This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Unit Operations Laboratory No. 4 Experiment on Heat Transfer: Natural Convection of Hot Water System in Paper and Styro Cups

Submitted by: Cañedo, Raphael Colita, Jon Dimo, Van Andrew Dumaog, Mary Bernadine

Submitted to: Engr. Arniel Ching O. Dizon

August 5, 2010

particularly natural convection could be demonstrated. from these measured parameters and the slope of the line. Will it be a paper or styro cup? The experiment was set up so as to measure the overall heat transfer coefficient by measuring every 1 degree Celsius deviation in the thermometer as a function of time. The question guiding this study is what material governs a faster rate of heat transfer through natural convection in a hot water system. For a system of hot water in a cup insulated at the top and bottom part. Then the value of ln[(Tliq-Troom)/(Tliq Troom) vs time is plotted to show the linear relationship of the variables. . Wherever there is a temperature difference there would always be heat flow to achieve thermal equilibrium. both conduction and convection. Thus. Thus.Abstract Heat transfer mechanisms have always been regarded with utmost importance because of its ubiquitous existence in every facet of life. it can heat flows in paper cups much faster than styro cups. values for Uo for both materials were then compared. Its dimensions such as top. Top and bottom side of the cups are insulated with Styrofoam. Both paper cups are weighed with and without water to measure the amount of water present for the heat transfer process. Conduction is when the hot water heats the cup and natural convection is when the surrounding air with lesser temperature causes circulation because of density difference resulting from temperature gradients in the fluid. bottom diameter and its vertical length were also known to integrate the value of the external surface area. It was known that Uo for styro is much lesser than for paper cups.

..........................7 References...........................................................................................10 Appendix C..................9 Appendix B..........................................................................8 Appendix A..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 ...................................2 Results.....................................................................................................................4 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer...................................................................................................2 Data Gathering..............................................................................................6 Conclusions and Recommendations...................................Table of Contents Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................4 Prantdl Number........................................................................................................................................4 Reynolds Analogy............................................................................................................................................................4 Discussion.......................................2 Data Treatment...............................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Sample Preparation...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Methodology........................................................................................................................................................

There are two types of convective heat transfer. Basically. Thus. force and natural convection. the fluid (air) was not force to flow over the surface by an external source then the type of convection employed in this study is natural convection. Energy Balance for the system where the control volume is the hot liquid inside the containers. Natural Convection is a type of convection wherein fluid motion results entirely from the presence of a hot body in the fluid. causing temperature and hence density gradients to develop.INTRODUCTION Heat transfer also called as transfer of thermal energy occurs in a system due to temperature difference in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach thermal equilibrium. so that the fluid moves under the influence of gravity and thereby releasing heat in the process. A good application of heat transfer can be seen through a system of hot water in a cup wherein two major mechanisms of heat transfer occur. d . It has to be that way because energy can't just disappear into nothingness. the hot water heats the cup by conduction and then simultaneously convection happens between the hot surface and the bulk surrounding fluid which is of much lower temperature. Accumulation of Energy in the Control Volume Rate of Energy addition to the Control Volume Rate of Energy addition to the Control Volume (1) = _ This can be expanded into a form which relates the all experimental factors together knowing that there is no additional energy being added into the control volume. the energy that flowed into the air and the other surfaces in the room exactly equals the energy that flowed out of the cup. According to the First Law of Thermodynamics. Since in this experiment. Heat transfer always occurs from a higher-temperature to a cooler-temperature as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The total amount of energy never changes.

mC p T liquid dt ! 0 J .

¨ Rate of ¸ ¨ " Proportionality ¸¨ Area of ¸ «Temperature » © ¹ ¹© ¹ © © Heat Transfer ¹ ! © Constant" ¹© the Surface ¹ ¬ Difference ¼ ½ º ºª º ª ª (3) .184 J/(kg ºC) Rate of Heat Transfer is measured by. C p is the heat capacity of water = 4.Rate s of Heat Transfer (2) Where m is the moles of hot water.

