle. The rotating turbine recovers energy from the wingtip vortex. would yield approximately 400hp. as the pitch angle causes the turbine to rotate the same direction as the wingtip vortex. engineers estimated. while attenuating it – reducing induced drag.This design was thought to be a possibility to replace or reduce the use of APUs. The design was to contain the shockwave underneath the wing so to use it for additional lift. This concept worked well at high Mach numbers. Actuating Wingtip Found on the North American XB-70 Valkyrie. A similar design on a large transport. it strengthens the vortex instead of weakening it. Designed to utilize “Compression Lift” – which is making use of the shockwave created while flying at high Mach speeds.

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