Tsurface is the surface Temperature and Tair is the temperature of the air. T Tinitial ¨ Tliquid T room © ©T ª initial T room ¨ U A ¸ ¹ ! exp © o o ¹ © mC p º ª ¨ Tliquid T room This means that the plot ln © ©T ª initial T room ¸ ¹ vs t gives the linear relationship between the two ¹ º ¨U A ¸ experimental variables. Surface area. Uo based on the outside area. With Slope = © o o ¹ © mC ¹ p º ª which give value for Uo. Ao is given by the formula integrated to measure the external surface area of the side of the conical cup. ¨ d top d bottom Ao ! TL© © 2 ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º (5) (4) *note: integration for A0 is shown in appendix. Rate of Heat Transfer = -Uo Ao [Tsurface-Tair] Where Uo is the proportionality constant coefficient which is different for every type of material. Therefore equation (2) now becomes. ´ .Or similarly taking account the overall heat transfer by combined conduction and convection which is expressed in terms of an overall heat-transfer coefficient. Ao is the outside area of contact. This experiment aims to compare values of the Heat Transfer Coefficient. Uo by measuring the temperature deviation versus time for a hot water system for two different types of materials particularly paper and styro for the cup which is well insulated in both top and bottom part to insure that only the side undergoes natural convection. Thus.

T dTliquid liquid Troom ! ¨ U o Ao ¸ ´0 © mC p ¹dt © ¹ t ª º t ¸ t¹ ¹ º (6) .

METHODOLOGY .

htm . and Harriott P. 1995 [2]McCabe W. Christie J. Inc.. Smith C.school-for-champions. Retrieved from http://www. Rerieved from http://www.google.com/science/heat_transfer_coffee. Singapore: Prentice-Hall. Third Edition. Transport Processes and Unit Operations. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering.com.. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Corporation.REFERENCES [1]Geankoplis.ph/#hl=tl&source=hp&q=natural+convection&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql= &oq=&gs_rfai=&fp=1&cad=b [4]Heat transfer . 1993 th [3]Natural convection. 5 Edition.

- Convective Mass Transfer
- Solids (V=1)3bh) cone
- Nuclear Energy-Alfonso Eva Napat Tapangco
- Lecture 4 - Quadrilaterals
- Writing a Thesis Proposal
- Lectures 7 - Solids (V=bh).pptx
- Particle Size Distribution
- Solids Handling
- Cyclones
- Centrifugation
- Solid Extraction.pptx
- Safety
- Industrial Process Safety
- Chemical Process Industries
- Equation Solution and Solution Sets
- Shell Momentum Balance
- The Set of Real Numbers and Its Properties
- Molecular Geometry
- SET Identities
- Factoring Polynomials
- Stoichiometry
- Isothermal Temperature Report
- Homework 1
- Homework 1
- Sandra Enn Bahinting Homework 2

- Voltage Controlled Oscillator (Updated)
- 4_EE6303_Reviewquestions
- RLC
- DC Circuits Lab Ohms Law CETT 1403
- Pitot Tube Fluids Essay
- FM Angular Modulation
- Ch 12&13 Heat and Temperature 2011
- Radar System Performance
- AEI405
- Experiment 2
- 2nd Law & Entropy
- Ehh
- JIANGHAI Elcap Lifetime - Estimation AAL
- Lab_FO2_2005
- musumeci 2003 0517
- Electrical Reactance - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- States of Matter CE
- Ohms Law
- Moving Iron Instruments
- Ejercicios de Corriente Resist en CIA Magnetico
- Component Failure Analysis
- Collision and Mean Free Path 40 c
- 1khgk
- Pressure
- The_X-ray_Tube
- Sim3
- Please (2)
- Design of a Bidirectional Impedance-Adapting Transformer Cou
- Gauge and Absolute Pressure (PHYSICS)
- ME3122

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd