Rules for the Classification of Charter Yachts

Effective from 1 January 2006

Part B
Hull

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Marcello Lucentini RINA S.p.A. Via Corsica, 12 - 16128 GENOVA Tel. +39 010 53851 Graphic Sector SAS Genova - Italy Publication registred under No. 25/73 of 11 April 1973 Court of Genova © RINA S.p.A. - All rights reserved

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PREAMBLE TO THE RULES: GENERAL CONDITIONS
Definitions: "Rules" means the Rules for the Classification of Yachts engaged in Commercial Use for Sport or Pleasure, that do not carry Cargo and do not carry more than 12 Passengers whether contained herein or in other documents issued by the Society. "Services" means the activities described in article 1 below, rendered by the Society upon request made by or on behalf of the Interested Party. "Society" means RINA S.p.A. and any other Company pertaining to the RINA Group which provides the Services. “Surveyor” means technical staff acting on behalf of the Society in the performance of the Services. “Interested Party” means a party, other than the Society, having responsibility for the classification of the yacht, such as the Owner of the yacht and his representatives, or the yacht builder, or the engine builder, or the supplier of parts to be tested. “Owner” means the Registered Owner or the Disponent Owner or the Manager or any other party with the responsibility to keep the yacht seaworthy, having particular regard to the provisions relating to the maintenance of class laid down in Part A, Chapter 2 of the Rules. “Administration” means the Government of the State whose flag the yacht is entitled to fly or the State under whose authority the yacht is operating in the specific case. Article 1
1.1. - The purpose of the Society is, among others, the clas-

checks carried out by and under the responsibility of qualified service suppliers. Survey practices and procedures are selected by the Society at its sole discretion based on its experience and knowledge and according to generally accepted technical standards in the industry. Article 3 3.1. - The class assigned to a yacht reflects the opinion of the Society that the yacht, given the intended use and within the relevant time frame, complies with the Rules applicable at the time the service is rendered. Entry into force and application of new Rules are dealt with in Part A, Chapter 1, Section 1, Article 2 of the Rules. 3.2. - No report, statement, notation on a plan, review, Certificate of Classification or any document or information issued or given as part of the services provided by the Society shall have any legal effect or implication other than a representation that the yacht, structure, item of material, equipment or machinery or any other item covered by such document or information meets the Rules. Any such representation is issued solely for the use ofthe Society, its committees and clients or other duly authorized bodies and for no other purpose. The validity, application, meaning and interpretation of a Certificate of Classification, or any similar document or information issued by the Societyin connection with or in furtherance of the performance of its services, is governed by the Rules of the Society, which is the sole subject entitled to their interpretation. Any disagreement on technical matters between the Interested Party and the Surveyor in the carrying out of his functions shall be raised in writing as soon as possible with the Society , which will settle any divergence of opinion or dispute. 3.3. - The classification of a yacht, or the issuance of a certificate in relation to or in furtherance of the classification of a yacht or the performance of services by the Society shall have the validity conferred upon it by the Rules of the Society at the time of the assignment of class or issuance of the certificate and in no case shall amount to a representation, statement or warranty of seaworthiness, structural integrity, quality or fitness for a particular purpose or service of any yacht, structure, material, equipment or machinery surveyed by the Society. 3.4. - Any document issued by the Society in relation to its activities reflects the condition of the yacht at the time of the survey, with reference to the applicable Rules. 3.5. - The Rules, surveys performed, reports, certificates and other documents issued by RINA are in no way intended to replace the duties and responsibilities of other parties such as Governments, designers, ship builders, manufacturers, repairers, suppliers, contractors or sub-contractors, Owners or operators, underwriters, sellers or intended buyers of a yacht or other surveyed goods. They do not relieve such parties from any warranty or responsibility or other contractual obligations expressed or implied or from any liability whatsoever against third parties, nor do they confer on such other parties any right, claim or cause of action against the Society. In particular, the above-mentioned activities of the Society do not relieve the Owner of his duty to ensure the proper maintenance of the yacht at all times. In no case, therefore, the Society shall assume the obligations incumbent upon the above-mentioned parties, even when it is consulted in connection with inquiries concern-

sification and certification of vessels, sea and river units, offshore structures and craft of all kinds and the certification of their parts and components. The Society: - sets forth and develops Rules, Guidance Notes and other documents; - issues Certificates, Statements and Reports based on itssurvey activity. 1.2. – The Society also takes part in the implementation of National Regulations as well as International Rules and Standards, by delegation from different Governments. 1.3. – The Society carries out Technical Assistance on request and provides special services outside the scope of classification, which are regulated by these general conditions unless expressly derogated. Article 2
2.1. - The Rules developed by the Society endeavor to meet

the state of currently available technology at the time they are published. The Society is not responsible for any inadequacy or failure of these Rules or any other relevant documents as a result of future development of techniques, which could not have been reasonably foreseen at the time of their publication. 2.2. - The Society exercises due care and skill: - in the selection of its Surveyors - in the performance of its services, considering the state of currently available technology at the time the services are performed. 2.3. - Surveys conducted by the Society include, but are not limited to, visual inspection and non-destructive testing. Unless otherwise required, surveys are conducted through sampling techniques and do not consist of comprehensive verification or monitoring of the yacht or the good subject to certification. The Society may also commission laboratory testing, underwater inspection by divers and other

ing matters not covered by its Rules or other documents. Insofar as they are not provided for in the Preamble the duties and responsibilities of the Owner and Interested Parties with respect to the services rendered by RINA are outlined in Part A, Chapter 1, Section 1, Article 3. Article 4 4.1. – Any request for any service of the Society shall be submitted in writing and signed by or on behalf of the Interested Party. Such request will be considered irrevocable as soon as received by the Society and shall entail acceptance by the applicant of all relevant requirements of the Rules, including the Preamble. Upon acceptance of the written request by the Society , a contract between the latter and the Interested Party is entered into, which is regulated by the present General Conditions. 4.2. - In consideration of the services rendered by the Society , the Interested Party and the person applying for the service shall jointly be liable for the payment of the relevant fees, even if the service is not concluded for any cause non pertaining to the Society, upon receipt of the invoice and shall reimburse the expenses incurred. Interests at the legal current rate increased by 2% may be demanded in the event of late payment. 4.3. - The contract and the validity of the relevant certificates, if any, may be terminated at the request of either party subject to 30 days’ notice to be given in writing. Failure to pay the fees required for services carried out by the Society which fall within the scope of the above-mentioned contract will entitle the Society to terminate the contract and to suspend the Services. Unless decided otherwise by the Society , termination of the contract implies that the assignment of class to a yacht is withheld or, if already assigned, that it is suspended or withdrawn. Article 5 5.1. - In providing the services mentioned in Article 1 above, as well as other information or advice, neither the Society nor any of its servants or agents warrants the accuracy of any information or advice supplied. Furthermore, all express and implied warranties are specifically disclaimed. Except as provided for in paragraph 5.2 below, and also in the case of surveys carried out by delegation of Governments, neither RINA nor any of its servants or agents will be liable for any loss, damage or expense of whatever nature sustained by any person, in tort or in contract, due to any act or omission of whatever nature, whether or not negligent, and howsoever caused. 5.2. – Notwithstanding the provisions in paragraph 5.1 above, should any user of RINA 's services prove that he has suffered a loss or damage due to any negligent act or omission of RINA, its servants or agents, then RINA will pay compensation to such person for his proved loss, up to, but not exceeding, five times the amount of the fee - if any charged by RINA for the specific service, information or advice or, if no fee is charged, a maximum of 10 thousand Euro. Where the fees are related to a number of services, the amount of fees will be apportioned for the purpose of the calculation of the maximum compensation, by reference to the estimated time involved in the performance of each service. Any liability for indirect or consequential loss, damage

or expenses is specifically excluded. In any case, irrespective of the amount of the fees, the maximum damages payable by RINA will be not more than 1 million Euro. Payment of compensation under this paragraph will not entail any admission of responsibility and/or liability by RINA and will be made without prejudice to the disclaimer clause contained in paragraph 5.1 above. 5.3. - Any claim for loss or damages of whatever nature by virtue of the provisions set forth herein shall be made in writing, and notice shall be provided to RINA within THREE MONTHS of the date on which the services were first supplied or the damages first discovered. Failure to provide such notice within the time set forth herein will constitute an absolute bar to the pursuit of such claim against RINA. Article 6
6.1. - Any dispute arising from or in connection with the

Rules or with the services of RINA, including any issues concerning responsibility, liability or limitations of liability, will be determined in accordance with Italian Law and proceedings will be instituted in or transferred to the Court of Genoa, Italy, which will have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and settle any such dispute. 6.2. - As partial departure from point 6.1 above, the Society shall have the faculty to submit any claim concerning the payment of the fees for the Services to the Jurisdiction of the Courts of the place where the registered office of the Interested Party or of the Applicant is located. Article 7
7.1. - All plans, specifications, documents and information

provided to, issued by, or made known to RINA, in connection with the performance of its services, will be treated as confidential and will not be made available to any other party without authorization of the Interested Party, except as provided for or required by any applicable international, European or domestic legislation, IACS Code of Ethics, Charter or other IACS rules, enforceable Court order or injunction. Information about the classification and statutory certification status, including transfer, changes, suspensions, withdrawals of class, recommendations/conditions of class, operating conditions or restrictions issued against classed yachts and other related information, as may be required, may be published on the website or released by other means, without the prior consent of the Interested Party. 7.2. - In the event of transfer of class or addition of a second class or withdrawal from a double/dual class, the Interested Party undertakes to provide or to permit RINA to provide the other Classification Society with all building plans and drawings, certificates, documents and information relevant to the classed unit, including its history file, as the other Classification Society may require for the purpose of classification in compliance with IACS Procedure PR 1A, as amended, and applicable legislation. It is the Owner's duty to ensure that, whenever required, the consent of the builder is obtained with regard to the provision of plans and drawings to the new Society, either by way of appropriate stipulation in the building contract or by other agreement. Article 8
8.1. – Should any part of this Preamble be declared invalid,

this will not affect the validity of the remaining provisions.

Otherwise.2. Each Part consists of: • Chapters • Sections and possible Appendices • Articles • Sub-articles • Requirements Figures (abbr. The effective date of all those requirements not followed by any date shown in brackets is that of the reference edition.1] refers to requirement 1. 2. Tab) are numbered in ascending order within each Section or Appendix. [3. 2. Fig) and Tables (abbr. Electrical Installations and Automation Part D: Materials and Welding Part E: Safety Rules Part F: Additional Class Notations . Sec 1.2 Item 4 below provides a summary of the technical changes from the preceding edition. • Ch 3 means Chapter 3 The Chapter is indicated when it is different from the chapter in which the cross-reference appears.1 Rule subdivision The Rules are subdivided into six parts. Otherwise. Ch 3. 3. this list does not include those items to which only editorial changes have been made not affecting the effective date of the requirements contained therein.1 All requirements in which new or amended provisions with respect to those contained in the reference edition have been introduced are followed by a date shown in brackets. Ch 3. Chapter 1 for a cross-reference to Chapter 1 of Part A. from A to F. within sub-article 2 of article 3.1] • Pt A means Part A The part is indicated when it is different from the part in which the cross-reference appears.1] or Pt A. 3. it is not indicated. [3. Reference edition The reference edition of these Rules is the edition effective from 1 January 2006. Part A: Classification and Surveys Part B: Hull Part C: Machinery. The date shown in brackets is the effective date of entry into force of the requirements as amended by the last updating. • Sec 1 means Section 1 (or App 1 means Appendix 1 ) The Section (or Appendix) is indicated when it is different from the Section (or Appendix) in which the crossreference appears. it is not indicated. App 1.2. Otherwise. Rule subdivision and cross-references 3. Effective date of the requirements 2. Cross-references to an entire Part or Chapter are not abbreviated as indicated in the following examples: • Part A for a cross-reference to Part A • Part A. it is not indicated. In general.2 Cross-references Examples: Pt A.2.EXPLANATORY NOTE TO PART B 1. • [3.

. Summary of amendments introduced in the edition effective from 1 January 2006 This edition of the Rules for the Classification of Charter Yachts is considered as a “reference edition” for future amendments.4. It annuls and replaces the 2005 edition issued with Rule Variation DIP/2005/01 effective from 15 April 2005 which superseded the “Additional rules applicable to pleasure vessels for the assignment of the Class Notation CCL (Charter Class)”.

RULES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION CHARTER YACHTS OF Part B Hull Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS STEEL HULLS ALUMINIUM HULLS REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS WOOD HULLS .

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C HAPTER 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 3 Rule application 1.1 43 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 3 .10 5.1 4.8 5.6 5.1 5.3 1.4 5.2 Direct calculations for monohull yachts Direct calculations for twin hull yachts 4 Definitiond and symbols 4.12 Number of watertight bulkheads Watertight bulkheads Sea connections and overboard discharge Stern and side doors below the weather deck Hatch on the weather deck Sidescuttles and windows Skylights Outer doors Drawings Ventilator Air pipes Bulwarks.1 3.11 5.4 1.2 1.1 Direct calculations for monohull and twin hull yacht 3.2 5.3 5. railings 33 Section 2 Hull Outfittings 1 Rudders and steering gear 1.5 1.2 4.1 29 29 29 Equivalents 2.1 2. pintles and stuffing boxes Steering gear and associated apparatus 39 2 Propeller shaft brackets 2.3 General Symbols Definitions 32 5 Subdivision.9 5. integrity of hull and superstructure 5.5 5.2 Double arm brackets Single arm brackets 43 3 Ballast 3.1 1.7 5.6 General Rudder stock Coupling between rudder stock and mainpiece Rudder mainpiece and blade Rudder bearings.

1 4.1 49 49 Metallic tanks 2.1 3.1 Mooring lines 4.2 3.2 Working test on windlass 6 7 Equipment Number and equipment 6.1 44 45 Crane support arrangements 7.1 2.1 5.1 Windlass 5.1 Chain cables for anchors 3.4 Stabiliser arrangements 4.2 4.1 Section 3 Equipments 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.2 General Scantlings 3 Non-metallic tanks 3.3 General Scantlings Tests on tanks 49 4 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3 General Stabiliser arrangements Stabilising tanks 44 5 Thruster tunnels 5.1 Section 4 Non Structural Fuel Tanks 1 2 General 1.2 Tunnel wall thickness Tunnel arrangement details 44 6 7 Water-jet drive ducts 6.1 47 47 Sailing yachts 7.1 5.1 46 46 46 46 46 Anchors 2.

5 5.Section 5 Loads 1 2 General 1.2 4.4 General Longitudinal bending moment and shear force Design total vertical bending moment Transverse loads for twin hull yachts 52 5 Local loads 5.4 5.2 5.1 3.1 4.3 General Definitions Symbols 3 Design acceleration 3.1 51 51 Definitions and symbols 2.3 5.1 5.2 Vertical acceleration at LCG Transverse acceleration 52 4 Overall loads 4.2 2.3 4.6 General Load points Design pressure for the bottom Design pressure for the side shell Design heads for decks Design heads for watertight bulkheads 54 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 5 .1 2.

3 Material factor K Information to be kept on board 3 Steels for forgings.4 Application Elastic buckling stresses of plates Elastic buckling stresses of stiffeners Critical buckling stress 64 6 7 8 General rules for design 6.2 8.4 General requirements Forgings Castings Pipes 68 6 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Corrosion protection 8.C HAPTER 2 STEEL HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1.2 64 5 Bookling strength checks 5.1 4.1 8.1 3.1 66 66 66 Minimum thicknesses 7.3 5.3 3.1 5.2 63 4 Direct calculations 4.1 3.1 68 68 Steels for hull structures 2. castings and pipes 3.2 3.3 Section 2 Materials 1 2 General requirements 1.2 2.2 5.1 2.2 Premise Definitions and symbols 3 Plans. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.1 2.1 63 63 Definitions and symbols 2.

3 1.3 Butt welding Fillet welding types Scantling of welds 71 3 4 End connections of ordinary stiffeners 3.1 2.1 2.2 80 2 Bending stresses 2.2 78 8 9 Sealed connections 8.1 5.1 General Section 4 Longitudinal Strenght 1 General 1.Section 3 Welding and Weld Connections 1 Welded connections 1.2 1.1 7.5 78 7 Riveted connections 7.2 6.5 General requirements Base material Welding consumables and procedures Access to and preparation of joints Design 70 2 Type of connections 2.1 6.2 2.5 77 6 Stiffening arrangement 6.4 6.1 79 79 Inspection and tests 9.1 1.2 5.3 80 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 7 .3 6.1 1.4 1.1 75 76 End connections of primary supporting members 4.3 5.1 4.2 Bracketed end connections Bracketless end connections 5 Cut-outs and holes 5.4 5.2 2.

1 2.1 5.2 6.1 81 81 Keel 2.3 82 7 Local stiffeners 7.1 81 82 82 Sheerstrake 4.3 4 Shear stresses 3.3 Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 83 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.1 6.1 82 Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 8 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Side 5.1 Section 5 Plating 1 2 Definitions and symbols 1.1 7.2 Sheet steel keel Solid keel 3 4 5 Bottom and bilge 3.2 1.2 6 Openings in the shell plating 6.3 82 8 Cross-deck bottom plating 8.1 83 83 Longitudinal type structure 3.1 80 80 Calculation of the section modulus 4.2 3.1 3.2 7.1 1.

2 Transverse frames Longitudinal stiffeners RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 9 .4 Transverse type structures 4.2 Arrangement.2 6 Floors 6.1 6.1 3.1 Side girders 5.1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.1 Inner bottom plating 3.1 Bilge keel 9.1 86 86 86 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 8.2 86 7 8 9 Bracket floors 7.1 85 85 85 85 85 Minimum height 2.1 9.1 84 Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 General 1. scantlings and connections Bilge keel connection Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.2 4.1 4.1 Centre girder 4.1 88 88 88 Definitions and symbols 2.1 5.3 Ordinary floors Centre girder Side girders 84 5 Constructional details 5.

2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 88 5 6 Frame connections 5.1 4.2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 5 General arrangement 5.1 3.2 93 6 Non-tight bulkheads 6.1 General 89 89 Scantling of brackets of frame connections 6.1 Plating 3.3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 91 Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 4 General 1.1 Stiffeners 4.1 5.2 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 94 10 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .2 4.1 4.1 6.2 Lower brackets of frames Section 9 Decks 1 2 3 General 1.1 91 91 91 Definitions and symbols 2.1 6.1 4.1 Deck plating 3.4 Reinforced beams 4.1 93 93 93 93 Symbols 2.2 Weather deck Lower decks 4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.

1 95 95 95 95 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.1 Stiffeners 3.Section 11 Superstructures 1 2 3 4 General 1.2 Plating Stiffeners RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 11 .1 Superstructure decks 4.1 4.

forgings and castings Extruded plates Tolerances Influence of welding on mechanical characteristics Material factor K for scantlings of aluminium alloy structural members Information to be kept on board Section 3 Welding and Weld Connections 1 Welded connections 1.1 1.C HAPTER 3 ALUMINIUM HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1.3 5.1 103 103 Aluminium alloy structures 2.2 2. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.3 1.1 2.4 Application Elastic buckling stresses of plating Critical buckling stresses Axially loaded stiffeners 6 7 General rules for design 6.1 99 99 Definitions and symbols 2.2 1.1 3.1 5.4 2.4 General requirements Welding procedures for aluminium alloys Access to and preparation of joints Design 106 12 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .6 Aluminium alloys for hull structures.1 Section 2 Materials 1 2 General requirements 1.5 2.1 2.1 100 100 Buckling strength checks 5.2 99 4 5 Direct calculations 4.2 Premise Definitions and symbols 3 Plans.1 101 102 Minimum thicknesses 7.3 2.2 5.

4 2.3 117 3 Shear stresses 3.1 6.3 6.2 Bracketed end connections Bracketless end connections 113 5 6 Cut-outs and holes 5.1 4.1 114 114 Stiffening arrangement 6.3 112 4 End connections of primary supporting members 4.1 General 115 Section 4 Longitudinal Strength 1 General 1.3 2.1 3.2 9.2 6.1 2.2 115 8 9 Sealed connections 8.2 117 2 Bending stresses 2.1 9.1 117 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 13 .5 2.5 7 Riveted connections 7.1 2.2 Type of connections 2.4 6.1 1.3 10 Inspection and tests 10.2 3.1 115 115 Corrosion protection 9.6 Types of connections and preparations Butt welding Fillet welding types Continuous fillet welding Scantling of welds Strength of welding 107 3 End connections of ordinary stiffeners 3.2 2.2 2.1 7.

3 119 7 Local stiffeners 7.1 119 Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.1 Side 5.3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 4 Transverse type structures 4.1 118 119 119 Sheerstrake 4.1 2.1 6.2 3.1 3.3 119 8 Cross Deck bottom plating 8.4 Calculation of the section modulus 4.1 7.3 Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 120 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.1 1.1 118 118 Keel 2.2 7.2 6.2 1.2 Sheet steel keel Solid keel 3 4 5 Bottom and bilge 3.1 117 Section 5 Plating 1 2 Definitions and symbols 1.1 4.1 5.2 Ordinary floors Centre girder 121 14 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 120 120 Longitudinal type structure 3.2 6 Openings in the shell plating 6.

1 122 122 122 122 122 Minimum height 2.1 Inner bottom plating 3.1 3.1 4.1 6.1 Bilge keel 9.1 9. scantlings and connections Bilge keel connection Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 125 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 15 .1 5.2 123 7 8 9 Bracket floors 7.1 121 Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.4.2 Transverse frames Longitudinal stiffeners 4 Reinforced beams 4.2 Arrangement.1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.1 125 125 125 Definitions and symbols 2.1 Side girders 5.2 6 Floors 6.1 123 123 123 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 8.1 Centre girder 4.3 Side girders 5 Constructional details 5.

1 General 126 126 Scantling of brackets of frame connections 6.1 5.1 128 128 128 Definitions and symbols 2.1 4.1 6.2 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 131 Section 11 Superstructures 1 General 1.1 Deck plating 3.2 Weather deck Lower decks 4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.5 6 Frame connections 5.1 130 130 130 130 Symbols 2.1 4.1 Plating 3.1 6.2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 5 General arrangement 5.2 130 6 Non-tight bulkheads 6.1 Stiffeners 4.1 3.2 4.2 Lower brackets of frames Section 9 Decks 1 2 3 General 1.1 132 16 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 128 Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 4 General 1.

2 Plating Stiffeners RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 17 .1 132 132 132 Stiffeners 3.2 3 4 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.1 4.1 Superstructure decks 4.

2 2.8 Resins Reinforcements Core materials for sandwich laminates Adhesive and sealant material Plywood Timber Repair compounds Type approval of materials 4 Mechanical properties of laminates 4.6 3.5 General Details of construction Connections of laminates Engine exhaust Tanks for liquids 137 Section 2 Materials 1 2 3 General 1.1 5.1 2.1 4.2 General General 144 18 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 6.2 135 4 5 Direct calculations 4.3 3.1 Materials of laminates 3.1 136 137 General rules for design 5.1 142 142 142 Definitions and terminology 2.5 3.C HAPTER 4 REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.3 6.2 6.1 3.2 3.1 3.7 3.4 6.4 3.1 135 135 Definitions and symbols 2.3 Premise Symbols Definitions 3 Plans.2 Minimum thicknesses 6 Construction 6.

6 General Moulds Laminating Hardening and release of laminates Defects in the laminates Checks and tests 148 Section 4 Longitudinal Strength 1 General 1.4 2.1 Keel 3.1 151 Section 5 External Plating 1 2 3 4 5 6 General 1.3 150 Calculation of strength modulus 3 Shear stresses 3.1 1.5 2.2 2.Section 3 Construction and Quality Control 1 Shipyards or workshops 1.1 6.2 150 2 Bending stresses 2.3 2.1 Side plating and sheerstrake plating 6.3 1.1 2.1 Bottom plating 5.2 1.1 153 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 19 .1 2.4 General Moulding shops Storage areas for materials Identification and handling of materials 147 2 Hull construction processes 2.2 2.1 152 152 152 152 152 153 Definitions and symbols 2.2 Side plating 7 Openings in the shell plating 7.1 Rudder horn 4.1 1.

3 8 Local stiffeners 8.1 Centre girder 4.1 155 Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.1 8.2 8.1 Inner bottom plating 3.3 8.1 1.1 4.3 Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 154 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.1 156 156 156 156 157 Minimum height 2.2 7.2 3.2 4.2 1.4 153 9 Cross-deck bottom plating 9.1 3.3 Ordinary floors Centre girder Side girders 155 5 Constructional details 5.1 154 154 Longitudinal type structure 3.1 Side girders 5.2 20 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 5.1 153 Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 4 Transverse type structures 4.7.

2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 158 Section 9 Decks 1 2 3 General 1.2 157 7 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 7.1 158 158 158 Definitions and symbols 2.1 Deck plating 3.2 4.3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 160 Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 General 1.1 Plating 3.1 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 21 .1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.6 Floors 6.1 3.1 157 Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.1 3.1 4.1 160 160 160 Definitions and symbols 2.2 Longitudinals 4 Reinforced beams 4.1 4.1 6.2 Weather deck Lower decks 4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.1 162 162 162 Symbols 2.

1 4.1 Bottom 5.2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 162 5 Tanks for liquids 5.1 4.1 163 163 163 163 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.1 Superstructure decks 4.1 Decks 7.1 Stiffeners 3.1 164 164 General 2.2 2.2 Plating Stiffeners Section 12 Scantlings of Structures with Sandwich Construction 1 2 Premise 1.3 Laminating Vacuum bagging Constructional details 3 4 5 6 7 8 Symbols 3.1 164 165 165 165 166 166 Minimum thickness of the skins 4.1 Watertight bulkheads and boundary bulkheads of the superstructure 8.1 22 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .4 Stiffeners 4.1 Side 6.1 2.1 162 Section 11 Superstructures 1 2 3 4 General 1.

1 172 172 Protection 3.3 2.8 Simple skin Double diagonal skin Double longitudinal skin Laminated planking in several cold-glued layers Plywood planking Double skin with inner plywood and outer longitudinal strakes Fastenings and caulking Sheathing of planking 173 2 Deck planking 2.3 1.3 2.5 1. Working and Protection of Timber 1 Fastenings 1.1 2.1 1.2 2.4 1.4 2.1 2.7 1.1 1.2 1.5 Planking Plywood Plywood sheathed with laid deck Longitudinal planking Caulking 174 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 23 .1 Section 3 Building Methods for Planking 1 Shell planking 1.C HAPTER 5 WOOD HULLS Section 1 Materials 1 2 Suitable timber species 1.4 Planking Marine plywood and lamellar structures Certification and checks of timber quality Mechanical characteristics and structural scantlings Section 2 Fastenings.2 172 2 3 Timber working 2.1 169 169 Timber quality 2.2 2.6 1.

3 7.1 6.Section 4 Structural Scantlings of Sailing Yachts with or without Auxiliary Engine 1 2 3 4 General 1.4 Shell planking Deck planking Superstructures .1 178 178 178 178 Keel 2.stempost 2.2 6.3 General Arrangement of floors Scantlings and fastenings 179 6 Beam shelves.1 190 190 190 190 Keel .2 4.1 7.1 5.1 8. bilge stringers 6.1 4.Skylights Masts and rigging 183 Section 5 Structural Scantlings of Motor Yachts 1 2 3 4 General 1.1 Frames 4.2 Types of frames Framing systems and scantlings 5 Floors 5.1 Transom 3.1 Floors and frames 4.2 5.4 Beam shelves Beam clamps in way of masts Bilge stringers End breasthooks 181 7 Beams 7. beam clamps in way of masts.3 8.2 8.1 Stempost and sternpost 3.4 General Bottom and side frames Floors Frame and beam brackets 24 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3 6.2 7.1 4.3 4.4 Scantlings of beams End attachments of beams Local strengthening Lower deck and associated beams 182 8 Planking 8.

1 Shell planking 8. Machinery Space 1 2 3 4 Wooden bulkheads 1.3 Weather deck Superstructure decks Lower deck Section 6 Watertight Bulkheads.1 Beam shelves and chine stringers 7.1 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 25 .1 Internal lining of hull and drainage 3.1 201 201 201 201 Steel bulkheads 2.5 6 7 8 9 Side girders and longitudinals 5.1 Thickness of shell planking Deck planking 9.1 9.1 Machinery space structures 4.2 9.1 192 193 193 194 194 Beams 6. Lining.

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Part B Hull Chapter 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS HULL OUTFITTINGS EQUIPMENTS NON STRUCTURAL FUEL TANKS LOADS RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 27 .

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The condition in d) is to be checked in yacht for which. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1 1.1 Rule application the submittance of the drawings for approval and the commencement of the hull. intended for unrestricted service which are to be classed by RINA. transversal and local strength are equivalent to those of the relevant Rule structure and that such scantlings are found satisfactory by RINA also on the basis of direct calculations of the structural strength. direct calculations are to be performed to check the scantlings of primary structures of yachts whenever. web and floor) have very different cross-sectional inertia.1 Direct calculations for monohull and twin hull yacht Direct calculations for monohull yachts 3. to check the primary structures of yacht which have unusual shapes and/or characteristics. not less than 24 m. the structures of yachts similar in performance to high speed craft (HSC) may have scantlings in accordance with RINA's "Rules for the Classification of High Speed Craft". the former may be ignored at the discretion of RINA. non-conventional geometry. Chapter 1 applies in general to all yachts. In particular. Chapter 3 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of aluminium alloy yachts.2. monohull craft or catamarans. provided that longitudinal. significant racking effects are anticipated (yachts with many tiers of superstructure). 3 3. this may be the case in the following situations: • elements of the primary transverse ring (beam. • marked V-shapes. 1.2 Loads In general. 5. may have scantlings in accordance with the "Rules for the Classification of Ships". 3.m. By the same token. hull shapes and structural dimensions are such that the scantling formulae used in these Rules are no longer deemed to be effective. In addition. In such case.1. side and stern doors and helicopter decks.Pt B. at the discretion of RINA.1.1. the Master is to be provided with a yacht operating manual indicating the appropriate speed for each sea state. it may be necessary to consider further load conditions specified by RINA in individual cases.1 In examining constructional plans. irrespective of the material used for the construction of the hull. For each primary supporting member. yachts shall be agreed between the yard and RINA before RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 29 . in the opinion of RINA. so that the boundary conditions for each are not well defined. Chapter 4 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of yachts constructed of composite materials. should some load conditions turn out to be less significant than others. • complex. so that floor and web tend to degenerate into a single element. Chapter 5 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of wooden yachts. speed or proportions or of types other than those considered in Part B will be given special consideration by RINA. which appears in the formula for impact pressure. is to be 2 2. such as decks intended for the carriage of vehicles. The use of RINA's "Rules for the Classification of High Speed Craft" for the scantlings of the structures of the a.1. Yachts built using a combination of the foregoing materials are subject to the applicable requirements of the relevant chapters. Yachts of unusual form. Ch 1. also on the basis of equivalence criterion.1 General Direct calculations are generally required to be carried out. in the opinion of RINA. The vertical and transverse accelerations and the impact pressure p2 are to be calculated as stipulated in Sec. • presence of significant racking effects (yachts with many tiers of superstructure). RINA may take into account material distribution and scantlings which are different from those obtained by applying these requirements. for yachts of normal type. In relation to special structure or loading configurations. Connections between different materials will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. By way of example. Chapter 2 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of steel yachts.1 Equivalents 2. Special structures not provided for in these Rules.1 Part B of the Rules consists of five chapters and applies to hulls of length Loa. defined in 4. • structures contributing to longitudinal strength with large openings. the following load conditions specified in a) to d) are to be considered. the coefficient Fa.

In general. it is still permissible to examine bidimensional rings.00.5 Checking criteria a) For metal structures.1.25. On yachts dealt with by these Rules. by simulating the presence of decks and platforms with horizontal springs according to criteria specified by RINA. In three dimensional analyses. however. : safety coefficient. b) Combined load condition 1 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present.3 Structural model The primary structures of yachts of this type may usually be modelled with beam elements. are to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces and two horizontal forces at the fore and aft ends of the model. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht. the extent of the model is to be such as to allow analysis of the behaviour of the main structural elements and their mutual effects. special attention is to be paid to the distribution of weights and buoyancy and to the dynamic equilibrium of the yacht. d) Combined load condition 3 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. b) Combined load condition 3 The vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. Ch 1. In cases where loads act in the transverse direction (load condition 3). It is therefore acceptable. in N/mm2: • bending stress: 170 σ a m = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s • shear stress: 90 τ a m = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s • Von Mises equivalent bending stress: 200 σ e q. impact pressure is to be considered as acting separately on each transverse section of the model. In such cases. the remaining sections being subject to hydrostatic pressure. distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses. equal to: The compressive values of normal stresses and shear stresses are not to exceed the values of the critical 30 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . : coefficient depending on the material.1. in general other than zero. in general. generally negligible compared with the stiffness of transverse structures (beams. to examine primary members in this area of the hull by means of plane analyses of transverse rings. the following boundary conditions are to be assigned: a) Load condition in still water and combined load conditions 1 and 2 • horizontal and transverse restraints. such continuous elements may withstand transverse deformations of primary rings. the resultants are to be balanced by vertical and horizontal forces. In cases where such approximation is not acceptable. for combined load conditions 1. special attention is to be devoted to the modelling of continuous decks and platforms. the model adopted is to be three-dimensional and is to include the longitudinal primary members. at least outside the machinery space. 3. the stresses given by the above calculations are to be not greater than the following allowable values. 3.4 Boundary conditions Depending on the load conditions considered. in way of the crossing point of bottom and side shells. notwithstanding the provisions above. according to criteria stipulated by RINA.1. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. the longitudinal distribution of impact pressure is considered individually in each case by RINA. for load condition in still water. finite element analyses are necessary. if the angle between the two shells is generally less than 135°. or their presence may be taken into account by suitable boundary conditions. a m = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s where: K f’m : material factor defined in Chap. for aluminium alloy structures 1. • outer hydrostatic load in still water. grounds for the admissibility of such model are lacking. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself. • horizontal and transverse restraints. 2 for steel and Chap. 3 for aluminium alloy. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. or when the geometry of the structures gives reason to suspect the presence of high stress concentrations. if the bottom/side angle is greater than approximately 135°. In general.Pt B. a) Load condition in still water The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. When. • forces of inertia due to the transverse acceleration av of the yacht. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht.15. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. c) Combined load condition 2 The impact pressure acting on the bottom of the yacht is to be considered. In the case of three dimensional analyses. equal to: fs 1.and after-bodies. for steel structures 2. Where a plane model is adopted. Sec 1 calculated as a function of the area supported by the member. the stiffness of longitudinal primary members (girders and stringers) is. If they are of sufficient stiffness in the horizontal plane and are sufficiently restrained by fore. floors and webs). in way of the keel. considered in a downward direction. 3.0.

direct calculations are to be carried out to check the structures connecting the two hulls for yachts in which the structural arrangements do not allow a realistic assessment of their stress level. by simulating the presence of decks and platforms with horizontal springs according to criteria specified by RINA. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht. In three-dimensional analyses.1 General Direct calculations are generally required to be carried out. 5. The vertical and transverse accelerations and the impact pressure p2 are to be calculated as stipulated in Sec. the longitudinal distribution of impact pressure is considered individually in each case by RINA. In such cases. special attention is to be devoted to the modelling of continuous decks and platforms. 3. • forces of inertia due to the transverse acceleration of the yacht. at least outside the machinery space. at the discretion of RINA. in accordance with criteria specified by RINA. the former may be ignored at the discretion of RINA. 3. to examine primary members in this area of the hull by means of plane analyses of transverse rings.2. At the discretion of RINA. The condition in a) applies to a still water static condition check. significant racking effects are expected (yachts with many tiers of superstructure). • outer hydrostatic load in still water. In general. which appears in the formula for impact pressure. In the case of three-dimensional analyses. or their presence may be taken into account by suitable boundary conditions. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 31 . For each primary supporting member. it is still permissible to examine bidimensional rings. the coefficient Fa. 3.3 Structural model In general. In relation to special structure or loading configurations. In addition. detailed analyses with fine mesh are required for areas where stresses. considered in a downward direction. the stiffness of longitudinal primary members (girders and stringers) is.and after-bodies. In general. The condition in d) is to be checked in yacht for which. In structural elements also subject to high longitudinal hull girder stresses. such continuous elements may withstand transverse deformations of primary rings. b) For structures made of composite materials. the allowable and critical stresses are to be reduced. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. d) Combined load condition 3 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. in the opinion of RINA. It is therefore acceptable. The conditions in b) and c) apply to the check of the structures connecting the two hulls. impact pressure is to be considered as acting separately on each transverse section of the model. special attention is to be paid to the distribution of weights and buoyancy and to the dynamic equilibrium of the yacht. In cases where such approximation is not acceptable. the extent of the model is to be such as to allow analysis of the behaviour of the main structural elements and their mutual effects. in general. 3. calculated with medium-mesh schematisations.2. • the impact pressure acting hemisymmetrically on one of the halves of the hull bottom. should some load conditions turn out to be less significant than others. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. If they are of sufficient stiffness in the horizontal plane and are sufficiently restrained by fore. considered in a downward direction. On yachts dealt with by these Rules. based on simple models and on the formulae set out in these Rules. In cases where loads act in the transverse direction (load conditions 2 and 3).4. Sec 1 stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Chap. By the same token. is to be calculated as a function of the area supported by the member. c) Combined load condition 2 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. floors and webs). the model adopted is to be three-dimensional and is to include the longitudinal primary members.2 Direct calculations for twin hull yachts 3. the remaining sections being subject to hydrostatic pressure. the primary structures of yachts of this type are to be modelled with finite element schematisations adopting a medium size mesh. the allowable stresses are defined in Chap. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. to check the primary structures and connecting structures of the two hulls which have unusual characteristics. a) Load condition in still water The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. b) Combined load condition 1 Devono essere considerati: • forces caused by weights present. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht.Pt B. Ch 1.2 Loads In general. notwithstanding the provisions above. 2 and Chap. exceed the allowable limits and the type of structure gives reason to suspect the presence of high stress concentrations. it may be necessary to consider further load conditions specified by RINA in individual cases. the following load conditions specified in a) to d) are to be considered. generally negligible compared with the stiffness of transverse structures (beams. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht.2. The condition in c) only requires checking for yachts of L > 65 m and speed V > 45 knots.

25. 2 and Chap.4 Boundary conditions Depending on the load conditions considered.3 apply to all Chapters of Part B. : Foreword perpendicular. Sec 1 3. 4. In structural elements also subject to high longitudiB D AP D1 32 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .2. In ship designed with a rake of keel the waterline on which this is measured shall be parallel to the designed waterline. Where a plane model is adopted. if that greater. : Depth. on the full load waterline.g. is the perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline with the fore side of the stem. the allowable stresses are defined in Chap. measured parallel to the static load waterline.5 Checking criteria nal hull girder stresses. for combined load conditions • 1. : Load Line length means 96% of the total length on a waterline of a ship at 85% of the least moulded depth measured from the top of the keel. 4. the vertical resultant is to be balanced by a single force. equal to: • 1. in general other than zero. The compressive values of normal stresses and shear stresses are not to exceed the values of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Chap. platforms. : Length between perpendiculars. : Depth. for load condition in still water. equal to: • 1. is the distance. is the distance. in metres. in N/mm 2: • bending stress: 170 σ am = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s LPP LLL • shear stress: 90 τ am = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s • Von Mises equivalent bending stress: 200 σ eq. in metres. 3. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical resultant of the loads. 3. c) Combined load condition 2 and 3 The vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. pulpits at either ends of the craft.2 4. is the perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline with the after side of the rudder post or to the centre of the rudder stock for yacht without a rudder post. from moulded base line to the top of the deck beam at side on the weather deck. from the foreside of the stem to the after side of the stern or transom. : After perpendicular .00. for aluminium alloy structures : safety coefficient. or the length from the fore-side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline.1 The definitions and symbols given in 4. Where a plane model is adopted. Ch 1. both distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses. assumed to be equal to the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest. in accordance with criteria specified by RINA. In yachts with unusual stern arrangements or without rudder the position of AP and the relevant LPP will be specially considered : Maximum outside breadth. the allowable and critical stresses are to be reduced. the following boundary conditions are to be assigned: a) Load condition in still water The vertical resultant of the loads.1 Definitiond and symbols General 4. in m. 4 4.15. measured vertically on the transverse section at the middle of length L. the resultants are to be balanced by vertical and horizontal forces.2. 3 for aluminium alloy : coefficient depending on the material. in m.Pt B. is to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces at the fore and aft ends of the model. distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses. am = ---------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s FP where: K f’m : material factor defined in Chap. L a) a) For metal structures. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Chapters. in m. whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Chapters.0. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads.1 LOA Symbols : Length overall.1. the stresses given by the above calculations are to be not greater than the following allowable values. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself. 2 for steel and Chap.2.2 and 4. e. b) Combined load condition 1 A vertical restraint is to be imposed in way of the keel of each hull. in general other than zero. excluding rubbing strakes and other projections excluding removable parts that can be detached in a non destructive manner and without affecting the structural integrity of the craft. measured on the full load waterline from FP to AP. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself. in metres. are to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces and two horizontal forces at the fore and aft ends of the model. : scantling length. for steel structures fs • 2. b) For structures made of composite materials. measured vertically on the transverse section at the middle of length L. rubbing strakes and fenders.

extending from side to side of the hull or with the side plating not inboard of the shell plating more than 4% of the local breadth.3.3.8 Watertight A closing appliance is considered watertight if it is designed to prevent the passage of water in either direction under a head of water for which the surrounding structure is designed. of the yacht at draught T. 4. or partial. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 33 . 4. a virtual freeboard deck may be defined (hypotetically drawn below and parallel to the weather deck) and.3. of ordinary stiffeners is obtained as follows: s R = 0.5 Virtual freeboard deck T1 ∆ V s S Where the actual freeboard from the full load waterline to the weather deck exceeds that required by ILLC '66 by at least 1. even where the deck extends for the whole length of the yacht. of the yacht at displacement ∆. a superstructure deck or another deckhouse.Pt B.01 (LLL . : Maximum design speed. 4. abaft the forward quarter. superstructure. Ch 1.8 m for yachts having LLL < 75 m.3. or of the drop keel. relevant sills above deck and height of air pipes and ventilators above deck. or at least 1. All the fitting above the weather deck. where fitted.2 times the Rule frame spacing.3. The vertical distance as above defined between the assumed freeboard deck corresponding to the relevant watertight weatherdeck and the minimum freeboard as calculated in accordance with the Load Line Requirements may be used to reduce the requirements for closing appliances for openings in the hull. in metres.1. and below which all openings in the sides of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing.of the fixed ballast keel. if not otherwise stated by the flag Administration. spacing of transversal or longitudinal stiffeners is not to exceed 1. or the drop keel.2 Superstructure The deckhouse is a decked structure fitted on the weather deck. : Displacement. 005L In general. The freeboard deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to the weather and sea. if necessary. : Draft T.3 Freeboard deck A closing appliance is considered weathertight if it is designed to prevent the passage of water into the yacht in any sea condition.1 All Yachts are to have at least the following transverse watertight bulkheads: • One collision bulkhead • Two bulkheads forming the boundaries of the machinery spaces.3. the lowest line of the exposed deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the freeboard deck.3. : Spacing of ordinary stiffeners. in t. or at least 2. if any. which has permanent means of closing all openings in the weather part thereof.30 m for LLL > 125 m.4 Weather deck Is the uppermost complete weathertight deck fitted as an integral part of the vessel's structure and which is exposed to the sea and the weather. 5. 350 + 0. Additional bulkheads may be required for yachts having to comply with subdivision or damage stability criteria. : Web frame spacing.3. measured to the lower side theoretically extended.1 Definitions Rule frame spacing The Rule frame spacing. to the middle of length L . In the case of hulls with a drop or ballast keel. in metres. 4. Superstructures may be of different tiers in relation to their position in respect of the weather deck. in knots.80 + 0.75) for 75 < LLL < 125.1 Freeboard deck has the meaning given in annex I of ICCL. deckhouses.3 4. sR.as an alternative. where deck and sides extend for the whole length of the yacht. in metresg. the lower side of the keel is intended to mean the intersection of the longitudinal plane of symmetry with the continuation of the external surface of the hull.6 Deckhouse 4. in m. in metres. the superstructure above the weather deck may be considered as a second tier and the second tier in respect to the weather deck may be considered as a third tier and so on. Sec 1 from the lower side of the bar keel. In a ship having a discontinuous freeboard deck. having limited length and a spacing between the external longitudinal bulkheads less than 92% of the local breadth of the yacht. for the determination of the superstructure tier. integrity of hull and superstructure Number of watertight bulkheads 5. A 1st tier superstructure is one fitted on the weather deck. T : Draft. or of the fixed ballast keel. 4. measured at the middle of length L. Superstructures may be complete.7 Weathertight The superstructure is a decked structure located above the weather deck. in metres. may be considered in the same way". a 2nd tier superstructure is one fitted on the 1st tier superstructure. the transom may be accepted as aft transverse bulkhead. where sides extend for a length smaller than that of the yacht. 4. and so on. 5 Subdivision. 4. if any. between the full load waterline and the lower side of the keel. to the top of the deck beam at side on the weather deck.

and. Where the sill of any such door is below the deepest sea going condition. in any case.1 All openings to the sea located below the weather deck are to be equipped with a closing valve.2. on a case by case basis. As far as the collision bulkhead is concerned. if not otherwise stated by the flag Administration.3 Pipes for the discharge of exhaust from the engines leading to the shell are to be structural and are to have strength equivalent to that of the bottom structure. of material which is electrochemically compatible. Joints for elbows. Such pipes are to be fitted with suitable valves operable from above the freeboard deck and the valve chest is to be secured at the bulkhead inside the fore peak. Sea connections and overboard discharge 5. are to be made of material of the same composition as the pipes.5 mm. Special consideration will be given in case of yachts with particular design. Details relevant to these devices and their installation on board shall be sent to RINA for approval. Doors in watertight bulkheads shall be approved watertight doors. additional characteristics regarding these doors are set out in Pt E.2. and is to be of substantial dimensions and easy to open. 5. bronze or other approved ductile material. 5.2. Pipes and electrical cable carried out through watertight subdivision provided that the watertightness is ensured by devices suitable in the opinion of RINA. in general a maximum of two pipes may pass through the collision bulkhead below the freeboard deck. 5.2 Watertight bulkheads 5. Overboard discharges are to be kept to a minimum and located. requirements but shall be approved watertight doors. This valve. if composite material is used.2. no accesses are to be fitted in the collision bulkhead. accept a distance from the collision bulkhead to the forward perpendicular greater than the maximum specified in 5. Where long forward superstructures are fitted. unless otherwise justified.g. only if the access is positioned as far above the design waterline as possible and its closing appliances are watertight.1 or 5.3.2 Openings in watertight bulkheads and decks 5. Different arrangements shall be agreed with RINA. in metres. The distance between adjacent clips shall not exceed 800mm and.m. the pipes are to be internally coated with self-extinguishing resin for a thickness of at least 1. provided that. the distances.5 per cent of the length LLL of the yacht forward of the forward perpendicular. and not more than 8 per cent LLL . shall be provided with at least 8 securing devices (clips) for closure (the hinges may be counted in as a securing devices). is to be fitted on the shell directly or by means of a nozzle and provided with means of control located in a position which is easily accessible at all times and permanently marked. a bulbous bow.2.1. the number of clips on each shorter side of the doors shall be not less than 2. 5. and of metallic material highly resistant to corrosion and electrochemically compatible with any different materials they may be connected to.1 are to be measured from a point either: • at the midlength of such extension. as far as practicable. These doors shall be fitted with proper gaskets.2. if of wide dimensions. As a general rule. valves etc. e.2. where this is not practicable.1 A collision bulkhead is to be fitted which is to be watertight up to the freeboard deck.4. The use of non-metallic pipes and valves will be specially considered.2.2.1 and 5.1 Stern and side doors below the weather deck Side/shell doors leading to a non watertight space The strength of these doors shall be equivalent to that of the surrounding structures. the arrangement is considered by RINA on a case by case basis. E of Rina Rules for Charter Yachts. The material is to be suitable to withstand the temperatures reached by the exhaust and. or. 5. 34 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the collision bulkhead is to be extended weathertight to the first tier superstructure deck. All valves are to be of steel. Ch 1. in case of flooding of the space forward the collision bulkhead.3 The number of openings in watertight subdivision shall be limited to a minimum compatible with the proper working of the yacht.2 Where any part of the ship below the waterline extends forward of the forward perpendicular.3 The bulkhead may have steps or recesses provided they within the limits in 5.2 All pipes leading to the sea and located under the full load waterline are to be of adequate thickness. This bulkhead is to be located at a distance from the forward perpendicular FPLL of not less than 5 per cent of the length LLL of the yacht.Pt B. or • at a distance 1. above the full load waterline. 5. 5. made of tough metallic material highly resistant to corrosion. subdvision and stability calculations in either the full load departure condition and the arrival condition show compliance with Damage Stability requirements set out in part.4 Rina may. Sec 1 5. Doors of standard dimensions need not to be in compliance with the a. The filter is to be made of metal highly resistant to corrosion.3.2.3.2. or • at a distance 3 metres forward of the forward perpendicular.4 5. stipulated in 5. whichever gives the smallest measurement. Such valves may be fitted on the after side of the collision bulkhead provided that they are readily accessible under all service condition. The lower part of each of these openings shall be above the deepest sea going condition. The sea connection for the engine cooling system shall be provided both with a grill fitted directly on the shell using a local stiffener and with a filter after the closing valve. in order to prevent the ingress of water.

reference is to be made to the requirements set out in Part E.4. gangways.3 Side/shell doors leading to a watertight space not containing devices necessary for the proper and safe working of the ship These doors may be weathertight. otherwise. their locking devices and their height above water line shall be sent in triplicate to RINA for approval. this door shall be watertight approved. 5. located in positions which are exposed to the action of the sea or inclement weather below and above the weather deck. • have at least 4 clips for size 600 x 600 mm. in general.2 Where the hatches may be required to be used as a means of escape the securing arrangements are to be operable from both sides. • have non-oval hinges which can be considered as clips. Any penetrations for electrical wiring and piping are to ensure watertight integrity. 5. 5. Sec 1 Where hydraulic securing devices are applied. if a weathertight door is fitted and the freeboard as above indicated is less than 600mm. In case in the watertight compartment protected by a weathertight side/shell door. • have at least two drains in the aft part leading overboard.1 Sidescuttles and windows General In general. Discharges are to be provided to prevent the accumulation of water in the normal foreseeable situations of transverse list and trim. not only the status of the door shall be displayed but even the status of the locking devices.6. their position on deck. Sidescuttles and rectangular windows may be of "non-opening".5. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 35 . the yacht may be subdivided into zones which are defined as follows: • Zone A: Zone between the full load waterline and a line drawn parallel to the sheer profile and having its lowest point not less than 500 mm or 2. The scantling of them shall be the same of that of the adjacent structure and the distance between the lower part of these doors and the deepest water line shall be al least 600mm.5.1. In general.5% B whichever is greater above the full load waterline. the system is to be mechanically lockable in closed position. Where they are foreseen they shall be: • closed at sea. A high level bilge alarm shall be provided. the requirements of this paragraph apply to yachts engaged in "short range" navigation. 5. This means that in the event of loss of hydraulic liquid. the door status shall be alarmed on bridge. 5. the position of these doors shall be investigated. 5.5 Other fittings Recesses for wells. openable from both sides and alarmed on bridge.5. platforms. with enclosed a general arrangement showing the destination of the compartment which the doors give access to and the machinery and/or sports craft fitted in.4. a door leading to the internal of the yacht is fitted.1. "opening" or "non readily openable" type. • Zone B: Zone above Zone A bounded at the top by the deck from which the freeboard is calculated.4.4. For the "unrestricted" navigation. 5.1 Hatches on the weather deck and deck above are to have a strength equivalent to that of the adjacent structures to which they are fitted and are to be weathertight. provided that the doors have the locking devices indicated in 5. be fitted. the space protected shall be considered as flooded. reference is to be made to RINA "Rules for the classification of the Ships". the securing devices remain locked.6.2 Side/shell doors leading to a watertight compartment containing devices necessary for the proper and safe working of the ship See par.4. 5. Ch 1. Doors are preferably to open outwards.5 Hatch on the weather deck 5.Pt B. Appropriate national /international standard may also be used.2 Zones for the determination of scantling For the purpose of determining the scantlings of sidescuttles and rectangular windows. the volume of the space protected by the weathertight door will not be included in the reserve of buoyancy (hydrostatic data and cross curves). For the coaming of these hatches reference is to be made to the requirements set out in Part E. • Zone C: Zone corresponding to the 1st tier of superstructures and above. The freeboard between the lower part of the door and the water line may be less than 600mm.4.3 Flush hatches on the weather deck should not. Even in this case. hatches are to be hinged on the foreword side. For additional characteristic relevant to this internal door. 5.6 5. 5. the acceptance is at the discretion of RINA. etc are to be watertight and of strength equivalent to that of the adjacent structures. Drawings representing the hatches. winches. if any part of the door remains below the waterline in statical position after damage in any compartment. In case of damage stability calculation.4 Drawings A drawing representing the structure of the side/shell doors. Indication regarding the status of these doors shall be provided on the navigation bridge (open/closed): in particular. their coamins and their system of closure to be sent for approval. For dimensions bigger than 600 x 600 mm. • fitted in protected location. Its lower part shall be above the deepest aft water line in all sea going conditions. The following requirements apply to sidescuttles and rectangular windows providing light and air. • fitted with gaskets.

see Table 1. • in Zone C even where protecting openings giving direct access to spaces below deck. The thickness of the glass for such sidescuttles/rectangular windows fitted below the weather deck is given by the following formula: Nominal sizes (clear light) of rectangular window (mm) 300x500 355x500 400x560 450x630 500x710 560x800 900x630 1000x710 1100x800 Thickness of toughened glass (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 Nota 1: Swing bolts and circular hole hinges of glass holders of opening type rectangular windows are considered closing appliances. • in Zone B in general only type B sidescuttles and rectangular windows are permitted.54 A . In any case.4 Windows above weather deck The required thicknesses of toughened glass panes in standard rectangular windows are given in Table 2 as a function of the standard sizes of clear light Table 2 Total minimum number of closing appliances of opening type rectangular window 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 8 200 250 300 350 400 450 For oval sidescuttles reference is to be made to the equivalent surface area. b β β a A Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of an hydraulic pressure test.078 A2 .16m2. In any case. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure of the hull in that zone.75 for A > 3 : long side of the window : ratio a/b. Table 1 Thickness of toughned glass (mm) Clear light diameter (mm) Type B sydescuttles (medium series) 8 8 10 12 12 15 Type C sydescuttles (light series) 6 6 6 8 8 8 where: p : design pressure in kN/m2 computed at the lower edge of the windows but not less than 20 kN/m2. at the discretion of RINA and if not otherwise stated by flag Administration where the glass pane is of the laminated (shatterproof) type with a polycarbonate core of thickness greater than 3mm. The following requirements apply: • in Zone A neither side scuttles nor rectangular windows are permitted. without deadlight: Type C.0. • (light series) non-opening or opening type. Deadlights of the fixed or non-fixed type are to be arranged. 015b β ⋅ p t = 0. If exceptional cases and if not otherwise stated by flag Administration. the presence of deadlights. however. Ch 1. type and location.6. Their acceptance shall be addressed to RINA and will be accepted case by case in relation to their number. with deadlight: Type B. thickness of glass and position in respect to the deepest water line to be sent for approval. 5. In addition.. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure of the hull in that zone. type C sidescuttles and rectangular windows are permitted. For the thickness of toughened glasses of sidescuttles and rectangular windows.6.3 Scantling and arrangements of sidescuttles and rectangular windows Sidescuttles and rectangular windows may be classified as follows. the thickness cannot be assumed less than 15 mm. and fitted below the weather deck. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement. Sec 1 5.16 m2 may be accepted in Zone B. The thickness of toughened glass panes in rectangular windows of other sizes is given by the following formula: t = 0. tests on mock-ups representative of the arrangement as well as direct calculations for the zone of the side concerned may also be required in order to demonstrate the local structural adequacy. stormshutters and blanking is established in Part E. Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of an hydraulic pressure test.17 : 0. 005b β ⋅ p 36 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Relevant drawings with dimensions of clear opening. they may be omitted.Pt B. : shorter side of the window in mm : 0. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement. depending on their constructional characteristics: • (medium series) non-opening or non readily openable type. having surfaces not exceeding 0.0. sidescuttles and rectangular windows with surfaces exceeding 0.

Ventilators which.Pt B. 5.8. The thickness of laminated glass is to be such that: t e = t i 1 + t i 2 + …t iin 2 2 2 2 Arrangements with sliding glass doors or glass walls are generally permissible only for the after end bulkhead of superstructures. E. for any reason.6. being: te ti n : equivalent thickness of the single sheet glass pane : thickness of the single sheet in the laminate : number of sheets in the laminate. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure. The height of the coamings from the surface of the deck is to be in accordance with the requirements set out in Part E. 5. 5.1 Skylights fitted on the weather deck may considered as fitted in zone B and therefore.1 Doors in the superstructure's side Doors of exposed bulkheads of superstructures are to be of adequate dimensions and construction such as to guarantee their weathertight integrity.10 Ventilator 5. The yacht is to be adequately ventilated throughout all spaces.10. according to Manufacturer's information.5 above the 1st tier.7. 5.6.5 in the case of acrylic sheets. The doors on the weather deck which give direct access to machinery spaces are to have a minimum of six clips and to be outward opening.5 for all tier of superstructure The sills of these doors shall be in accordance with the requirements set out in Part E.8. Sec 1 where: p b β β a A : design pressure in kN/m2 of the wall of the superstructure with the window : shorter side of the window in mm : 0. 5. can be subjected to liquid pressure are to be made watertight and have scantlings suitable for withstanding the foreseen pressure.7 Skylights 5. external doors and glass walls is to be submitted. assuming for p the value: "Short range" navigation • 1 for 1st tier • 0. The use of FRP for doors on the weather deck other than machinery spaces may be accepted. "Unlimited" navigation • 1.1 General Accommodation spaces are to be protected from gas or vapour fumes from machinery. an adequate supply of air is maintained to the spaces for the safety and the operation of the machinery.8 Outer doors 5. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement.0.5 Materials other than toughened glass Materials other than toughened glass may be used for sidescuttles and windows above and below the weather deck.2 Sliding glass doors Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of an hydraulic pressure test. Where the doors may be required to be used as a means of escape.6. The thickness of toughened glass panes of windows of other shapes will be the subject of special consideration by RINA in relation to their shape. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 37 .9 Drawings 5. The deck plating in way of the coamings is to be adequately stiffened.75 for A > 3 : long side of the window : ratio a/b. Their locking devices shall be the same required for flush hatches (see par. The scantlings of ventilators exposed to the weather are to be equivalent to those of the adjacent deck or bulkhead. The thickness may be determined using the formula in 5. when machinery therein is operating at full power in all weather conditions. for "short range" navigation their thickness shall be in accordance with par.3 in the case of polycarbonate sheets and 1. exhaust and fuel system. windows. For the requirements for fire precaution see Part E.3 or 5. Reference is also to be made to any additional requirements set out in Pt. their dimensions.078 A2 .0. 5.9.1 A plan showing the position portlights. The design and positioning of ventilator openings are to be done with care. Other doors on the weather deck to 1st tier accommodation or other spaces protecting access below may have four clips.54 A . skylights.5. The thickness of the sheets may be obtained by multiplying the Rule thickness for toughened glass by 1. above all in the zone of high stress or in exposed zone. Ch 1. RINA reserves the right to impose limitations on the size of rectangular windows and require the use of glass panes of increased thickness in way of front bulkheads which are particularly exposed to heavy seas.3).6. providing the doors are sufficient strong. their sills is to be clearly indicated. The machinery spaces shall be adequately ventilated so as to ensure that. The glass used is to be of the toughened type or equivalent.5. Ventilators are to be adequately stayed. 5.4. the securing arrangements are to be operable from both sides.17 : 0. 5.

handrails or stays are to be provided. 38 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .12 Bulwarks. railings 5. Bulwarks are to be of strong construction and adequately supported.3 m if elsewhere. Sec 6).E. if not otherwise stated by flag Administration (See also Pt E.10. Ch 1. Ch 1. [7] and Pt.11 Air pipes 5.25 L.2 Closing appliances All ventilator openings are to be provided with efficient weathertight closing appliances unless: • The height of the coaming is greater than 4.5 m if above the weather deck or above exposed superstructure decks within the foreword 0.7. 5. Sec 1 5. As a general rule.1 General Bulwarks or railings are to be arranged on exposed decks. Ventilators are to be fitted with a suitable means of preventing ingress of water and spray when open and have a suitable drainage arrangements leading overboard.2 Height of air pipes For the height of air pipes from the upper surface of decks exposed to the weather to the point where water may have access below reference is to be made to Pt. Sec 9. 5. E. • The height of the coaming is greater than 2. Ch 5. Ch 1.11. Where this is not practicable.1 General Air and sounding pipes are to comply with the requirements of Pt C. 5. par.11. closing appliances are to be permanently attached to the ventilator coaming.12.Pt B. Any bulwarks or gunwales without openings on the weather deck are to be provided with freeing port openings having dimensions in accordance with ILLC'66 requirement's. 5.

In such cases. assumed in solid bar and subject to torque only. or by measurements taken on similar yachts.2 Rudder stock 1. in way of the centreline of pintles mentioned above.08 + 0. where: DT K : : diameter. the diameter DT is not to be taken less 20 e1/3.the bending modulus of elasticity of the composite material. constituted by: • main steering gear. in mm. b = A/h is to be taken. as defined and calculated in 1. 235 / RS. of the rudder stock. to comparative working tests. in knots. the minimum yield stress RS is to be taken not greater than 0. The inertia of the composite rudder stock Ic is to be not less than ImEm/Efc. from the centroids of area to the centreline of pintles. 1. IB and II in Figure 2) is to be not less than the value obtained from the formula: D TF = K ⋅ D T 1. In the case of sailing yachts. in mm. The "steering gear" of a yacht means all apparatus and devices necessary for the operation of the rudder. The stresses in N/mm 2 are not to be greater than the following: • torsional stress = 70/e • Von Mises equivalent stress = 120/e as defined in 1.2 Tubular rudder stock The diameter DTF. taking as the value RS for the calculation of e. the following formula is to be used for the calculation of V: V = 2. of rudder stocks subject to torque and bending.1 Rudder subject to torque only The diameter DT.7 RM.24 ( H / R ) for type II rudders.1 Rudders and steering gear General V : maximum design speed.the inertia of the Rule metal rudder stock Em . where b is the width. where appropriate. In general. with or without auxiliary engine. designed to ensure control of the yacht at the maximum navigational speed. 1. 1. in mm.1. The acceptance of rudder stocks made of composite material is.Pt B. to be taken not less than 0. is given by the following formula: D T = 12 ( A ⋅ R ⋅ V ⋅ e ) 2 1⁄3 where: A R : total rudder area. • auxiliary steering gear. steering propellers.12b. The diameter of rudder stocks made of composite materials may be derived using the above formulae. Sec 2 SECTION 2 HULL OUTFITTINGS 1 1. : horizontal distance. 3 L 0. of rudder stocks. Unconventional rudders of unusual type or shape and those with speeds exceeding 45 knots will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. However. or using recognised theories. in m2 bounded by the rudder's external contour including the mainpiece. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 39 . of the rudder. as in the case of rudders with two bearings (with solepiece) and of space rudders (see types IA. e : where L is the length as defined in Sec.2. the value of shear tensile strength of the composite material. in metres. Ch 1. the scantlings of the rudder and the rudder stock will be determined by means of direct calculations to be agreed with RINA as regards the loads and schematisation. for rudders with non-rectangular contours. such as fins or flaps. where RM is the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the rudder stock material.1. in metres. where h is the rudder height. in mm.the modulus of elasticity of the metal Efc . In no case is such value to be reduced by more than 10%.2. subject to an inspection of the fabrication procedure and. in m. where: Im . 1.08 + 0. enabling control of the yacht in the event of an emergency due to mechanical breakdown of the components of the main steering gear.1 These requirements apply to ordinary profiles rudders without any special arrangement for increasing the rudder force.2.1. For rudder stocks made of material which is more corrosion resistant than mild steels.2. if the latter has a rectangular contour. 5 1. of the yacht at full load draught. the loads will be determined either by model tests.06 ( H / R ) for type IA or type IB rudders. or equivalent means of manoeuvre. etc. in any event. a lower value for diameter DT than that obtained as above may be accepted by RINA on a caseby-case basis.

6 dG. in any case.25 dT x 0. in both (a) and (b) above. are given purely for guidance. in metres.2. in mm.1 Horizontal couplings Horizontal flange couplings between the rudder stock and the mainpiece when not integral are to have: • flanges of dimensions such that the coupling bolts are distributed on a circumference having a diameter not less than 2D or in a similar manner.5 ⋅ d 1 d G ≥ 0.5 ⋅ dG ≥D where D = DT.3.5 ⋅ d 1 d G ≥ 0. the determination of adequate scantlings being the responsibility of the Designer. for rudders dealt with in 1. from the centroid of the area A to the lower end of the rudder stock bearing in way of the piece. whichever is the greater. where D is as defined in 1.3 Tubular rudder stock Where a tubular rudder stock is adopted. In cone couplings of type (a) above.1. in any case. the diameter DTF is to be extended as far as the coupling between the rudder stock and the mainpiece.2.2 ⋅ d0 and. 1 (with explanations of symbols used in a) and b) below are to have the following dimensions: a) Cone coupling with hydraulic arrangements for assembling and disassembling the coupling Taper: 1 ⁄ 20 ≤ ( d 1 – d 0 ) ⁄ t s ≤ 1 ⁄ 12 tS ≥ 1.2 ⋅ d0 40 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3. At the lower part. and. in mm. and D = DTF.13 dG and an outer diameter not less than 1. not less than 0. required in way of the mainpiece bearing. whichever is the greater.2. • bolt nuts provided with means of locking. the key may be omitted.3. Figure 1 1. its inner diameter d1 and outer diameter d2.2. Ch 1.2 d from the external edge of the flanges. b) Cone coupling without hydraulic arrangements for assembling and disassembling the coupling Taper: 1 ⁄ 12 ≤ ( d 1 – d 0 ) ⁄ ts ≤ 1 ⁄ 8 t S ≥ 1. 1.3 Coupling between rudder stock and mainpiece The dimensions of the locking nut. In this case the Designer is to submit to RINA shrinkage calculations and supply all data necessary for the relevant check. 1.60 ⋅ d G d N ≥ 1. including indication of the values of all relevant parameters. • flanges of thickness not less than the diameter d of the bolts. for rudders dealt with in 1. the diameter may be gradually tapered below the upper edge of the rudder blade.60 ⋅ d G d N ≥ 1. • bolts of diameter d.2 Cone couplings Cone couplings of the shape shown in Fig.: d N ≥ 1. are to be available on board. a key is to be fitted having a cross section 0. is to be extended at the upper part to at least 10% of the height of the bearing or to a height equivalent to 2 DTF. are to comply with the following formula: d –d ---------------d2 4 2 4 1⁄3 1 Between the nut and rudder gudgeon a washer is to be fitted having a thickness not less than 0. Sec 2 H : vertical distance.Pt B.65 ⋅ d 1 t N ≥ 0. beyond this limit. and keyways in both the tapered part and the rudder gudgeon. in the absence of such coupling. d N ≥ 1.2. which in no case is to be less than 4. All necessary instructions for hydraulic assembly and disassembly of the nut.10 dT.65 D/n0. 1.65 ⋅ d 1 t N ≥ 0.3 d0 and 1. where n is the number of bolts.5 ⋅ d G The diameter of the rudder. the rudder stock diameter may be gradually tapered so as to reach the value of D T in way of the coupling between rudder stock and tiller. In cone couplings of type (b) above.5. • bolts whose axes are at a distance not less than 1.

3 Sealing devices In rudder trunks which are open to the sea. ( 0. in any case. Sec 2 1. otherwise.5. 1. in mm. Z = 7 + 0. designed to prevent the rudder from lifting as necessary. outside of any lining or welding. 3 for aluminium alloy rudders. to be not less than 5 mm.Pt B. in mm. in mm. The thickness of the plate is. are permitted. as in the case of rudders with double plating. and vertical and horizontal webs. is to be 1:6 with respect to the diameter.11 (D T . to that of the stock in way of the upper edge of the blade. m. D : rudder stock diameter as defined in 1. 1. the type of material and the relevant mechanical characteristics are to be submitted to RINA for examination.2 Plate rudders The following requirements apply to rudders made of hull plates of ordinary steel. made of glass reinforced plastics. and mainpiece arms. the filling of the rudder with light material of expanded type is permitted. where V and b are as defined in 1.2 D. Ch 1. of the glass reinforcement of the material. structurally connected to the mainpiece. aluminium alloy or stainless steel. • blade made of a single plate or composed of two preformed plates. of the same material.welded connections complying with the requirements of Chap. Double-plate rudders are to have: • mainpiece of section equal. in mm. in cm3. 45 • mass per unit surface. If the rudder stock is lined in way of the trunk bearing (for instance with stainless steel brush). DT : rudder stock diameter.2.20 ) mm. for DT < 60 mm. to be linearly increased with the arm spacing s.3. of the plating.4. in mm. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 41 . Z = 7:cm3 is to be taken. is to be between 1.8 (DT.6 D where: c : 1. including that of upper or lower closing. Any proposed welding overlay may be accepted subject to the use of a welding process recognised as suitable by RINA.1 5. their scantlings will be stipulated on the basis of their characteristics in accordance with a criterion of equivalence. to prevent water from entering the steering gear compartment and lubricant being washed away from the rudder carrier.1 Rudder bearings Rudder "bearings" means: • the bearing supporting the radial load fitted at the rudder trunk. • thickness t. 4 and filled with light material.5 D is required.1 Mainpiece types The rudder mainpiece is formed by the stock.drainage hole. For any linig or welding.2 DA.2.5 D and 2 D. but in no case less than DA. 7 + s ⁄ 10 ) 3 where: s : spacing of the horizontal webs. of the pintles. gradually tapered in the lower half to not less than 50%. complying with the requirements of Chap. The arms or the webs supporting the blade are to be structurally connected to the mainpiece. by a solid or tubular bar. • a bearing. 1. The height of the pintle bearing surface is to be approximately 1. but in no case less than 1.2. Lower values of h. or equivalent. is given by the following formula: DA = c + 0. . .4.4.5 Rudder bearings.4 Cast rudders For rudders and their stocks obtained by casting. Single-plate rudders are to have: • mainpiece with section equal. that at the solepiece and that in way of the stock/tiller coupling. in kg/m2. carrying the vertical load. The tapering of any truncated cone-shaped part of the pintle. m = 0.1 apply.3. plates of other metallic material. extended into the blade when the coupling does not exist.4.6Vb.5. a double T or a box structure.2 Pintles The minimum diameter DA. in other cases. • rudder stop devices. as defined in 1. or. to be taken for the calculation as not greater than 1000. in order to support the weight of the rudder. given by the following formula: t = DT 0 . the lining is to be shrunk on. 2 for steel rudders. The rudder trunk bearing height h. • horizontal arms with solid rectangular section. for which h ≥ 1. to the section specified for single-plate rudders. 1. for rudders dealt with in 1. pintles and stuffing boxes 1.5. 1.3 Rudders with blade made of glass reinforced plastics Such rudders are to have.internal surfaces protected by painting. or equivalent each having. 1.g. in solid or tubular bar.1. a seal or stuffing box is to be fitted above the deepest load waterline. e.2. section modulus.20 ). when s is greater than 750 mm. may be accepted except in the case of spade rudders. and Chap. or equivalent device. the requirements of 1. Castings with sharp edges and sharp section changes are to be avoided.2. where D is the local stock diameter as defined in 1.5. in particular when stock and plating are cast in one piece. .4 Rudder mainpiece and blade 1. or equivalent. in particular: • stock and mainpiece. • plate with thickness t = 5 + 0.1. in way of the connection to the hull. at the root. made of hull steel or light alloy.

• the above apparatus. in mm. equal to 0.25 DT2. in mm. Figure 2 Tipo IA Tipo IB Tipo II 42 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . in way of the connection to the hub. 1. 1. in mm.6. 1. : length. 5 2n Remote controlled steering gear of one of the following types: • tiller. equal to the hub thickness.4 DT. 1 Sec.6. in mm. in any case the diameter db is to be not less than 12 mm.3 Steering gear of remote controlled type with rope or chain The rudder tiller.4 Steering gear with hydraulic or electrohydraulic type remote control The parts of such steering gear are to comply with the specific requirements of Part C Chap. 4D d b = -------------0. thickness. is to have: • hub of height h ≥ DT. or with cylindrical section and key. 1. length. : 0.17 DT and section area.6 1. which are dealt with below. • the coupling key is to have rounded edges. where: DT a : Rule diameter. where n is the number of bolts on each side of the hub. in mm.2 Types of steering gear b The tiller-stock coupling is to be of the type with square section.Pt B. Sec 2 If the top of the rudder trunk is below the deepest load waterline. and the tiller hub is to be bolted. in mm2. not less than the value given by the formula: 0.1 Steering gear and associated apparatus Premise These requirements apply to the most commonly used types of steering gear. or quadrant. of the tiller. and thickness t ≥ 0. two separate seals or stuffing boxes are to be provided.6. given by the following formula: DT a – b Z ≥ 0. hydraulic actuator of the tiller and associated piping. in mm. 15 ⋅ -----------. measured from the rudder stock to the point of connection of rope or chain to the stock. of the rudder stock subject to torque only. valves and hydraulic pump controlled by rudder wheel. in mm. 10 of these Rule.6. in mm.⋅ ----------1000 a 3 Alternative arrangements will be subject of special consideration by RINA. in cm3. with the addition of an electric pump feeding the actuator through distributor and gyropilot follow-up link. any different types will be specially considered by RINA in each case.5 DT + t. • section modulus Z. equal to 0. in particular: • the hub bolts are to have diameter db. Ch 1.

if any. with a head (or nut and lock nut) at one end and a nut and lock nut at the other. etc.) but in no case to plating. and they are to be made of bronze.4 dp. see 2.2 dp and are to be connected to the hull by means of bolts with nuts and lock nuts on the internal hull structures. to the resistant structures of the hull (floors.4 ÷ 0.1 Double arm propeller shaft brackets consist of two arms forming an angle as near as practicable to 90°. 3.6d2. in cm 3.5. The fillet radii between the section at the root of the bracket and the connecting palm are to be as large as practicable. Ch 1. b ⁄ dp K : -----------6.1 Ballast where: : Rule diameter of the propeller shaft made of dp steel with ultimate tensile strength Rm = 400 measured inside the liner. the section modulus Z is to be modified as a function of the tensile strength of the material. Sec 2 2 2. in cm 2.Pt B. and the locking of the nuts is to be uniform. in other RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 43 .1 Thew section modulus Z. the connection to the hull is to be effected by means of bolts long enough to incorporate the height of the ballast. Arms having elliptical or trapezoidal section with round fairing are to have an area A. on which it is never to bear.2 Single arm brackets 2. in N/mm2. in mm. in mm. The diameter d. the connecting palm and the connection to the hull. in kg. at the end of the bracket at the attachment to the plating of the connecting palm) is to be at least equal to that given by the following formula: Z = 0 . each bolt having a cross-sectional area A = 0. 5 A double row of bolts is to be fitted. With regard to the boss. ultimate tensile strength of the bolt material. In the first case.1.5.1. 5 ⋅ 10 d P ⋅ ---------------------------Rm a ⎝ ⎛ 3 3. of the section.1. In the second case. When the brackets are connected by means of palms. such bolts are to pass through the hull. There are to be at least 8 bolts.1. at the root not less than that given by the following relationship: ⎠ ⎞ 1600 + R m a –3 2 A = 87 . Where direct calculations are carried out to determine the diameter of bolts. between the two bolts arranged on the i-nth section. The above formula is to be intended as applicable for material with ultimate tensile strength Rm = 400 N/mm 2. frames. and thickness of approximately 0. by clips or equivalent means. of the section at the root (i.5 b : the length of the arm to be measured from its origin on the propeller shaft boss to its intersection with the shell plating or with the outside plane of the palm. 2. The cross area of the bracket at the boss is to be not less than 60% of the area of the bracket at he palm or at the intersection with the shell plating. which are to be suitably stiffened to the satisfaction of RINA. The plating in way of the bracket connection is to be suitably increased and connected to the arm bracket with full penetration welding.e. distance. in mm. either wholly or in part. and converging into a propeller shaft bossing. the connection between bracket and hull is to be carried out by means of welding. assuming K =1 when b/dp ≤ 6. The boss is to have length of approximately 3 dp.1 Propeller shaft brackets Double arm brackets cases. The thickness of the plating in the vicinity of the connection is to be increased by 50%. the bolt holes are to be fashioned with equipment designed to achieve an almost complete absence of play between bolt and hole. In the case of metal hulls and brackets of the same material.5 in relation to the ultimate tensile strength and ≥ 2 in relation to the yield stress of the bolt material is to be applied.13A0. towards the inside of the hull. Rma of the material of the brackets. of the bolts (at the end of the thread) is generally given by the following formula: d = 11 [ Wh G ⁄ Σli ⋅ σ R ] 0.2.1. The maximum thickness in way of the above section is to be not less than 0. 5 where: W hG : : mass of the ballast. The nuts are to rest on plates or large washers and to be left uncovered so that they may be easily examined.1 The typical ratio of the weight of external ballast to light displacement is generally 0. stainless steel or highly galvanised steel. : minimum ultimate tensile strength. The brackets are to be continuous through the plating and to be connected internally to suitable transverse or longitudinal structures. 2. their diameter is to be at least 14 mm. distance. but in no case less than 3 dp. from the centroid of the ballast. and therefore diameter d1 = 1. the ballast is to be permanently secured. in mm. in N/mm2. so as not to shift even during rolling or pitching. in mm. to the plane of attachment of the ballast to the hull. the degree of locking is to be taken into account and a safety factor < 3.25 dp.1. The ballast may be internal or external to the hull. 14 K ⋅ d P – 10 3 –3 σR li : : where: dp : as defined in 2. The surface of the ballast keel head is to be flush with the surface of the hull. the latter are to have thickness not less than 0.

1.1 Stabiliser arrangements General 5.2. 5. the scantling of the watertight boxes and their stiffeners will be considered case by case. the arrangement will be specially considered by RINA. The duct is to be adequately supported. The foregoing loads are to be provided by the water-jet drive Manufacturer and adequately documented.3 Stabilising tanks 6. and in any case not less than 7 mm.1 Water-jet drive ducts 4. For GRP vessels. the bedplates of the various components.2 Stabiliser arrangements 4. 44 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . 5. • For composite tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 25%.2. The box shall be well stiffened. supported by adequately reinforced structures are to be arranged in a watertight box with an inspection opening fitted with a watertight cover.1 Thruster tunnels Tunnel wall thickness • 5.5 For tunnels in composite material. The stiffener is to be arranged on both sides of the plating laminate. in general. All hull openings are to be adequately reinforced and to have well rounded corners.2 Tunnel arrangement details 5.1 The thickness of the duct is to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications and. the supporting structures and the loads transmitted. 4.3.2. but in no case less than 12mm. Drawings are to be submitted for approval showing the position. 4.3 The thickness of the plating is to be locally increased by 50% in way of the tunnel attachment. 5. Ch 1.1 The tank structures are to comply with the requirements for tank bulkheads.1 The stabiliser fin machinery is to be supported by adequately reinforced structures. 5.2.Pt B. 4. Sec 2 4 4. 4. The Manufacturer is to assess the need to arrange suitable means of protection at the duct opening in order to prevent the ingress of foreign bodies which may damage the internal mechanism.4 The tunnel is to be connected to the plating by means of full penetration welding. Where it is not practical to provide a watertight box. Where sloshing is foreseeable the scantlings will be the subject of special consideration. The water-jet drive supporting structures are to be able to withstand the loads induced by the propulsion system in the following conditions: • • maximum thrust ahead maximum thrust at the maximum lateral inclination maximum reverse thrust (astern speed).1 The system for connecting the tunnel to the hull depends on the material used for the construction. In the case of fixed type stabiliser fins. nevertheless.2.3. 6 6. stiffened and fully integrated with the hull structure. In metal structures.2 The tunnel is to be arranged between two floors of increased height or in a separate watertight compartment. the thickness is to be not less than: • For steel tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 10% (but at least 2 mm). in general. particularly because of the restricted inside spaces. The thickness of the plating in the vicinity of the duct entrance is to be locally increased as stated in 5. taking into account the maximum head that may arise in service. the passage to the hull and the components necessary for the operation of the system. arrangement and efficiency of stabiliser arrangements do not fall within the scope of Classification.1. in any case the thickness is to be not less than 8 mm. Prior to the connecting lamination. the watertight box shall be at least of the same thickness as the adjacent shell plating.2. 5 5.2.1 The thickness of the tunnel is to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications. the surfaces of the tunnel and the plating concerned are to be suitably cleaned and prepared and the edges of the cuts are to be sealed with resin.1. • For light alloy tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 10% (but at least 1 mm).2 The shell plating in way of stabilizer fins shall be adequately reinforced.2. the weight of the connecting laminate stiffener is to be equal to the weight of the bottom plating stiffener. is to be not less than that of the adjacent plating. the supporting structures and the watertight integrity are to be examined.1 The scantlings. and in any case not less than 8 mm .

in order to avoid concentration of forces. . RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 45 .the weight of the crane itself. these insert plates shall have suitable dimensions (in respect to the dimensions of the foundation).1 Crane foundations shall be designed considering the worst combinations of the following loadings: .1. Sec 2 7 7. .Pt B.maximum load capacity . A drawing of this arrangement with all the forces acting and the particular of the connection to the deck is to be sent for approval.wind. be suitably prepared and have round corners.1 Crane support arrangements 7. The thickness of these inserts shall be in accordance with the designer's calculations.crane accelerations resulting from the vessel's heel and trim Insert plates shall be provided in the deck in way of the crane foundation. Ch 1.

In such conditions the loads on the anchoring equipment increase to such a degree that its components may be damaged or lost owing to the high energy forces generated. In poor holding ground the holding power of the anchors will be significantly reduced.1 2.2 For vessel having GT greater than 500.Pt B. may be constructed with an independent metal core instead of a fibre core. they are to be of the flexible type. CRM Where synthetic fibre ropes are used. the mass shown in the table is to be multiplied by 1. their size will be determined taking into account the type of material used and the manufacturing characteristics of the rope. The windlass is to be fitted in a suitable position in order to ensure an easy lead of the chain cables to and through the hawse pipes. The breaking loads shown in Table 1 refer to steel wires or natural fibre ropes. to be assumed not less than 30%.1. Where steel wires are used.1 Windlass 3 3. chain cables of at least Grade 2 are to be used with "very high holding power" anchors. given in Table 1 applies to "high holding power" anchors.1 Mooring lines 2 2. The equipment is therefore not designed to hold a yacht off fully exposed coasts in rough weather or to stop a yacht which is moving or drifting.1 Anchors are to be manufactured in accordance with Pt D.10.33. 1.1 Windlasses are to be power driven and suitable for the size of chain cable and is to have the characteristics below. It is assumed that under normal circumstances a yacht will use one anchor only. while the second may be kept on board as a spare. The equivalence between synthetic fibre ropes and natural fibre ropes may be assessed by the following formula: δ ⋅ C RM CR S = 7. The actual mass of each anchor may vary by + or . the deck in way of the windlass is to be suitably reinforced.1. where the wire is wound on the winch drum. Ch.1 Chain cables are to have proportions in accordance with recognised unified standards and to be of the steel grade given in Table 1. 5 5. as well as the different properties of such ropes in comparison with natural fibre ropes.1. CRS : breaking load of the synthetic fibre rope.7% with respect to that shown in Table 1. The first anchor is to be positioned ready for use.7 of RINA Rules for Ship shall be sent to Head Office together 3.1 Mooring lines may be of wire. rope diameters under 20 mm are not permitted.1. Sec. When use is made of normal type anchors.1. 4 ⋅ -----------------1⁄9 C RM 2. or in a sheltered area.1 Anchors 4. When "very high holding power" anchors are used. In any case the anchoring and mooring arrangements should meet the minimum requirements as required from the flag Administration. or a mixture of wire and fibre.1 The anchoring equipment required in 6 is intended for temporary mooring of a yacht within or near a harbour.1. natural or synthetic fibre. : breaking load of the natural fibre rope. The anchoring equipment required in 6 is deemed suitable to hold a yacht in good holding ground where the conditions are such as to avoid dragging of the anchor. even though a smaller diameter could be adopted in relation to the required breaking load. Sec 3 SECTION 3 EQUIPMENTS 1 1.2 The mass.1 Chain cables for anchors 5. per anchor. provided that the total mass of the two anchors is at least equal to the sum of the masses given in the Table.1 General Grade 1 chain cables are generally not to be used in association with "high holding power" anchors. 46 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . in kN. Ch 1. dove: δ : elongation to breaking of the synthetic fibre rope. 4 4. in kN.4. the mass of the anchors may be equal to 70% of that shown in Table 1 for stockless anchors. Steel wires to be used with mooring winches. calculations demonstrating compliance with Pt B. par 3. 5. Where synthetic fibre ropes are adopted. Ch 4. A suitable stopping device is to be fitted in order to prevent the anchor from shifting due to movement of the yacht.1. Sec.

the upper deckhouse is to be included and the lower ignored. 5. in m. Where the depth of water in the trial area is inadequate.5 m.1 All yacths are to be provided with anchors. - 7 7. sheer and trim are to be disregarded. chain cables and ropes will be fixed by RINA depending on the case. h is to be taken equal to the sum of freeboard amidships plus the height hn (at the centreline) of each tier of superstructures and deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4. 1 A where: ∆ h : yacht displacement.2 The test is to demonstrate that the windlass works adequately and has sufficient power to simultaneously weigh the two bower anchors (excluding the housing of the anchors in the hawse pipe) when both are suspended to 55m of chain cable. : For EN > 1060 the anchors.2 When calculating h.2 Working test on windlass ⎝ ⎛ EN = ∆ 2⁄3 + 2 aB + b n h n sin θ n + 0.3 Where two windlasses operating separately on each chain cable are adopted. Where a deckhouse having a breadth greater than B/4 is above another deckhouse with a breadth of B/4 or less. A : area. in not more than 6 min. Clutches.1. when a bulwark is more than 1. suitable equivalent simulating conditions will be considered as an alternative.3 3 Drawing relevant to the equipment number to be sent for approval.1. the equipment number can be calculated as follows: ⎠ ⎞ 5.1 The working test of the windlass is to be carried out on board at the presence of the Surveyor. in m. in m2. The equipment Number EN is to be calculated as follows: EN = ∆ 2⁄3 + 2h ⋅ B + 0. of each tier n of superstructures or deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4. 6 6.1.5 metres in height the area above such height is to be included. i. as shown in Table 1. material. superstructures and deckhouses above the summer load waterline which are within the length L of the yacht and also have a breadth greater than B/4. as defined in Section 1 : a + Σh n a : distance.2.5 metres or more in height are to be regarded as parts of deckhouses when determining h and A. 6. 6. the drawing is to contain also information on geometrical elements fo calculation list of equipment. in profile view. Ch 1. In determining the area A. at the centreline of each tier n of superstructures or deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4. weighing an anchor suspended to 82. θn bn : angle of inclination with the horizontal axis aft of each front bulkhead greatest breadth.1. construction. the value of EN is to be calculated using the formula given in 6. Sec 3 with detailed plans and an arrangement plan showing the following components: Shafting. chain cables and ropes based on their Equipment Number EN. Gearing.5m of chain cable and verifying that the time required for the weighing (excluding the housing of the anchors in the hawse pipe) does not exceed 9 min. Screens or bulwarks 1.e. breaking load and relevant elongation of synthetic ropes. Brakes.1 Equipment Number and equipment 6.2. in m.Pt B. 1 A 47 .1. of the parts of the hull.2. construction and breaking load of steel wires. the weighing test is to be carried out for both.1 Sailing yachts hn 7. in tonnes. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 ∑ 5. For yachts that have superstructures with the front bulkhead with an angle of inclination aft. from the summer load waterline amidships to the weather deck : height. 5. or the anchor cable is less than 82.1 For sailing yachts (with or without auxiliary engine).

(1) Mass per anchor (kg) Studless chain cable (2) 11 12.5 17. 48 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .5 330 330 357.5 220 220 220 247.5 14.5 12.5 192.5 22 24 24 24 24 26 28 No. where Grade U2 or U3 steel studless chain cables are used.5 22 22 24 26 26 28 30 30 32 32 34 36 Grade U2 steel 12.5 17.5 17.Pt B.5 17.5 19 20. Ch 1.5 247.5 302.5 14 14 16 16 17 20.5 275 275 275 302.5 357.5 22 22 24 26 26 28 28 30 32 Grade U3 steel 11 11 12. in the event of the loss of the first anchor.5 302.5 12.5 357.5 19 19 20. The diameters refer to Grade U1 steel chain cables.5 192. Length (m) Breaking load kN 26 31 35 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 62 70 78 86 98 105 118 126 138 150 160 173 184 50 70 90 110 130 150 175 205 240 280 320 360 400 450 500 550 600 660 720 780 840 910 980 (1) (2) 70 90 110 130 150 175 205 240 280 320 360 400 450 500 550 600 660 770 780 840 910 980 1060 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 100 120 140 160 180 200 230 260 310 360 410 460 520 580 640 700 770 840 910 980 1060 1150 1260 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 60 70 80 80 90 90 90 90 90 110 110 110 110 110 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 The second anchor is intended as a spare and it is not necessary to carry it as a bower anchor provided that. the diameters may be reduced guaranteeing the same breaking load as the chain cable corresponding to Grade U1.5 19 19 20.5 12.5 20.5 EN A<EN<B Chain cables for anchors Diameter (mm) Mooring lines A B No.5 14. Sec 3 Table 1 Stockless bower anchors Total length (m) 137. the sheet anchor can be readily removed from its position and arranged as a bower anchor.5 247.5 165 165 192.5 22 24 - Chain cables with stud Grade U1 steel 11 11 14 14 16 16 17.5 14 14 16 16 17.

without leakage. The section modulus of stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z. in mm. the centre of the area supported by the stiffener. 2 2. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections. 3. Sec 4 SECTION 4 NON STRUCTURAL FUEL TANKS 1 1.1 General To this end. kerosene and similar). in RS N/mm2. Tanks are to be effectively earthed.where RS is the minimum yield stress. the dynamic stresses to which they will be subjected. At the discretion of RINA. nickel copper.Pt B. 1. 5 where: s hS : : stiffener spacing. provided that it is possible. leak testing may be accepted as an alternative.2 Scantlings 2. in m. in cm3.1 Metallic tanks General 3 3. for which internal zinc plating is not permitted. in m. 3. or. Upon completion of construction and fitting of all the pipe connections. In any case the thickness of the tank is to be not less than 2 mm for steel and not less than 3 mm for light alloy. intended as the lower edge of the plate. the above openings are to be arranged on the top of the tank. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. given by the formula: Z = 4 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ hS ⋅ K 2 where: S : stiffener span.1.1 Tanks intended to contain diesel oil or gas-oil are to be made of stainless steel. in order to reduce the movement of liquid. Such tanks are to be separated from accommodation spaces by integral gastight bulkheads. for stiffeners. where necessary.2. zinc plating may be used. steel or aluminium alloys.2 Scantlings 3.1 Tanks for liquid fuel are to be designed and constructed so as to withstand.2. 2. static internal design head. The materials adopted are to withstand the corrosive action of the fuel to be carried. Where light alloys are employed. whichever is the greater. Tanks are to be arranged so as to be accessible at least for external inspection and check of piping. Where their dimensions permit. pdr : point of reference. tanks are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head equal to that corresponding to 2 m above the tank top or that of the overflow pipe.1. in m.1 Fuel tanks may be made of non-metallic materials. In tanks intended to contain fuel with a flashpoint below 55°C determined using the closed cup test (petrol. The acceptance of the non-metallic tanks will be subject to tests on materials (such as and after immersion in the fuel to be carried). to be assumed as the greater of the following values: • vertical distance from the pdr (see below) to a point located 2 m above the tank top • two-thirds of the vertical distance from the pdr to the top of overflow K : 235 --------. the value of RS to be assumed is that corresponding to the alloy in the annealed condition.1. given by the following formula: t = 4 ⋅ s ⋅ ( hS ⋅ K ) 0. The upper part of tanks is generally not to have welded edges facing upwards or be shaped so as to accumulate water or humidity. Ch 1.1 The thickness of metallic tank plating is to be not less than the value t. of the tank material. Tanks are to be arranged in adequately ventilated spaces equipped with a mechanical air ejector.1 The scantlings of non-metallic tanks will be specially considered by RINA on the basis of the characteristics of the RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 49 . Steel tanks are to be suitably protected internally and externally so as to withstand the corrosive action of the salt in the atmosphere and the fuel they are intended to contain. tanks are to include openings allowing at least the visual inspection of the interior. except for tanks intended to contain diesel oil or gas-oil. They are to be fitted with internal diaphragms. Tanks are to be arranged on special supports on the hull and securely fastened to them so as to withstand the stresses induced by movement of the yacht.1 Non-metallic tanks General 2.

2.3. respectively.3 Tests on tanks 3.1 General Prior to their installation on board. The test may be supplemented by arranging a pressure gauge and checking that the reading does not vary over time. The level may then be lowered to the test pressure before carrying out the welding tightness check of the tank and connections by means of a liquid solution of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. Leak testing is to be performed before any primer and/or coating is applied.2. The surface of the tanks is to be internally coated with resin capable of withstanding hydrocarbons and externally coated with self-extinguishing resin.3.Pt B. it is recommended that the air pressure is raised to 0. leak testing may be accepted as an alternative in accordance with the conditions stipulated in 3. the test is to be carried out before the surface is externally coated with self-extinguishing resin. in mm.2 Leak testing Z = 15 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h S ⋅ K 0 where: kof .3. as defined in 2. At the discretion of RINA. s. whichever is the greater. the thickness is to be not less than 8 mm with reinforcement not less than 30% in weight fraction. 5 sponding to 2 m above the tank top or that of the overflow pipe. Prior to inspection of the tightness of welding. the thickness t. In the case of tanks made of composite material. hS : Leak testing is to be carried out by applying an air pressure of 0. in cm3.15 bar. S.2 bar and kept at this level for about 1 hour. In any case. 3. for tanks made of composite material. in the case of metallic tanks and pipe connections. k0 : as defined in Chap. of the plating and the module of stiffeners Z. tanks are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head equal to that corre- 50 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . 4. are to be not less. 3. In general. Ch 1. than the values: t = 6 ⋅ s ⋅ ( hS ⋅ ko f ) 2 0. Sec 4 material proposed and the results of strength tests performed on a sample.

2. In hulls without a clearly visible deadrise.Pt B. Aft perpendicular: perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline plane (with the yacht stationary in still water) and the aft side of the sternpost or transom. additional information may be required in the form of basin test results on prototypes. Displacement. Block coefficient. 2.1.1 βx Symbols : Deadrise of the transverse section under consideration. where unknown. this is the angle formed by the horizontal axis and the straight line joining keel and chine.81 m/s2. Forward perpendicular: perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline plane (with the yacht stationary in still water) and the fore side of the stem. given by the relationship: ∆ C B = ----------------------------------1. Maximum design value of vertical acceleration at LCG.2.2 Semi-planing yacht A yacht that is supported partially by the buoyancy of the water it displaces and partially by the dynamic pressure generated by the bottom surface running over the water.2.4 Chine In hulls without a clearly visible chine. Design deck. Sec 5 SECTION 5 LOADS 1 1. defined as the transverse distance.5 ≤ 4.2. extending for at least 0.6 L and constituting an effective support for side structures. to be assumed equal to 0. Alternative methods for the determination of acceleration and loads may be taken into consideration by RINA also on the basis of model tests or experimental values measured on similar yachts. Longitudinal centre of gravity of the yacht. Point of reference. For yachts of speed exceeding 10 L0.6 L from the PpAV.42 · L · B · T.2. intended as the first deck above the full load waterline. 025 L ⋅ B ⋅ T PpAV : PpAD : 2 2. 2.3. measured along the hull. intended as the lower edge of the plating panel or the centre of the area supported by the stiffener.3.1..2. depending on the case under consideration. 1.1 General 2. CSis twice the distance measured along the single hull. in g. Acceleration of gravity = 9. of the yacht at full load draught T. In general.3 2.1 Displacement yacht A yacht whose weight is fully supported by the hydrostatic forces. CB : CS : : g LCG : : Support contour of the yacht. in t.5 knots or yachts of unusual shape. pdr : 2. For twin hull yachts. 2.1 Definitions and symbols General pdc : 2. Pressures on panels and stiffeners may be considered as uniform and equal to the value assumed in the point of reference pdr as defined in 2. or generally accepted theories.1 The definitions of the following symbols are valid for all of Part B. In such case a report is to be submitted giving details of the methods used and/or tests performed.1 The static and dynamic design loads defined in this Section are to be adopted in the formulae for scantlings of hull and deck structures stipulated in Chapters 2. Where unknown. aCG : RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 51 . to be taken as located in the section at 0. 2. The meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Chapters or Sections. for the purposes of this Section. a displacement yacht is a craft having V / L0. in m. provided by the Designer based on an assessment of the service conditions (speed. 2. significant wave height) envisaged in the design. 3 and 4 of Part B. Ch 1.3 Planing yacht A yacht in which the dynamic lift generated by the bottom surface running over the water supports the total weight of the yacht.5 Bottom The bottom is that part of the hull between the keel and the chines. from the chines to 0.6 Side Shell The side shell is that part of the hull between the chine and the highest continuous deck.2 Definitions ∆ : 2.5 L. this is the point of the hull in which the tangent to the hull has an angle of 50° on the horizontal axis.

is defined on the basis of model tests and full-scale measurements. For large yachts. 3.2. 3 and 4. The total force Tbl.1. at the discretion of RINA.5H sa t = 2. a) bending moment due to still water loads.1 Transverse acceleration.5 D for monohull yachts 0. are the greater of those given by the formulae in a) and b) below.1 Overall loads are to be used for the check of longitudinal strength of the yacht. 2 + [ 0. transverse acceleration. 4. the formula in a) is to be applied when deemed necessary by RINA on the basis of the motion characteristics of the yacht. the aCG value corresponding to the value of S calculated with the above-mentioned formula is to be assumed.5 ⋅ ------l ⋅ 1 + 5 ⋅ 1 + ---------------L 6 2 r ⋅ -L RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Figure 1 where aCG is the vertical acceleration at the LCG. In the absence of such results. Generally. as a first approximation.3. in kN.1 General The values of the longitudinal bending moment and shear force are given.2. at the calculation point of the yacht may be obtained from: ⎠ ⎞ V a C G = S ⋅ -------L 0.3 whenever deemed necessary. 55 ⋅ ∆ ⋅ L ⋅ ( C B + 0. to be used in direct calculations for yachts with many tiers of superstructure for which significant racking effects are anticipated.1). in knots. equal to 2. If the design acceleration cannot be defined by the Designer.2.2 Bending moment and shear force The total bending moments Mbl. a more accurate calculation may be performed in accordance with the procedure given in 4. for twin hull. in relation to the material of the hull. in hogging conditions.2. Values of S reduced to as low as 80% of the foregoing value may be accepted. aCG : Variation di aV in the trasverse direction may generally be disregarded.2.H = M bl. 32 • waterline at draught T. as required. in m. Ch 1.0 m. is given by the formula in c) below.S = 0. if justified on the basis of the results of model tests or prototype tests. at speed V : distance of the calculation point from: • 0. in Chapters 2. If the actual distribution of weights along the yacht is known. 6 ⁄ ( V ⁄ L ) ] ≥ 0.1 Design acceleration Vertical acceleration at LCG 3.1. in m. aCG (expressed in g). and M bl. from the calculation point to the aft perpendicular. RINA reserves the right to require calculations to be carried out according to 4. in sagging conditions.1. 5 where S is given by: S = 0. 65 CF where: C F = 0. The sea area to which the aforementioned value refers is defined with reference to the significant wave height HS which is exceeded for an average of not more than 10% of the year: • Open-sea service: Hs ≥ 4.2 Longitudinal distribution of vertical acceleration The longitudinal distribution of vertical acceleration along the hull is given by: a v = k v ⋅ a CG 4 4. 3. Design acceleration at LCG (see 3.2. wave induced loads and impact loads M bl.1. defined in Figure 1. 52 ⎝ ⎛ 3. Sec 5 V : Maximum service speed.2 Transverse acceleration 3 3.1 Overall loads General 4. the results of experimental tank tests may be taken into account. where x is the distance. The same value of Mbl is taken for a yacht in sagging conditions or in hogging conditions.8.5 where: H sl r : permissible significant wave height. For yachts of L > 100 m. 4.S. in g. defined in 3. it is to be not less than: V ⁄ L 0.1 General The design vertical acceleration at LCG.2. whichever is the greater. in kN·m.7 ) ⋅ ( 1 + a CG ) dove: KV : Longitudinal distribution factor.Pt B.2 Longitudinal bending moment and shear force 4. by the formulae in 4. only the formula in b) is generally to be applied.x/L or 0.H. is defined by the Designer and corresponds to the average of the 1% highest accelerations in the most severe sea conditions expected.

i. 4. due to impact loads in the forebody area. Bi is the maximum breadth of one hull considered at the transverse section considered. Ch 1. in m 2 L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ a) The distribution of quasi-static bending moment and shear force.3. for the sagging condition only. in kN/m.H = Ms . c) In addition. in m. the following may be assumed for the checks: M sH = 85 ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ ( C B + 0.e.H + 0. where not supplied.6 (see Figure 2).S calculated according to a) or b) above. the hull forms and the value of the design acceleration aCG. in kN · m. distance. in kN/m2. as defined in C3.5 ⋅ L ⋅ ( xS L – z W ) – x S L ⋅ x W ] S C : parameter defined in 3. For the purpose of this calculation.1 to be assumed = 0. of LCG from the midship perpendicular. is to be determined from the difference in weight and buoyancy distributions in sagging and hogging for each loading condition envisaged. the following values are to be taken for the design wave: • wave length. from the centre of the surface FSL to the midship perpendicular. per length unit. at RINA's discretion. in m. in kN. computed with the following formula: ⎠ ⎞ Ms.5 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ∑ FS L = qS L i ⋅ ∆ xi 53 . 6 – 0.5 ⋅ L ( x i ⋅ ∆ x i) xW : • wave height. in m distance.S = M s. where not supplied. for twin hull yachts gi is defined for one hull. of interval i. for twin hull yacht. calculated by the following formula: ( g i ⋅ ∆ x i⋅ x i ) x W = ------------------------------------. For twin hull yachts. the longitudinal distribution of weight forces gi and the corresponding breadth Bi are to be defined for one hull. in m: λ = L weight per unit length.5 L L x: ( ∆ x i ⋅ B i ) ⋅ sin 2π ⋅ ---i – 0. of weight distribution.Pt B. is: where: Ms. The total impact.21 for displacement yachts : 6 + 0. the hull is considered longitudinally subdivided into a number of intervals. in kN · m.3 Bending moment and shear force taking into account the actual distribution of weights av1 G : : design vertical acceleration in way of the forward perpendicular. 7 )10 2 –3 where qSLi is the additional load. 7 )10 2 –3 --q S L i = p 0 ⋅ Bi ⋅ sin 2 ⋅ π ⋅ x-i – 0. For smaller yacht. in kN. Bi p0 : : where Mbl is the greater of Mbl.6. CB may not be taken less than 0. calculated as follows: ⎠ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ • wave form: sinusoidal. M bl. the increase in bending moment and shear force. weight force.H : still water hogging bending moment. c) Total shea force 3. generally to be taken equal to 20.S + 0.6 L where: ∆xi xi Bi : : : length of interval.1 ⋅ M bl T t = ---------------------L xi.p 2 f S L ⋅ [ r 0 + 0. at the uppermost deck in way of the coordinate xi.S : still water sagging bending moment. on the basis of the weight distribution. per x/L ≥ 0.2. 95 ⋅ S ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ C B M bl. in m. Sec 5 b) bending moment due to still water loads and wave induced loads. calculated from the following formula: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ∑ fSL ∑ 1 x S L = ----fSL x( ∆ x i ⋅ x i ⋅ Bi ) ⋅ sin 2π ⋅ ---i – 0. 6 . from the aft perpendicular yacht breadth. due to still water loads and wave induced loads.7 ) 2 applied to one of the hulls. in kN/m. calculated from the following formula: gi : b) For calculation purposes. is to be determined as specified below. 55 ⋅ S ⋅ C ⋅ L 2 ⋅ B ⋅ ( CB + 0. the following procedure is to be [ g i ⋅ ∆ x i ⋅ ( x i – 0. to be measured at the centre of interval i maximum hydrodynamic pressure. this number may be reduced to 10 if justified. in m: L h = ------------------L 15 + ----20 r0 : radius of gyration.5 L ) 2 ] r 0 = --------------------------------------------------------------( g i ⋅ ∆ x i) normally xSL : 0. in m. G = gi ⋅ ∆ xi 0 . 25 ⋅ L (guidance values) distance. in m.02 L For the purpose of this calculation. 2 ⋅ L < r 0 < 0. calculated by the following formula: 2 a v 1 ⋅ G ⋅ ( r0 + x W ) p 0 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.– 0.1.H and Mbl. the following may be assumed for the checks: M sS = 63 ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ ( C B + 0. as applicable.

2 Transverse bending moment and shear force The transverse bending moment Mbt in kN.4.2 (b).2. are given by: ∆ ⋅ b ⋅ aC G ⋅ g Mbt = ------------------------------5 ∆ ⋅ aC G ⋅ g T bt = ----------------------4 d) The resulting load distribution qsi.3 Design total vertical bending moment 4.m. These load conditions are to be considered as acting separately.4. : vertical acceleration at LCG.1.2 and 4. for the calculation of the impact induced sagging bending moment and shear force is: • For x / L < 0.g. In 54 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . and shear force Tbt. which need not be taken greater than 1. in m – 1 -----. machinery). wave induced loads and impact loads. 4.m. or for yachts with structural arrangements that do not permit a realistic assessment of stress conditions based on simple models.Pt B.2 a) and b). defined in 3.1 Transverse loads for twin hull yachts General For catamarans. between the centres of the two hulls. Sec 5 Figure 2 4. in kN.6 qs i = q bi = g i ⋅ av i where: avi : total dimensionless vertical acceleration at the interval considered. Where internal loads are caused by concentrated masses of significant magnitude (e. is to be taken equal to the greater of the values indicated in 4.. the transverse loads are to be evaluated by means of direct calculations carried out in accordance with criteria specified in the individual Chapters or other criteria considered equivalent by RINA. external pressure due to hydrostatic heads and wave loads. • For x / L ≥ 0.1 The following loads are to be considered in determining the scantlings of hull structures: • • • impact pressure due to slamming.1. External pressure generally determines the scantlings of side and bottom structures.4 4.4.4. for planing or semi-planing yachts.0 g for this calculation. For yacht of length L > 65 m or speed V > 45 knots.5 L ) where: b aCG 4. if expected to occur.. calculated by the following formula: a vi = a h + a p ⋅ ( x i – 0.1 Local loads General e) The impact induced sagging bending moment and shear force are to be obtained by integration of the load distribution qsi along the hull. The design moments and forces given in the following paragraphs are to be used unless other values are verified by model tests.4.m. whereas internal loads generally determine the scantlings of deck structures. tanks. the capacity of the side and bottom structures to withstand such loads is to be verified according to criteria stipulated by RINA.3. the hull connecting structures are to be checked for the load conditions specified in 4. in k/N. full-scale measurements or any other information provided by the Designer. For displacement yachts.1 The design total vertical bending moment Mt. the value of MT is to be taken equal to the greater of those given in 4.1. in kNxm.⋅ ---------------------------2 2 G r 0 – xW The catamaran transverse torsional connecting moment. 4.3 : transverse distance. Transverse torsional connecting moment ah ap ah e ap ah : acceleration due to heaving motion : acceleration due to pitching motion : are relative to g 2 F SL r 0 – x SL ⋅ x W -----. Ch 1. internal loads. in kN. defined in 3. 5.6 q si = q bi – q SLi 5 5.3 below.x SL – x W 2 2 G r0 – x W where aCG is the vertical acceleration at LCG.2. 125 ⋅ ∆ ⋅ L ⋅ a CG ⋅ g : ap : F SL ⋅ ------------------. They are to be added to the respective values calculated according to a) and b) in order to obtain the total bending moment and shear due to still water loads. is given by: Mtt = 0. in m.

25V angle formed at the point considered by the side and the horizontal axis (see Figure 6) angle formed by the tangent at the waterline. plating and stiffeners located below the full load waterline is to be taken as equal to the value p1. in kN/m2. A = 2. The pressure p is. bearing on the element considered. sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine are also included as displacement yachts.Pt B.4 5.024 in way of PpAV • values for intermediate positions obtained by linear interpolation. 24L 0. with the above waterline and the longitudinal straight line crossing the above intersection (see Figure 7).3. 5.5s is to be taken coefficient given by Figure 5 as a function of CB and the longitudinal position of the element considered 0. in any case. 30 – 0. h0 a : vertical distance. The pressure p1 is. ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ The pressure p1 in any case.5p. Such verification is to disregard the simultaneous presence of any external wave loads acting in the opposite direction to internal loads. 5 h0 ⋅ 1 – -----. in g.4. h0 C1 : : as defined in 5. aV : maximum design value of vertical acceleration. Ch 1. equal to: • 0. at the transverse section considered. L + 0. where h1 is as defined in 5.3 5.2. in any case.1. For the zones located forward of 0. not to be assumed as < 10 D. Fa : coefficient given by: ⎠ ⎞ 1. : coefficient function of the longitudinal position of pdr. Sec 5 such cases. for the scantlings of hull structures. of the section in way of the LCG. where p is the design pressure for the bottom as defined in 5. corresponding to the draught T. where A1 is the surface. for plating.0. be assumed as not greater than 0. for the scantlings of side structures. 25 ⋅ ( a + 0. in m . from pdr to the full load waterline. a uniform value is to be taken on the basis of the weighted mean value of pressure calculated along the length of the member. 15 L – h 0 ) The design pressure p. C2 : kV a g : : : FL F1 : coefficient given in Figure 3 as a function of the longitudinal position of the pdr.3. not to be assumed as < 10 D h1.+ 10 ⋅ ( h 0 + a ⋅ L ) 2T ∆ p 2 = 15 ⋅ ( 1 + a V ) ⋅ -----------. in m. 5.3. defined as follows: p 1 = 66.625 .4. for pressure due to hydrostatic head and wave load.1 Design pressure for the bottom Planing and semi-planing yachts The pressure p.2 Load points 5. sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine are also included as displacement yachts.2.4. calculated at the section considered.036 aft of 0. 24L 0.04/CB . 5.3. • for strength members: centre of the area supported by the element. p 1 = 0. Where the pressure diagram shows cusps or discontinuities along the span of a strength member.1. in m2. in kN/m 2.2 Displacement yacths For the purpose of the evaluation of the design pressure for the bottom.3 L from the PpAV. The pressure p. : coefficient function of the shape and inclination of the hull given by: 50 – β X F 1 = ---------------------50 – βLC G where bLCG is the deadrise angle. not to be assumed <10 D.1 coefficient given by Figure 4 as a function of the load surface A. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 55 . for the scantlings of structures on the bottom of the hull. 43 ⋅ A 1 ⋅ T F a = 0. 5 p 1 = 0. plating and associated stiffeners is to be taken as equal to the value p1. 5 h0 ⋅ 1 – -----.3. 15 ⋅ log -----------------------------∆ ⎝ ⎛ 2 The value p2 may. of the plating panel considered or the surface of the area supported by the stiffener.1 Pressure on panels and strength members may be considered uniform and equal to the pressure at the following load points: • for panels: lower edge of the plate. 6 + senγ ⋅ cos ( 90 – α ) ] + C 2 ⋅ L 0.⋅ g ⋅ F L ⋅ F 1 ⋅ F a L ⋅ CS ⋅ sen ( – α ) } 90 2 essendo: a. taken at the point of intersection of the transverse section of the element considered. in any case. 024 ) ⋅ ( 0. plating and stiffeners is to be assumed as equal to the greater of the values p1 e p2 defined as follows:.5 L • 0. the inertial effects due to acceleration of the yacht are to be taken into account.1 Design pressure for the side shell Planing or semi-planing yachts 5. defined as follows: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 5. in degrees. the value p is to be not less than the value p2 defined as follows: p 2 = C 1 ( k V ⋅ [ 0.+ 10 ⋅ ( h 0 + a ⋅ L ) 2T where h0 and a are as defined in 5. in kN/m2.2 Displacement yacht For the purpose of the evaluation of the design pressure for the side shell.

in m.5 0. 5.5 Design heads for decks Decks over pdc 5. SHELTERED AREA (also partially by deckhouses) h0 0.0 0. plating and associated stiffeners are to be verified assuming as h0.6 Design heads for watertight bulkheads 5. Sheltered areas are intended to mean decks intended for accommodation. from the pdr to the highest point of the bulkhead. 024 ) ⋅ ( 0. 05 ( L – 50 ) ] • where the value of L is to be taken no less than 50 m and no greater than 80 m 2/3 of the vertical distance from the pdr to the top of the overflow pipe.1 The design heads for the various decks are shown in Table 1. Sec 5 The design pressure p. equal to 6. the scantlings of deck structures (plating and stiffeners) will also need to be checked with the aforementioned loads.5 essendo: a.6. 5.5 0. the value h0 will be modified accordingly.1 Subdivision bulkheads The scantlings of subdivision bulkheads.3. in kN/m2. plating and associated stiffeners are to be verified assuming a head hS equal to the vertical distance. Where distributed loads with mass density greater or lower than the above are envisaged. 15 L – h 0 ) Table 1 EXPOSED WEATHER AREA Deck FWD 0.5 1.Pt B.7 t/m3 and a consequent load per square metre of deck. from the pdr to the straight line of the beam of the highest continuous deck. 5. The design heads shown in Table 1 assume a uniformly distributed load with mass density of 0. above the highest point of the tank given by: h 0 = [ 1 + 0. in kN/m 2. h0 h1 : : as defined in 5. 56 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .6. for the scantlings of side structures located above the full load waterline is to be taken as equal to the value p1 defined as follows: p 1 = 66. in m. Ch 1.075 L from FWD PP h0 Deck below pdc pdc 1. 25 ⋅ ( a + 0. in m.2 Tank bulkheads The scantlings of tank bulkheads. the greater of the following values: • vertical distance from the pdr to a point located at a height h.1 distance. in m.9 h 0.075 L from FWD PP h0 1.5.0 AFT 0. In the case of decks subject to concentrated loads. not to be assumed as <10 h1 .5 The pressure p1 in any case.

Sec 5 Figure 3 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 57 . Ch 1.Pt B.

Sec 5 Figure 4 58 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .Pt B. Ch 1.

Ch 1.Pt B. Sec 5 Figure 5 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 59 .

Ch 1. Sec 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 INTERESTED TRANSVERSE SECTION 60 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .Pt B.

Part B Hull

Chapter 2

STEEL HULLS

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS LONGITUDINAL STRENGHT PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

61

Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 1

SECTION 1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1
1.1

Field of application

2
2.1

Definitions and symbols
Premise

1.1.1 Chapter 2 applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of steel and a length L not exceeding 120 m, with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine. For yachts made of steel and having lenght L greater than 120 m, reference is to be made to RINA Rules for the Classsification of Ships. Multi-hulls or yachts with unusual shape, proportion and characteristics will be considered case by case. In the examination of constructional plans, RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations, provided that structures with longitudinal, transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings is adequate, in the opinion of RINA, on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength (see Pt B, Ch1, Sec 1, par. 3.1). The structural scantlings of displacement yachts of L > 60 m may be arranged by applying the provisions of the Rules for the Classification of Ships. This Chapter may also be used to check the structural scantlings of hulls made of metals with superior mechanical properties, other than steel, such as titanium and its alloys. In general the following types are considered usable in the field of pleasure yachts: • titanium: TiCP2, TiCP3, TiCP4; • titanium alloys: Ti6AL4V grade 5, Ti5AL2.5Sn grade 6 and Ti3AL2.5V grade 9. For the scantlings of the plating and stiffeners, a coefficient K depending on the minimum yield strength of the material used, is to be adopted. The value of the minimum yield strength is, however, to be not more than 0,7 of the ultimate tensile strength of the material. Higher values may be adopted, at the discretion of RINA, on condition that additional buckling strength and fatigue calculations are carried out. In any case use of these materials is subject to the examination of the technical documentation of the manufacture of the material and the welding processes and tests that will be adopted.

2.1.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections, whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections.

2.2
2.2.1 L

Definitions and symbols

:

scantling length, in m, on the full load waterline, assumed to be equal to the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest; maximum breadth of the yacht, in m, outside frames; in tests of the longitudinal strength of twin hull yachts, B is to be taken as equal to twice the breadth of the single hull, measured immediately below the cross-deck; depth of the yacht, in m, measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L, from the base line up to the deck beam of the uppermost continuous deck; draft of the yacht, in m, measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L, from the base line to the full load waterline with the yacht at rest in calm water; spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener, in m; displacement of the yacht outside frames, in t, at draught T; factor as a function of the mechanical properties of the steel used, as defined in Sec. 2.

B

:

D

:

T

:

s ∆ K

: : :

3

Plans, calculations and other information to be submitted

3.1
3.1.1 Table 1 lists the structural plans that are to be presented in advance to RINA in triplicate, for examination and approval when required. The Table also indicates the information that is to be supplied with the plans or, in any case, submitted to RINA for the examination of the documentation.

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

63

Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 1

For documentation purposes, a copy of the following plan is to be submitted: general arrangement; capacity plan; lines plan; Table 1
PLAN • Midship section • CONTAINING INFORMATION RELEVANT TO: main dimensions, maximum operating speed V, design acceleration aCG for planing or semi-planing yachts) materials and associated mechanical properties for yacht having L>50 m, if mono-hull and L> 40 m, if multi-hull, the maximum still water bending moment is to be indicated displacement

3.2
3.2.1 In case a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation, the drawings may not be sent for approval , but the Request of Survey for the vessel shall be submitted enclosed to a list of the drawings the Builder wants to refer to and copy of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. Attention is to be paid even to possible additional flag administartions requirements, which may cause differences in the constructions. It's Builder responsability to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place. When the Rules are amended, the plans are to be submitted for new approval.

• •

4
4.1

Direct calculations

• • • Longitudinal and transversal section Plan of the decks • • •

openings loads acting, if different from Rule loads openings

4.1.1 As an alternative to those based on the formulae in this Chapter, scantlings may be obtained by direct calculations carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B of these Rules. Chapter 1 provides schematisations, boundary conditions and loads to be used for direct calculations. The scantlings are to be such as to guarantee that stress levels do not exceed the allowable values stipulated in the aforementioned Chapter.

• • •

Shell expansion Structure of the engine room Watertight bulkheads and deep tank bulkheads Structure of stern/side door Superstructures Support structure for crane Rudder

• • •

openings location of overflow closing appliances

4.2
4.2.1 In the case of use of materials with superior mechanical properties, other than steel, such as those indicated in 1.1, the allowable stresses will be stipulated by RINA on the basis of such properties and of any further fatigue tests and/or buckling checks which may be required.

• • • •

• • •

design loads and connections to the hull structures materials of all components calculation speed material

5
5.1

Bookling strength checks
Application

Propeller shaft struts

Where an *INWATERSURVEY (In-water Survey) notation is assigned the following plans and information are to be submitted: • Details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets are to be verified with the craft afloat. • Details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat. • Name and characteristics of high resistant paint, for information only.

5.1.1 Where required, the critical buckling strength of steel plating and stiffeners subject to compressive stresses is to be calculated as specified below.

5.2

Elastic buckling stresses of plates

5.2.1 Compressive stress The elastic buckling strength, in N/mm2, is given by:
⎠ ⎞

t σE = 0, 9 ⋅ m c ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a

2

where:

64

⎝ ⎛

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

is given by: Ia σ E = 0. equal to: 3 3 h w ⋅ t w ⋅ 10 –4 for flat b ars --------------3 where: mt a2 = 5.Pt B. 34 + 4 ⋅ -b and E.⋅ m 2 + -----. in cm2. Sec 1 to compressive stress oppure: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ where: E.1 above 4 mC a = c ⋅ 1 + -b 2 2 2. 1 π 2 ⋅ E ⋅ I WIt CK σE = -----------------------. 1 ⋅ ------------------ψ + 1.05 when the plating is stiffened by flat bar ordinary stiffeners. in cm4. including plate flange : cross-sectional area. where: hW : : tW bf tf C : : : web height. in cm4.2 Shear stress The elastic buckling stress. ψ : ratio between the smallest and largest compressive stresses when the stress presents a linear variation across the plate (0<ψ <1).⋅ 10 4 π ⋅ E ⋅ IW with stiffeners perpendicular to compressive stress E t a b c : Young's modulus.2 Torsional buckling For the torsional mode. in cm6.3. about connection of stiffener to plate.2.3. I : for pla ting CK defined in 5. in N/mm 2. of the stiffener.+ 0. a and b are as defined in (a) above. 5. Ch 2. in mm. is given by: or: 3 hw ⋅ tw 2 --------------.06 . to be taken equal to 2. spacing of stiffeners. 105 N/mm 2 for steelstructures : moment of inertia. 105N/mm2 for steelstructures : thickness of plating.or T-sections • 1.1 Elastic buckling stresses of stiffeners Column buckling without rotation of the transverse section For the column buckling mode (perpendicular to the plane of plating) the elastic buckling stress. in N/mm 2.3 5. in mm : shorter side of the plate. in m. equal to: kp ⋅ E ⋅ t 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------. 63 ⋅ --f -w w f f bf 3 for flanged profile Ip : polar moment of inertia of profile. Venant.30 when the plating is stiffened by floors or deep girders • 1. exerted by supporting plate. the mean thickness of the bulb maybe used spring stiffness factor. 9 ⋅ m t ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a ⎝ ⎛ 2 IW : sectional moment of inertia of profile. equal to: 3 h w ⋅ t w ⋅ 10 –4 for flat bars --------------3 or: ⎠ ⎞ t1 ⋅ h ⋅ t 3 + b ⋅ t 3 ⋅ 1 – 0. 001 ⋅ E ⋅ ----------A ⋅ I2 E Ia A I : Young's modulus. in N/mm2.21 when the plating is stiffened by ordinary stiffeners with angle. in m. including plate flange : span.3. in N/mm2. 4 = ------------------.33 ⋅ k p ⋅ h w ⋅ t 3 3s ⋅ 1 + ----------------------------------------3 1000 ⋅ s ⋅ t w ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 5. t. 5. given in Table 2. for bulb profiles. to be taken equal to 2. Table 2 0<C<1 m 1 4<C<36 2 36<C<144 3 It : St. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ t τ E = 0. without plate flange. in cm4. in mm flange width.fo r p lating w ith stiffen ers pa ra llel ψ + 1. moment of inertia of profile. 385 ⋅ E ⋅ --Ip 10 4 ⋅ I p ⋅ I 2 m2 (m-1) m<C<m (m+1) m ⋅ 10 –4 65 . of the stiffener. in N/mm 2. is given by: where: t : s : plating thickness. in mm. 1 6 C⋅I = ---------------------.⋅ 10 –3 1. in m : coefficient equal to: • 1. of the stiffener.06 . in mm web thickness.+ h w ⋅ b f ⋅ t f ⋅ 10 –4 for flan ged profiles 3 ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ mC 8. the elastic buckling stress. equal to: 3 3 h w ⋅ t w ⋅ 10 –6 for flat b ars --------------36 or: 2 t f ⋅ b f3 ⋅ h w ----------------------. in mm flange thickness.⋅ 10 –6 fo r T pro files 12 2 b f3 ⋅ h w 2 ---------------------------------.10 when the plating is stiffened by ordinary stiffeners with bulb sections • 1. m : number of half-waves. in m : longer side of the plate. about connection of stiffener to plate.⋅ [ t f ⋅ ( b f2 + 2b f ⋅ h w + 4 h w ) + ( 3t w ⋅ b f ⋅ h w ] ⋅ 10 –6 ) 12 ⋅ ( b f + h w ) 2 per flanged profiles.

4. Sec 1 kp ηp σa σEp : : : : 1 -ηp .1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. in N/mm2 elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5. 8 ⋅ E ⋅ ----hw 2 where: E tW. The structures are to be clean and free from slag before the coating is applied. Ch 2. Lesser thicknesses may be accepted provided that. if if ⎝ ⎛ τF τ E ≤ --2 τF τ E > --2 8. placed at a distance of not more than 2 m. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones. The coating is to be applied with adequate thickness in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications.2.4.1 and 5.3.1 defined in 5.1 The thicknesses of plating and stiffeners calculated using the formulae in this Chapter is to be not less than the values shown in Table 3. if if ⎝ ⎛ ------σ E ≤ R eH 2 ------σ E > R eH 2 8 8.1 Minimum thicknesses 7.2.1 Corrosion protection 8.3. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht. in N/mm2. σp / σEp calculated compressive stress in the stiffener elastic buckling stress of plating as calculated in 5.1 General rules for design 6.1 Paint or other products containing nitrocellulose or other highly flammable substances are not to be used in machinery or accommodation spaces. 5.3. σC.2 Shear stress The critical buckling shear stress τC. Such interval is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming. 5.1 When a primer is used after the preparation of the surfaces and prior to welding. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ t wσ E = 3. 5.3.2.Pt B. cathodic protection.4. Such arrangements may consist of coating or. are to be suitably protected against corrosion.3. in the opinion of RINA. 6 6. 66 ⎝ ⎛ 7 7. with the exception of fuel tanks.1. not to be taken less than 0.2. hW : : defined in 5. for plating and stiffeners is given by: σc = σE ⎠ ⎞ R eH σ c = R eH ⋅ 1 – -----------4 ⋅ σe essendo: ReH σE : : minimum yield stress of steel used.3 8. as well as not impairing the latter the composition of the primer is to be compatible with the subsequent layers of the coating cycle. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . is required for the bottom. provided that they are no less than those shown in Table 3.2 8. Where plating and stiffeners contribute to the longitudinal strength of the yacht.2. For yacht similar in performance to high speed hulls. in N/mm2 elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual.3 Web buckling The elastic buckling stress. their scantlings are to be such as to fulfil the requirements for yacht longitudinal strength stipulated in Sez.1 Critical buckling stress Compressive stress The critical buckling stress in compression.2. a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors. 8.1.1 All steel structures. For yachts with length L greater than 50 m. In the design.1. their adequacy in terms of buckling strength and resistance to corrosion is demonstrated. where applicable.1.4 5. for plating and stiffeners is given by: τ c = τE ⎠ ⎞ τF τ c = τF ⋅ 1 – ----------4 ⋅ τe where: τC Reh τE : : : 0.2.58 Reh minimum yield stress of steel used.

5 t8 = t2 t9 = 1.15 .0 (1) d = diameter of the pillar.5 t2 = 1. L1/3 .30 . L1/3 . K0. in mm RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 67 . L1/3 . Sec 1 Table 3 Member Keel. Ch 2. K0. L1/3 .5 t5 = t4 t6 = t5 .1 t7 = t2 .Pt B.0.15 .5 Open strength deck plating t3 = 1.03 d . K0.5 t10 = 1. bottom plating Side plating Minimum thickness (mm) t1 = 1.0. K0. K0. K0.5 Lower and enclosed deck plating 1st tier superstructure front bulkhead Superstructure bulkhead Watertight subdivision bulkhead Tank bulkhead Centre girder Floors and side girders Tubular pillars (1) t4 = t3 .5 > 3.5 0.35 .75 . L1/3 .

1. The materials. within the limits and conditions laid down in Part D. castings and pipes General requirements 3. will be decided case by case. the extent and location of higher tensile steel together with details of specification and mechanical properties.1.3 2.70 In cases where the use of steels with intermediate values is allowed. These Rules presume that welding and other manufacturing processes. the prerequisites and requirements for approval are specified in Part D of these Rules. to accept materials other than those provided for in this Section.72 0.2. which are to be supplied by the Designer.Pt B. the 68 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . which reserves the right to stipulate the relevant conditions. are carried out in accordance with normal good practice and in observance of the applicable requirements of Part D. weldable steels having an ultimate tensile strength Rm of between 400 and 640 N/mm 2 are to be used and the other mechanical and chemical properties are to be in accordance with the relevant requirements of Part D. those specifically stipulated for individual cases. for the various hull structures. except when otherwise prescribed.78 0. RINA reserves the right.1 3.1 In general. hull scantlings are to be determined by taking into account the materia factor K defined in 2. 1.1.2. and any recommendations for welding. 355 o 390 N/mm 2 . For particularly stressed structures.1 Information to be kept on board 2 2. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS 1 1. such as the requirement that the welding is carried out with a certain pre-heating and/or that this or another process at low or high temperature should be followed by appropriate heat treatment. is subject to special consideration by RINA. are to satisfy the provisions laid down by IACS or. the value of factor K may be determined by linear interpolation. Table 1 Reh N/mm2 235 315 355 390 K 1 0. where relevant. In the case of yachts used for long periods in zones with temperatures below 0°C. a superior type steel may be required. working and treatment of these steels. The acceptance of materials not foreseen in these Rules. the latter may include conditions of execution.1 General requirements 2.3. in the condition of supply.2 2. the types of steel for the various hull structures will be decided in relation to the thicknesses used and the values of the external air temperature and sea temperature. 2. or AH type having minimum yeld stress equal to 315. at the discretion of RINA. having ReH > 390 N/mm2. such as those indicated in Section 1.1 For structural members for which approval of the associated plans is not required. 3 Steels for forgings. or structures that are subject to low temperature working of considerable importance. at low or high temperatures. For the types of materials foreseen in this Section. having minimun yeld stress Reh 235 N/mm 2 . A plan is to be kept on board indicating the steel types and grades adopted for the hull structures.1 Steels for hull structures 2. subject to conditions specifically agreed on. Ch 2. in general at the time of the approval of the relevant plans. the materials are to be approved in conformity with the applicable requirements.2 When steels with a minimum guaranteed yield stress Reh greater than 235 N/mm 2 are used on a yacht. Welding procedures are to be approved for the specific type of material for which they are to be used.1.1 Material factor K The material factor K which appears in the formulae for structural scantlings in this Chapter is a function of the minimum guaranteed yield stress ReH and it's value is given in Table 1. 2.1 For hull construction and for fittings the materials prescribed in this Section are to be used. Acceptance of the use of steels or materials such as those indicated in 1. it is sufficient to use A steel type.1. In particular.

For structural members for which the approval of the associated plans is required. in accordance with the provisions of Part D of the 3. C and C-Mn weldable steel of quality 1 may be used. the use of quality 2 steel may be required. Rules. the provisions of 3.4 Pipes 3.2 and 3. with a minimum tensile strength Rm equal to 400 N/mm 2 or 440 N/mm2. are considered Class 1. Ch 2. irrespective of their quality. Sec 2 aforesaid steels are also to be approved.2. Sec 3) 3. In the case of structural members subject to high stresses. Ch 2. when required. 42 or 52. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 69 . in accordance with the relevant requirements of Part D of the Rules. parts of steering gear and fittings in general.Pt B. The welding of cast parts welded to main plating contributing to hull strength members is subject to special approval.3.1 Steels may be adopted of types 37. in particular. to be carried out in conformity with the relevant requirements of Part D. at the discretion of RINA. according to the requirements of Part D. additional tests and provisions may be stipulated such as.4. to be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Part D of the Rules. are to be tested in accordance with the relevant requirements of Part D. For the purpose of testing. resilience requirements related to those of the plating to which the castings are to be welded and non-destructive tests. rudder parts. the aforesaid castings. For the purpose of testing. when required. the aforesaid forgings are considered Class 1. in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part D. The category ST or P of the pipes is to be specified. when required.3 Castings 3.1 Forgings for structural members for which the check of the scantling is required are to have the chemical and mechanical properties prescribed for the type of steel indicated in the relevant approved plans. Pipes. when required. The use of steels other than those mentioned above is subject to special approval by RINA. except when otherwise prescribed. 3. as indicated in the approved plans of the structural members for which pipes are used. (see Pt D.2 Forgings 3. for which the check of scantlings is required.3 apply.1 Cast parts intended for stems. depending on the relevant chemical and mechanical properties.

the minimum consumable grades to be adopted are specified in Tab 1 depending on the steel grade.1. Note 2: In the case of welded connections between two hull structural steels of different grades. partial and full T penetration welding 1 2 3 2Y 3Y 4Y 2Y40 3Y40 4Y40 2Y40 2Y Fillet welding 1 A B-D E AH32 . the quality standard adopted by the shipyard is to be submitted to RINA and applies to all constructions. these are subject to the approval of the Head Office. the individual shipyards are to be authorized by RINA for the use of welding procedures using welders authorized by RINA.1 For fabrication by welding and qualification of welding procedures the requirements of Part D.1 Welded connections General requirements The requirements for the approval of welding procedures for the individual users are given in Pt D. Sec 2.Pt B. For welding of hull structural steels. these deviations shall be reported to the Head Office. The requirements for the approval of welding consumables are given in Pt D. post welding plate deformation) are those which fall into the limits set out by IACS Recommendations. repairs which affect the structural integrity are to be discussed with the Builder and relevant drawing to be sent for approval. the acceptable (quality standards of) construction defects (such as surfaces defects.3.3 Welding consumables and procedures 1. Ch 5. in particular.1 Approval of welding consumables and procedures Welding consumables and welding procedures adopted are to be approved by RINA. 1. Ch 5 of these Rules apply and.1 The requirements of this Section apply for the welding of hull structural steels of the types considered in Part D or other types accepted as equivalent by RINA. In any case. The work is to be carried out to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor and the classification is dependent upon the work carried out with the approved plans and a quality of constructions that fall into the limits set out by RINA or other recognized international bodies (i. the consumables indicated in the welding procedures to be approved are considered by RINA on a case by case basis.2 Consumables 1. Deviations from the approved plans shall be discussed as first instance with the attending Surveyor.2 Base material 1.FH36 AH40 DH40 . Ch 5.e.EH36 FH32 . welding consumables approved in grade Y40 may be used in lieu of those approved in grade Y having the same or a lower grade. Ch 5. Sec 3 SECTION 3 WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS 1 1. structural misalignment and fit. Table 1 : Consumable grades Consumable minimum grade Steel grade Butt welding. Welding of the various types of steel is to be carried out by means of welding procedures approved for the purpose and the various welding procedures and consumables are to be used within the limits of their approval and in accordance with the conditions of use specified in the respective approval documents.DH36 EH32 . welding consumables appropriate to one or the other steel are to be adopted. 1. Note 1: Welding consumables approved for welding higher strength steels (Y) may be used in lieu of those approved for welding normal strength steels having the same or a lower grade. 1. irre- 70 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the adoption of procedures is subject to approval in advance by RINA.2.3. If not agreed with him. except in the case of one side welding on refractory backing (ceramic).: IACS). As a general rule. Sec 4 and Pt D. For welding of other materials. Furthermore.3 Electrodes for manual welding Basic covered electrodes are to be used for the welding of structural members made in higher strength steels and. as regards strength or notch toughness. Sec 5. The approval of the welding procedure is not required in the case of manual metal arc welding with approved covered electrodes.AH36 DH32 .EH40 FH40 1. In general.3. Ch 2. Minor repairs are to be agreed with the attending Surveyor.

measured as shown in Fig 1. 2. Sec 3 spective of the steel type.1. IACS standards and the rules of good practice are to apply as agreed by RINA. it may be accommodated in the weld transition between plates.4 Butt welding on permanent backing Butt welding on permanent backing.4.1 Type of connections Butt welding General 2. in order to eliminate oxides.5 Design 1.5 Plate misalignment in butt connections 1. in any event. i.5. considered equivalent by RINA. The structural parts to be welded to those adjacent are to be thoroughly cleaned before welding even if the components of the structure itself have been pickled beforehand. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness equal to or less than 10 mm. The misalignment m. methods of tack welding and back chipping are to be appropriate to the type of joint and to the weld position and are to satisfy RINA requirements stipulated for the use of the procedure adopted. are adopted. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate.1 For the correct carrying out of joints. such parts are to be dry. Such cleaning is to be carried out using suitable mechanical means. The type of bevel and the gap between the members to be assembled are to be such as to ensure a proper penetration of the weld on its backing and an adequate connection to the stiffener as required.Pt B.1. is to be regular and without ragged edges or notches. cored or coated wires with gas shielding.2 Welding of plates with different thicknesses 1. For connections of plating parallel to the direction of main stresses. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 71 . paint and other foreign bodies that could produce defects in the weld. in relation to the welding procedure used and to the position of the weld itself.1 For the various structural details typical of welded construction in shipbuilding and not dealt with in this Section. efficiently welded and ground smooth so as to achieve a defect free repair. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness greater than 10 mm a taper having a length of not less than 4 times the difference in gross thickness is to be adopted for connections of plating perpendicular to the direction of main stresses. without being greater than 3 mm. 2. Non-basic covered electrodes are generally allowed for manual fillet welding of structural members of moderate thickness (gross thickness less than 25 mm) made in normal strength steels.1 1. Any defects in the structure resulting from the removal of temporary attachments are to be prepared. to be carried out in general by mechanical means. In welding procedures using bare. 2. In case of cold weather. particular consideration is to be given to the overall arrangement and structural details of highly stressed parts of the hull. welded on both sides except where special procedures or specific techniques. for the welding of special and primary structural members.1.1. butt welding assembly of two plates backed by the flange or the face plate of a stiffener. Connections different from the above may be accepted by RINA Society on a case by case basis. the taper length may be reduced to 3 times the difference in gross thickness. may be accepted where back welding is not feasible or in specific cases deemed acceptable by the RINA. Ch 2. between plates with the same gross thickness t is to be less than 0. The surface of the material is to be finished smooth by grinding followed by crack detection. is to be ensured. 2 2. sufficient access.15t. cutting or chipping. The acceptable root gap is to be in accordance with the adopted welding procedure and relevant bevel preparation.4 Access to and preparation of joints In general. 2. the welding is to be carried out in weather protected conditions. • 4 mm.3 Edge preparation. Welded temporary attachments used to aid construction are to be removed carefully by grinding. screening to prevent too rapid cooling to be provided. butt connections of plating are to be full penetration. When the difference in thickness is less than the above values. The alignment of joints. so as to ensure that the gas outflow from the nozzle is not disturbed by winds and draughts.e. Adequate protection from the weather is to be provided to parts being welded. in such cases. such as stainless steel wire brushes.1. root gap The cut of the joint edges. the relevant detail and workmanship specifications are to be approved. grease. In the case of welding of plates with a difference in gross thickness equal to or greater than: • 3 mm.

L-bar or bulb of different height When "a". for structures in way of stabilizers. this difference may be built up by welding.3 Fillet welding crossing butt welding Where stiffening members are attached by continuous fillet welds and cross completely finished butt welds. and in such a position. When the a.2. these welds are to be made flush in way of the contact point. 2.1. The corners of insert plates are to be suitably radiused. Sec 3 Figure 1 : plate misalignment in butt connections The slope of the taper shall be in accordance with Pt B.1.2 Fillet welding types 2. 2. Local doublers. A local increase in plating thickness is generally to be achieved through insert plates. at the ends of connections for a length of at least 75mm.2. is less than 6mm.2. doublers and insert plates are to be made of materials of a quality at least equal to that of the plates on which they are welded. a scallop is to be arranged in the web of the stiffening member. the edge of the thick plate shall be tapered. the higher bar shall be lowered for a length of at least 50 x a. the difference in height between the two members to be jointed. in order to avoid local stresses (30 x a if the bars to be connected are not primary members of the structure). Similarly.6 L amidships.6 Section. Figure 3 : intermittent chain welding (C) 2. Sec 3. or cross joints with straight edges may be of the following types (see also Table 3): a) continuous fillet welding (double continuous bead.2.9 Where thick insert plates are butt welded to thin plates. 72 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Ch 2.1 Fillet welding of T type joints.Pt B. Slot welds are to be of appropriate shape (in general oval) and dimensions. and may not be completely filled by the weld. the butt weld is to be completed and generally made flush with the stiffening member before the fillet weld is made.m.1. The distance between two consecutive slot welds is to be not greater than a value which is defined on a case by case basis taking into account: the transverse spacing between adjacent slot weld lines the stresses acting in the connected plates the structural arrangement below the connected plates. or elements in general subject to high stresses. for structure members to plating in way of end connections and scallops. may however be accepted by RINA on a case by case basis. foundations and other highly stressed area.7 Butt joints between T-bar.1. D. these are to be full penetration.1.8 Insert plates and doublers (slot welding) 2. In any case. Scallops are to be of such size. are to be connected together by butt joints. for butt welds in webs of stiffening members. 2. 2. depending on the plate thickness.C. thruster. b) intermittent fillet welding as staggered welding (A) or chain welding (C) with length d and spacing p. Insert plates (butt welding) Continuous fillet welding may also be adopted in lieu of intermittent welding wherever deemed suitable. lugs and scallops. Figure 2 : intermittent staggered welding A 2. which are normally only allowed for temporary repair.2 Continuous fillet welding Continuous fillet welding is always to be adopted: • • • • • for watertight connections. difference is more than 6mm. 2.). round lap connections and at the ends of brackets. Otherwise. Ch 2. bulbs and flat bars When lengths of longitudinals of the shell plating and strength deck within 0.

to be specially considered by RINA. may be used with. as a function of the thickness of the T web. a minimum side of 3 mm for thicknesses not greater than 6mm. Figure 4 : Misalignment in butt connections throat thickness 2.3 Scantling of welds leg A MANC leg URA LA FIG 2.5 14 (1) ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ Type a bead Leg (1) mm 3. in general.5(3.C. however. The scantling of the welds for hull structures is given in Table 3 in which.Pt B.-tooth length not less than 90 mm and such that the combination of the length.1 For T-joints with straight edges. and of 4 mm for thicknesses exceeding 6 mm. in way of parts subject to concentrated loads. . measured on the median lines as shown in Fig 4.-notch length equal to 150 mm.5(3) 5(4.-weld bead of type a. and side of the bead is the equivalent of the Rule scantling of the intermittent welding shown in Table 2. the scantling of the bead is given. and in structures subject to noticeable vibrations.5 Where D.5 4 4. a welding is required.5) 5(4) 5.5(5) 6 Leg (1) mm 3 4 4 5 6 6.5 8 8 10 10. b).5) 6(5) 7(6) 8(7) 8. Scalloped welding is not allowed at the ends of beams.5 6 6.C. is in general not allowed except in individual cases.5(3) 3. and it may also be unacceptable in other individual cases.5 Type b bead Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 2 3 3 3.4 Misalignment in cruciform connections a) continuous welding with double type a bead (D. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate.5 Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 2. and for which the following is required: . for individual cases. is to be less than t/2.5 4. as an alternative to intermittent welding. the value indicated in the corresponding brackets may be taken RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 73 .C. b) intermittent welding of type A or C.2. with type a bead and spacing p. a) or type b (D. on continuous edges. .5 12 12. the following are shown: Table 2 : Leg and throat of beads Thickness of the structural member mm 3 4. Ch 2.3. the equivalent of D. Welding on scalloped edges. 2. pitch.C. RINA may require lower misalignment to be adopted for cruciform connections subjected to high stresses. at RINA's discretion. Sec 3 that a satisfactory weld can be made at the edges without in notching the butt weld of the plate. both in relation to types and levels of stress in the structures and to the test results for authorisation of the procedures to be followed.5(2) 3. in Table 2. Figure 5 : beads dimensions The misalignment m in cruciform connections. As an alternative to intermittent welding of type A or C.

at the ends C150 A360. C180 elsewhere Side girder to: shell plating top of double bottom A300 C150 inside engine.C. Ch 2.5 t 74 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .5 18 18.5 6. 15% the length of the gross span. A340 elsewhere C150 inside engine.25 L AV. they are generally to have: length = 75 mm. at the ends (1) D. A340 elsewhere D. A340 elsewhere A300 inside tanks.5 22 22.Pt B.5 mm to be carried out on the outline of the slot. b D. Sec 3 Thickness of the structural member mm 14.C.5 20 20.C.2 ÷ 1.5 24 24. (2) Where slots are adopted due to inaccessibility.5 8.5 26 (1) ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ Type a bead Leg (1) mm 9 10 11 12 13 14 Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 6. A240 inside peaks and tanks. b inside after peak for 2-propeller hulls.5 7 7. weld leg length = t . b - to plating to face plate A240. the value indicated in the corresponding brackets may be taken Table 3 : Scantlings of welds Member 1 . A280 inside after peak.C. Longitudinal type stucture Bottom longitudinals to shell plating Side and deck longitudinals to relevant plating Top longitudinals of double bottom Web to face plate of composed ordinary longitudinals Reinforced floors. where t = thickness of plating. A340 elsewhere C280 D.5 9 10 Leg (1) mm 7 8 9 10 11 12 Type b bead Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 5 6.Trasverse type structure Floors to: Weld - shell plating top of double bottom centre girder side girder C140 within 0. b where watertight: C120 elsewhere D. A340 elsewhere C150 inside engine. pitch = 150 mm. A340 elsewhere Watertight girder and double bottom margin Frames of shell plating Beams to deck plating 2. b Watertight floors Centre girder to: - keel top of double bottom D. frames and beams having face plate area ≤20cm2: C140 within L from the bow: A280 elsewhere A300 A300 A340. breadth = 3 ÷ 4% t.5 7 7.C.5 Where D.C.5 16 16.C. supporting plate with breadth 40 ÷ 60 mm and thickness 1. at the ends A240 3. a welding is required.0. b where watertight: C150 inside engine. Foundations of main engines and thrust shaft: Girders to shell plating C130 (1) "End" means a length at each end.5 8.

Ch 2. C o A220 elsewhere C160 at the ends.C.1 Where ordinary stiffeners are continuous through primary supporting members. Tank bulkheads Plating to borders Ordinary stiffeners to plating D. weld leg length = t . pitch = 150 mm. b (a=sectional area of the face plate or flange.Pt B.1 End connections of ordinary stiffeners 3. A340 elsewhere 20<a≤65 cm2 connection to plating connection to face plating C160 at the ends.C. Superstructures Boundary bulkheads to support deck and to upper deck Ordinary stiffeners to bulkheads For other parts see previous items 9. A260 elsewhere C180 at the ends.C.C. Primary supporting members in general D. b A340.2 ÷ 1. Sec 3 Member Girders to bed plates Girder to top of double bottom Floors to girder. if not squared D. D. b elsewhere A300 Reinforced beams having span between 3 and 5 m and face plate area ≤20 cm2: to plating to face plate C120 at the ends. a 4. (2) Where slots are adopted due to inaccessibility. C150 at the ends. by means of one of the connection details shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9. supporting plate with breadth 40 ÷ 60 mm and thickness 1. Pillars Tubular pillars to ends 10.C. A260 elsewhere (1) "End" means a length at each end.1. to top of double bottom and to bed plates Weld D. incm2) a≤20 cm2 connection to plating connection to face plating C180 at the ends.C. e.5 t 3 3. a D. they are to be connected to the web plating so as to ensure proper transmission of loads.g. they are generally to have: length = 75 mm. b A340 D. Not-watertight bulkheads 7. b spindle 8. breadth = 3 ÷ 4% t.C.0. Connection details other than those shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9 may be considered by RINA on a case by case. Rudder Plating to horizontal diaphragms and vertical diaphragms which do not constitute spindle A300 (2) Ordinary stiffeners to vertical diaphragms constituting D. Subdivision bulkheads Plating to borders Stiffeners to plating 5. A240 elsewhere see 4 above 6. C180 elsewhere C150 at the ends. where t = thickness of plating.C. on bottom. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 75 .5 mm to be carried out on the outline of the slot. 15% the length of the gross span.

3. less Moreover. as shown in Fig 10. of the stiffener. as far as practicable.5 Stiffening of end brackets is to be designed such that it provides adequate buckling web stability. 4.1. where Lb is the length. the height of end brackets is to be not less than that of the primary supporting member.3 Where necessary.1. Figure 10 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with backing bracket Figure 7 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with collar plate Figure 8 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with one large collar plate 4 4. The net sectional area. brackets are to be fitted to ensure the structural continuity. in m. Sec 3 Figure 6 : End connection of ordinary stiffener without collar plate than 15Lb.Pt B.5 m. the following prescriptions may be applied: • • where the length Lb is greater than 1.2 Where ordinary stiffeners are cut at primary supporting members. Where the width of the symmetri- • 76 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate. the net thickness of the face plate is to be not less than that of the bracket web.1. in mm. tripping flat bars are to be fitted to prevent lateral buckling of web stiffeners. Figure 9 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with two large collar plates 4.1. The extension of the collar plate above the primary member shall be at least 3 t. in m.5l.1.1 Arm lengths of end brackets are to be equal. of web stiffeners is to be not less than 16. As a general rule. of the free edge of the end bracket. in m. the net sectional area. Brackets with net thickness. In all the above connections. where t is the thickness of the collar plate. of the free edge of the end bracket. of the face plate of end brackets is to be not less than 50(Lb+1). 3.1. RINA may require backing brackets to be fitted. in cm2. in cm2. Ch 2.3 The scantlings of end brackets are generally to be such that the net section modulus of the primary supporting member with end brackets is not less than that of the primary supporting member at mid-span. The net thickness of brackets is to be not less than that of ordinary stiffeners. the radius of the all the scallops in the primary member around the stiffener shall be at least 20mm. in mm. where l is the span.4 The width. 4.1.2 The thickness of the end bracket web is generally to be not less than that of the primary supporting member web. the web of the bracket is to be stiffened. 4. in order to improve the fatigue strength of the connection.1 End connections of primary supporting members Bracketed end connections 4. As guidance. where Lb is the length. of the flanged edge or face plate is to be at least equal to 10Lb .

3 5.1 Over half of the span of primary supporting members. the length of openings is to be not greater than the distance between adjacent openings. of the common part of members 1.Solution 1 Member 3 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 77 .4 5.3 In general. Sec 3 cal face plate is greater than 400 mm.1.1 Cut-outs and holes 4.1 Openings may not be fitted in way of toes of end brackets.2 5.3. 4. of the gross section moduli of members 2 and 3 Ω : Area.1 Where openings such as lightening holes are cut in primary supporting members. additional backing brackets are to be fitted. Member 2 Ω Member 1 Figure 12 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . 12 to Fig. the continuity of the face plates is to be ensured. from the following formula: W t = 15. the depth of cut-outs is to be not greater than 50% of the depth of the primary supporting member. 5. In general.5.5 5. 5. 4.2.2. in mm. of member 1 w 2.1 Cut-outs for the passage of ordinary stiffeners are to be as small as possible and well rounded with smooth edges. in the case of bracketless crossing between primary supporting members (see Fig 11). where: w : the lesser of w1 and w 2.1 be less than the smallest web net thickness of the members forming the crossing.2 Bracketless end connections 5. 14: • continuous face plate (solution 1): see Fig 12 • straight face plate (solution 2): see Fig 13 • compensation of the opening (solution 3): see Fig 14 • combination of the above solutions.MAX w1 : gross section modulus. At the ends of the span.75 ----Ω 5. their height is to be not greater than 20% of the web height.2. in cm2. 2 and 3.1 As a general rule. 5 5. Other arrangements may be accepted provided they are supported by direct calculations submitted to RINA for review. the value of the relevant gross section modulus is to be taken equal to zero.MAX: the greater value.4.Pt B.2. the thickness of the common part of the web is to be not less than the value obtained. Ch 2.2.2 In no case may the thickness calculated according to 4. they are to be equidistant from the face plate and corners of cut-outs and. in cm 3. the length of openings is to be not greater than 25% of the distance between adjacent openings. 4.1 The cut-out is to be reinforced to one of the solutions shown in Fig. Figure 11 : Bracketless end connections of primary supporting members 5. In the absence of one of members 2 and 3 shown in Fig 11. in general. in cm3.

in mm.Solution 3 (inserted plate) It is recommended that the bracket toe should be designed as shown in Fig 15.1.1 Webs of primary supporting members are generally to be stiffened where the height.5 Tripping brackets with a net thickness. 6.1 The arm length of tripping brackets is to be not less than the greater of the following values.4.1 In general. Figure 14 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members .1 When riveted connections are employed. less than 15Lb are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate.2 6.2.5 6.3 6.Solution 2 6.1.3. require shear.2 As a general rule. in m. the width of the primary supporting member face plate is to be not less than one tenth of the depth of the web.1 Riveted connections 7. of tripping brackets. where t is the web net thickness. RINA may. 6. where tripping brackets are spaced as specified in 6. Whenever possible.2. backing brackets are to be fitted in way of the tripping brackets.5.1 6.Pt B. in mm.1 6. of tripping brackets. of the primary supporting member. without exceeding 4 m • at the toe of end brackets • at rounded face plates • in way of cross ties • in way of concentrated loads. 7. of tripping brackets t : Net thickness. in mm.38 b s d = 0. in m: d = 0.85 b --t t where: b : Height. in mm. 7 7. Where the width of the symmetrical face plate is greater than 400 mm. the web stiffeners of primary supporting members are to be spaced not more than 110t. tensile and compression tests to be carried out on representative specimens of riveted connections. is greater than 100t.1 When rivets are used to connect materials of different types. the arrangements are to be such as to enable inspection in service without the need to remove coverings.4 6. etc. Sec 3 Figure 13 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . at its discretion.2. 78 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Stiffening arrangement 6. Figure 15 : Primary supporting member: web stiffener in way of ordinary stiffener t t 6 6. shown in Fig 15 st : Spacing. the mechanical properties of the rivets are to be indicated on the plans. in m. 6. Ch 2. tripping brackets (see Fig 15) welded to the face plate may be fitted: o every fourth spacing of ordinary stiffeners.2 7. In general. precautions are to be taken against electrolytic corrosion.

g. X-ray examination of the welded joints.1 Inspection and tests General 9. 2 and of structures with approved plans. e) Checking of any repairs. the shipyard is to provide its own production control organisation. transverse joints of bent stringer plates. c) Visual examination of the preparation. during construction and after completion.1. procedures and sequences comply with RINA requirements. Ch 2. product information is to be submitted together with evidence of its previous successful use. fillet welding of stiffeners. To this end. In case of presence of defects. 8. Sec 3 8 8. root beveling and execution of welding of the connections of structural parts (e. brackets.Pt B. at the beginning of the work. as a rule. the building shipyard is responsible for seeing that working methods.1 Where a sealing product is used to ensure airtight or watertight integrity. to inspections suitable to check compliance with the applicable requirements. the attending Surveyor may ask for the extent of non-destructive examination. joints of inserts in way of openings. d) In addition to visual examination. crossing of butt-welded joints of panels or sheets of shell plating and strength deck.1 Sealed connections mal good practice. Ultrasonic testing is to be used for checking butt or cruciform connections in full penetration welding greater than 15mm. Irrespective of the extent of such tests. structures and welded connections are to be subjected. workmanship. those indicated in (a) to (e) below. etc.1. approved plans and nor- RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 79 . Tests of welded connections by RINA Surveyors are. approved plans and standards. Ultrasonic and magnetic particle examinations may also be required by the Surveyor in specific cases to verify the quality of the base material.1 Materials. the surface of finished weld are to be as far as practicable smooth and free from undercut. a) Verification of compliance of basic materials with the requirements in Sec.). 9 9. Unacceptable defects shall be completely removed. b) Verification of compliance of use and application conditions of welding processes with those approved and ascertainment of the use of authorised welders. As a general rule. of an extension as deemed necessary by the Surveyor. The results of nde shall be recorded.

3. in m 4. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings.72 for displacement yachts 4.1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Sections of this Chapter. 2. calculation of longitudinal strength is required. Wp : MT f f : : : msection modulus at the bottom and the deck. respectively.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp 4 4.4 L amidships. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival. 2.N ⁄ mm 1000 W f MT 2 σ p = ----------------------.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in Chapter 2 are also intended for the purposes of the longitudinal strength of a yacht of length having L not exceeding 50 m for monohull yacht or 40 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size.1 Calculation of the section modulus Wf.1.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values.1 General σs : mimimum yield stress of the material.1 To this end.2 1.1. T ----t ⋅ 10 –3 ≤ f ⋅ σ s At where: Tt 2 : total shear in kN defined in Chap. Therefore: σ f ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm 2 3.1 Shear stresses 2.1 The compressive value of normal stresses is not to exceed the value of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Article 5 of the Sec.5.1.2. For planing yachts: J = 5. Sez.1 : defined in 2 : actual shear area of the transverse section.Pt B.1. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yacht and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values.1 In the calculation of the modulus and inertia of the midship section. is to be not less than the value given by the following formulae. 80 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .80 for planing yachts 0. 90 ⋅ M ⋅ 10 –6 2 2. 0.1. in m3 design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap.1 The moment of inertia J of the midship section. 2. For displacement yachts: J = 5.2 1.2.3 2. σ p ≤ f ⋅ σs N ⁄ mm σ s. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGHT 1 1. provided that they extend for at least 0. plating and longitudinal stiffeners are generally to be included. in particular. Ch 2.1. in m 2. all the continuous members. f At where: MT 2 σ f = ---------------------. 32 ⋅ M ⋅ 10 –6 1. in N/mm2. of the transverse section.1 Bending stresses 3 3.

6 22. Lesser heights and thicknesses may also be acceptable if a centre girder is placed in connection with the solid keel. 5 where: k1 : : ka : 0.1 The height and thickness of the keel. Ch 2. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side.5 19. curvature correction factor given by 1-(h/s) to be taken not less than 0. assuming p=p2. 5 2. in m.9 21. not less than the value te given by: t e = ( 0.1 s p K Definitions and symbols The thickness of the bottom plating and the bilge is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 e t2. measured perpendicularly from the chord s to the highest point of the arc of plating between the two supports (see Figure 1). 35 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. not less than the value obtained by the following equation: b CH = 4.7 where h is the distance.1. 05 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. t2 = 8 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K) 0. Sec 5 SECTION 5 PLATING 1 1.0 3.1. in mm.1 Bottom and bilge 1. 5 ⋅ L + 600 k2 : and a thickness not less than that of the adjacent bottom plating increased by 2 mm.1 22. are to be not less than the values hCH e tCH.4 3 3.6 1. 2. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K ) 0.1 Keel Sheet steel keel 2.2 Solid keel The thickness of the plating of the bilge is.6 20. calculated with the following equations: h CH = 1.4 Ka 17.11.07. given in Chap. in mm. >2 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 81 .2 1. in m : scantling pressure.1. throughout the length of the yacht. Sheet steel of plating connected to the stem or to the sternpost or in way of the propeller shaft struts is to have a thickness.1. coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1 below where S is the is the greater dimension of the plating.1 Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge. 5 ⋅ L + 100 t C H = ( 0. 5 : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. in mm. in mm. in mm.2. 5 Lesser heights and thicknesses may be accepted provided that the effective area of the section is not less than that of the Rule section. The garboard strakes connected to the keel are each to have a width not less than 750 mm and a thickness not less than that of the bottom plating increased by 10%.3 22. Table 1 S/s 1 1. 2 of this Chapter. and. throughout the length of the yacht. in any event.8 2. Sec. equal to the thickness of the bottom increased by 50%.1 1. assuming p=p1 0. 5 : factor defined in Sec. 2 2.Pt B. in any event.1 The keel plating is to have a width bCH. in kN/m2.

1.2.1. as far as possible. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners. The thickness is to be not less than 1. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. no less than that of the side plating. h An increase in the thickness of the local plating may be required where the openings are of unusual dimensions.1 Openings in the shell plating 6. but not less than 6 mm.1. the thickness of the sheerstrake is to be adequately increased. in mm.3. where k1.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 e t2. In any event.3.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects. generally by at least 50%.1 In the yachts having L > 50 a sheerstrake plate of height h. rudder horn or trunk.1. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K ) t 2 = 6.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located. for the part below the waterline. 5 7. 8.2 7. 5 0. Sec 5 Figure 1 6 6. In the case of sidescuttles or windows or other openings arranged on the sheerstrake plate. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0.Pt B. In way of the ends of the bridge.1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements. for the part above the waterline. 8 8.25 that of the adjacent plating but no greater than that of the keel.1. in way of the stem.1 The thickness of the transom is to be no less than that required for the bottom. 7 7. k2 e ka are as defined in 3. propeller shaft struts. Ch 2.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 1 mm.3 6. in mm. 4. 4 4.1 Local stiffeners 7. 6. etc. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required.1 Sheerstrake 6.1 Side 5.2 5. the stiffener spacing s being equal.1 The thickness is to be taken.1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area.2.1. such openings are to be located well clear of welded connections.2 S 6. the thickness of the transom will be the subject of special consideration. 7. 5 5.2. Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings.1 Cross-deck bottom plating 5.3 7. In the event of water-jet drive systems. stabilisers. the thickness is to be increased sufficiently as necessary in order to compensate such openings. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is so small that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated. 82 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .025 L and thickness not less than the greater of the values of the plating of the side and the stringer plate is to be fitted. or for the side. anchor recesses. not less than 0.

between the two floors adjacent to that concerned conventional floor span equal to the distance. 1. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. Ch 2. in cm3. the rudder and the ballast keel.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders.Pt B. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m.3. 3. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type.1. which in turn may be supported by transverse bulkheads.2. Sec 6 SECTION 6 SINGLE BOTTOM 1 1. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends. 1. however. in cm3.36 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener. in kN/m2. 1. additional floors are to be fitted with sufficiently increased scantlings. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. calculated with the following formula. keel with a dead rise edg > 12°). between the two supporting members (sides.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. or by the sides of the hull. 1.1 General 2 2. half the distance. in m. 2 of this Chapter. 1. given in Chap.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. 1 coefficient defined in Sec. in m. 3 3. the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%.1. scantling pressure. the modulus ZM may.3.1. which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors.3 Transverse structure The bottom longitudinal stiffeners are preferably to be continual through the transverse members.2 Longitudinal structure 1. 1. equal to the distance between floors.3 In way of the propeller shaft struts. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. girders. 1.1 s p K : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. in m. the latter are to be fitted as a continuation of the existing girders outside the engine room.3. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor. 2.5 Floors of increased scantlings are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced beams on the weather deck. the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides. the rudder horn and the ballast keel.1 Longitudinal type structure Bottom longitudinals 3.2. be reduced by 40%.1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM.2 Floors 3. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 83 .2 A centre girder is to be fitted.2. in m. supported by floors. ZM = k1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b S : : : defined in 3. brackets are to be provided at the ends.2. 1.1 Definitions and symbols 1.83 assuming p=p1 0. In the case of a keel with a dead rise edge < 12° but > 8°. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. The floors may be supported by girders.3.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. Where they are to be interrupted in way of a transverse watertight bulkhead. 1.2.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom.4 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders.1 The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally.3. 1. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : : : 0.1.

Ch 2.1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder distance between the floors. : half the distance. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional span of the centre girder. between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2 in the absence of side girders distance between the floors. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 4. in m. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC. in m. in cm3. floors). 4. equal to the distance.3 3.2 Centre girder Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors. in cm3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPC : : defined in 3.1 half the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPL : defined in 4.22 assuming p=p1 : 0.3. in m. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance.1 half the distance.1 half the distance.2 : half the distance.1. sides).1 Constructional details where: k1 b’PL : : defined in 3.3 Side girders where: k1 bPL : : defined in 3. 5. S : 4.1 Girders Centre girder 4 4.1. in cm3. in m. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads.1 : conventional span in m. in cm3. of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders. in m.1 Transverse type structures Ordinary floors When the girder forms a support for the floor. in m. in m.Pt B. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance. half the distance.2 : S Side girders When the side girder forms a support for the floor. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. in cm 3.75 assuming p=p2.3. in m. The face plate of the girders may be gradually reduced to reach the dimensions of that of the transom stiffeners. Sec 6 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value the value ZPL. floors). floors). where: k1 bPC : 1. in m.1. between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads.3.2. where: k1 S : defined in 3. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : : defined in 3. in cm3. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders conventional girder span equal to the distance.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z. S 3.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC. in cm3. floors). in m. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 5 5. S : 84 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. S : S Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors.

1. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom.10. For yachts of length L > 50 m. the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes. as far as this is practicable. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec.1. as far practicable. The thickness of the centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc. in mm.calculated with the following formula: t 1 = ( 0. 008h df + 2 5 5. is requested for yacht of L > 50 m. obtained from the following formula: h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 ) The height of the double bottom is in any event to be not less than 700 mm.1 A centre girder is to be fitted. are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance.1. tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities.1 General 2 2. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder. In floors and in side girders. 04 L + 5 s + 1 )k dove: s : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners.1. 3 3. in mm: t pc = 0. Ch 2. except in special cases at the discretion of RINA. When manholes with greater height are fitted. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating. 2.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead in the machinery space or as near thereto as practicable. 1.1. 1.9 t1 at the ends. side girders need not be fitted. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 85 . as far as possible.1.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and.1 Side girders 5. supported by floors.3 The dimensions of the double bottom. in way of the centre girder. Sec 7 SECTION 7 DOUBLE BOTTOM 1 1.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m.1 Inner bottom plating 3. For yachts of length L < 50 m. throughout the length of the yacht. in mm. outside the machinery space extending forward to the collision bulkhead and aft to the after peak bulkhead. manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually.1.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1. On yachts of L > 61 m a double bottom is to be fitted. in m. side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. On yachts of L > 76 m the double bottom is to extend.1 Minimum height 1. as far as this is practicable.Pt B. and in particular the height. the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0. is to be not less than the value hDF. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted. The double bottom is to extend transversally to the side so as to protect the bottom in the bilge area.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom.1.1. or in floors and side girders below pillars.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom. For yachts less than 50 m in length RINA may accept reduced height.4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0. the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged. throughout the length of the hull. 4 4.1 Centre girder 4. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom.

1. the frame and reverse frame section moduli are to be no less than those required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec. scantlings and connections 9.10.1 Bracket floors 5.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm. solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. or doubler. Sec 7 A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them. they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. Ch 2.2 6. 7 7.1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines.1 Floors 6. to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals. bilge keels may not be welded directly on the shell plating.1 Bilge keel Arrangement. 6. 86 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1.2. The frame section modulus Zc. In any event. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. An intermediate flat.1 Arrangement Where installed. or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side. equal to the distance between the mid-spans of the brackets connecting the frame/reverse frame. 7.1. 5 8 8. The ends of the intermediate flat are to be sniped at an angle of 15°. does not exceed 3 m. 9 9. as far as practicable.2.1 At each frame between solid floors. The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are.2 5. as a rule. in close proximity to girders and floors. 6 6.1.6.1 The thickness of floors tm. vertical stiffeners are to be arranged. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged. the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sez. is to be not less than: Zc = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ p ⋅ K 2 where: k1 S : 0. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. They are to be located in way of a transverse bilge stiffener. 008h df + 0. The reverse frame section modulus is to be not less than 85% of the frame section modulus. The ends of the bilge keel are to be sniped at an angle of 15° or rounded with large radius. The arrangement shown in Fig 1 is recommended.Pt B. bracket floors consisting of a frame connected to the bottom plating and a reverse frame connected to the inner bottom plating are to be arranged and attached to the centre girder and the margin plate by means of flanged brackets with a width of flange not less than 1/10 of the double bottom depth.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec. in cm3. in mm. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines. in m. is required on the shell plating. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom.83 assuming p=p1 : 0. 8.1 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec. is to be not less than the following value: t m = 0. transverse brackets are to be fitted. Where this is not possible.10 for tank bulkheads.36 assuming p=p2 : frame span.10.

respectively. However.1.Pt B.2 Bilge keel connection 9. The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush in way of crossing. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 87 . Ch 2. The butt welds of the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell butts. this thickness may generally not be greater than 15 mm. through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds. with the doubler and with the bilge keel.2 Materials The bilge keel and the intermediate flat are to be made of steel with the same yield stress and grade as that of the bilge strake. 9.1.1 The intermediate flat. 9. Sec 7 Figure 1 : bilge keel arrangement Figure 2 : bilge keel arrangement The arragement shown in figure 2 may also be accepted 9.2.3 Scantlings The net thickness of the intermediate flat is to be equal to that of the bilge strake.

1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z.2.2. between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned.1 Reinforced beams Reinforced frames 2 2. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 2. in sailing yachts. Sec. scantling pressure.56 assuming p=p2 conventional frame span.1 Definitions and symbols 4.1.36 assuming p=p2 : conventional span of the longitudinal. where: k1 : defined in 4. 5. Sec 8 SECTION 8 SIDE STRUCTURES 1 1. in general made up of a beam and a floor.1.1 General 3.1. equal to the distance between the supporting members.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value Z. : conventional span. which may be supported by reinforced stringers. in m. in m. 4. by flats or by the bottom structures. in cm3. in m. Ch 2. where: k1 KCR : 1 assuming p=p1 : 0. Chap.7 assuming p=p2 : 0.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of the reinforcement structures of the side. in cm3. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames.1 88 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame.2 Reinforced stringers 4. in kN/m2. equal to the distance between the supporting members. in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads. 3. 3 3.1 Ordinary stiffeners Transverse frames s 3.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value Z. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 S where: k1 S : : : 0.4 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners.1 s p K : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. or reinforced stringers. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : 0. defined in Part B. calculated with the following formula: The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z. by decks. 4 4. generally spaced not more than 2 m apart. in m.67 assuming p=p1 0. factor defined in Sec.83 assuming p=p1 : 0.9 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners.calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them. : spacing. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames). Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel. : 0. 1.1. in m.Pt B. in cm3. in cm 3. in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck. in cm3. or by transverse bulkheads. 2 of this Chapter. which may be of longitudinal or transverse type.2 Longitudinal stiffeners 1.

as shown in Fig 3.2 Tweendeck frames are to be bracketed at the top and welded or bracketed at the bottom to the deck.3 Brackets are normally connected to frames by lap welds. Sec 8 K’CR s S : • 0.1.1.1 As a general rule. where w1 . 6. given in [ 6. between the reinforced stringers or 0.1 Scantling of brackets of frame connections d 6. • 0.1.1 Frame connections General • for bracket "B": wB = w' 1 need not to be greater then w 1 5. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: • for bracket "A": wA = w1 if w2 ≤ w1 5 5. Ch 2. following scantlings may be followed: 6. t : bracket net thickness.2 Upper brackets of frames The arm length of upper brackets connecting frames to deck beams is to be not less than the value obtained. in cm3. as shown in Fig 1 and Fig 2. from the following formula: w + 30 d = φ ---------------t w1 d Figure 2 : Connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes d where: φ: coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: φ = 48 • for flanged brackets: φ = 43.5 w : required section modulus of the stiffener. In the case of bulb profiles. The length of overlap is to be not less than the depth of frames. Figure 1 : Connections of perpendicular stiffeners in the same plane w2 6 6. 5. in mm. 5. in mm. w'1 and w2 are the required section moduli of stiffeners.1. equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer. : conventional span. 6.1 End connections of frames are to be bracketed.1.5 D in the absence of reinforced stringers or decks.3] and depending on the type of connection. in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames.9 for reinforced stringers which support ordinary vertical stiffeners (frames).in m.1. : spacing.Pt B.3 For connections of perpendicular stiffeners located in the same plane (see Fig 1) or connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes (see Fig 2). for yachts of length greater than 50m.1. in m. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: w = w2 w = w1 if if w2 ≤ w1 w2 > w1 where w1 and w2 are the required section moduli of stiffeners.2] and [ 6.1.4 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners. w2 theoritical bracket actual bracket d w1 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 89 . a bracket may be required to be fitted at bottom.4 For connections of frames to deck beams (see Fig 3).3.

3 Where the bracket thickness. where Lb is the length. in m. The sectional area.5 h .Pt B. of the flange or the face plate is to be not less than 10Lb.1 In general. 6. in mm. where: φ: coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: φ = 50 • for flanged brackets: φ = 45 w : required section modulus of the frame. of the bracket free edge. the free edge of the bracket is to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate. in mm. in cm 3. in mm.2. t : Bracket thickness.2 Lower brackets of frames 6. Sec 8 Figure 3 : Connections of frames to deck bea w'1 Figure 4 : Lower brackets of frames h h'1 dB d2 dB h'1 B w2 A dA 75 75 2h dA d1 w1 6.2. from the following formula: w + 30 d = φ ---------------t 6. frames are to be bracketed to the inner bottom or to the face plate of floors as shown in Fig 4.2 The arm lengths d1 and d2 of lower brackets of frames are to be not less than the value obtained. 90 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 1. is less than 15Lb .2. Ch 2. in cm2.

1 Deck plating Weather deck where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam. : factor defined in Sec.63 for lower deck longitudinals 0. in m. in cm3. 4 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. in m. 5.3.1.1. 2 of this Chapter. in m. is to be not less than the value t. not less than 0.025 L and thickness t. calculated with the following formula: t = 1. which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads.56 for beams.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements. meaning the first deck above the full load waterline.2. in m. in mm. Ch 2. a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b. 5 S : In the yachts having L>50 m. equal to the distance between the two supporting members. considering that said deck is also a strength deck. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts. In tanks intended for liquid cargoes.1 pdc Definitions and symbols 4. extending for at least 0.Pt B. : spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners. open section pillars are to be fitted. bulkheads). the value of which is given in Part B. the thickness of the deck is. calculated with the following equation: Z = 4. Chap. to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec. : scantling height. beams or longitudinal stringers. 4. C1 : : S : : 1. in cm2. 1. in cm3.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent conventional span of the reinforced beam.10 for tank bulkhead plating.2.1.3 Pillars The stringer plate of increased thickness may be waived if the thickness adopted for the deck is greater than Rule thickness. 5 4.2 Lower decks 1. equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars. in m. other reinforced beams. 3. conventional span.1 2. 5 Where the deck is a tank top. in m. 15 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. in mm. s h K 4. in mm.1 General 3.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of decks. 3.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z. 75 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h 2 3 3. 4 4. calculated with the following formula: t = 1. in any event. in general.1. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A. it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht. plating and reinforcing or supporting structures. laid transversally or longitudinally. 9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. considering that said deck is also a strength deck. calculated with the following formula: Z = 7.6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side.1 Pillars are. Sec 9 SECTION 9 DECKS 1 1. given by the formula: RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 91 .1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z. Sec. to be made of tubes.44 for weather deck longitudinals 0. 5 ⋅ C 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h 2 where: : calculation deck. supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams.1 Stiffening and support structures for decks Ordinary stiffeners 2 2. is to be not less than the value t.2 Reinforced beams 4. in theory. a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base. not less than the value given by the formula: t = 2.

in kN.1. scantling height.2 Pillar connections Heads and heels of pillars are to be attached to the surrounding structure by means of brackets. in m2. 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h 4. 5 – 0. where: A h : : area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar. Sec 9 Q A = -------------------------------------12. except in the case of pillars which may also work under tension such as those in tanks. calculated with the following formula: Q = 6.Pt B. Ch 2. the thickness of doubling plates is to be not less than 1. λ : the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section. partial floors or girders or equivalent structures suitable to support the pillars are to be arranged.1. 92 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . insert plates so that the loads are well distributed. defined in 2.5 times the thickness of the pillar. Where pillars connected to the inner bottom are not located in way of intersections of floors and girders.3. Insert plates may be replaced by doubling plates. In general. 045λ where: Q : load resting on the pillar. Pillars are to be connected to the inner bottom at the intersection of girders and floors. Pillars are to be attached at their heads and heels by continuous welding.

1.63 1 h s. as defined in Chap.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z.2 Reinforced beams 2 2. in cm3. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 93 .78 0.1 2. Ch 2. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4. 5 : as defined in Chap. Tanks. 1. leak testing with an air pressure of 0. between the members that support the stiffener concerned : as defined in Part B. for subdivision bulkheads 10.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are. in m. calculated with the following formula: Z = C1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 : spacing between the stiffeners.2.8 4.15 bar may be accepted as an alternative. h o K 3 3. 5. 2. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h. fuel oil or lube oil). 5 5 5. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. provided that it is possible. in m : conventional span. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener scantling height indicated in Table 2. in general. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Table 2. for tank bulkheads width.35 3. 1. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1. in m. in cm3.1.Pt B.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.1. Chap.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm.1. Tanks" means the structural tanks that are part of the hull and intended to contain liquids (water.1 General arrangement The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Table 1.1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4.25 hs hs ho h (m) 1. the use of independent metal tanks is required as stated in Chapter 1 of Part B. Sec. calculated with the following formula: Z = 7. 5. or to the overflow pipe. whichever is the greater.1 The structural continuity of the bulkhead vertical and horizontal primary supporting members with the surrounding supporting structures is to be carefully ensured. At the discretion of RINA. In order to contain fuel oil with a flashpoint ≤ 55° C.1 s S Symbols 4. 4.1. Sec. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B. 2. Table 2 Bulkhead h (m) hs hs ho c 0. C1 b h : : : : 6.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 k1 4.1 Plating Collisione bulkhead Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 3. equal to the distance. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( h ⋅ K ) 0. Sec. complete with all pipe connections.

2 5. when the frame spacing does not exceed 0.75 m.75 m.1 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • 0. with a maximum of 1.Pt B. Ch 2. cross-bars are to be provided to support the interrupted stiffeners.9 m.2. reinforced stiffeners are to be fitted on each side of the door and suitably overlapped. • one frame spacing. for longitudinal bulkheads.1 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • two frame spacings.1 Non-tight bulkheads Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars 6. Sec 10 5. 6.5 m.2. 6.1. for transverse bulkheads • two frame spacings. 94 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Where vertical stiffeners are cut in way of watertight doors.2 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 6 6. when the frame spacing is greater than 0.

in cm3. 2.1. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below.1 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t. Table 2.1 2. 2. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 where: h K s S : : : : conventional scantling height.1 General 3 3. equal to the distance. Sec.1. see Ch 1. the value of which is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1. in m : conventional scantling height.1 The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. calculated with the following formula: t = 3 ⋅ s ⋅ (K ⋅ h) 0. : factor defined in Chap. 2.Pt B.2].2.0 1. 1.1.1. in m. 3. Sec 1.0 Type of bulkhead 1 tier front st conventional span of the stiffener. in m.5 1. 5 Superstructure decks Plating Boundary bulkhead plating 4. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 3.1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht. in m. [4.2 Stiffeners K In any event. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above. 4.3. equal to the distance.1 4. conventional scantling height. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 95 . between the supporting members as defined in 2. s h : spacing between the stiffeners. h : Other bulkheads wherever situated Reinforced beams (beams. Sec. 2. in mm. 2. in m. calculated with the following formula: t = 3 ⋅ s ⋅ (K ⋅ h) 0. and so on. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec. 9. in mm. 5 where: s K h : : : spacing of the stiffeners. in cm3. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA.1. in m. 4 2 2. 4. 2 spacing of the stiffeners. defined in 2. in m span of the stiffeners. defined in 2 factor defined in Chap. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned.1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. calcolato conla seguente formula: Z = 3. Ch 2. Sec. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 Table 1 where: S : h (m) 1. 2 nd tier front s. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Chap. Sec.1.1 The section modulus Z. in m factor defined in Chap.1 Stiffeners 1.

.

Part B Hull Chapter 3 ALUMINIUM HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 97 .

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with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine.1.1 L Definitions and symbols RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 99 . D : T : s ∆ K : : : 3 Plans. calculations and other information to be submitted 2 2. at draught T. whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections. capacity plan. submitted to RINA for the examination of the documentation. In the examination of constructional plans.2%).2 2. measured immediately below the cross-deck. in tests of the longitudinal strength of twin hull yachts. The scantlings of structures made with light alloys having different values of yield strength are obtained taking into account coefficient K as defined in Section 2. general arrangement. as defined in Sec.1 Chapter 3 of Section B applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of aluminium alloy and a length L not exceeding 90 m. a copy of the following plan is to be submitted: : scantling length. in m.1. The formulae indicated in this Chapter are based on use of an aluminium alloy having yield Strength.1.1 3. lines plan. The Table also indicates the information that is to be supplied with the plans or. in any case. 2. in m. in the opinion of RINA. factor as a function of the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy used. on the full load waterline. 2. depth of the yacht. Rp 0. from the base line to the full load waterline with the yacht at rest in calm water. in t. from the base line up to the deck beam of the uppermost continuous deck.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. assumed to be equal to of the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest. draft of the yacht. for examination and approval when required. RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations.2 = 110 N/mm2 (correspondig to a permanent elongation of 0. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L. spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. outside frames. provided that structures with longitudinal. Ch 3.1 Field of application B : 1. displacement of the yacht outside frames. on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L. B is to be taken as equal to twice the breadth of the single hull. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1 1. in m.1 Definitions and symbols Premise 3.1 Table 1 lists the structural plans that are to be presented in advance to RINA in triplicate. in m.Pt B. in m. For documentation purposes. maximum breadth of the yacht. 2. Multi-hulls or hulls with a greater length will be considered case by case. transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings prove adequacy. in the welded condition.2.

1 --------------. in N/mm2.⋅( 1 + γ 2 ) for compression .1 As an alternative to those based on the formulae in this Chapter. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place. or L> 50 m if mono-hull state the maximum vertical bending moment in still water development to a list of the drawings the Builder wants to refer to and copy of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. the drawings may not be sent for approval . if γ < γ1 2 2. in m :loaded side of the plate.2 5. • • 4 4. • • • Plating development Structure of the engine room Watertight bulkheads • and deep tank • bulkheads Structure of stern/side door Superstructures Support structure for crane Rudder Propeller shaft struts • • • • • • • openings location of air outlets closing appliances openings location of overflow design loads and connections to the hull structures materials of all components calculation speed material • • • • • 5 5. in m :unloaded side of the plate.1 Buckling strength checks Application 5. in mm :Young's modulus. maximum operating speed V.2 3. scantlings may be obtained by direct calculations carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B of these Rules. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ Where an *INWATERSURVEY (In-water Survey) notation is assigned the following plans and information are to be submitted: • Details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets are to be verified with the craft afloat. Sec 1 Table 1 PLAN • Midship section CONTAINING INFORMATION RELEVANT TO: • main dimensions.1. The scantlings are to be such as to guarantee that stress levels do not exceed the allowable values stipulated in the aforementioned Chapter. 1 --------------. • Name and characteristics of high resistant paint.⋅ ( 1 + γ 2 ) 1 1. design acceleration aCG (for planing or semi-planing yachts) materials and associated mechanical properties for yacht with L > 40 m. in N/mm2.Pt B.1 The critical buckling strength of aluminium alloy plating and stiffeners subject to compressive stresses is to be calculated as specified below. It's Builder responsability to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work. in m 100 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .bending 1. boundary conditions and loads to be used for direct calculations. 5. 9 ⋅ m c ⋅ E ⋅ ε ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a where: mC : (1+ γ2)2 for compression-bending stress ( 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 ). to be taken equal to 0. if γ < γ1 2. Chapter 1 provides schematisations. if from Rule loads openings different 4.2. but the Request of Survey for the vessel shall be submitted enclosed ( 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 ).1 In case a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation.07 . for information only.1 Direct calculations • • • Longitudinal and trasversal section Plan of the decks • • • openings loads acting. t σE = 0. 105 N/mm2 for aluminium alloy structures :shorter side of the plate. When the Rules are amended. the plans are to be submitted for new approval. • Details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat. Attention is to be paid even to possible additional flag administartions requirements. Ch 3. if multi-hull.2.1 Elastic buckling stresses of plating Compressive stress 2 The elastic buckling strength. 1+ψ t E a c d :thickness of plating. which may cause differences in the constructions. 1+ψ m1 : 3.1.

if γ >1 •1. 1 ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ c 2 ⋅ m ⋅ 10 0. in N/mm 2. in mm flange width. in N/mm2.2 Shear stress The critical buckling stress.1 Compressive stress The critical buckling stress. for a stiffener supported at both ends •2. in delivery condition : elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5. 5 4 ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝⎜ ⎛⎛ gyratio n radius. they are no less than those shown in Table 2.4. if γ<1. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones.2 Rp0. 5 r σE = 69. 2 ⋅ 1 – -----------4 ⋅ σe dove: Rp0. if γ >1 •1. 5. in mm. where: τF : 0.2. in N/mm2.0. for a stiffener fixed at both ends. a S m :area of the cross-section of the stiffener. if γ<1 •1.58 Rp0.2 Shear stress The critical buckling shear stress. in mm flange hickness. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual.4 Axially loaded stiffeners γ 5. Ch 3.1 General rules for design if if ⎝ ⎛ τF τ E ≤ --2 F --τ E > τ2 τF τ c = τF ⋅ 1 – ----------4 ⋅ τe 6. in cm 4. 7 ------------------------------------------3 ⎠ ⎞ 0. For yachts with length L greater than 50 m.1.1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. a 200 . Sec 1 ψ :ratio between the smallest and largest compressive stresses when the stress presents a linear variation across the plate (0 < ψ < 1) c = -. for a stiffener supported at one end and fixed at the other •4.3 Critical buckling stresses tw σE = 55 ⋅ ----hw ⎝ ⎛ σ c = σE ⎠⎠ ⎞⎞ if if ⎝ ⎛ R p 0. 2 σ E > ----------2 R p0. · 1. 5. in N/mm 2. for edge d stiffened by a flat bar or bulb section.1.3. in m.Pt B.2. in N/mm2.4. 1 + ψ – 1 ------------------0. is given by: τc = τ E ⎠⎠ ⎞⎞ 6 6.2 σE where: hW tW bf tf : : : : web height. n ot to b e take n g re ater tha n 1 d ⎠ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ 5. t and a are as defined in (a) above..1 Elastic flexural buckling stress The elastic flexural buckling stress σE. in N/mm2. sono date dalle seguenti formule: • for flat bars ⎠ ⎞ 5. 9 ⋅ m t ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a 2 where: ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ mt a = 5. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 ⎠ ⎞ tw σE = 11 ⋅ ----hw ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 5. 34 + 4 ⋅ -b 2 and E. for edge d stiffened by a flat bar or T-section. in N/mm2.2. excluding attached plating :coefficient depending on boundary conditions. I : 10 --------------------------------–2 : moment of inertia of the stiffener. 2 σE ≤ ----------2 R p0. in mm 2 ⋅ m ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ m ⋅ 10 we b 4 2 ⋅ m ⋅ 10 flange 4 ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ 101 .1. 5. in mm web thickness.2. is given by: • for built-up stiffeners with symmetrical flange: tw σE = 27 ⋅ ----hw 2 ⎝ ⎛ 4 – 1. 2 σ c = R p0. for edge d stiffened by a flat bar or bulb section.0. with particular regard to plating.2 Local elastic buckling stresses Le tensioni elastiche di instabilità locali. : minimum yield stress of aluminium alloy used. in cm2. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ t τ E = 0.1. calculated with a plate flange of width equal to φ : the smaller of: 800 . equal to: •1. in delivery condition : elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5.2 τE : minimum yield stress of aluminium alloy used.3. provided that.25 for edge d stiffened by a flat bar or T-section. b : longer side of the plate. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ γ1 = where: S + φ ⋅ t ⋅ 10 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ε r I φ :coefficient equal to: •1.

K0. L1/3 . K0.05 d (1) Member Keel. L1/3 .5 t8 = t2 t9 = 2. Such interval is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming. d = diameter of the pillar.50 . For yachts similar in performance to high speed craft. Sec 1 In the design. Ch 3.3 . bottom plating Side plating Open strength deck plating Lower and enclosed deck plating 1st tier superstructure front bulkhead Superstructure bulkhead Watertight subdivision bulkhead Tank bulkhead Centre girder Floors and side girders Tubular pillars (1) 7 7.0.1.50 . a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors. is required for the bottom.5 t5 = t1 t6 = t5 . in mm 102 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . K0. their adequacy in terms of buckling strength and resistance to corrosion is demonstrated.5 t11 = 0. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht.1.5 t3 = 1.5 t2 = 1.5 t10 = 1. Table 2 Minimum thickness (mm) t1 = 1. Where plating and stiffeners contribute to the longitudinal strength of the yacht. L1/3 . L1/3 . their scantlings are to be such as to fulfil the requirements for yacht longitudinal strength stipulated in Sec. in the opinion of RINA.70 .5 t4 = t3 . 4.5 t7 = t2 . placed at a distance of not more than 2 m.Pt B. the thicknesses of plating stiffeners and cores of reinforced beams is to be not less than the minimum values shown in Table 2. L1/3 .1 Minimum thicknesses 7.75 . K0.1 In general. Lesser thicknesses may be accepted provided that. K0.0.

Other uses may be permitted at the discretion of RINA. in conformity with the applicable requirements. are carried out in accordance with normal good practice and in observance of the applicable requirements of Part D.) and the scope of application are submitted to RINA for review. The materials. Connections between extruded plating and primary members are to be given special attention. The use of series 6000 alloys or extruded plates. to accept materials other than those provided for in this Section.2. For the types of materials foreseen in this Section.Pt B. Young's modulus for aluminium alloys is to be taken equal to 70000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio equal to 0.1 For hull construction and for fittings the aluminium alloys indicated in this Section are to be used. the alloys to be employed will be considered on a case-by-case basis by RINA. where relevant. when requested.1.1 The designation of aluminium alloys used in this Section complies with the numerical designation used in RRIAD (Registration Record of International Alloy Designation). referred to as extruded plating. 2. chemical composition. the prerequisites and requirements for approval. are specified in Part D. 1.1 General requirements case-by-case basis by RINA. at low or high temperatures. The responsibility for maintaining the required tolerances lies with the Manufacturer. Other aluminium alloys may be considered. for parts exposed to sea water atmosphere. The characteristics of aluminium alloys to be used in the construction of aluminium yacht are to comply with the relevant RINA requirements. who is also to inspect the surface condition of the material. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS 1 1. which will define the acceptance requirements and conditions.1. As a rule.33. These Rules presume that welding and other manufacturing processes. The list of aluminium alloys given in Table 1 is not exhaustive. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 103 . The acceptance of applications and aluminium alloys not foreseen in these Section will be decided case by case. temper. forgings and castings 2. The under-thickness tolerances of extruded plates are to be in accordance with Table 3.1 The under-thickness tolerances of plates and rolled sections are to be in accordance with Table 2. may be used. subject to conditions specifically agreed on. In the case of structures subjected to low service temperatures or intended for other particular applications. in the condition of supply. Unless otherwise specified. RINA reserves the right. within the limits and conditions laid down in Part D. those specifically stipulated for individual cases. series 5000 aluminium-magnesium or series 6000 aluminium-magnesium-silicon alloys are to be used (see Table 1). For forgings or castings.1 Aluminium alloy structures Aluminium alloys for hull structures. the application is limited to decks and deckhouses. requirements for chemical composition and mechanical properties will be defined in each case by RINA. welding.2 Extruded plates 2.1 Extrusions with built-in plating and stiffeners. Extruded plating is preferably to be oriented so that the stiffeners are parallel to the direction of main stresses. mechanical properties. etc. In general. provided that the specifications (manufacture. in general at the time of the approval of the relevant plans. In the case of welded structures. are to satisfy the provisions laid down by IACS or. if requested.3 Tolerances 2. Ch 3. to the satisfaction of RINA and in compliance with the relevant requirements. Welding procedures are to be approved for the specific type of material for which they are to be used. alloys and welding processes are to be compatible and appropriate. will be considered on a 2.3. also taking into account the protective coating applied. the materials are to be approved. 2 2.

g. subject to the agreement of RINA. respectivelysono le minime garantite tensioni di rottura in condizioni non saldate e saldate rispettivamente. R’p. Other grades or tempers may be considered. Sec 2 Table 1 : Aluminium alloys for welded construction Guaranteed mechanical characteristics (1) Aluminium alloy Alloy (2) Condition 0/H111 5083 H321 0 0/H111 5086 H321 0 5383 0/H111 H321 0/H111 5059 H321 0/H111 F 0/H111 Products rolled rolled extruded rolled rolled extruded rolled rolled rolled rolled rolled rolled rolled rolled Thickness (mm) t ≤ 50 t ≤ 40 all all all all t ≤ 40 t ≤ 40 t ≤ 40 t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 40 all all t≤6 t>6 t≤6 6 < t ≤ 25 t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 25 t≤6 6 < t ≤ 25 t ≤ 25 t ≤ 15 t≤6 t ≤ 25 Unwelded condition Rp0. For structures in direct contact with water are generally not permitted. Rp. The use of alloy 6106 is recommended in such cases.2(N/mm2) (4) 125 215 110 100 185 95 145 220 155 270 260 85 100 80 70 215 200 215 200 150 130 240 255 195 240 Rm (N/mm2) (5) 275 305 270 240 275 240 290 305 300 370 360 215 210 190 190 255 250 260 250 190 180 260 310 240 260 Welded condition R’p. 6060 alloy is not to be used for structural members subject to impact loads (e. 104 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . For more information. refer to the minimum values guaranteed by the product supplier.02 are the minimum guaranteed yield stresses at 0. Rm. Ch 3.2% in unwelded and welded condition. respectively.02. bottom longitudinals).02 (N/mm2) (4) 125 125 110 100 100 95 145 145 155 155 155 85 100 80 70 105 100 95 80 65 65 115 115 65 140 R’m (N/mm2) (5) 275 275 270 240 240 240 290 290 300 300 300 215 210 190 190 165 165 165 165 115 110 155 170 130 165 5454 5754 closed extrusions 6005 T5 / T6 open extrusions 6060 (3) 6061 (6) 6082 6106 6351 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) T5 T6 T6 T5 T5 extruded extruded extruded extruded extruded The guaranteed mechanical characteristics in this Table correspond to general standard values. R’m are the minimum guaranteed tensile strengths in unwelded and welded condition.Pt B.

Ch 3. Aluminium alloys of series 6000 are subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the vicinity of welded areas.5. The mechanical characteristics to consider are normally those of condition 0 or H111. provided they are duly justified.4. In the event of welding of two different aluminium alloys. in which: minimum guaranteed yield stress.4 : 2. and any recommendations for welding. greater characteristics than those in annealed or welded condition may be considered.2/Rp 0.3 0.5 0. which appears in the formulae for checking scantlings of structural members given in this Chapter. of the aluminium alloy as welded. Aluminium alloys of series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111 are subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the welded areas.2 Table 3 As-built thickness t mm t≤6 6 < t ≤ 10 Under-thickness tolerances mm 0.1 A plan is to be kept on board indicating the alluminium alloys. the material factor K to be considered for the scantlings is the greater of the two.4) • indicated by the supplier for alloys of series 6000 (see 2.1 Welding heat input lowers locally the mechanical strength of aluminium alloys hardened by work hardening (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111) or by heat treatment (series 6000). to be taken not less than 0. of the aluminium alloy in the condition of supply joint coefficient for the welded assembly. where necessary. 2 where: Rp 0.2 η : : minimum guaranteed yield stress.3 0.7 1 110 K = ------------------η ⋅ R p0. • Alloys hardened by work hardening R’p 0. Higher mechanical characteristics may be taken into account.: • in condition 0 or H111 for alloys of series 5000 (see 2. Aluminium alloys of series 5000 in condition 0 (annealed) or H111 (annealed flattened) are not subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the welded areas. The mechanical characteristics to be considered are normally indicated by the supplier. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 105 .53. is equal to: 2. i. the coefficient η may be taken equal to the metallurgical efficiency coefficient defined in Table 1.6 2.e. The heat-affected zone may be taken to extend 25 mm on each side of the weld axis.4).6. Sec 2 Table 2 As-built thickness t mm t≤8 8 < t ≤ 12 12 < t ≤ 20 t > 20 Under-thickness tolerances mm 0. in N/mm2. given in Table 4. corresponding to the aluminium alloy considered.4 Influence of welding on mechanical characteristics 2. a drop in mechanical characteristics of welded structures is to be considered in the heat-affected zone. the extent and location together with details of specification and mechanical properties.5 Material factor K for scantlings of aluminium alloy structural members Information to be kept on board 2.2 6000) When no information is available.4 or greater than 0.2/Rp 0.Pt B. Consequently. provided that welded connections are located in areas where stress levels are acceptable for the alloy considered in annealed or welded condition. the condition and type of product adopted for the hull structures. with respect to the mechanical characteristics of the parent material.1 The value of the material factor K.2 (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111) Alloys hardened by heat treatment (series R’p 0. in N/mm2. working and treatment. Table 4 Aluminium alloy • Alloys without work-hardening treatment (series 5000 in annealed condition 0 or annealed flattened condition H111) η 1 R’p 0. • (1) 2. For welded constructions in hardened aluminium alloys (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111 and series 6000).

The work is to be carried out to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor and the classification is dependent upon the work carried out with the approved plans and a quality of constructions that fall into the limits set out by RINA or other recognized international bodies (i. etc.). repairs which affect the structural integrity are to be discussed with the Builder and relevant drawing to be sent for approval. 1. reverse chipping.1 Welding procedures accepted for the construction of hulls are those semi-automatic with protection of argon gas or of argon-helium gas mix. Furthermore. sufficient access. called TIG (tungsten-arc inert gas). etc.e.1.) and other parameters (voltage. Welding of the various types of aluminium alloy is to be carried out by means of welding procedures approved for the purpose and the various welding procedures and consumables are to be used within the limits of their approval and in accordance with the conditions of use specified in the respective approval documents. Adequate protection from the weather is to be provided to parts being welded. the following details are to be provided for the authorization to use welding procedures in production: a) category and grade of basic and filler materials b) principal methods: type of joint (butt-welded.). preparation of joints (thickness. the acceptable (quality standards of) construction defects (such as surfaces defects. In welding procedures using bare. The structural parts to be welded to those adjacent are to be thoroughly cleaned before welding even if the components of the structure itself have been pickled beforehand. called MIG (metal-arc inert gas). Welded temporary attachments used to aid construction are to be removed carefully by grinding. The surface of the material is to be finished smooth by grinding followed by crack detection.Pt B.1 For the correct carrying out of joints. in particular. As a general rule. post welding plate deformation) are those which fall into the limits set out by IACS Recommendations. cutting or chipping. gas supply. and manual with argon gas protection. paint and other foreign bodies that could produce defects in the weld. with a filler rod in the aforesaid alloy and torch having non fusible tungsten electrode. in any event. Any defects in the structure resulting from the removal of temporary attachments are to be prepared. etc. the individual shipyards are to be authorized by RINA for the use of welding procedures using welders authorized by RINA. such as stainless steel wire brushes. is to be ensured. the adoption of procedures is subject to approval in advance by RINA. the welding is to be carried out in weather protected conditions. caulking. methods of tack welding and back chipping are to be appropriate to the type of joint and to the weld position and are to satisfy RINA requirements stipulated for the use of the procedure adopted. grease. such parts are to be dry. right edges. vertical.) c) welding conditions: cleaning methods of the edges to be welded. Welding procedures and filler materials other than the 106 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3. these deviations shall be reported to the Head Office. in order to eliminate oxides. Sec 3 SECTION 3 WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS 1 1. Minor repairs are to be agreed with the attending Surveyor. e. the quality standard adopted by the shipyard is to be submitted to RINA and applies to all constructions. with continuous fusible wire in Al-Mg-G5 alloy. Deviations from the approved plans shall be discussed as first instance with the attending Surveyor. these are subject to the approval of the Head Office. In general. Such cleaning is to be carried out using suitable mechanical means. with manual welding process.2 Welding procedures for aluminium alloys 1.: IACS).2. in relation to the welding procedure used and to the position of the weld itself. etc d) special operating requirements for butt-welded joints. provision for repair following any arc interruptions e) type and extension of production checks.3 Access to and preparation of joints 1. The alignment of joints. front.1 Welded connections General requirements above will be individually considered by RINA for approval. plating: welding to start and end on heels outside joints. so as to ensure that the gas outflow from the nozzle is not disturbed by winds and draughts. welding position (flat.1 For fabrication by welding and qualification of welding procedures the requirements of Part D. In any case. cored or coated wires with gas shielding. efficiently 1. 1. etc. In particular. amperage. protection from atmospheric agents. Ch 3. structural misalignment and fit. corner. screening to prevent too rapid cooling to be provided.g. If not agreed with him. In case of cold weather. Ch 5 of these Rules apply and.

25 b=0-2 c=3-5 α = 50 . in such cases. Smaller angles up to 15 mm in thickness may be used with the greater distance to the top. The support may be used in horizontal position.70° (1) The caulking dimensions are identified by the following parameters: s = thickness of base material.4.25 b=0-3 c = 1.4 Design 2 2. Back chipping with intervals is to be effected. considered equivalent by RINA. in mm c = shoulder. the preparations of the edges indicated in Table 1 are recommended. butt connections of plating are to be full penetration.1 Type of connections Types of connections and preparations 1.3 α = 60 .67° TIG s≤2 Allowed especially for automatic welding. Ch 3. particular consideration is to be 2. Reverse support may be used.5 -2 b=0 -2 s = 5 .10 b=0-2 α = 60 .1 Butt welding General or specific techniques.1 For the various structural details typical of welded construction in shipbuilding and not dealt with in this Section.1 With MIG and TIG procedures.2. 1. Sec 3 welded and ground smooth so as to achieve a defect free repair.2 2. given to the overall arrangement and structural details of highly stressed parts of the hull. Connections different from the above may be accepted by RINA on a case by case basis. in mm α = caulking angle. s≤4 b=0-2 Welding on one side. 2. Table 1 : Preparations for the welding of aluminium alloys Preparation ofedges MIG s = 1. the relevant detail and workmanship specifications are to be approved. Semi-automatic processes may be back chipped at the top before the reverse runs. welded on both sides except where special procedures RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 107 .Pt B.90° s = 8 . s = 4 . are adopted.5 . in mm b = distance to the top.60° Caulking dimensions (1) Notes Welding on one side. In general. IACS standards and the rules of good practice are to apply as agreed by RINA.1.25 b=3-7 c = 2 -4 α = 40 . s = 12 .

the difference in height between the two members to be jointed.6 L amidships. • 4 mm. 2. the higher bar shall be lowered for a length of at least 50 x a. The distance between two consecutive slot welds is to be not greater than a value which is defined on a case by case basis taking into account: . the taper length may be reduced to 3 times the difference in gross thickness. 2. L-bar or bulb of different height When "a".2.4 Butt welding on permanent backing Butt welding on permanent backing.the structural arrangement below the connected plates. 108 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . When the a. is to be regular and without ragged edges or notches. which are normally only allowed for temporary repair. may be accepted where back welding is not feasible or in specific cases deemed acceptable by RINA. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness equal to or less than 10 mm.1.2. the edge of the thick plate shall be tapered. Sec 3.5 Plate misalignment in butt connections The misalignment m.2. 2. may however be accepted by RINA on a case by case basis.2. Ch 2. The type of bevel and the gap between the members to be assembled are to be such as to ensure a proper penetration of the weld on its backing and an adequate connection to the stiffener as required. to be carried out in general by mechanical means. For connections of plating parallel to the direction of main stresses. depending on the plate thickness. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate. bulbs and flat bars When lengths of longitudinals of the shell plating and strength deck within 0.m.2.e. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness greater than 10 mm a taper having a length of not less than 4 times the difference in gross thickness is to be adopted for connections of plating perpendicular to the direction of main stresses. between plates with the same gross thickness t is to be less than 0. The acceptable root gap is to be in accordance with the adopted welding procedure and relevant bevel preparation. and may not be completely filled by the weld. in order to avoid local stresses (30 x a if the bars to be connected are not primary members of the structure).the transverse spacing between adjacent slot weld lines . difference is more than 6mm. par. these are to be full penetration. The slope of the taper shall be in accordance with Pt B. 2. Local doublers. measured as shown in Fig 1. doublers and insert plates are to be made of materials of a quality at least equal to that of the plates on which they are welded.9 Insert plates (butt welding) Where thick insert plates are butt welded to thin plates. 2. When the difference in thickness is less than the above values.2.6 Section. are to be connected together by butt joints. 2.7 Butt joints between T-bar.Pt B.2. i. In any case.2. 2.2. Sec 3 2.2 Welding of plates with different thicknesses Figure 1 : Plate misalignment in butt connections In the case of welding of plates with a difference in gross thickness equal to or greater than: • 3 mm.15t. root gap 2. is less than 6mm. it may be accommodated in the weld transition between plates.the stresses acting in the connected plates . The cut of the joint edges. Slot welds are to be of appropriate shape (in general oval) and dimensions.8 Insert plates and doublers (slot welding) A local increase in plating thickness is generally to be achieved through insert plates. or elements in general subject to high stresses. The corners of insert plates are to be suitably radiused.3 Edge preparation. Ch 3. this difference may be built up by welding. without being greater than 3 mm. butt welding assembly of two plates backed by the flange or the face plate of a stiffener.

is in general not allowed except in individual cases.1 Continuous fillet welding is always to be adopted: • for watertight connections. these welds are to be made flush in way of the contact point. Welding on scalloped edges. • at the ends of connections for a length of at least 75mm. however. • for structure members to plating in way of end connections and scallops. foundations and other highly stressed area.C. is to be less than t/2. • round lap connections and at the ends of brackets. • for structures in way of stabilizers.4. pitch. the equivalent of D.4. D.1 Fillet welding of T type joints.C.). and of 4 mm for thicknesses exceeding 6 mm. b) intermittent welding of type A or C. Scallops are to be of such size. and in such a position. RINA may require lower misalignment to be adopted for cruciform connections subjected to high stresses. for individual cases. to be specially considered by RINA.5 Scantling of welds 2. b) intermittent fillet welding as staggered welding (A) or chain welding (C) with length d and spacing p.3 Fillet welding types 2.4 Continuous fillet welding 2.4.3 Misalignment in cruciform connections The misalignment m in cruciform connections. for butt welds in webs of stiffening members. b). a scallop is to be arranged in the web of the stiffening member.C. a) or type b (D.C. Sec 3 2.5. Ch 3. As an alternative to intermittent welding of type A or C. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 109 . in general. thruster. in Table 2.3. as an alternative to intermittent welding. the following are shown: a) continuous welding with double type a bead (D. measured on the median lines as shown in Fig 4.Pt B. 2. and side of the bead is the Where stiffening members are attached by continuous fillet welds and cross completely finished butt welds. and for which the following is required: weld bead of type a. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate. may be used with.2 Fillet welding crossing butt welding 2. tooth length not less than 90 mm and such that the combination of the length.1 For T-joints with straight edges. Figure 2 : Intermittent staggered welding A 2. with type a bead and spacing p. a minimum side of 3 mm for thicknesses not greater than 6mm. Similarly. on continuous edges. notch length equal to 150 mm. the scantling of the bead is given. that a satisfactory weld can be made at the edges without in notching the butt weld of the plate. lugs and scallops. or cross joints with straight edges may be of the following types (see also Table 3): a) continuous fillet welding (double continuous bead. the butt weld is to be completed and generally made flush with the stiffening member before the fillet weld is made. Otherwise. Figure 4 : Misalignment in butt connections Figure 3 : Intermittent chain welding (C) 2. Continuous fillet welding may also be adopted in lieu of intermittent welding wherever deemed suitable. as a function of the thickness of the T web. The scantling of the welds for hull structures is given in Table 3 in which.

Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 3

equivalent of the Rule scantling of the intermittent welding shown in Table 3. Scalloped welding is not allowed at the ends of beams, in way of parts subject to concentrated loads, and in structures subject to noticeable vibrations, and it may also be unacceptable in other individual cases, at RINA's discretion, both in relation to types and levels of stress in the structures and to the test results for authorization of the procedures to be followed.

2.6

Strength of welding

2.6.1 The effective length, in mm, of the fillet welding is given by:
d e = d – 20

where d is the actual length, in mm, of the fillet welding.

Table 2 : Leg and throat of fillet beads
Thickness of the structural member mm 3 4,5 4,5 6 6,5 8 8 10 10,5 12 12,5 14 14,5 16 16,5 18 18,5 20 20,5 22 22,5 24 24,5 26 (1)
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

Type a bead Leg (1) mm 3,5(3) 5(4,5) 6(5) 7(6) 8(7) 8,5 9 10 11 12 13 14 Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 2,5(2) 3,5(3) 3,5(3,5) 5(4) 5,5(5) 6 6,5 7 7,5 8,5 9 10 Leg (1) mm 3 4 4 5 6 6,5 7 8 9 10 11 12

Type b bead Corresponding throat (approximate) (1) mm 2 3 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 6,5 6,5 7 7,5 8,5

Where D.C. a welding is required, the value indicated in the corresponding brackets may be taken

Figure 5 : Beads dimensions

throat thickness

leg leg

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Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 3

Table 3 : Scantlings of welds
Member 1 - Trasverse type structure
Floors to:

Weld

-

shell plating top of double bottom centre girder side girder

C140 within 0,25 L AV; A280 inside after peak; A340 elsewhere
C150 inside engine; A340 elsewhere C150 inside engine; A340 elsewhere C280 D.C. b

Watertight floors Centre girder to:

-

keel top of double bottom

D.C. b where watertight: C120 elsewhere D.C. b where watertight: C150 inside engine; C180 elsewhere

Side girder to: shell plating top of double bottom A300
C150 inside engine; A340 elsewhere D.C. b D.C. b inside after peak for 2-propeller hulls; A240 inside peaks and tanks; A340 elsewhere A300 inside tanks; A340 elsewhere

Watertight girder and double bottom margin Frames of shell plating Beams to deck plating

2. Longitudinal type stucture
Bottom longitudinals to shell plating Side and deck longitudinals to relevant plating Top longitudinals of double bottom Web to face plate of composed ordinary longitudinals Reinforced floors, frames and beams having face plate area ≤20cm2: C140 within L from the bow: A280 elsewhere

A300 A300 A340; at the ends (1) D.C. b

-

to plating to face plate

A240; at the ends C150 A360; at the ends A240

3. Foundations of main engines and thrust shaft: Girders to shell plating Girders to bed plates Girder to top of double bottom Floors to girder, to top of double bottom and to bed plates

C130 D.C. a

D.C. a

4. Subdivision bulkheads Plating to borders Stiffeners to plating
5. Tank bulkheads Plating to borders Ordinary stiffeners to plating

D.C. b A340; C150 at the ends, if not squared

D.C. on bottom; D.C. b elsewhere A300

Reinforced beams having span between 3 and 5 m and face plate area ≤20 cm2: to plating to face plate C120 at the ends; C180 elsewhere C150 at the ends; A240 elsewhere

(1) "End" means a length at each end, 15% the length of the gross span. (2) Where slots are adopted due to inaccessibility, they are generally to have: length = 75 mm; breadth = 3 ÷ 4% t, where t = thickness of plating;
pitch = 150 mm; weld leg length = t - 0,5 mm to be carried out on the outline of the slot; supporting plate with breadth 40 ÷ 60 mm and thickness 1,2 ÷ 1,5 t

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111

Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 3

Member 6. Not-watertight bulkheads
7. Rudder Plating to horizontal diaphragms and vertical diaphragms which do not constitute spindle

Weld see 4 above

A300 (2)

Ordinary stiffeners to vertical diaphragms constituting D.C. b spindle 8. Superstructures Boundary bulkheads to support deck and to upper deck Ordinary stiffeners to bulkheads For other parts see previous items
9. Pillars Tubular pillars to ends 10. Primary supporting members in general

D.C. b A340

D.C. b

(a=sectional area of the face plate or flange, incm2) a≤20 cm2 connection to plating connection to face plating C180 at the ends; A260 elsewhere C180 at the ends; A340 elsewhere

20<a≤65 cm2 connection to plating connection to face plating C160 at the ends; C o A220 elsewhere C160 at the ends; A260 elsewhere

(1) "End" means a length at each end, 15% the length of the gross span. (2) Where slots are adopted due to inaccessibility, they are generally to have: length = 75 mm; breadth = 3 ÷ 4% t, where t = thickness of plating;

pitch = 150 mm; weld leg length = t - 0,5 mm to be carried out on the outline of the slot; supporting plate with breadth 40 ÷ 60 mm and thickness 1,2 ÷ 1,5 t

3
3.1

End connections of ordinary stiffeners

Figure 7 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with collar plate

3.1.1 Where ordinary stiffeners are continuous through primary supporting members, they are to be connected to the web plating so as to ensure proper transmission of loads, e.g. by means of one of the connection details shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9. Connection details other than those shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9 may be considered by RINA on a case by case. Figure 6 : End connection of ordinary stiffener without collar plate Figure 8 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with one large collar plate

112

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Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 3

Figure 9 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with two large collar plates

4
4.1

End connections of primary supporting members
Bracketed end connections

4.1.1 Arm lengths of end brackets are to be equal, as far as practicable. As a general rule, the height of end brackets is to be not less than that of the primary supporting member. 4.1.2 The thickness of the end bracket web is generally to be not less than that of the primary supporting member web. In all the above connections, the radius of the all the scallops in the primary member around the stiffener shall be at least 20mm. The extension of the collar plate above the primary member shall be at least 3 t, where t is the thickness of the collar plate. 4.1.3 The scantlings of end brackets are generally to be such that the section modulus of the primary supporting member with end brackets is not less than that of the primary supporting member at mid-span. 4.1.4 The width, in mm, of the face plate of end brackets is to be not less than 50(Lb+1), where Lb is the length, in m, of the free edge of the end bracket. Moreover, the thickness of the face plate is to be not less than that of the bracket web. 4.1.5 Stiffening of end brackets is to be designed such that it provides adequate buckling web stability. As guidance, the following prescriptions may be applied: • where the length Lb is greater than 1,5 m, the web of the bracket is to be stiffened; • the sectional area, in cm2, of web stiffeners is to be not less than 16,5l, where l is the span, in m, of the stiffener; • tripping flat bars are to be fitted to prevent lateral buckling of web stiffeners. Where the width of the symmetrical face plate is greater than 400 mm, additional backing brackets are to be fitted.

3.2
3.2.1 Where ordinary stiffeners are cut at primary supporting members, brackets are to be fitted to ensure the structural continuity. The thickness of brackets is to be not less than that of ordinary stiffeners. Brackets with thickness, in mm, less than 15Lb, where Lb is the length, in m, of the free edge of the end bracket, are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate. The sectional area, in cm2, of the flanged edge or face plate is to be at least equal to 10Lb .

3.3 4.2
3.3.1 Where necessary, RINA may require backing brackets to be fitted, as shown in Fig 10, in order to improve the fatigue strength of the connection. Figure 10 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with backing bracket

Bracketless end connections

4.2.1 As a general rule, in the case of bracketless crossing between primary supporting members (see Fig 11), the thickness of the common part of the web is to be not less than the value obtained, in mm, from the following formula:
w t = 15 ,75 --Ω

where: w : w1 w2,MAX : :

the lesser of w1 and w2,MAX

gross section modulus, in cm3, of member 1 the greater value, in cm3, of the gross section moduli of members 2 and 3 Ω : Area, in cm2, of the common part of members 1, 2 and 3. In the absence of one of members 2 and 3 shown in Fig 11, the value of the relevant gross section modulus is to be taken equal to zero.

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113

where t is the web net thickness. Figure 11 : Bracketless end connections of primary supporting members Other arrangements may be accepted provided they are supported by direct calculations submitted to RINA for review.5 The cut-out is to be reinforced to one of the solutions shown in Fig.3 Openings may not be fitted in way of toes of end brackets.2. 5. is greater than 100t. their height is to be not greater than 20% of the web height.Pt B. the length of openings is to be not greater than 25% of the distance between adjacent openings. the depth of cut-outs is to be not greater than 50% of the depth of the primary supporting member. Figure 12 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . 5.1.1 Stiffening arrangement 6. the continuity of the face plates is to be ensured.1.1.4 Over half of the span of primary supporting members. Ch 3.2 In no case may the net thickness calculated according to [4.Solution 1 Member 2 Ω Member 1 Figure 13 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . in general. in mm. 12 to Fig. In general.2 Where openings such as lightening holes are cut in primary supporting members. Figure 14 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . the web stiffeners of primary supporting members are to be spaced not more than 110t.1 Cut-outs and holes 5. they are to be equidistant from the face plate and corners of cut-outs and.1 Webs of primary supporting members are generally to be stiffened where the height.2. of the primary supporting member. In general.1. 4.2. 114 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the length of openings is to be not greater than the distance between adjacent openings. 5.1] be less than the smallest web net thickness of the mem bers forming the crossing. 5.1.1.Solution 2 Member 3 5 5. Sec 3 4.3 In general. in mm. 14: • continuous face plate (solution 1): see Fig 12 • straight face plate (solution 2): see Fig 13 • compensation of the opening (solution 3): see Fig 14 • combination of the above solutions.1 Cut-outs for the passage of ordinary stiffeners are to be as small as possible and well rounded with smooth edges. At the ends of the span.Solution 3 (inserted plate) t t 6 6.

at the beginning of the work. in m.2 9. Figure 15 : Primary supporting member: web stiffener in way of ordinary stiffener 9.1.1 When rivets are used to connect materials of different types. to inspections suitable to check compliance with the applicable requirements.1. precautions are to be taken against electrolytic corrosion. It is recommended that the bracket toe should be designed as shown in Fig 15. 6.2. structures and welded connections are to be subjected.2 7.1 The hull.1.1. tripping brackets (see Fig 15) welded to the face plate may be fitted: • every fourth spacing of ordinary stiffeners.1 When riveted connections are employed.4. 7. backing brackets are to be fitted in way of the tripping brackets. require shear. etc. shown in Fig 15 st : Spacing. of tripping brackets. Ch 3.5 6.1 Tripping brackets with a net thickness. the arrangements are to be such as to enable inspection in service without the need to remove coverings.1 General 10.2]. where tripping brackets are spaced as specified in [6. workmanship. tensile and compression tests to be carried out on representative specimens of riveted connections. 10 Inspection and tests 10.3 6. the width of the primary supporting member face plate is to be not less than one tenth of the depth of the web.1 Corrosion protection where: b : Height. 9 9. of tripping brackets.1 As a general rule.3.1 Where a sealing product is used to ensure airtight or watertight integrity. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 115 .38b s d = 0 . The protection is to be compatible with any primer applied previously. Where the width of the symmetrical face plate is greater than 400 mm.Pt B. at its discretion.4 6.85b --t t 8.5. decks and other structures exposed to the marine environment are to be adequately protected against corrosion. during construction and after completion. RINA may.1 Riveted connections 7. mercury or copper are not to be used for applications on aluminium alloys.2. 9. 8 8.1 The protection is to have adequate thickness and is to be applied in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications.1 In general. 9. product information is to be submitted together with evidence of its previous successful use.1 Materials. less than 15Lb are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate.3 9. in m. 6. without exceeding 4 m • at the toe of end brackets • at rounded face plates • in way of cross ties • in way of concentrated loads. Paint and other protective coatings are to be suitable for the protection of the structures in relation to their position. in mm.2. 7 7. approved plans and standards. Sec 3 6.2 6. of tripping brackets t : Net thickness.1 Sealed connections 6. in mm.1 The arm length of tripping brackets is to be not less than the greater of the following values. in m: d = 0 .1 Paint containing lead. Whenever possible. the mechanical properties of the rivets are to be indicated on the plans.3.

The results of nde shall be recorded. 116 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . e) Checking of any repairs. transverse joints of bent stringer plates. b) Verification of compliance of use and application conditions of welding processes with those approved and ascertainment of the use of authorized welders. root beveling and execution of welding of the connections of structural parts (e.g. brackets. approved plans and normal good practice. procedures and sequences comply with RINA requirements. Ultrasonic testing is to be used for checking butt or cruciform connections in full penetration welding greater than 15mm. the surface of finished weld are to be as far as practicable smooth and free from undercut. c) Visual examination of the preparation. the shipyard is to provide its own production control organization. those indicated in (a) to (e) below. crossing of butt-welded joints of panels or sheets of shell plating and strength deck.Pt B. Ultrasonic examinations may also be required by the Surveyor in specific cases to verify the quality of the base material. as a rule. 2 and of structures with approved plans. the attending Surveyor may ask for the extent of non-destructive examination. of an extension as deemed necessary by the Surveyor. Sec 3 Tests of welded connections by RINA Surveyors are. the building shipyard is responsible for seeing that working methods. Ch 3. In case of presence of defects. As a general rule. Unacceptable defects shall be completely removed. fillet welding of stiffeners. Irrespective of the extent of such tests. d) In addition to visual examination. etc. To this end. joints of inserts in way of openings.). a) Verification of compliance of basic materials with the requirements in Sec. X-ray examination of the welded joints.

72 for displacement yachts minimum yield stress of the material. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht.4 L amidships. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yacht and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in Chapter 3 are also intended for the purposes of the longitudinal strength of a yacht having length L not exceeding 45 m for monohull or 40 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size.2. 10-6 for planing yachts J = 18 . 10-6 for displacement yachts 1. Wp : section modulus at the bottom and the deck. respectively. 2 2. f At : : : total shear stress in kN defined in Chap.1. in m4.3 2. is to be not less than the value given by the following formulae: J = 16 .1 General f f σs : : : 0. of the transverse section. all the continuous members. 5 defined in 2 actual shear of the transverse section.1 To this end. provided that they extend for at least 0.1 The compressive value of normal stresses is not to exceed the value of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Article 5 of Sec. T ----t ⋅ 10 –3 ≤ f ⋅ σ s At where: Tt σs. in N/mm2.1 Shear stresses 2. calculation of the longitudinal strength is required.1. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 1 1. 2.1. MT .N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp 4 4.1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Chapters of these Rules.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wf MT 2 σ p = ----------------------.1 Calculation of the section modulus Wf.1. 2.Pt B. 5. σ p ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm 2 where: MT 2 σ f = ---------------------.80 for planing yachts 0. 4. Ch 3. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings. in m3 MT : design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap.1 Bending stresses 3 3. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival. plating and longitudinal stiffeners are generally to be included. MT . RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 117 . Therefore: σ f ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm 2 3. 1. 1.2.1 In the calculation of the modulus and inertia of the midship section.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values. in particular.3. 1. in m2. 1.2 2.1 The moment of inertia J of the midship section. Sec.2 1. Sec.

3 ⋅ ( 0. 5. in mm. in mm.1 s p K : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. in any event. in m. where h is the distance. Lesser heights and thicknesses may also be acceptable if a centre girder is placed in connection with the solid keel.7.1 The height and thickness of the keel.2 Solid keel 2.1 Definitions and symbols The thickness of the bottom plating and the bilge is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2.1 Bottom and bilge 3. The thickness of the plating of the bilge is. Sec 5 SECTION 5 PLATING 1 1. equal to the thickness of the bottom increased by 50%.1.10. 05 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. 5 ⋅ L + 100 t C H = ( 0. scantling pressure.1 The keel plating is to have a length bCH. 118 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . 5 h S Lesser heights and thicknesses may be accepted provided that the effective area of the section is not less than that of the Rule section.1 Keel k2 Sheet steel keel 2. measured perpendicularly from the chord s to the highest point of the arc of plating between the two supports (see Figure 1). in mm. 5 where: k1 : 0. 35 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. in kN/m . Sec. 5 3 3. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side. The garboard strakes connected to the keel are each to have a width not less than 750 mm and a thickness not less than that of the bottom plating increased by 10%.15. assuming p=p1 : 0. in m. Ch 3. 5 1.2.Pt B. calculated with the following equations: h CH = 1. and. not less than the value te given by: t e = 1. given in Chap. throughout the length of the yacht. are to be not less than the values hCH and tCH.1. factor defined in Sec. in mm. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K) 0. assuming p=p2. 1. throughout the length of the yacht. in mm. in any event. Sheet steel of plating connected to the stem or to the sternpost or in way of the propeller shaft struts is to have a thickness. : curvature correction factor given by 1-h/s to be taken not less than 0. 2 of this Chapter. 5 ⋅ L + 600 and a thickness not less than that of the adjacent bottom plating increased by 2 mm.1. Figure 1 2 2. 2 t 2 = 11 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0. not less than the value obtained by the following equation: b CH = 4. ka : coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1 below where S is the is the greater dimension of the plating. 2.1 Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge.

1.5 19. in mm. 4. in way of the stem.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects.8 2. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. k2 and ka are as defined in 3.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area.3 6. Sec 5 Table 1 S/s 1 1.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located. the thickness is to be increased sufficiently as necessary in order to compensate such openings.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 2 mm.2. The thickness is to be not less than 1. or for the side. in mm.4 1.2. for the part below the waterline. Ch 3. 5 7. In any event. In the case of sidescuttles or windows or other openings arranged on the sheerstrake plate.25 that of the adjacent plating but no greater than that of the keel. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K) t 2 = 10 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0. 5. etc.1 22. the thickness of the sheerstrake is to be adequately increased. stabilisers. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners. propeller shaft struts.0 >2 Ka 17. anchor recesses. 5 0.6 1.3.1 Local stiffeners 7.3.1 Side 7.1 The thickness is to be taken. for the part above the waterline.1.1 The thickness of the transom is to be no less than that required for the bottom. such openings are to be located well clear of welded connections.2 5 5. where k1.1 Sheerstrake 6. a sheerstrake plate of height h.6 22. no less than that of the side plating. 7.3 22.1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements. 8 8. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 119 . Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings. generally by at least 50%.1 In the yachts having L> 50 m. the stiffener spacing s being equal.4 6 6.1.2.1.2 5.1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 e t2. rudder horn or trunk. not less than 0.2 6. the thickness of the transom will be the subject of special consideration. but not less than 6 mm. 7 7.1. 8. 6. In way of the ends of the bridge.1.6 20.1 Openings in the shell plating 6. as far as possible. 4 4. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is reduced so that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated.9 21.3 7.Pt B.025 L and thickness not less than the greater of the values of the plating of the side and the stringer plate is to be fitted.1 Cross Deck bottom plating 5. In the event of water-jet drive systems.2 1. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required.

sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors.2. ZM = k 1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b S : defined in 3. in kN/m 2.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends. the rudder and the ballast keel. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%.2. Where they are to be interrupted in way of a transverse watertight bulkhead. 1.5 Floors are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced beams on the weather deck.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. in m. In the case of a keel with a dead rise edge ≤12° but > 8° the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides. in m.2 Floors 1. 1. given in Chap. : half the distance. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor.1 Definitions and symbols 1. additional floors are to be fitted with sufficiently increased scantlings.1 Longitudinal type structure Bottom longitudinals 3. 1.2 Longitudinal structure 1. in cm2.1.2. 3. or by the sides of the hull.3. be reduced by 40%.Pt B. equal to the distance between floors. girders.2.3. the latter are to be fitted as a continuation of the existing girders outside the engine room.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stringers is to be not less than the value Z.1. 1.4 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. Sec 6 SECTION 6 SINGLE BOTTOM 1 1.2.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. in m. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. 1.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders.3. in cm3.1 General 2 2. 1. 2. The bottom longitudinal stringers are preferably to be continual through the transverse members.1. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. 3 3. supported by floors. keel with a dead rise edge > 12°). 1.3. : scantling pressure. between the two supporting members (sides.1 s p K : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. calculated with the following formula. the rudder horn and the ballast keel.6 assuming p=p1 : 0. 120 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Ch 3.1 The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally. the modulus ZM may. between the two floors adjacent to that concerned : conventional floor span equal to the distance.3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : 1. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. 1.1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM.3 Transverse structure 3.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders.7 assuming p=p2 : conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener. The floors may be supported by girders. 1. brackets are to be provided at the ends.3 In way of the propeller shaft struts. : coefficient defined in Sec 2 of this Chapter. 1. in m.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. which in turn may be supported by transverse bulkheads.1. however.

between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder : distance between the floors. sides).1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC. : half the distance. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. Side girders where: k1 bPC : : : 2. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional girder span equal to the distance. in m.1 Girders Centre girder 4 4.1. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 4.1. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPL : : defined in 3. equal to the distance. in m. floors). The face plate of the girders may be gradually reduced to reach the dimensions of that of the transom stiffeners. floors).1 Constructional details where: k1 b’PL : defined in 3. in m. floors).43 assuming p=p2. 4. Ch 3. in m.1 Transverse type structures Ordinary floors When the girder forms a support for the floor. in cm3. : half the distance. where: k1 S : : defined in 3.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2in the absence of side girders : distance between the floors. of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders. : half the distance. in cm 3. in m.1. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPC : defined in 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders conventional span of the centre girder.3 3. S S : Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors.3 Side girders where: k1 bPL : defined in 3. in cm3. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. in cm 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : defined in 3. in m. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. S RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 121 . the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL.3. in cm 3.1.2 S : When the side girder forms a support for the floor. in m.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC. in m.1 half the distance. between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads. Sec 6 3. : half the distance.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z. in cm3. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance. in cm3.2 Centre girder Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors.1. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 5 5. S 3.32 assuming p=p1 1.Pt B. in m.3.3. half the distance. in m. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance. 5.1.2. S 4. floors). the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC.1 conventional span in m. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. in m.

10. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom. On yachts of L > 76 m the double bottom is to extend.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead in the machinery space or as near thereto as practicable. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally.1. forward to the collision bulkhead and aft to the after peak bulkhead.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and.1. 4 4. 2.Pt B. When manholes with greater height are fitted. 3 3. in mm. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom.1 Centre girder 4. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted. in mm: t pc = 1. in mm.9 t1 at the ends.1. obtained from the following formula: h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 ) The height of the double bottom is in any event to be not less than 700 mm. Sec 7 SECTION 7 DOUBLE BOTTOM 1 1.1. or in floors and side girders below pillars. the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0. side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors. in m.1. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes. 04 L + 5s + 1 )k where: s : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners. For yacht less than 50 m in length RINA may accept reduced height. 122 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . The double bottom is to extend transversally to the side so as to protect the bottom in the bilge area. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. 1.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1.4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0. side girders need not be fitted.1 Inner bottom plating 3. throughout the length of the hull. as far as this is practicable. The thickness of the centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc.1 Minimum height 1. supported by floors. throughout the length of the yacht. 1. in way of the centre girder. as possible.1. the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged.1 General 2 2. is to be not less than the value hDF.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m. tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities. 1. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. as possible.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom. For yachts of length L > 50 m. Ch 3.3 The dimensions of the double bottom. except in special cases at the discretion of RINA.1. is requested for yachts of L > 50 m.1 Side girders 5. and in particular the height. On yachts of L > 61 m a double bottom is to be fitted outside the machinery space extending.1 A centre girder is to be fitted. 4 ( 008h df + 2 ) 5 5. calculated with the following formula: t 1 = 1. the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec. the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. In floors and in side girders.1.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom. 4 ( 0. are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance. For yachts of length L < 50 m. as far as possible. manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually.

1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines. 7 7. The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are. the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom.1 Bilge keel Arrangement. Ch 3. bilge keels may not be welded directly on the shell plating.1 Bracket floors 5. vertical stiffeners are to be arranged.1 Arrangement Where installed.68 assuming p=p2 frame span. the frame and reverse frame section moduli are to be no less than those required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec. 8. bracket floors consisting of a frame connected to the bottom plating and a reverse frame connected to the inner bottom plating are to be arranged and attached to the centre girder and the margin plate by means of flanged brackets with a width of flange not less than 1/10 of the double bottom depth. scantlings and connections 9. as a rule. in close proximity to girders and floors. in m. does not exceed 3 m. In any event.1 Floors 6.1.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 123 . Sec 7 A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them. The ends of the intermediate flat are to be sniped at an angle of 15°.2 6. 10 for tank bulkheads.Pt B.1. is required on the shell plating. 6 6. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. 10. to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength.1 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec. • under buklheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals. The arrangement shown in Fig 1 is recommended. The reverse frame section modulus is to be not less than 85% of the frame section modulus. 6. is to be not less than: Zc = k 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ p ⋅ K 2 where: k1 S : : : 1. They are to be located in way of a transverse bilge stiffener. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines. 5 8 8. 008h df + 0.1 The thickness of floors tm. in cm3.6 assuming p=p1 0.2.2 5. Where this is not possible. or doubler.1 At each frame between solid floors. 10. 6. solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. equal to the distance between the mid-spans of the brackets connecting the frame/reverse frame.2. or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side.1. The ends of the bilge keel are to be sniped at an angle of 15° or rounded with large radius.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec. as far as practicable. transverse brackets are to be fitted. The frame section modulus Zc. is to be not less than the following value: t m = 0. An intermediate flat. they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. 7. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged. in mm. 9 9.1.

2. 124 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . respectively. The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush in way of crossing.1 The intermediate flat.1.1. is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds. 9. However. this thickness may generally not be greater than 15 mm. with the doubler and with the bilge keel. 9.2 Bilge keel connection The bilge keel and the intermediate flat are to be made of the same alloy as that of the bilge strake.2 Materials 9.3 Scantlings 9. Sec 7 Figure 1 : Bilge keel arrangement Figure 2 : Bilge keel arrangement The arragement shown in figure 2 may also be accepted. The net thickness of the intermediate flat is to be equal to that of the bilge strake. The butt welds of the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell butts.Pt B. through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell. Ch 3.

3. conventional span. spacing between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned.86 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners. equal to the distance between the supporting members. s KCR : 1 assuming p=p1 0.1. Chap. which may be supported by reinforced stringers.1. : scantling pressure.2 Longitudinal stiffeners 1. : : 3 3. defined in 4.2. in m. in cm3. defined in Part B. which may be of longitudinal or transverse type.86 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners. in sailing yachts.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of the reinforcement structures of the side.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ where: k1 : : KCR : The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them.92 for reinforced stringers which support ordinary vertical stiffeners (frames).1 General 3. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 125 . 0.2. generally spaced not more than 2 m apart. Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel. Sec 8 SECTION 8 SIDE STRUCTURES 1 1.27 assuming p=p1 : 1 assuming p=p2 S : conventional frame span. or reinforced stringers. or by transverse bulkheads.2 Reinforced stringers where: k1 : 1.1 Ordinary stiffeners Transverse frames S : 3. 0.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z.1 s p K Definitions and symbols 4. in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck. in kN/m2. equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame. by flats or by the bottom structures. in m. 5 . Sec. Ch 3.1. in m. in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4.1 Reinforced beams Reinforced frames 2 2.6 assuming p=p1 0. by decks. 4 4.7 assuming p=p2 1.1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: : k1 : S : 1. 2 of this Chapter. in general made up of a beam and a floor. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames. in cm3.1 2. in m.7 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. 4.1. : factor defined in Sec. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames). 1.92 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners. equal to the distance between the supporting members.Pt B.1 1.

equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer. The length of overlap is to be not less than the depth of frames. 5. following scantlings may be followed: 6. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: w = w2 w = w1 if if w2 ≤ w1 w2 > w1 w1 where w1 and w2 are the required net section moduli of stiffeners.3] and [6.1 End connections of frames are to be bracketed. Figure 2 : Connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes d w2 t : theoritical bracket actual bracket d 6.1.1. 5. Ch 3. bracket net thickness.5 D in the absence of other reinforced stringers or decks.1. in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames. from the following formula: w + 30 d = ϕ ---------------t where: ϕ : coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: ϕ = 48 • for flanged brackets: ϕ = 43.5 w : required net section modulus of the stiffener.1 6. w’1 and w 2 are the required net section moduli of stiffeners.1. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: • for bracket “A”: wA = w1 wA = w2 if if w2 ≤ w 1 w2 > w 1 S : 5 5. Figure 1 : Connections of perpendicular stiffeners in the same plane w2 6 Scantling of brackets of frame connections d 6. a bracket may be required to be fitted at bottom. Sec 8 s : spacing between the reinforced stringers or 0. 6. for yachts of length greater than 50m. as shown in Fig 1 and Fig 2. given in [6.3.1 As a general rule.4 For connections of frames to deck beams (see Fig 3).3 Brackets are normally connected to frames by lap welds. 126 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .2 'Tweendeck frames are to be bracketed at the top and welded or bracketed at the bottom to the deck.1.1 Frame connections General • for bracket “B”: wB = w’1 need not be greater than w1 5.3] and depending on the type of connection.1. as shown in Fig 3. in cm 3. conventional span.1. in m.3 For connections of perpendicular stiffeners located in the same plane (see Fig 1) or connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes (see Fig 2). where w1 . in mm. In the case of bulb profiles. in mm.Pt B.2 Upper brackets of frames w1 d The arm length of upper brackets connecting frames to deck beams is to be not less than the value obtained.1.

2. where Lb is the length. in mm. of the flange or the face plate is to be not less than 10Lb.2 Lower brackets of frames w : : t 6.3 Where the bracket thickness. frames are to be bracketed to the inner bottom or to the face plate of floors as shown in Fig 4.2. in cm3. is less than 15Lb . 6.Pt B.2 The arm lengths d1 and d2 of lower brackets of frames are to be not less than the value obtained. the free edge of the bracket is to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate.2. in mm. 1.5 h RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 127 . Sec 8 Figure 3 : Connections of frames to deck beams Figure 4 : Lower brackets of main frames w'1 d2 h h'1 dB dB h'1 B w2 2h 75 75 A d1 dA 6. Bracket net thickness. in cm2. Ch 3. of the bracket free edge. The sectional area. in mm.1 In general. in m. coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: ϕ = 50 • for flanged brackets: ϕ = 45 required net section modulus of the frame. from the following formula: dA w + 30 d = ϕ ---------------t w1 where: ϕ : 6.

1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. not less than 0. 1. Sec 9 SECTION 9 DECKS 1 1.1 General 3. 5 4.3. beams or longitudinal stringers.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z. the value of which is given in Part B. in m.1 pdc : calculation deck. in cm3. spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent : conventional span of the reinforced beam. 5 Where the deck is a tank top.1. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse.025 L and thickness t.2. Ch 3. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A. in any event.Pt B.2. not less than the value given by the formula: t = 3. open section pillars are to be fitted. 2. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements. extending for at least 0. where: 128 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . in mm.1.56 for beams. 045λ The stringer plate of increased thickness may be waived if the thickness adopted for the deck is greater than Rule thickness. in theory. meaning the first deck above the full load waterline. calculated with the following equation: Z = 9⋅b⋅S ⋅K⋅h 2 where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam.1.1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z.2 Lower decks 1.1 Deck plating Weather deck S 3. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts. it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht. which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads. in m. 3. given by the formula: 1. 4 4.44 for weather deck longitudinals : 0. in m. in general. In tanks intended for liquid cargoes. Chap. other reinforced beams.1. 2 of this Chapter.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. in m. supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams. 5 4. 3 3. a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base.1 Stiffening and support structures for decks Ordinary stiffeners 2 2. in cm3. 6Q A = -------------------------------------12 . considering that said deck is also a strength deck. calculated with the following formula: t = 2. plating and reinforcing or supporting structures. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. 5 ⋅ C 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h 2 where: C1 : 1. to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec.1 This Section lays down the criteria and formulae for the scantlings of decks.1 Definitions and symbols 4. bulkheads). is to be not less than the value t. the thickness of the deck is. equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars. Sec.1 The thickness of decks below the weather deck intended for accommodation spaces is to be not less than the value calculated with the formula: t = 1. 5 – 0.3 Pillars In the yachts having L > 50 m a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b. in cm2. scantling height. calculated with the following equation: Z = 7. factor defined in Sec. 5.10 for tank bulkhead plating. in mm. in m. to be made of tubes.63 for lower deck longitudinals : 0.1 Pillars are. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. 4.6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side. laid transversally or longitudinally.2 Reinforced beams s h K : : : 4.

4. Ch 3.5 times the net thickness of the pillar. calculated with the following formula: Q = 6. partial floors or girders or equivalent structures suitable to support the pillars are to be arranged.1. h : scantling height.3. insert plates so that the loads are well distributed.Pt B. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 129 . Where pillars connected to the inner bottom are not located in way of intersections of floors and girders. except in the case of pillars which may also work under tension such as those in tanks. in kN. in m2. Sec 9 Q : load resting on the pillar. In general.2 Pillar connections Heads and heels of pillars are to be attached to the surrounding structure by means of brackets. the net thickness of doubling plates is to be not less than 1. 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h Insert plates may be replaced by doubling plates. defined in 2. Pillars are to be attached at their heads and heels by continuous welding. Pillars are to be connected to the inner bottom at the intersection of girders and floors. where: A : area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar.1. λ : the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section.

1 s S : : spacing between the stiffeners.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are.Pt B.6 4. 130 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . 1. where: C1 b h : 11. in m conventional span. Sec.2 Reinforced beams 2 2. whichever is the greater.1 Symbols 4. in m. h0 K : : 3 3. 1. In order to contain fuel oil with a flashpoint ≤ 55° C. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1. Sec.1. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections.1.1.1. fuel oil or lube oil). 5. in general. Tanks.63 1 hS. as defined in Chap. in cm 3.1 Plating Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 3. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks.5 h (m) hB hB ho 1. Table 2 Bulkhead Collision bulkhead h (m) hS hS ho c 0.1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4. or to the overflow pipe.78 0.1 The structural continuity of the bulkhead vertical and horizontal primary supporting members with the surrounding supporting structures is to be carefully ensured. Sec. in cm3. "Tanks" means the structural tanks that are part of the hull and intended to contain liquids (water.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 k1 5. complete with all pipe connections. Chap. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4.15 bar may be accepted as an alternative.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. Ch 3. calculated with the following formula: Z = C1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 2. 5. At the discretion of RINA.4 for watertight bulkheads : 19 for deep tank bulkheads : width. 2. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B. in m. 2. between the members that support the stiffener concerned as defined in Part B.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.1. the use of independent metal tanks is required as stated in Chapter 1 of Part B.1 General arrangement The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Table 1. provided that it is possible. 5 as defined in Chap.2. 5 5 5. leak testing with an air pressure of 0. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h.9 5. 4. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener : scantling height indicated in Table 2. equal to the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z = 14 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Table 2. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( h ⋅ K ) 0.

Sec 10 5. 6.2 5.Pt B.75 m.1 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • 0.2. 6.1 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • two frame spacings.1.75 m.2 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 6 6. Ch 3. for transverse bulkheads • two frame spacings.9 m. • one frame spacing. cross-bars are to be provided to support the interrupted stiffeners.2. with a maximum of 1. when the frame spacing does not exceed 0.5 m. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 131 . reinforced stiffeners are to be fitted on each side of the door and suitably overlapped.1 Where vertical stiffeners are cut in way of watertight doors. when the frame spacing is greater than 0. for longitudinal bulkheads.1 Non-tight bulkheads Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars 6.

in m. 2 : conventional scantling height. 132 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Ch 3. 2. Sec. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above.0 tier front s. 3.1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht.1. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. in mm. the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above. 4. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec. 2.1. between the supporting members : as defined in 2. 2. in m. 9.1. in cm3. [4.1 General 3 3.1.2 Stiffeners K : In any event.3.1 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t.1. 4. Type of bulkhead 1 st nd h (m) 1. calculated with the following formula: t = 3.5]. h 2 tier front Other bulkheads wherever situated Reinforced beams (beams. 1. in m : factor defined in Chap. Sec. and so on. in m.1 The section modulus Z. 9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( K ⋅ h ) 0. the value of which is is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. factor defined in Chap.1 The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. in m. Sec. 4 4. equal to the distance.1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. in cm3. 3. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 6. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned. calculated with the following formula: Z = 6. 5 where: s K h : spacing of the stiffeners. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht. 2 : spacing of the stiffeners. 2.1 Superstructure decks Plating 2 2. in m. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 Table 1 where: S : conventional span of the stiffener. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 where: h K s S : conventional scantling height. in m conventional scantling height. Table 2.2. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA. Sec.1. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1.Pt B. in m : span of the stiffeners. see Ch 1. equal to the distance. 9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( K ⋅ h ) 0. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below.1 Boundary bulkhead plating 4.1 Stiffeners 1. s h : : spacing between the stiffeners. Sec 1.5 1. defined in 2. 5 2. in mm. defined in 2 : factor defined in Chap. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Chap.0 1.

Part B Hull Chapter 4 REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 SECTION 12 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION AND QUALITY CONTROL LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH EXTERNAL PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES SCANTLINGS OF STRUCTURES WITH SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 133 .

.

with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine. In the case of glass reinforcements such thickness is given by: ⎠ ⎞ 1. reinforced plastic material with.1. for laminates with glass fibre reinforcements the value of GC is to be not less than 0.2 2. Sec 1. The reinforcements usually consist of glass fibres or other materials. in g/m 2. P/Q = content of reinforcement in the laminate. 0. excluding the surface coating of resin.3 2.1 3. in the opinion of RINA. in g/m2.2 g/cm3. encapsulated in the matrix (resin) to increase its resistance and rigidity. for laminates in glass fibre the most frequent maximum values of gc are the following.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. or moulded. 3.1 γr γv p q gc Symbols Single-skin laminate : : density of the resin.1 Definitions and symbols Premise Reinforcements : a composite material consisting mainly of two components. RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations. in mm. standard value 1. 2.34 for reinforcements in mat or cut filaments. on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength.Pt B. transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings prove adequate.56 g/cm3. Ch 1. : p/q = content of reinforcement in the layer. Ch 4. in general. structurally connected by the interposition of a core of light material.1. the shape of a flat or curved plate. reinforcements are made up of an inert resistant material matrix of thermosetting resin and of fibre reinforcements. 2. : total mass per area of reinforcements in the laminate. standard value for glass fibres 2. taking into account that reinforcements are to be "wet" by the resin matrix and compacted therein: 0. Sandwich laminate : 3 Plans. : mass per area of the reinforcement of a single layer. Multi-hulls or hulls with a greater length will be considered case by case. calculations and other information to be submitted 3. thickness of a single layer of the laminate. a matrix of thermosetting resin and of fibre reinforcements. 2. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections. In the examination of constructional plans. in gm2.1 Plans with the scantlings.1 Definitions Reinforced plastic : 2 2. 33 p -----------.– 1.5 for reinforcements in woven roving or cloth. par.1 Field of application Q Gc : : total mass per area of the laminate. : total mass per area of a single layer of the laminate. the layout and the major structures of the hull are to be submitted to RINA for examination sufficiently in advance of commencement of the laminating of the hull. material composed of two singleskin laminates. such as aramid or carbon type fibres. provided that structures with longitudinal. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1 1.30. P RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 135 . tF : Σti = total thickness of the laminate.1 Chapter 4 of Section B applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of composite materials and a length L not exceeding 60 m. 56 t i = 0. 36 gc ⎝ ⎛ p being expressed in kg/m2.1) ti : 2.3. produced as a laminate through moulding. in g/m 2. : density of the fibres.2. (See Pt B. whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections.1.

Attention is to be paid even to possible additional flag administartions requirements. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place. • structure of stern/side door and relevant closing appliances. of the reinforcement.5 σt 0. Ch 4.4 σ 0. Furthermore. the following plans are to be sent for examination in triplicate. Table 1 Allowable stresses 1 0.8 σt 0.5 σt 0.4 σ 0.6 σt 0.8 σt Member Keel. core bonding materials.9 σt 0.2 3. scantlings may be obtained by direct calculations carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chap. • lamination schedule. boundary conditions and loads to be used for direct calculations.1 As an alternative to those based on the formulae in this Chapter. Chapter 1 provides schematisations.1.5 Rt where Rt is the ultimate shear strength of the core material. In general. for constructions with an engine.4 σ 0. The scantlings of the various structures are to be such as to guarantee that stress levels do not exceed the allowable values stipulated in Table 1.1 In case a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation. The drawing list above is for guidance purposes only. for information only. floors. the percentage. • double bottom. 1 of these Rules. The values in column 1 are to be used for the load condition in still water. details of the process of sandwich construction and details of the materials used for granting reserve of buoyancy (and method of installation) shall be sent with the initial submission of plan and copy of this list shall be provided to the attending Surveyor. 136 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . In this case the shear stress in the core is to be no greater than 0.2. the lesser of the ultimate tensile strength and the ultimate compressive strength for sandwich type laminates. • Name and characteristics of high resistant paint. the drawings may not be sent for approval . 1. for documentation purposes. • support structure for crane with design loads.4 σt 0. in mass. • engine and auxiliary foundations. the same plan may be relative to one or more of the subjects indicated.Pt B. A list of all materials used in the construction including the commercial name and the relevant characteristic of each component such as gel coat. adhesive.8 σ 0. Sec 1 The plans are to indicate the scantlings and the minimum mechanical properties of the laminates as well as the percentage in mass of the reinforcement in the laminate. core material. • decks plan. which may cause differences in the constructions. resin. • the midship section and the transverse sections with the main dimensions of the construction shown and. lines plan.8 σ 0. but the Request of Survey for the vessel shall be submitted enclosed to a list of the drawings the Builder wants to refer to and copy of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. 8 σ 0. the minimum mechanical properties of the laminate are to be indicated. while those in column 2 apply to dynamic loads. core materials characteristics. In the case of reinforcements other than glass. the type of resin. σt(N/mm2): the ultimate tensile strength of the laminate. • longitudinal & trasversal section and relevant typical connections details.4 σt 0. bottom plating Side plating Deck plating Bottom longitudinals Side longitudinals Deck longitudinals Floors and girders Frames and reinforced side stringers Reinforced beams and deck girders Where an *INWATERSURVEY (In-water Survey) notation is assigned the following plans and information are to be submitted: • Details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets are to be verified with the craft afloat.1 Direct calculations 4. fibre reinforcement. in particular. the design speed and the design acceleration aCG. • watertight and subdivision bulkheads. the sandwich construction process and the type of structural adhesive utilized (if any). • construction of the bottom. • superstructures.9 σt 0.4 σt 2 0. 4 4.8 σt 0. 3. a copy of the following plan is to be submitted: general arrangement. • Details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat. capacity plan. 9 σt 0. When the Rules are amended. The above-mentioned plans are also to contain the relative lamination details. Note 1: σ(N/mm2): the ultimate bending strength for single-skin laminates. girders. the plans are to be submitted for new approval. Sec. fire retardant additives or resins. It's Builder responsability to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work.

however.2. Such spacing is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming. in any case. To ensure efficient load transmission.2.5/3. longitudinals or floors) which are not prefabricated are to be laid up layer by layer on the same plating before polymerization. the second refers to the internal skin Intended to refer to the thickness of the layers encapsulating the core The minimum values shown are required for laminates consisting of polyester resins and glass fibre reinforcements. 6. the core material of sandwich shall be tapered too and the length of this taper shall be at least twice the thickness of the core itself.2. the good practice and the past experiences shall be followed. bottom edges). RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 137 . The Surveyor may require for additional bonding reinforcement in case of lack of alignment and for increased end brackets. placed at a distance of not more than 2 m. a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors. 6. in case of connection between single skin and sandwich construction.2 Minimum thicknesses 5. on the basis of a criterion of equivalence and. particular attention is to be given to the bond and the structural continuity at the ends and intersection. if deemed of non sufficient dimensions. steps and similar in laminates. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht. in Table 2. transom/bulkhead to bottom/deck (transom stiffeners with bottom/deck girders and deck/bottom girders with bulkhead stiffeners).g: side to deck (frames with beams).Pt B. in any case. the thickness adopted is to be adequate in terms of buckling strength. 5. For laminates made using reinforcements of fibres other than glass (carbon and/or aramid. bottom plating Side plating Inner bottom plating Strength deck plating Lower deck plating Subdivision bulkhead plating Tank bulkhead plating Side superstructures Front superstructures Girders-floors Any stiffeners (1) (2) Single-skin laminate 5.5 4/3 4. be continuous under the primary member.5 5 5 4 3 2. 6 6.1 The thicknesses of the laminates of the various members calculated using the formulae in this Chapter are to be not less than the values. 5. as a general rule.5 3/2 2/2 2/2 4/3 2/2 2. For high speed hulls. to this end: • variations in laminate thickness are to be by a gradual taper from the greatest thickness to the smallest. every layer of reinforcement is to have its end staggered with respect to that of the adjacent layer.5 3 - Sandwich laminate (1) 4. particular care is to be given to the alignment of the structure and the fitting of suitable brackets e. In the intersections between longitudinal and transversal members.1 The following requirements refer to the details of construction and structural connections that are most frequently used.1 The construction process shall be in accordance with Sec 3. the shallower member shall.2 Details of construction 6. • in way of edges (e. there shall be a taper of at least 20 times the difference of thickness and.g.g. in general.2. in mm.5/3.5/2.1 General rules for design In such case. Table 2 Member Keel. 6.4 Discontinuities and hard points in the laminates are to be avoided and.3 The plating stiffeners (e.1 Construction General 6. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual. This thickness is.5 4. 6. lower minimum thicknesses than those given in Table 2 may be accepted on the basis of the principle of equivalence.5 2. glass and aramid). Sec 1 5 5. Ch 4. For yachts with length L greater than 30 m.1. the single layers are not to be stopped but are to be led beyond the edges for at least 30 mm. Details of construction shall be represented in the structural plan. the continuity of the structural members is to be maintained and every change of section shall be gradual. to be submitted to head office for approval. In the design.1.2 As a general concept.1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull.2. Other solutions will be considered by RINA in individual cases.5 2/2 2 (2) The first value refers to the external skin. is required for the bottom.

8 Where the strength of a stiffener is impaired by any opening or holes for drainage. The edges of cut-outs for openings in sandwich laminates are to be closed with a stiffener of thickness not less than that of the external skin. Details to be sent for approval. plywood) fitted in the laminates (as insert or backing pad) for increasing the local strength in way of the attachment of fitting are to have clean and prepared surfaces so as to achieve a satisfactory bond and have beveled edges. woven rovings with a mass per area > 600 g/m2 are not to be superimposed directly. In any case. compensation is to be provided. with the openings supported on all sides. The edges of cut-outs for openings in single-skin laminates are to be well sealed. Ch 4. 6.5 times the adjacent thickness.11 The joints of the single layers of reinforcement of a laminate are to be overlap joints (see Figures 1. with the additional layers laminated beyond the extremities of the surrounding stiffeners. the depth of drainage holes in the stiffeners shall not exceed 30% of the depth of the stiffener and shall be positioned at the quarter span of the stiffener.9 The corners of all openings are to be well rounded. 6. Sec 1 6.10 Pipes and cables passing through spaces filled with expanded material are to be situated in plastic conduits so as to make removal and replacement easier. Figure 1 : Hull centreline structure Bottom Keel Figure 2 : Open type skeg Bottom Connection zone 138 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Single skin lamination in way of the attachments of fittings may be accepted provided that the local thickness is 1. 6. but are to be separated by the interpositioning of a mat.2. furthermore. the first layer of such laminate is to be applied with a mat of mass not exceeding 450 g/m2. In case of sandwich structures.2. 6. in general.5 In the laminates. Otherwise. 6. Openings on decks are to be supported by beams and deck girders arranged on the edges.2. The length of these openings shall be not greater than the depth of the web or 60% of the secondary member spacing. as a general rule. 6.g.2. Joints between successive layer are to be overlapped.2.2. If no epoxide resin is used for the lamination. Sandwich structures shall be taken to single skin structures in way of the attachment of fittings and suitably reinforced. the core in way of the fittings may be replaced with a solid or high density core always sealing the hull laminate.6 The structural materials (e. they are to be sealed with two layers of mat of 450 g/m2 or its equivalent.7 Where through hull fittings are provided. 2 and 3) and the joint of each layer is to be staggered with respect to the two adjacent layers. preferably with a mass per area of < 450 g/m2 so as to achieve a more effective bond.2.Pt B. openings into web's stiffeners are to have a depth not exceeding half of the depth of the web and are to be so located that the edges are not less than 25% of the web depth from the face laminate. Where they are exposed to liquids or to humid environments. particular care is to be taken to seal the hull laminate. backing pad of suitable dimensions are to be provided in order to avoid concentration of forces. whichever is greater.

Chine details are to be submitted for approval (enclosed to the drawing "typical Details"). Hull to deck connection Examples of watertight connection. If a surface is covered by gel coat.12 As far as the side shell and bottom shell connection concerns. Different solutions may be accepted. Ch 4. rivets or screws spaced at intervals such as not to affect the effectiveness of the joint. Chine rails are to be over laminated on the inner surface of the hull. a butt strap made of laminate having a thickness not less than half of the lesser of the two laminates.3. this is to be removed completely. a structural foam infill shall be provided between the side shell and the bottom shell along the chine line. with skeg filled up with foam.3 Figure 1: typycal for yachts fitted with skeg . on the internal side of the hull. the edges of the laminate and the holes are to be adequately sealed and bolt nuts are to remain securely fastened after tightening. a chine reinforcement shall always be provided. In any case. such as the stem in the zone of connection between the deck and the hull. 6. An adhesive of suitable type having sealing characteristic may be incorporated within the joint. 6. diaphragm plates with upper closing flange may be required. the edges of the laminate and the holes are to be adequately sealed. The connection is obtained interposing. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 139 . Figure 2: open skeg If a deeper open skeg is provided.2 Butt-joints Butt joints are to be carried out as shown in Figure 4. a compliant resin (or similar sealing adhesive product) and a mat on resin and overlapping the joint itself.g. The head and the nut of the bolts and the riveting of rivets are to be against a thin washers of large diameter. Where a skeg is not fitted. a bolt connection may be adopted.3.3 Connections of laminates 6. generally using steel bolts or rivets having a diameter d not less than the lesser thickness of the laminates to be connected. between the contact areas of the laminates to be joined. Before proceeding with any connection the surfaces on which the layers are placed are to be cleaned thoroughly and then brushed with a wire brush in order to raise the fibres of the laminate as much as possible. they shall be returned to single skin laminates al chine rail. Laminates may be connected mechanically with corrosion resistant bolts. which is relevant to the joint of the keel of a prefabricated hull in halves. a centre line stiffener/girder is to be added. In any case. Figure 3: Typical transom boundaries. e.1 General Connections of laminates are to be made with joints that do not affect the strength and structural continuity of the laminates themselves.2.Pt B. Figure 5 6. below the bulwark. Thin washers of large diameter are to be used under both the head and the nut of the bolts. In narrow spaces. Sec 1 Figure 3 : Typical transom boundaries Figure 4 B / 10 min 6. spacing equal to 10 d and zigzag distribution. of overlap type. As an alternative to such a butt strap. In case of sandwich structures.3. dedicated holes are to be cut in order to reach the space to be laminated. An adhesive of suitable type having sealing characteristic may be incorporated within the joint. for the connection of an upper deck to a separately prefabricated hull side are shown in Figures 5 and 6.

The connection of the house to the deck is to be done avoiding stress concentration and providing an adequate load distribution 6.) or for boundary connections of bulkheads (see Figure 7). pillars or bulkheads in conjunction with reinforced deck beams.5 Corner joints Corner joints are normally used to connect stiffeners to plating (longitudinals. Sec 1 Figure 6 a) b) c) d) 6.4 House/Deck connection Adequate support under the ends of houses is to be provided in the form of webs. 140 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Ch 4.3.3.Pt B. internal mouldings etc. Figure 7 Seam accessible from one side only Pre-fabricated section The scantlings of such connections are to be as follows: • Ω shaped stiffeners: plate laminate connected to plating having a width not less than 50 mm (25 mm for the first layer) plus 20 mm for each: 1000 g/m2 of subsequent layers. frames.

For other tanks.4. Minimum thickness is to be not less than 10 mm. those that are part of the hull and intended to contain fuel oil or lube oil. but in any case no less than 2 mm.2 Where the tank is formed by plywood bulkheads. Mechanical tests are to be carried out on samples of the laminate "as is" shall be and after immersion in the fuel oil at ambient temperature for a week.1. the liquid contained cannot leak (from inside the stiffener) outside the tank.4. • thickness = 2 mm.Pt B. 6.e. 6. a flame-retardant or self-extinguishing polyester resin with a low deflection at high temperature may be accepted. Details of these resins are to be enclosed to the list required in par 3. complete with all pipe connections.1.4. Sandwich type laminates may be accepted subject to conditions laid down by RINA. Details of the compliant resins for structural filleting application to be used in the construction and the over bonding is to be submitted. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h. Where access is not possible from one side. and provided that. the thickness of the inner skin in contact with the liquid is not less than 10 mm and that internal diaphragms are arranged separating the tank from the rest of the hull.5 Tanks for liquids 6. Same arrangement in the upper connection between bulkhead and deck. or if greater.1).1. in any case. the minimum allowed thickness of single skin laminates is 4. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 141 .1 Engine exhaust discharge arrangements made of laminates are to be of the water injection type with a normal service temperature of approximately 70° C and a maximum temperature not exceeding 120° C. = 0. its surface is to be completely protected against the ingress of liquid by means of a layer of laminate of thickness of at least 4 mm. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections. 5. The tank is to be isolated from the rest of the hull by means of diaphragms made of laminates arranged inside all the (longitudinal and/or transverse) stiffeners such that. At the discretion of RINA. i. in the event of damage to the stiffener laminate.5. provided that it is possible. 6. Ch 4. 6. As a general rule. each having side and scantlings as above except where stiffeners are of plywood.1. 6. 6.15 bar may be accepted as an alternative. leak testing with an air pressure of 0.4.2 The resins used for the lamination are to be type approved and to have adequate resistance to heat and to chemical agents as well as a high deflection temperature. t being the thickness of the plywood.3 Additives or pigments which may impair the mechanical properties of the resin are not to be used. the exhaust ducts are to be internally coated with two layers of mat of 600 g/m 2 laminated with vinylester resin. in which case the angle bars are to have a thickness not less than 0. where tmin is the lesser thickness of the layers to be connected.5 tmin. the only angle bar fitted is to have scantlings equivalent to those of the two angle bars mentioned above.5mm.1 and general characteristic to be reported on relevant drawings. The edges of the samples are to be adequately sealed in order to prevent the infiltration of fuel oil inside the laminate. Furthermore. The samples shall be sealed the on all sides (with the hydrocarbons resistant resin or gealcoat as used in the construction) in order to have produce a good tests. as defined in Chap. The thickness of such angle bars. equal to 0. Characteristics of compliant resins to be enclosed to the list required in par 3.4 laminated with a flame-retardant or self-extinguishing polyester resin.5. The bulkheads to hull connections shall be realized by filling with compliant resin or similar filler the contact zone between hull (girders and/or floors) and the bulkhead.5. t being the thickness of the plywood.4 Engine exhaust 6. if greater. both resins being certified by the Manufacturer (details of these resins to be enclosed to the list required in par 3. 6. whichever is the greater.25 t. Sec.1 Structural tanks.25 t. Internal structure and laminate are to be coated with a resin resistant to hydrocarbons and externally with one which is self-extinguishing. or to the overflow pipe. • bulkheads: connections to the plating by means of two angle bars. is to be equal to 2 mm or. the core of the stiffeners above which the bulkheads are fitted is recommended to be of high density type in way of the bulkheads. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. 1. are to be made from single-skin laminates. in the case of plywood bulkheads.3 Tanks. After immersion the mechanical properties of the laminate are to be not less than 80% of the values of the samples "as is". Sec 1 • other stiffeners: two angle bars. one on each side and each having: • side = 50 mm for the first layer plus 40 mm for each 1000 g/m2 of the subsequent layers.

by mechanical preimpregnation.1 General Mat -woven Roving : and weft.0% if on the surface and 2.1. whether single-skin or sandwich (resins. provisions regarding the characteristics and test and quality control procedures for the manufacture of composite materials are also specified in Part D. or for surface coating (gel coat). The reinforcement contained in the laminate is not less than 30% by weight. The filaments may be cut to a pre-determined length or continuous. any structural parts in plywood are to be made with material type approved by RINA.).1. 90°) and in two oblique directions (+ 45°). The acceptance of structural fillets of compliant resins alone. and of glass fibre reinforcements in the form of mat alternated with woven roving. the name of the distribution per unit of length.1. stiffeners. are to be type approved by RINA. The products used in the production of the laminates.6. At the discretion of the latter. Reinforcement having fibres of two or more different types. Reinforcement made up of parallel fibres in the direction of filling and warp (0°. Ch 4. or by spraying. 1.1 Mat : Reinforcements made up of regularly distributed filaments on the flat with no particular orientation and held together by a bond so as to form a mat that can be rolled up. Due to their construction they have continuous filaments. Combined reinforcement made up of a layer of mat with cut filaments superimposed on a layer of woven roving by stitching or bonding. a sandwich laminate.2 The basic laminate considered in this Chapter is composed of an unsaturated resin. without over bonding lamination will be subject to special consideration after analysis 2 2. material type approved by other recognised Societies may be accepted. All of the materials making up the laminates are to have properties suitable for marine use in the opinion of the Manufacturer. Made from the weaving of roving. Compliant resins used in different structural applications are. Laminates having a different composition or special systems of lay-up will be considered by RINA on a case-by-case basis upon submission of technical documentation illustrating details of the procedure.5% if in the laminate. not less than those indicated in 3. the resin is to have an ultimate elongation of not less than 3. The construction may consist of a single-skin laminate. Woven rovings of different types exist and can be differentiated by: the type of roving used in warp Roving Woven Roving : : 142 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . The resins used are in general of the polyester. Resins are to have the capacity for "wetting" the fibres of the laminate and for bonding them in such a way that the laminate has suitable mechanical properties and. Hybrid : Unidirectional : Biaxial : Quadriaxial : 3 3. the water resistance of the external surface will be the subject of special consideration. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS 1 1. in general polyester. Resins may be for laminating.1 Materials of laminates Resins 3. form the matrix of laminates. the latter are to be compatible with the former. i. Chap 6 of these Rules. polyestervinylester or epoxide type. having mainly the purpose of protecting the laminate from external agents. In the case of a hull constructed with a sandwich laminate on a male mould. respectively in warp and weft. Made up of parallel filaments.1. in any case. to be used always in conjunction with over bonding lamination. in the case of glass fibre. cores. etc. Polyester-orthophthalic type gel coat resins are not permitted. Reinforcement made up of fibres that follow only one direction without interweaving.1 Resins used are to be of type approved by RINA for marine use. reinforcements. or a combination of both. without interweaving. Reinforcement made up of fibres that follow two directions (0°90°).1 Definitions and terminology 2.1 In addition to those in this Section. as a general rule.e. a typical example is that of glass fibre with aramid type fibre.Pt B. it is laid-up by hand. 1.

are to be added to the resin as a colored paste and are not to exceed the maximum amount (in general 5%) recommended by the Manufacturer.1. par 3. made up of layers of one material or using hybrid reinforcements. such properties are to be approved by the relevant Administration. The inert fillers are not to significantly alter the properties of the resin.1. The use of hybrid reinforcements obtained by coupling the above-mentioned fibres is also foreseen. these materials shall be used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the method used in the sandwich construction shall be forwarded for information purposes enclosed to the list required in Sec 1. Where fire-retarding or flame-retardant characteristics are required by the flag Administration. such that the laminates have the same mechanical properties required in the structural calculations and for "E" type glass. aramid type fibre and carbon type fibre. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 143 .3 Flame-retardant additives Where the laminate is required to have fire-retarding or flame-retardant characteristics. Reinforcements made of materials other than the preceding may be taken into consideration on a case-by-case basis by RINA. in resin matrices for the construction of structural laminates. par 3. The thixotropic fillers of the resins for surface coating are not to exceed 3% by weight of the resin itself. moisture and other defects and stored and handled in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.3 Core materials for sandwich laminates 3.1. roving.2 Reinforcements 3. in the same layer as "E" type glassfibres or carbon type fibres. and to this end a technical report is to be sent illustrating the processes to be followed and the materials (resins.6. Details of flame-retardant additives are to be enclosed in the list required in Sec 1.1. wax additives and colour pigments) are to be compatible with the resins and suitable for their curing process. Hybrid reinforcements. Such reinforcements can be used in the manufacture of hulls either alone or alternated with layers of mat or roving of "E" type glass.2 Resins additives Resin additives (catalysts. The reinforcement used and their characteristics are to be enclosed to the list required in Sec 1 par 3.3 Aramid type fibres Reinforcements in aramid type fibres are generally used in the form of roving or cloth of different weights (g/m2). with the procedure foreseen by the Manufacturer.1. 3.1. 3. having an alkali content of not more than 1%. in which the aramid type fibres are laid at the same time. i.1.2 Glass fibre The glass generally used for the manufacture of reinforcements is that called type "E". Details of the resins additives are to be enclosed in the list required in Sec 1.e. 3. used in the form of products suitable to be incorporated as reinforcements by themselves or together with other materials like glass fibres or aramid type fibres. Resins are to be used within the limits and following the instructions supplied by the Manufacturer. these not being less than those indicated in 3.Pt B. Such fillers are not to exceed 13% (including 3% of any thixotropic filler) by weight of the resins. In the latter case the laminates may be made in alternate layers. or by RINA when authorized by the former. The Manufacturer's recommendations for the level of catalyst and accelerator to be mixed into the resins are to be followed. foreign bodies. Reinforcements manufactured in "S" type glass may also be used.1. 3. they are to be used in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions. par 3. 3. 3.1 Core materials are to be of type approved by RINA. Sec 2 of test results submitted by the manufacturer demonstrating equivalent strength to over bonding laminates. etc. The color pigments are not to affect the polymerization process of the resin.3. accelerators. The reinforcements taken into consideration in these requirements are mainly of fibres of three types: glass fibre.4 Carbon-graphite fibres Carbon-graphite type fibres means those which are at present called "carbon" type. the manufacturing process is to be approved in advance by RINA.2. which will stipulate the conditions for their acceptance. details of the proposed arrangements are to be submitted for examination. expressed in Na2O. Structures can be obtained using reinforcements of one or more of the above-mentioned materials.1 General All fibre reinforcements are to be of type approved by RINA. made up of both mat and roving. and are to be carefully mixed distributed in the resin itself in such a way that the laminates have the minimum mechanical properties stated in these requirements. may also be used. 3. The results of tests performed by independent laboratories verifying the required characteristics are to be submitted.2. Where additives are adopted for this purpose. with particular regard to the viscosity. unidirectional woven roving and in combined products i. reinforcements. Reinforcements in glass fibre are generally foreseen in the form of: continuous filament or chopped strand mat.2. discoloration. fillers.1.) used. Catalysts which initiate the curing process of the resin and the accelerators which govern the gelling and setting times are to be such that the resin sets completely in the environmental conditions in which manufacture is carried out. Such reinforcements are to be used for the lamination in hull resin matrices. The materials are to be free from imperfections. Ch 4.2. The materials considered in these requirements are rigid expanded foam plastics and balsa wood.e.1. In any event.

RINA may require some tests. The minimum mechanical properties of the glass laminates found in testing.1 1. Table 2 lists the typical mechanical properties of fibres commonly used for reinforcements. the values indicated are those corresponding to GC = 30. Polystyrene can only be used as buoyancy material.3. the manufacturer is to submit full product details. These materials.3. Detail to be submitted enclosed to the list required in Sec 1 par 3. as a function of GC.6 Timber 3. and user instructions. par 3. Balsa 144 176 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyurethane (PUR) 55 90 60 90 144 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . resistant to environmental agents (salt water.1 The minimum mechanical properties in N/mm2 of laminates made with reinforcements of "E" type glass fibre may be obtained from the formulae given in Table 3 as a function of GC of the laminate as defined in Section 1. 3.1. fuel oils.3 0.1 Recognition by RINA of the suitability for use (type approval) of materials for hull construction may be requested by the Manufacturer. Table 1 Ultimate tensile strength (N/mm2) 1. 4 4.4 Adhesive and sealant material 3. are to be no less than the values obtained from the formulae of the above-mentioned Table. The construction procedures of such sandwich structures will be subject to special consideration. core materials for laminates having an ultimate tensile strength <0.1.4 N/mm2 are not acceptable. the open weave backing and the adhesive are to be compatible and soluble in the resin of the laminate. the open weave backing and the adhesive are to be compatible and soluble in the resin of the laminate. Sec 2 Particular care is to be given to the handle of these materials which shall be in accordance to the manufacturer's recommendations.8. if worked in nonrigid sheets made up of small blocks. are to be of the closed-cell type.8 Type approval of materials 3.1 These materials are to be accepted by RINA before use.7. they are to maintain a good level of resistance up to the temperature of 60°C. 3. 3. In general. just as other materials used for cores. 3.7 Repair compounds 3. In the above-mentioned Table.1.5 Plywood 3. lube oils) and to have a low absorption of water characteristics.2 "Rigid expanded foam plastics" means expanded polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).6.5 For the constructions of sandwich structures with the dry vacuum bagging techniques core bonding paste are to be used. and if worked in nonrigid sheets made up of small blocks.1 The use of timber is subject to special consideration by Head Office. their characteristics are to be enclosed in the list as per Sec 1. 3. the minimum value allowed of the content of glass reinforcement.3 Balsa wood is to be chemically treated against attacks by parasites and mould and oven dried immediately after cutting. 3.4 The ultimate tensile strength of the core materials is to be not less than the values indicated in Table 1. The type approval of resins. listing the types of repair for which the system is to be used.5 3. the surfaces are to be suitably treated to enable the absorption of the resin and the adhesion of the laminate. in any case.3. The use of other materials will be taken into consideration on a case-by-case basis by RINA.4 0. Such characteristic is to be ascertained by tests.73 1.1.1 Plywood for structural applications is to be marine plywood type approved by RINA. 3.1 0.5. Furthermore. which will decide the conditions for acceptance on the basis of a criterion of equivalence.3.1 Materials used for repairs are to be accepted by RINA before use. the designer will have to indicate on submitted drawings the assumed characteristics such as strength and density.Pt B.4. Ch 4. The balsa wood is to be laid-up with its grain at right-angles to the fibres in the surface laminates.1 Mechanical properties of laminates General Materiale Density (kg/m3) 96 4. Its humidity is to be no greater than 12%. Where it is used for the core of reinforcements or sandwich structures. fibre products of single-skin laminates and core materials of sandwich laminates is carried out according to the requirements set out in the relevant RINA Rules.64 2. 3. For acceptance purposes.1. Dependent on the proposed uses. These values are based on the most frequently used laminates made up of reinforcements of mat and roving type.

24) . s ee Pt D.7 Gc + 2. having the same composition and prepared during the lamination of the hull ( for the tests to be carried out.49 2. Sec. Ch 6.8 1.56 2. and will establish the procedures and criteria for approval on case by case.Pt B.2. from tests on samples taken preferably from the hull or. are to have mechanical properties that are in general greater than or at least equal to those given in Table 3.20 (1) 0. but no lower than 85% of the latter.2 below.5 Gc 3 2 85 6350 117 6000 152 5200 62 2750 17 Rmc = ultimate compressive strength Ec = compressive modulus of elasticity Rmf = ultimate flexural strength Et = flexural modulus of elasticity Rmt = ultimate shear strength G = shear modulus of elasticity Rmti = ultimate interlaminar shear strength The values of the mechanical properties are to be no less than those used for the scantling of the structures. for each yacht built.58 1.510 Gc + 123 = (37 Gc . the scantlings may be modified in accordance with the provisions of 3. 103 = (502 G2c + 107) = (33.1 General Coefficients relative to the mechanical properties of laminates The values of the coefficients Ko and Kof relative to the mechanical properties of the laminates that appear in the formulae of the structural scantlings of the hull in this Chapter are given by: K o = 85 ⁄ R m RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 145 . Whenever the mechanical properties of the reinforcement are greater than those mentioned above.8 1. The scantlings indicated in this Chapter are based on the values of the mechanical properties of a laminate made with reinforcements in "E" type glass.34 (1) (1) (1) (1) Values supplied by the Manufacturer and agreed upon with RINA prior to use Table 3 1 Rm = ultimate tensile strength E = tensile modulus of elasticity = 1278 G2c .22 0.75) .30. 103 = 150 Gc + 72 = (40 Gc . 4. with a reinforcement content equal to 0. the reinforcement content being equal.17.6. The mechanical properties and the percentage of reinforcement are to be ascertained.4. Sec 2 Laminates with reinforcements of fibres other than glass. Where certain values are in fact found to be lower than those used for the scantlings.2) .8 2.2 4. Ch 4.45 1.5 .15 Tensile modulus of elasticity N/mm2 69000 69000 (1) 124000 230000 270000 300000 725000 Shear modulus of elasticity N/mm2 28000 (1) (1) 2800 (1) (1) (1) (1) Poisson’s ratio 0.2.3). RINA reserves the right to take into consideration possible laminates having certain properties lower than those given in Table 3. 103 = 80 Gc + 38 = (1. described in 3.4 G2c + 2. Table 2 Specific gravity E Glass S Glass R Glass Aramid LM Carbon IM Carbon HM Carbon VHM Carbon (1) 2. RINA reserves the right to accept the laminate subject to any conditions for acceptance it may stipulate. 10 = 22. alternatively.6) .

Ch 4.7. of the ultimate tensile and flexural strengths of the laminate. Such values may be calculated with the formulae in Table 3 for glass fibre reinforcements or obtained from mechanical tests on samples of the laminate for other types of laminate. it Is to be assumed that:: Ko = 1 where Rm is the ultimate tensile strength. For laminates of sandwich type structures the coefficient is given by the formula: K of = ′ 85 -----Rm 0. 146 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ 152 K of = --------Rm f ⎝ ⎛ 0. in the case of laminates with glass fibre having GC = 30 (minimum allowed).Pt B. of the surface laminate.5 and 0. in N/mm 2. 5 ˆ K of = 1 The values Ko and Kof are to be taken as not less than 0. except in specific cases considered by RINA on the basis of the results of tests carried out. 5 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . respectively. Therefore. in N/mm2. Sec 2 where Rm and Rmf are the values.

2. the temperatures of the moulding shop are to be established accordingly. they are to be brought into the shop in due time to reach the working temperature required before being used. Sec 3 SECTION 3 CONSTRUCTION AND QUALITY CONTROL 1 1. including those relative to RINA type approval.g. an instrument capable of providing a continuous readout and record of the measured values may be required.4. Fillers and additives are to be stored in closed containers that are impervious to dust and humidity. Catalysts and accelerators are to be stored separately in clean. such as would lead 1. If the resins are stored in tanks. Shipyards or workshops for hull construction are to be suitably equipped to provide the required working environment according to these requirements. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 147 . except when the latter has given the hull builder prior written consent. the reinforcements are to be brought into the latter in due time so as to reach the temperature of the moulding shop before being used. which are to be complied with for the recognition of the shipyard or workshop as suitable for the construction of hulls in reinforced plastic. When the resins are stored outside the moulding shop. a temperature of between 16° and 32°C is to be maintained in the moulding shop during the lay-up and polymerisation periods. the responsibility for the fulfilment of the requirements specified below as well as all other measures for the proper carrying out of construction being left to the shipyard or workshop.1 Resins are to be stored in dry. always with due consideration being given to the resin Manufacturer's recommendations. in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations.2 Moulding shops 1. are to be stored in dust-free and dry conditions. Ch 4. The Builder has to obtain the approval or acceptance of the materials he uses. uses type approved materials. furthermore it is the Builder responsibility to ensure that all the materials are used in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction and recommendations. the shipyard or workshop may obtain from RINA a special recognition of suitability for the construction of reinforced plastic hulls. Compliance with the requirements of this Section does not exempt those in charge of the shipyard or workshop from the obligation of fulfilling all the hygiene requirements for work stipulated by the relevant authorities.3 Storage areas for materials 1. dry and well-ventilated conditions in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations. whenever possible. The quality control documentation is to keep a record of the storage and depletion of the stock of such reinforcements. Significant changes in humidity.1 In the phases of reception and handling the materials are not to suffer contamination or degradation and are to bear adequate identification marks at all times.Pt B. Ventilation systems are not to cause an excessive evaporation of the resin monomer and draughts are to be avoided. The risks of contamination of the materials are to be reduced as far as possible.4 Identification and handling of materials 1. The relative humidity of the moulding shop is to be kept as low as possible. Instruments to measure the humidity and temperature are to be placed in sufficient number and in suitable positions.1 Shipyards or workshops General to condensation on moulds and materials. at the discretion of the RINA Surveyor. Where moulding processes other than those mentioned above are used.3. 1. and in any case lower than the limit recommended by the resin Manufacturer. 1. When it emerges from the tests carried out that the shipyard or workshop complies with the following provisions. well-ventilated conditions at the temperature recommended by the resin Manufacturer. and has a system of production and quality control that satisfies the RINA Rules. Materials are not to be used after the Manufacturer's date of expiry. When they are stored outside the cutting area. they are to be stored in their protective covering until they are used. e. in chronological order of receipt. Alternative arrangements of the same standard may be adopted.1 Where hand lay-up or spray lay-up processes are used for the manufacture of laminates. Materials for the cores of sandwich type structures are to be stored in dry areas and protected against damage. are to be avoided. 1. glass fibre. so as to ensure a consistent level of quality. preferably below 70%. If necessary. due to environmental conditions. This suitability is to be ascertained by a RINA Surveyor. Storage is to be so arranged that the materials are used.1.1 All construction are to be built using materials and working process approved or accepted by RINA. Reinforcements. Pre-impregnated reinforcements are to be stored in an area set aside for the purpose. Precautions are to be taken to avoid effects on the polymerisation of the resin due to direct sunlight or artificial light. The work areas are to be suitably illuminated. Small variations in temperature may be allowed. it is to be possible to stir them at a frequency for a length of time indicated by the resin Manufacturer. separate zones are to be provided for storage and for manufacturing processes.

2.3. Similarly. generally not exceeding a mass per area of 300 g/m2. The core materials are to be compatible with the resins of the surface laminates and suitable to obtain strong adhesion to the latter (Manufacturer’s instructions to be followed). unless the mechanical properties are confirmed by tests.1 Moulds for production of laminates are to be constructed with a suitable material which does not affect the resin polymerisation and are to be adequately stiffened in order to maintain their shape and precision in form. Attention is drawn. This period may vary. the surface of the laminate is to be treated with abrasive agents in order to obtain an adequate bond. thus avoiding cracks and deformations. the Manufacturer is to satisfy himself of the efficiency of the equipment and the competence of the operator. the spray gun is also to be calibrated. the calibration of the lay-up system is to be checked periodically during the operation. where this is not practicable. the structures are to be stabilised in the moulding environment for the period of time recommended by the resin Manufacturer.Pt B.4 and 0. with particular regard to the core material and to its lay-up as well as to details of connections between prefabricated parts of the sandwich laminates themselves.2 Moulds • 2. Ch 4.1 Hull construction processes General In the case of simultaneous spray lay-up of resin and cut fibres. then dry vacuum bagging techniques are to be adopted.1 The general requirements for the construction of hand lay-up or spray lay-up laminates are set out below. the laminates are to be obtained with the layers of reinforcement laid in the sequence indicated in the approved drawings and each layer is to be thoroughly "wet" in the resin matrix and compacted to give the required weight content. before use. is to be applied to the gel coat itself by means of rolling so as to obtain a content of reinforcement not exceeding approximately 0. such as to obtain the required catalyst content.3. Furthermore. according to the Manufacturer's instruction manual. depending on the type of resin and the complexity of the laminate. • 2.1. Bonding paste is to be visible at these holes after vacuum bagging.g. Laminating is to be carried out in such a sequence that the interval between the application of layers is within the limits recommended by the resin Manufacturer. but is to be at least 24 hours. the length of glass fibres is to be not less than 25 mm. During construction. the uniformity of lamination and fibre content is to be systematically checked during production. the spray lay-up equipment is to be calibrated in such a way as to provide the required fibre content by weight. it is not to be left exposed for longer than is recommended by the Manufacturer before the application of the first layer of reinforcement. vacuum or pressurised moulding with mat and continuous filaments) are to be individually recognised as suitable by RINA. Joints between the sections of reinforcement are to be overlapped and staggered throughout the thickness of the laminate. When laminating is interrupted so that the exposed resin gels. After the release and before the application of any special post-hardening treatment. Such length is generally to be not less than 35 mm for structural laminates. processes and equipment proposed by the Manufacturer. In the case of hand lay-up processing. In the absence of recommendations. Reinforcements are to be arranged so as to maintain continuity of strength throughout the laminate. The amount of resin laid "wet on wet" is to be limited to avoid excessive heat generation. processes of other types (e. 2. the first layer of reinforcement subsequently laid is to be of mat type. provision is to be made to ensure satisfactory access such as to permit the proper carrying out of the laminating. deck and large assemblies are to be adequately braced and supported for removal from the moulds as well as during the fitting-out period of the yacht. the use of this technique is limited to those parts of the structure to which sufficiently good access may be obtained so as to ensure satisfactory laminating.1 On completion of the laminating. dried and brought to the moulding shop temperature before being treated with the mould release agents. The hull. They are also not to prevent the finished laminate from being released. 2. The manufacturing process for sandwich type laminates is taken into consideration by RINA in relation to the materials. the general spray conditions and the appropriate length of cut fibres. in particular. Where rigid core materials are used. to the importance of ensuring the correct carrying out of joints between panels. which is to be examined by RINA.4 Hardening and release of laminates 2. • • 2.6 mm. 148 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the period is to be at least 24 hours. A lightweight reinforcement. unless a different period is recommended by the resin Manufacturer. the following requirements are also to be complied with: • before the use of the simultaneous lay-up system. which are not to have an inhibiting effect on the gel coat resin. in any event. roller or spraying device so as to form a uniform layer with a thickness of between 0. by resin transfer. Moulds are to be thoroughly cleaned.1 The gel coat is to be applied by brush. the laminate is to be left in the mould for a period of time to allow the resin to harden before being removed. Particular care is to be given to the core bonding materials and to the holes provided to ensure efficient removal of air under the core. the time between the forming and bonding of structural members is to be kept within these limits.3 Laminating 2.4. Sec 3 2 2.

surface or internal blistering due to the presence of air bubbles. a method of validating the complete laminate tickness is to be agreed between the Builder and the Surveyor. evenly distributed across the surface. Dimensions and tolerances are to conform to the approved construction documentation. 2.Pt B. and surface areas without resin or with glass fibre reinforcements exposed to the external environment. The above-mentioned checks and tests are to be carried out as a rule in the presence of a RINA Surveyor. and by the RINA Surveyor. The hull builder is to maintain a constant check on the laminate. e) check and recording of the percentage of the reinforcement in the laminate. d) check of the uniformity of the impregnation of reinforcements. i) check of the thickness of the laminate which. such as in particular: surface cracks. surface corrugation.3 As a general rule. in general. Sec 3 2.5. g) general check of the laminate before release from the mould. hardener and various additives. j) 2. where the shipyard has a system of production organisation and quality control certified by RINA.2 The responsibility for maintaining the required tolerances rests with the Builder.6. 2. to be measured at not less than ten points. their lay-up and superimposition. 2.2 Where ultrasonic thickness gauges are used. In general the following checks and tests are to be carried out: a) check of the mould before the application of the release agent and of the gel coat.5 Defects in the laminates c) c) check of the resin and the amount of catalyst. 2. accelerator. Any defects are to be eliminated by means of appropriate repair methods to the satisfaction of the RINA Surveyor. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 149 . in general. f) checks of any post-hardening treatments.5. The thicknesses of the laminates are. Monitoring and random checking by the Surveyor does not absolve the Builder from this responsibility. h) check and recording of the laminate hardness before release from the mould. Sec 3).6. in accordance with the relevant quality system. internal areas with non-impregnated fibres.1 Checks and tests are to be arranged during the lamination process by the hull builder.6. 2. b) check of the thickness of the gel coat and the uniformity of its application. Any defects found are to be eliminated immediately. cracks in the resin for surface coating. is not to differ by more than 15% from the thickness indicated in approved structural plans.6 Checks and tests mechanical tests on laminates taken from the hull or prepared during the lamination of the hull (in accordance with Pt D. Ch 6. relevant tools are to be calibrated against an identical laminate (of measured thickness). Ch 4.1 The manufacturing processes of laminates are to be such as to avoid defects. the checks may be carried out directly by the shipyard without the presence of a RINA Surveyor.

the section modulus. a test of the longitudinal strength is required.⋅ A ⋅ 1 + -------------------------6 Ep F + 0.1 To this end. H ma. Ema. tma. tm. The procedures for such test will be stipulated by RINA on a case-by-case basis in relation to the quality of the laminates and the layout of the yacht. the criteria used by RINA for tests of longitudinal hull beam strength are shown below. Ims. 10-6 for planing vessesls J = 230 . Eps. C’ : length.Hpa. Epa.1 General f σl : 0.3.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in this section are also intended as appropriate for the purposes of the longitudinal hull strength of a yacht having length L not exceeding 40 m for monohull yacht or 35 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht. 1.3 Calculation of strength modulus 1.1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Chapters of these Rules. Ifs.⋅ C' ⋅ P + ---.1 In order to limit the flexibility of the hull structure. Em.2. Ch 4. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 1 1. in m. 10-6 displacement yachts. Sec.⋅ C' ⋅ P + ---. For each transverse section within the midship region. Ef. in mm tp 2 Side shell tm Em Bottom tf Ef 2 2.1.: values defiined in Table 1 tps. 2. nf: values defiined in Table2 Im.⋅ E f + n f ⋅ ( I fs ⋅ t fs ⋅ E fs + t f a ⋅ H fa ⋅ E fa ) 2 Wf. respectively.1 Reference is to be made to Table 1 for plating and Table 2 for longitudinals for calculation of the midship section modulus.Pt B.1 Bending stresses Young’s modulus.33 for planing yachts tp. Table 1 Deck Mean thickness. tfs. tf. MT . MT . tfa. in m3. is generally to be not less than the value given by the following formulae: J = 200 . 0.25 for displacement yachts : the lesser of the values of ultimate tensile and ultimate compressive strength. tpa.2 2. Therefore: σ f ≤ fσ l σ p ≤ fσ l Where there is a sandwich member. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yacht and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values. H fa. 5 ⋅ A ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ⋅ 10 –3 ⋅ 10 –3 where: MT 2 σ f = ---------------------. As a guide. 1. tms. Efa. the moment of inertia J of the midship section. 5 ⋅ A C' 1 F–P Wf = --.2 1. of the bottom and deck laminate. in m 4.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp where: P A F : : : t p ⋅ B ⋅ E p + n p ⋅ ( I ps ⋅ t ps ⋅ E ps + t pa ⋅ Hpa ⋅ E pa ) 2 [ t m ⋅ I m ⋅ E m + n m ⋅ ( t m s ⋅ I m s ⋅ E m s + t ma ⋅ H m a ⋅ E m a ) ] B t f ⋅ -. in N/mm Ep 2. in N/mm 2. the two skins of the laminate are to be taken into account for the purposes of the longitudinal strength only with their own characteristics. np. 150 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 ⎠ ⎞ . defined in Figure 1. The cores may be taken into account only if they offer longitudinal continuity and appreciable strength against axial tension-compression. Ep. nm. Efs.⋅ A ⋅ 1 + -------------------------6 Ef F + 0. Wp : MT f : : section modulus at the bottom and the deck.N ⁄ mm 1000 W f MT 2 σ p = ----------------------. 5.2.1. Ips. Ems. of the transverse section in m3 design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ C' 1F–P Wp = ---. 2. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival. 2.

1 Shear stresses Tt f τ Αt : : : : total shear stress in kN defined in Chap. in N/mm2 Breadth in mm Equivalent thickness in Section I. Ch 4. Sec 4 Table 2 Deck Mean thickness. in m2. Article 5.Pt B. in m2.4 defined in 2 shear stress of the laminate.1.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values. 1. in N/mm2 actual shear area of the transverse section. in N/mm Height in mm Number of longitudinals 2 Side shell tms Ems Ims tms Ems Hma nm Bottom tfs Efs Ifs tfa Efa Hfa nf tps Eps Ips tpa Epa Hpa np Figure 1 3 3. in mm Flange Young’s modulus. 3. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings. in mm Web Young’s modulus. T ----t ⋅ 10 – 3 ≤ f ⋅ τ At where: RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 151 . actual shear area of the transverse section. in particular.

5 factors defined in Sec. in knots. in mm.1 Keel V 5 5. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side. as indicated in Figure 2 b) in Section 1. : the vertical distance. The thickness tCH is to be gradually tapered transversally. the thickness of the keel is to extend.1. Ko : : : : larger dimension of the plating panel.1 The keel is to extend the whole length of the yacht and have a breadth bCH. when assuming p=p1 : 0. In yachts with sail and ballast keel. obtained by the following formula: t C H = 1.1 When the rudder is of the semi-spade type. with respect to its longitudinal axis are not less than the values given by the following formulae: A⋅h ⋅V -10 –3 J = ----------------------36 2 2 2. the relevant rudder horn is to have dimensions and thickness such that the moment of inertia J. A ⋅ h ⋅ VZ = --------------------55 2 where: A h : the rudder area. Ch 4.Pt B. in cm4. acting on the horn. whichever is the greater. in m scantling pressure. in mm. in cm3. tapering with the bottom plating. Section 2. a suitable taper is to be made between the two types. such as Type I B shown in Chapter 1. 1. to the thickness of the bottom and in the case of hulls having a U-shaped keel. transversally. Figure 2. in mm. in mm. Appraising s. : maximum design speed of the yacht. The minimum bottom shell thickness is to extent to the chine line or 150mm above the statical load waterline. in kN/m2. and the section modulus Z. a transition zone is to be foreseen.1 General 30%.1 Rudder horn 2 2. Sec. calculated as specified in 5 assuming the spacing s of the corresponding stiffeners.1. in mm.26. calculated with the following formulae: t 1 = k 1 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ kof ⋅ p t 2 = 16 ⋅ s ⋅ k o f ⋅ D 0. not less than the value obtained by the following formula: b CH = 30L The thickness of the keel is to be not less than the value tCH.1.1 S s p Kof. : coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1. 1.1 Definitions and symbols 4.1. Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge. from the skeg section to the lower edge of the pintle (rudder heel).1. the thickness of the keel for the whole length of the ballast keel is to be increased by where: k1 ka : 0. The thickness of the plating of the bilge is. when assuming p=p2. When the two solutions are adopted for the hull.1 The thickness of bottom plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 e t2. 4t 5. 4 4. in m spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. in m 2. 2 of this Chapter. Sec 5 SECTION 5 EXTERNAL PLATING 1 1. this increase is to extend longitudinally to fore and aft of the ballast for a suitable length.1 Bottom plating 3.1 Bottom and side plating may be made using both single-skin laminate and sandwich structure. of the generic horizontal section of the same skeg. 3 3. 5 t being the greater of the values t1 e t2. and dead rise edge > 12° is considered as a stiffener. 5 0.15. in any event. . given in Chap. When the hull is laminated in halves. When the side thickness differs from the bottom thickness by more than 3 mm. 152 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the keel joint is to be carried out as shown in Figure 5 in Section 1 or in a similar way.

1. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required. rudder horn or trunk. 6 6. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners.1 The thickness of the transom is to be not less than that of the side plating for the portion above the waterline.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area. 5 0. the scantlings of the latter will be the subject of special consideration.0 >2 Ka 17. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 153 .2 8.2 Side plating 8.4.025 L and thickness tc. 9.2 7.2 1. 6.1 A sheerstrake plate of height h.1. This reduction may not be assumed less than 0. in mm.1 Cross-deck bottom plating 7. not less than 0.3 8.6 1. 8 8.1 Side plating and sheerstrake plating 6.1 22.6 20.1. 8. in way of the propulsion engine bedplates.1 The thickness is to be taken. when the width of the latter is greater than that of the keel.3 22. In sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine in way of the ballast keel.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects.5 19.2. generally by at least 50%.4 1.1.9 21.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located. where t is the greater of the thicknesses t1 e t2.70.2. 8.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 2 mm. the thickness calculated with the formulae above may be reduced multiplying by (1 .3 7. 30t 8.1 Local stiffeners 8.1.3. the stiffener spacing s being equal. in m. Sec 5 If the plating has a pronounced curve. etc.1. Ch 4.6 22. in mm. propeller shaft struts. stabilisers. calculated as stated in 6. f being the distance. 7.3. calculated with the following formulae: t 1 = k 1 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ p t 2 = 12 ⋅ s ⋅ k o f ⋅ D 0. stem (the thickness is not required to be greater than that of the keel in this case). Table 1 S/s 1 1. as for example in the case of the hulls of sailing yachts. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is so small that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated.1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements as indicated in 3. the thickness of the bottom is to be increased to the value taken for the keel. Where water-jets or propulsion systems are fitted directly to the transom. Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings.1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally. as far as possible. not less than the value in the following formula is to be fitted: t c = 1. between the connecting beam and the two extremities of the plating concerned and the surface of the plating itself. in mm. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. but not less than 6 mm.4 7.2 below. anchor recesses.2. no less than that of the side plating. 7 7.4 6.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 e t2.f/s). or less than that of the bottom for the portion below the waterline. The edges of openings are to be suitably sealed in order to prevent the absorption of water. In such case a sandwich structure with marine plywood core of adequate thickness is recommended.Pt B.1. 5 where k1 and ka are as defined in 5.8 2.1 Openings in the shell plating 9 9.

1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM. 3 3. the centre girder may be omitted but in such case the fitting of a longitudinal stringer is required. In the case of a keel with a dead rise > 12°. the rudder and the ballast keel.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. the rudder and the ballast keel. 2 of this Chapter. the centre girder may be omitted but in such case the fitting of a longitudinal stringer is required.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stringers is to be not less than the value Z.2.2 1.2. girders.1. in cm 3. in m. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. : scantling pressure. Sec. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. in m.3 Transverse structure 3. 1.1 s p Ko : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners.4 assuming p = p1 1. 1.5. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. 1.3. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends Floors 3.2. Sec 6 SECTION 6 SINGLE BOTTOM 1 1. between the two supporting members (sides.2 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. keel with a dead rise edge > 12°). sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m.1. In the case of a U-shaped keel or one with a dead rise edge ≤12° but > 8° the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides. the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%.2.2 Longitudinal structure 1. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : 1.3 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. in m.5 assuming p=p1 : 1 assuming p=p2 : conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener. however. 1. 2.3.1 Definitions and symbols 1. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. 154 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .5 Floors are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced deck beams.1 Longitudinal type structure Bottom longitudinals 3. in m.3.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom. 1.3. 1. calculated with the following formula. be reduced by 40%. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. in kN/m2. Ch 4. which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors. : coefficient defined in Sec.1. ZM = k 1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b S : 2. 1.Pt B. In the case of a keel with a dead rise > 12°. 1.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders. between the two floors adjacent to that concerned : conventional floor span equal to the distance.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts.2 assuming p = p2 : half the distance.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. equal to the distance between floors. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. 1. the modulus ZM may.3. given in Chap. in cm2.1 A centre girder is to be fitted.1 General 2 2.

2. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance. in cm 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ 4.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z.1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings. floors). between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance.Pt B. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. in m. in m. : half the distance. in m. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ S : where: k1 b’PL : defined in 3. Side girders where: k1 bPC : : defined in 3. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder : distance between the floors. in cm3. 5 5. between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads.2 half the distance. in cm 3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : defined in 3.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC. equal to the distance. between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2 in the absence of side girders : distance between the floors.3. : half the distance. S 4.1 Constructional details S 5. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPL : : defined in 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 4.1. S : When the side girder forms a support for the floor.1 Girders Centre girder 4 4. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC.2 half the distance. : half the distance.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 155 .1 conventional span in m.2 Centre girder Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors.3 Side girders where: k1 b’PL : defined in 3. : half the distance.2. of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders. sides). in m. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. in m.2. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : defined in 3.3 3. S Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors. in cm3. in cm3. in m. in m.1 Transverse type structures Ordinary floors When the girder forms a support for the floor. in cm 3. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional girder span equal to the distance. 4. Sec 6 3. in m.3. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ PL 4. where: k1 S : : defined in 3. in cm3. floors). the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC. in m.1. Ch 4.2 S 3.1. in m. floors).3. floors).1. in m. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders conventional span of the centre girder.

except in special cases at the discretion of RINA. in way of the centre girder.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1.1. the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged. are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance. throughout the length of the hull. For yachts of length L > 50 m. is to be not less than the value hdF.9 t1 at the ends. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating.1.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead of the machinery space. For yachts of length L <50 m the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. 5 )k of where kof is defined in Sec. 3 ( 0.1 Centre girder 4.1.1.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom. 1.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom. in mm.Pt B.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom. as far as this is practicable. 04 L + 5s + 1 )k of for sin g le – skin lamina te t 1 = ( 0. and in particular the height. 125 L + 3. in m : coefficients for the properties of the material defined in Sec.1 A centre girder is to be fitted. 1. the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0. For yacht less than 50 m in length RINA may accept reduced height. Where a single-skin laminate is used for the centre girder. calculated with the following formula: t 1 = 1. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes. supported by floors. Sec 7 SECTION 7 DOUBLE BOTTOM 1 1. 2.1.1. 10.4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0.1. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally. the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. In floors and in side girders. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom. tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities.1 Inner bottom plating 3.3 The dimensions of the double bottom. in mm. 156 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . the thickness is to be not less than twice that defined above. manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. 3 3. The thickness of the core of a sandwich type centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc. 1. Ch 4. The edges of the holes are to be suitably sealed in order to prevent the absorption of liquid into the laminate. or in floors and side girders below pillars. 2. or as near thereto as practicable. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder.1 General 2 2. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted. is requested for yacht of L > 50 m.1 Minimum height 1. obtained from the following formula: h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 ) The height of the double bottom is in any event to be not less than 700 mm. 04 L + 5 s + 1 )k of for sandw ich laminate where: s kof : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners. 2. in mm: t pc = ( 0. When manholes with greater height are fitted. 4 4.

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 7

5
5.1

Side girders

Where a single-skin laminate is used for floors, the thickness is to be not less than twice that calculated above. Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec. 10 for tank bulkheads.

5.1.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m, side girders need not be fitted. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m, side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors. A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them, or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side, does not exceed 3 m. The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are, as a rule, to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength. Watertight girders are to have thickness not less than that required in Sec. 10 for tank bulkheads

6.2
6.2.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm, vertical stiffeners are to be arranged. In any event, solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations. • under buklheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals.

5.2
5.2.1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines, they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged, as far as practicable, in close proximity to girders and floors. Where this is not possible, transverse brackets are to be fitted.

7
7.1

Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals

6
6.1

Floors

6.1.1 The thickness of the core of sandwich type floors tm, in mm, is to be not less than the following value:
t m = ( 0, 125L + 1, 5 )k of

7.1.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec. 6. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom, the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec. 10.

where kof is defined in Sec. 2.

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157

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 8

SECTION 8

SIDE STRUCTURES

1
1.1

General

3.2

Longitudinals

1.1.1 Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom, the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec. 10. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames, generally spaced not more than 2 m apart, or by transverse bulkheads. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames), which may be supported by reinforced stringers, by decks, by flats or by the bottom structures. Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel, in sailing yachts, in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck.

3.2.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p
2

where: k1 : 1,9 assuming p=p1 : 1 assuming p=p2 S : conventional span of the longitudinal, in m, equal to the distance between the supporting members, in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads.

4
4.1

Reinforced beams
Reinforced frames

4.1.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p
2

2
2.1

Definitions and symbols

where: k1 : 1 assuming p=p1 : 0,7 assuming p=p2 : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners, in m; scantling pressure, in kN/m 2, defined in Part B, Chap. 1, Sec. 5 ; factor defined in Sec. 2 of this Chapter. s KCR : 2,5 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners, or reinforced stringers; : 1,1 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners; : spacing, in m, between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned; : conventional span, in m, equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame.

2.1.1 s p Ko

3
3.1

Ordinary stiffeners
S

3.1.1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p
2

4.2

Reinforced stringers

where: k1 S : : : 1,75 assuming p=p1 1,1 assuming p=p2 conventional frame span, in m, equal to the distance between the supporting members.

4.2.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p
2 ′

The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them, in general made up of a beam and a floor.

where: k1 : defined in 4.1 : 2,5 for reinforced stringers which support ordiKCR nary vertical stiffeners (frames); : 1,1 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners;

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RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 8

s

: spacing, in m, between the reinforced stringers or 0,5 D in the absence of other reinforced stringers or decks;

S

:

conventional span, in m, equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer, in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames.

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

159

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 9

SECTION 9

DECKS

1
1.1

General

3.2

Lower decks

1.1.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of decks, plating and reinforcing or supporting structures. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements, beams or longitudinal stringers, laid transversally or longitudinally, supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams, which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse, a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base.

3.2.1 The thickness of decks below the weather deck intended for accommodation spaces is to be not less than the value calculated with the formula:
t = 0, 13 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ L 1
0, 5

where ka is defined in 5.1 in Sec. 5. Where the deck is a tank top, the thickness of the deck is, in any event, to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec.10 for tank bulkhead plating.

4
4.1

Stiffening and support structures for decks
Ordinary stiffeners

2
2.1

Definitions and symbols

4.1.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following equation:
Z = 14 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ kof ⋅ C 1
2

where: 2.1.1 pdc : calculation deck, meaning the first deck above the full load waterline, extending for at least 0,6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side; in theory, it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht; spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners, in m; scantling height, in m, the value of which is given in Part B, Chap. 1, Sec. 5; factor defined in Sec. 2 of this Chapter. C1 : 1 for weather deck longitudinals : 0,63 for lower deck longitudinals : 0,56 for beams.

4.2

Reinforced beams

s h Ko, Kof

: : :

4.2.1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following equation:
Z = 15 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ ko
2

3
3.1

Deck plating
Weather deck

3.1.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating, considering that said deck is also a strength deck, is to be not less than the value t, in mm, calculated with the following formula:
t = 0, 15 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ L
0, 5 1

where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam, in m. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent S : conventional span of the reinforced beam, in m, equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars, other reinforced beams, bulkheads).

4.3

Pillars

On yachts of L > 30 m a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b, in m, not less than 0,025 L and thickness t, in mm, not less than the value given by the formula
t = 0, 2 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ L 1
0, 5

where ka is defined in 5.1 in Sec. 5.

4.3.1 Pillars are, in general, to be made of steel or aluminium alloy tubes, and connected at both ends to plates supported by efficient brackets which allow connection to the hull structure by means of bolts. Details to be sent for approval. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A, in A, in cm2, given by the formula:

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RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

1. in kN. in general.3. Where this is not practicable and the attachment of the pillar has to be by through bolting through a sandwich structure then a wood. 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h where: A : area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar. 045λ C : : 1 for steel pillars 1. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 161 .2 Pillars are to be fitted on main structural members. and effective arrangements are to be made to distribute the load at the heads and heels of all pillars. Sec 9 Q⋅C A = -------------------------------------12. defined in 2. Ch 4. 4. or other suitable solid insert is to be fitted in the core in way. 5 – 0. calculated with the following formula: Q = 6.3 The attachment of pillars to sandwich structures should. h : scantling height.1. deck pillars are to be fitted in the same vertical line as pillars above and below. where: Q : load resting on the pillar. 4. λ : the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section. in m2. be through an area of single skin laminate.6 for aluminium alloy pillars.Pt B.3. Wherever possible.

Pt B. kof : : 3 3. Pipes or cables running in through watertight bulkhead are to be fitted with suitable watertight glands. equal to the distance.1 See Sec 1 par 6. other than tank bulkheads.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm. are made of wood.2. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4.1. in cm3.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 k1 5. 4.1 Plating 3.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are. 1.1. between the members that support the stiffener concerned as defined in Part B.1. 5 5 5. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. h B ko. Ch 4.2 Reinforced beams 2. Table 2 Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead h (m) hB hB hs c 0. Sec.1 s S : : spacing between the stiffeners.1 Tanks for liquids The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Table 1. in m. in general. Chap.63 1 h s.7 for subdivision bulkheads : 18 for tank bulkheads : width. in cm3.1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4. 2 2.78 0.0 5.1 Symbols 4. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ k o 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Table 2. calculated with the following formula: Z = 13. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener : scantling height indicated in Table 2. calculated with the following formula: Z = C 1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ ko 2 where: C1 b h : 10. in m conventional span. 162 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .3 h (m) hB hB hs 1.8 5.5. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ ko f ⋅ h 0. The scantlings indicated in this Section refer to bulkheads made of reinforced plastic both in single-skin and in sandwich type laminates. it is to be type approved marine plywood and the scantlings are to be not less than those indicated in Chapter 5 of Part B.1. Whenever bulkheads.1. 5. 2 of this Chapter.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B. 5 as defined in Sec. in m.

1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned. Reinforced beams (beams. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec. in m. 1 of this Chapter. in m.1. in cm3. where: S : RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 163 .3. [4. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K o 2 where: h : Ko s S : : : conventional scantling height. Ko : as defined in 3. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 5. in m : conventional scantling height.1 Superstructure decks Plating 2 2. 3.2].1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. 7 ⋅ s ⋅ K O f ⋅ h 0. equal to the distance.Pt B.1 Boundary bulkhead plating 4.1 The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. : factor defined in Sec 2. calculated with the following formula: Z = 5. 5 s h Kof : spacing between the stiffeners. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Table 2 of Sec. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K o 2 1st tier front 2nd tier front Other bulkheads wherever situated In any event. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA. 4.1 factor defined in Sec 2 spacing of the stiffeners. in m. Table 1 Type of bulkhead h (m) 1. 4 4.2.0 where: s : Kof : h : spacing of the stiffeners. in m. h. Ch 4. in m.1 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t.1. equal to the distance. between the supporting members s. 7 ⋅ s ⋅ K O f ⋅ h 0. in mm.1.1. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. in mm. defined in 2 . in m factor defined in Sec 2 conventional scantling height.2 Stiffeners 4. see Ch 1. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1. and so on. in m span of the stiffeners. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above. in cm3.0 1.1 Stiffeners 1.1 General 3 3.1. 5 2.5 1.1 The section modulus Z.1. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht. Sec 1. 9. the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above. defined in 2. the value of which is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below. conventional span of the stiffener.

as a rule.Pt B. The degree of vacuum in the bagging system both at the beginning of the process and during the polymerisation phase is not to exceed the level recommended by the Manufacturer.1. The use of a sandwich laminate in these zones will be carefully considered by RINA bearing in mind the properties of the core and the precautions taken to avoid infiltration of water in the holes drilled for the passage of studs and bolts.3 Constructional details 2. The use of sandwich laminates is also ill-advised in way of structural tanks for liquids where fuel oils are concerned. In way of the keel. even adhesion is to be ensured. 2. scantlings and distribution of venting holes in the panels are to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions. The scantlings indicated in the following Articles of this Section are considered valid assuming the above-mentioned hypotheses. the taper of the panel is not to exceed 30°.2 Vacuum bagging 2.1.1 S : conventional span of the strip of sandwich laminate equal to the minimum distance.3 When resins other than epoxide resins are used. details of the procedure are to be submitted for examination.1 Premise 2. The scantlings of sandwich structures obtained differently and/or with core materials or with skins not corresponding to the above-mentioned properties will be considered case by case on the principle of equivalence. 2.1 Symbols 3. In zones where high density or plywood insert plates are arranged.33 times the net thickness of the internal skin. 164 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Where the core material is deposited above a prefabricated skin. Normal forces and flexing moments act only on the external faces. The moduli of elasticity of the core material are negligible compared to those of the skin material. 3 3. 2. in general.1.2 Where the core is applied on a pre-laminated surface. single-skin laminate is to be used. in particular in sailing yachts with a ballast keel.1. in way of the connection to the upper deck and in general where connections with bolts are foreseen. the thickness of the external skin is to be no greater than 1.1 The sandwich type laminate taken into consideration in this Section is made up of two thin laminates in reinforced plastic bonded to a core material with a low density and low values for the mechanical properties.2.1 Where the vacuum bagging system is used. in m.1. Such use may be accepted by increasing the thickness of the skin in contact with the liquid. The thicknesses of the two skins are negligible compared to the thicknesses of the core. external and internal.1. while shear forces are supported by the core . the taper is not to exceed 45°. in the zone where there are the hull appendages. 2 2. the latter is to be suitably cleaned and treated in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions.1.4 Prior to proceeding with glueing of the core. The thickness of the core is to be not less than 6 times the minimum thickness of the skins. The number. are to be identical in lamination and in resistance and elasticity properties. plastic foam of different densities or other materials (honeycomb) which deform easily under pressure or traction but which offer good resistance to shear stresses. 1. 2.5 Where the edges of a sandwich panel are to be connected to a single-skin laminate. on submission of full technical documentation of the materials used and any tests carried out. Sec 12 SECTION 12 SCANTLINGS OF STRUCTURES WITH SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION 1 1.1 General Laminating 2.3. 2. The core material is. as far as practicable the former is to be applied after the polymerisation of the skin laminate has passed the exothermic stage. Ch 4. such as propeller shaft struts and rudder horns. so as to avoid phenomena of core evaporation and/or excessive monomer loss. made up of balsa wood. the layer of reinforcement in contact with the core material is to be of mat. as indicated in Section 10.1 In general the two skins. The thicknesses of the two skins are to be approximately equal.

5 5.1 σC: ( EF ⋅ EA ⋅ GA ) 1 ⁄ 3 σ CR = 0. in. in mm. in N/mm2. : ultimate flexural strength.6 assuming p=p1 0. 25L ) t i = 0. 45 ⋅ ( 2.4 assuming p=p2 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 165 . is to be not less than the value given by the formula: k1 ⋅ p ⋅ S h a = ------------------τ Thicknesses less than the minimums calculated with the above formulae. given by the following formula. where: to ti : thickness of the external laminate of the sandwich : thickness of the internal laminate of the sandwich. 35 ⋅ ( 2. Sec 12 between the structural members supporting the sandwich (bulkheads. 5.1. given by the following formula: R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES where: R : ES : b) Side and weather deck t o = 0. not less than that given by the following formulae: a) Bottom t o = 0.4 assuming p=p2 4. in mm. in kN/m 2. the mean of the four values of the compressive and shear moduli of elasticity of the two skins. in mm. 25L ) The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS. of a strip of sandwich of the bottom 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z S o = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ------Rco 12 Z S i = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i 4 4. 2 + 0. in kN/m 2.2 assuming p=p2 6 6. given in Part B.1 The thickness of the skin laminate is to be sufficient to obtain the section modulus prescribed in the following Articles.5 assuming p=p1 0. where: k1 : : 1.1. 5. 25L ) Z : the greater of the ultimate compressive strengths of the two skins. as defined in Part B. 1. ZSo or ZSi . in N/mm2. of the core of the sandwich. corresponding to the external and internal skins. 1. in N/mm2. though not less than those in Table 2. : ultimate shear strength.Pt B. Sec. is to be not less than 1. in N/mm 2.1 The section moduli ZSo e ZSi. in kN/m 2. in N/mm2. of the internal skin. the critical stress σCR. 2 + 0. in N/mm2. 2 + 0.6 assuming p=p1 0. : net height. respectively. in kN/m2. in m. 2 + 0. : compressive modulus of elasticity of the core material of the skin considered. 40 ⋅ ( 2.1 Side 6. 25L ) t i = 0. in kN/m2.1 The section moduli ZSo and ZSi. may be accepted provided they are sufficient in terms of buckling strength. of a strip of sandwich of the side 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z S o = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ------Rco 12 Z S i = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i essendo: EF EA GA : compressive modulus of elasticity of the laminate of the skin considered. : ultimate tensile strength. : shear modulus of elasticity of the core material. corresponding to the external and internal skins. of the internal skin. σC ν : : actual compressive strength on the skin considered. : ultimate tensile strength. whichever is the greater.1 Bottom 5. Sec. : scantling height. of the external skin. : ultimate flexural strength. furthermore. in cm3. 50 ⋅ ( 2. Ch 4. in kN/m2. p h Rto Rti Rco Rci t h : scantling pressure. in cm3. in cm3. in N/mm2 Poisson coefficient of the laminate of the skin considered. Chap.1 Minimum thickness of the skins where: k1 : : 1. 4 ⋅ -----------------------------2 1–ν where: : k1 : 0. of the external skin. Chap. respectively. reinforced frames). it is to have a value. in cm4. In the case of a sandwich structure with a core in balsa wood or polyurethane foam and other similar products. The net height of the core ha. of the core material of the sandwich.1.

in N/mm2. in N/mm2. respectively.1.1 Decks 7. Sec. of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 Z S = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S ⋅ -R R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES where: k1 : : 0.5: The net height of the core ha.1. and the moment of inertia IS.5 assuming p=p1 0.Pt B. in mm. in cm 4. 4. : the mean of the values of the compressive moduli of elasticity of the two skins. of a strip of sandwich of the deck 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z S o = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S ⋅ ------R co However. corresponding to the external and internal skins. 11. Sec 12 The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich of the side 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS. having the same . The section modulus ZS. in cm3.1 The section moduli ZSo and ZSi. in cm4. Ch 4. given by the following formula: ù I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---where R and ES are as defined in Art.2 assuming p=p2 7 7. the modulus ZSo may be assumed not greater than that required for the side in 6.1. in cm4. given by the following formula: R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES The net height of the core ha.1 The scantlings shown in this Article apply both to subdivision bulkheads and to tank bulkheads. is to be not less than the value given by the formula: 7⋅h⋅S h a = ----------------τ 166 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . is to be not less than the value given by the formula: k1 ⋅ p ⋅ S h a = ------------------τ R ES where R and ES are as defined in Art. 1 2 Z S i = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i where: R ES : the greater of the ultimate compressive shear strengths of the two skins. in cm 3. is to be not less than the value given by the following formula: 7⋅h⋅S h a = ----------------τ 8 Watertight bulkheads and boundary bulkheads of the superstructure 8. in mm.1 8. in mm. The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS. They may also be applied to boundary bulkheads of the superstructure assuming for h the relevant value indicated in Chap. 5: The net height of the core ha.

WORKING AND PROTECTION BUILDING METHODS FOR PLANKING STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF SAILING YACHTS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARY ENGINE STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF MOTOR YACHTS WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS. MACHINERY SPACE OF TIMBER RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 167 . LINING.Part B Hull Chapter 5 WOOD HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 MATERIALS FASTENINGS.

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The suitability for use in the various hull structures is given in Table 2. The moisture content at the time of use is to be not greater than 20% (according to the method UNI 8939 Planking Check of batch moisture content). b) for plywood and lamellar structures: glueing test.1 The timber is to be well-seasoned. 2. Therefore. relative to the following characteristics: a) for solid timber: mass density and moisture content.Classification on the basis of mechanical resistance). at a moisture content not exceeding 20%: • bent frames: δ = 720 • non-bent frames keel and stem: δ = 640 • shell and deck planking.1 The species of timber suitable for construction are listed in Table 1 together with the following details: • commercial and scientific denomination. In any case. will verify the circumstances by performing appropriate checks.3. Ch 5. The minimum number of plywood layers used in the construction is 3 for thicknesses not greater than 6 mm and 5 for greater thicknesses. etc. Note 1: Timber with the above characteristics corresponds roughly to Class 1 of UNI 8198 (Conifer planking . Such checks are not required for Quality Assurance material certified by RINA in pursuance of the relevant regulations. measured on the section of the knot. 1. Moreover. in accordance with the relationship: S1 = S ⁄ K δe K = ---. rendering it less prone to attacks of mould. The same species are suitable for the fabrication of marine plywood and lamellar structures in accordance with the provisions of Article 2 below.2 by the builder to the RINA Surveyor. stringers and beams: δ = 560. The scantlings given in the following Articles* may be modified as a function of the density of the timber employed and its moisture content.4. 2. the maximum recommended thicknesses are listed in Table 1.3 Certification and checks of timber quality 2 2. in the event of doubts or objections. free from sapwood and any noxious organisms (moulds. the elevated temperatures reached during drying and pressing rule out the possibility of survival of insects and larvae in the finished panels. insects. • average physical-mechanical characteristics at 12% moisture content.+ ( U – U e ) ⋅ 0.1. the thickness of the individual layers constituting the plywood or the lamellar structure is to be reduced in direct proportion to the durability of the species used. The grain is to be straight (the maximum admissible inclination in relation to the longitudinal axis of the piece is equal to a ratio of 1:10).4 Mechanical characteristics and structural scantlings 2. The marine plywood adopted for hull construction and structural parts in general is to be type tested by RINA in accordance with the relevant regulations.1 The structural scantlings indicated in this Chapter apply to timber with the following density δ. provided that their diameter is less than 1/5 of the dimension parallel to such diameter. Sec 1 SECTION 1 MATERIALS 1 1.2. shelves and clamps. in kg/m3. assuming the same species of timber.1. the durability of marine plywood is greater than that of solid timber. larvae. For marine plywood. Such certification is to refer to the checks carried out during building survey in the yard. The durability classes are relative to the solid timber's resistance to moulds. 02 δ 2.1 Timber quality Planking 2.Pt B. bacteria. The use of timber species other than those stated in Table 1 may be accepted provided that the characteristics of the species proposed are as similar as possible to those of one of the species listed. 2.1 The suitable timber species and criteria for the use of alternative species are listed in Table 1. plywood and lamellar structures is to be certified as complying with the provisions of 2. • natural durability and ease of impregnation.1 Suitable timber species the same species in the same ambient conditions. who. Knots may be tolerated when they are intergrown.1 The quality of timber.1 and 2.2 Marine plywood and lamellar structures 2.) which might impair its durability and structural efficiency. this factor contributes in enabling the marine plywood to have a lower moisture content than that of solid timber of S1 : corrected section (or linear dimension) RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 169 .

0 11.8 7. in service conditions. Ch 5.0 13. : maximum expected moisture content balance for the part considered. USDA .0 8.0 15.7 15. Ue Table 1 : Basic physical/mechanical characteristics of timbers for construction Mass density (kg/m3) 800 650 520 660 550 440 650 710 650 640 680 730 600 380 500 550 Natural durability (3) A A/B C A B D D B C B/C A B/C B B/C C/D C/D Ease of impregation (3) 4 4 4 4 4 3 2/3 4 3 3/4 4 4 4 3 3/4 3/4 Mechanical characteristics (4) Rf (N/mm2) 114 85 74 86 79 51 89 125 105 100 100 120 59 51 85 89 Ef (N/mm2) 16000 10000 9600 9300 10300 7800 10200 15600 12500 12000 10600 15000 8500 7600 13400 12800 Rc (N/mm2) 62 52 44 50 46 27 43 68 56 53 58 65 37 31 50 52 Rt (N/mm2) 14. standard moisture content percentage (20% for solid timber.6 7.Bending modulus of elasticity Ef (strength concentrated amidships) .7 11. Sec 1 S δ δe U : : : : Rule section (or linear dimension).8 9.0 10. 170 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . standard density of the timber species of reference. plywood or lamellar structures actually employed.0 13.5 mm) D = not durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 2 mm) Ease of treatment for impregnation 1 = permeable 2 = not very resistant 3 = resistant 4 = very resistant Note (1) (2) (3) (4) Area of natural growth Unified botanical name (spp = different species) Level of natural durability and ease of treatment for impregnation according to Standard EN 350/2 Mechanical characteristics with 12% moisture content.4 Commercial name DOUSSIE IROKO KHAYA MAKORE’ MAHOGANY OKOUME’ ELM OAK SAPELE SIPO TECK WHITE OAK CHESTNUT CEDAR (Western Red) DOUGLAS FIR LARCH Origin (1) Africa Africa Botanical name (2) Afzelia spp Chlorophora excelsa Africa Khaya spp Africa Tieghemella spp America Swietenia spp Africa Aucoumea Kleineana Europe Ulmus spp Europe Quercus robur e Q.Ultimate flexural strength Rf (strength concentrated amidships) .4 6. obtained in accordance with this Chapter density of the timber species (or plywood) used.5 6. petraea Africa Entandrophragma cylindricum Africa Entandrophragma utile Tectona grandis Asia America Quercus spp Europe Castanea spp America Thuja plicata America Pseudotsuga menziesil Europe Larix decidua Abbreviations: Natural durability A = very durable B = durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 5 mm) C = not very durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 2. Reductions in scantlings exceeding those obtained using the formulae above may be accepted on the basis of the mechanical base characteristics of the timber.1987. 15% for plywood or lamellar structures). source: Wood Handbook: wood as an engineering material .Pt B.0 12.Ultimate shear strength Rt (parallel to the grain).Ultimate compression strength Rc (parallel to the grain) .0 12.

bent frames Planking below waterline Planking above waterline Deck planking Beams.Pt B. Sec 1 Table 2 : Guide for selections of construction timbers SPECIES OF TIMBER MahorElm engMakore gany lish II II III III II II II II II II II II II II II STRUCTURAL ITEM Keel. bottom girders Brackets vertical Bracket horizontal Gunwhale margin planks Douglas Cedar(red) Iroko II Larch White oak II II II II II II (1) II (1) II II Oak II II II II II (1) II (1) II Sapeli III III III III Teak I I I I I I II (2) III III III II II III II II II II III II II III III I I I I II II II II II (2) II (2) II (1) II (1) I II II (1) II I II II Note (1) The timber concerned may be employed either in the natural or in the laminated form. Ch 5. hog. dead-woods Stern Bilge stringer Beam shelves clamps water-ways Floors Frames grown or web frames Frames. (2) The timber may be employed only in laminated form. Suitability of timber for use: I = very suitable II = fairly suitable III = scarcely suitable RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 171 . stern-post.

the threading is to penetrate the support frame for a distance equal to the planking thickness. grown or web frames. WORKING AND PROTECTION OF TIMBER 1 1. board or plywood planking. Glues are to be used according to the Manufacturer's instructions on timber with moisture content not exceeding 15-18% or.1 Timber working 2.1 Glues for timber fastenings are to be of resorcinic or phenolic type. Ureaformaldehyde glues may only be used in well-ventilated parts of the hull not subject to humidity. The lamellas are generally to be made using the same species of timber. Ch 5. as well as to the type of hull construction. 172 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . after rivets. Where rivets. all traces of grease are to be removed. Where screw fastenings are used for planking. In general. such replacement of fastening methods will be accepted subject to the satisfactory outcome of tests. All cut edges of plywood are to be sealed with glue. varnishes and paints employed.2 1. The lamellas are to be arranged with their fibres parallel to the length of the element to be constructed. they are to be hot galvanised in accordance with a recognised standard. e. the protective zinc coating on their surfaces is to remain intact.e.1 The use of suitable glues in place of mechanical connections will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. any synthetic resins used as coating are to be applied to dry timber with the utmost care. conducted with procedures stipulated on the basis of the type of glue.1. 1. The timber of the internal bottom of the hull is to be smeared with oil or varnish. also on washers.2.Pt B.1 Inaccessible surfaces of internal hull structures are to be treated with a suitable wood preservative according to the Manufacturer's instructions and compatible with the glues. In any event. Where connecting bolts go through shell planking or keel. Lamellar structure is generally employed for bent structural parts. paint or other suitable products such as to prevent the penetration of moisture along the end-grain. they are to have heads packed with cotton or other suitable material. i. or tightened by a nut. in particular.5-15%. screws and bolts are not made of material recognised as suitable for resisting corrosion from the marine environment. Nuts and washers are to be of the same material as that of the bolts. Through bolts are to be clinched on washers. The parts to be glued are to be carefully prepared and cleaned and. the type of connection and any previous documented applications.1 Protection 1.1 Fastenings representative samples of the joints. RINA reserves the right to require a minimum number of mechanical connections. 2 2. 3 3.1. The lamellas are generally to be made using the same species of timber.g. for urea-type glues. lamellar structures. screws and bolts have been hot galvanised and subsequently machine finished.1 Timber working is to be appropriate to the species and hardness of the timber. Sec 2 SECTION 2 FASTENINGS. on 3. durable and water-resistant in particular.1. with lamellas as continuous as possible or with scarf joints and normally glued before bending. In the absence of such standard. 12.

a < 100 mm 3 bolts at each end of plank . It is therefore of the utmost importance that the Manufacturer should be equipped with adequate facilities for this type of construction.1 This consists of two layers: one internal of plywood. 1. . The number and scantlings of bolts to be used for connection of planking to frames is given in Table1.5.7 1.1 Plywood planking consists of panels as large as practicable in relation to the shape of the hull. and the butts of the sheerstrake are to be arranged clear of those of the waterway.1 The construction of cold moulded laminated planking is to be effected in loco at a constant temperature. The following types of connection are to be adopted: .2 Double diagonal skin 1. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 173 .1 Planks are to be arranged such that strake butts are at least 1. 1.4.3 Double longitudinal skin 1. arranged as described in 1. The plywood thickness is to be not less than 0.Type II framing with grown or laminated frames: through bolts in way of bilge stringers or side longitudinals. where effected in loco. Scarfs are to have length not less than 5 times the planking thickness.6 Double skin with inner plywood and outer longitudinal strakes 1. . Butts may be strapped or scarfed.4 Laminated planking in several coldglued layers 1.200 ≤ a < 250 mm 3 bolts at each end of plank.6.Type I framing: all through fastenings. 1. Fastenings and caulking 1. the other external. 1. The inner skin is to have thickness not exceeding 0.Pt B.1 Shell planking Simple skin The planks forming the laminate are to be of width and thickness adequate for the shape of the hull.1 This consists of an inner and outer skin.4 of the total thickness and to be connected to the frames by means of screws or nails and to the outer skin by means of screws or through bolts. in turn. the connection of butts is to be effected by means of scarfs or straps.3. The connection of seams is to be achieved by means of glue and bolts.3.1 for the connection of planking to frames.5 Plywood planking 1.7. to be backed by straps. and are to be proportionate in number to the width a of panels. Scarfs are to have length not less than 8 times the thickness and.5.4 of the total thickness and an outer skin arranged longitudinally. formed by planks in longitudinal strakes arranged as described in 1. the use of screws is permitted. at least 10 times as wide as the thickness.100 ≤ a < 100 mm 4 bolts at each end of plank .1. 1. Ch 5. to be centred on the frames and to be connected by means of glueing and pivoting. The strap connection is to be effected using straps of the same plywood. the width is generally not to exceed 125 mm.1 Butt-straps on shell planking (see Figure 1) are to be connected by means of through bolts of the scantlings given in Table 6. to be connected to the frames by means of through bolts. glued and fastened. The outer skin is. width so as to overlap adjacent strakes by at least 12 mm and length as necessary for the connection while leaving a space for water drainage between the strap edge and the frame. The butts of garboards are to be arranged clear of those in the keel.4 of the total thickness.Type II framing with metal frames: all connections formed by through bolts with nuts. When frames other than laminated frames are employed.20 metres apart from those of adjacent strakes and at least three continuous strakes separate two butts arranged on the same frame. The number of layers is to be such as to obtain the required thickness. This consists of an inner skin of thickness not exceeding 0. and wooden straps are to have thickness equal to that of the planking. A suitable elastic compound layer is to be arranged between the two skins. The butts are to be suitably staggered from each other and from machinery foundations.2.1 This consists of an inner skin of thickness not exceeding 0. 1. as follows: . wood screws for other connections. Sec 3 SECTION 3 BUILDING METHODS FOR PLANKING 1 1.4 of the total thickness and an outer skin arranged longitudinally. arranged such that the seams of the outer skin fall on the middle of the planks of the inner skin.

2.8 Sheathing of planking 2. 174 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . sunk-in strip. it is to be connected to frames by means of nails or screws spaced 75 mm apart and with diameters as given in Table . laminated or steel frames are concerned. 2. are to have caulked seams and butts. Butts are to be set onto a beam and may be simple or scarfed. When plywood planking is adopted. 2. Ch 5. prior to the fitting of external ballast in the keel.1.1 The butts of planks of two contiguous strakes are to be spaced at least 1. When sheathing is applied.Pt B.4 Longitudinal planking 2 2. grown.3 Plywood sheathed with laid deck 1. false keel and deadwood as far as practicable. two plank butts on the same beam are to be separated by at least three strakes of continuous planking. each plank may connected to thatadjacent by means of a glued. 1. 2. All joints are to be sealed watertight. while the distribution of plank butts is to comply with the provisions of 2. the moisture content of the timber is to be as low as possible.8.1.1 Deck planking Planking 2. Wooden dowels used to cover bolt holes are to be glued.1 Plywood panels are to be as long as possible. Caulking 2.2. Planks of shell planking.5 2.1 When use is made of reinforced plastic or synthetic resin sheathing.4. All fastenings for strengthened frames in way of masts are to be through fastenings.2 Plywood 2.3.1 The butts of plywood panels are to be in accordance with the specifications given in 2. each plank is to be fastened to beams by means of a wood screw or lateral nail.1. if not glued.1. The butts are to be arranged clear of those of adjacent panels and are to be strapped or otherwise set onto a strong beam. the hull is to be prepared by carefully levelling every joint and filling every bolt hole with suitable compounds after adequate sinking of the bolts.20 metres apart.5. where envisaged. Plywood planking is to be glued and riveted to beams. 2. or otherwise fastened by means of screws with pitch not less than 75 mm and diameter in accordance with that shown in Table 1. Sec 3 - Type III framing: connections as above depending on whether bent. In addition.1 When longitudinal planking is adopted.1 Wood planking is to be caulked or made watertight by the application of a suitable elastic compound. Longitudinal joints are to be set onto longitudinal structures of sufficient width for the connection. The protective sheathing is to cover keel.

5 7 7 Copper nails mm 3.5 4.5 8.5 5 5 5. Ch 5.5 6.5 6 6 Wood screws diameter mm Bolts with nuts diameter mm DECK PLANKING NUMBER OF FASTENINGS PER PLANK Width a of plank mm Spessore fasciame mm a < 100 100 ≤ a <150 150 ≤ a <180 180 ≤ a <250 205 ≤ a <225 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 4.5 5.5 5 6.5 6.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 8. stringers.5 5.5 12.5 6. on keel.5 9.5 6.5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 12 12 14 14 wood screws mm 5 5 5 5 5.5 3.5 4.5 Bent frames diameter copper nails mm 2.5 5 5 5.5 3.5 6.5 5.5 5 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 12 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Table 2 : Connections of shell and deck planking in plywood OVERLAP OF SEAMS Thickness of plywood DIAMETER OF FASTENINGS shell and deck planking. or carlings mm 25 28 32 35 35 45 45 50 50 60 60 Width of butt-straps mm Wood screws mm 4.scantlings of fastenings SHELL PLANKING Grown frame: laminated.5 5. shelves.5 7.Pt B.5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8.5 5 5 5 5.5 6.5 7.5 4.5 10 10 Copper nails mm 4.5 9. or steel frames diameter bolts with nuts mm 4.5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 single fastening 150 175 200 225 250 280 350 350 350 380 380 single fastening double fastenings double fastenings RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 175 .5 9.5 5.5 7.5 4.5 3.5 6.5 6 6.5 7.5 6.5 3 3.5 5.5 11 11 12.5 6. Sec 3 Table 1 : Connections of shell and deck planking .5 7 7 8 8 8 8.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 4.

Pt B.Shell planking 3 .Butt . Sec 3 Figure 1 : Butt-straps on shell planking 1 . Ch 5.Frame 2 .strap 176 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .

Tabled scarph 4 . Sec 3 Figure 2 : Usual types of scarf-joints 1 .Hooked scarph 3 .Plan scarph 2 .Tabled hooked scarph 5 .Pt B.Double wedges RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 177 . Ch 5.

Stempost scantlings are given in Table 1.1 The stempost is to be adequately scarfed to the keel and increased in width at the heel as necessary so as to fit the keel fairing. The sternframe is shown in Figure 3 and sternpost scantlings are given in Table 1. The counter stern is to be effectively connected to the sternpost.1 General arranged extending well forward and aft of the mast step and effectively connected to the keel. Table 1 : Keel.1. Where the mast is stepped on the keel. if bolted. The cross-sectional area of the counter stern at the connection with the sternpost is to be not less than that of the latter. The keel thickness is to be maintained throughout the length. The breadth of the rabbet on the keel for the first plating strake is to be at least twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm. scarf joints may be permitted with scarf 6 times as long as the thickness and tip 1/4 to 1/7 of the thickness of the hooked or tabled type. keel and post by means of through bolts.. if glued. the width is to be increased.1. where practicable. while the width may be gradually tapered at the ends so as to be faired to the stem and the sternpost. The wooden keel is to be made of a minimum number of pieces. effective longitudinal stiffeners are to be 4 4. Where this is not practicable. 2 2. 1. The lower portion of the sternpost is to be tenoned or otherwise attached to the keel.1. from gunwale to gunwale.1 Bent frames consist of steam warped listels. Bolted scarfs are to be made watertight by means of softwood stopwaters. Sec 4 SECTION 4 STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF SAILING YACHTS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARY ENGINE 1 1.1.1 Keel 2. It is recommended that scarfs should not be arranged near mast steps or ends of engine foundation girders. The connection is completed by a stern deadwood and a large bracket fastening together false keel. Yachts of length L exceeding 30 metres or hull shapes other than the above will be considered in each case on the basis of equivalence criter. and fitted with fixed ballast or drop keel. such connection is to be effected by scarfs with through bolts.1 Frames Types of frames Bent frames 4.Pt B. Their width and thickness are to be uniform over the whole length. Stempost.1 The scantlings of wooden keels are given in Table 1. the frames are to be in one piece from keel to gunwale and. where practicable. it is to be arranged aft of the forward end of the ballast keel.1 The scantlings in this Section apply to hulls of length L not exceeding 30 metres with round bottom of shape similar to that shown in Figures 1 and 2.1 Stempost and sternpost 3. Ch 5. such area may be reduced at the upper end by 25%. Where the keel is cut for the passage of a drop keel. running continuous above the keel. 3 3. Sternpost : Length L m 24 26 28 30 Keel Width mm 435 455 470 480 Stempost Depth mm 240 255 270 290 Sternpost at head Depth mm 190 200 215 230 at heel Width mm 240 255 270 290 Depth mm 240 255 270 290 Width mm 190 200 215 230 Depth mm 190 200 215 230 Depth mm 190 200 215 230 178 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . or of the plain type.

with one or two intermediate bent frames. Where no floors are arranged. they are to be stiffened by reverse frames of scantlings as prescribed for the reverse frames of plate floors. six consecutive bent frames with a cross-section increased by 60% in respect of that shown in the above-mentioned Table may be fitted. and they are to be glued. outside such zone. The glueing may take place before forming where the latter is slight. and arranged with one or two intermediate bent frames. otherwise it should be carried out in loco or be prefabricated by means of suitable strong moulds.2 Grown frames Grown frames consist of naturally curved timbers connected by means of scarfs.6 of the hull length amidships. 4. Where. Type II : all equal frames. but with constant depth equal to that indicated in Table 3. the following reductions may be applied: • for bent or laminated frames: 10% in width.Pt B. respectively. Their width is to be uniform.2. in the latter case.1. Type III3.1 Floors General The width of frames is to be not less than that necessary for the fastening. • Type II framing Three grown frames are to be fitted. For wooden rectangular sections. When internal ballast supported by the frames is arranged. grown or laminated frames.1. of the bent type. with a cross-section increased by 50% in respect of that required for the heel in the above-mentioned Table and constant depth. may only be employed in association with grown frames and are to be flanked by them. and 20% in depth of the head. are to be arranged at Rule spacing. duly modified where necessary for the specific gravity of the timber and for the frame spacing. If steel frames are adopted. as Type III1. 4. their depth is in any case to be assumed as not less than 2/3 of the width. The internal edge is to be provided with a reverse angle or a flange. When a frame spacing other than that specified in the Table is adopted. • for grown frames: 20% in width throughout the length of the frame. the frames are to be wedged into and fastened at the heels of the centreline structural member of the hull. as a rule. • Wooden floors.3 Laminated frames Laminated frames consist of glued wooden layers. Type III : frames of scantlings as required for Type II. • Type I framing Three grown frames are to be fitted. Ch 5. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 179 . • Type III framing Three grown frames with a cross-section increased by 50% in respect of that required for the heel in the above-mentioned Table. the thickness is to be increased by 10%. Frames are to be properly shaped so as to fit the planking perfectly. grown or laminated frames. it follows that: 2 2 s a 1 b 1 = a ⋅ b --s 1 5 5. an angle lug is to be fitted in way of the throat.2 for the heel. or equivalent arrangements are to be provided. • Angle floors may be employed with either bent.4 Metal frames Steel frames consist of angles properly curved and bevelled such that the flange to planking is closely fayed to the same planking. the section modulus of the frame is to be modified proportionally. in accordance with the provisions of 8. and may be arranged as shown in Table 1. Frames may have a reduction in strength of 25% where cold laminated planking is adopted in loco.2 Framing systems and scantlings 4. with scantlings as required for Type II framing. in way of the mast. laminated or steel angle type. a sufficiently strong bulkhead is provided. or butted and strapped.1. Such frames are to be arranged instead of alternate bent frames. If alternate frames are adopted. Such frames are to be alternated with ordinary grown frames. and constant depth. 5. for the connection to the wooden keel (see the above Table). Sec 4 4. of grown. a being the width and b the height of the Rule section for the spacing s. • metal frames: 10% in thickness. while their depth is to be gradually tapered from heel to head. When they are arranged with a flange inside. • Metal floors are employed in association with either bent. Otherwise. but alternated with one.1 The admissible framing systems and the frame scantlings are indicated in Tables 2 and 3: Type I : all equal frames. two or three bent frames. Type III2. a1 and b2 the actual values for the assumed spacing s1. and are arranged on the internal profile of the frames. except where increased width is required for local strengthening in way of masts.1. three are to be stiffened by reverse frames with scantlings as required for the frames of plate floors. • Plate floors may be employed in association with either grown or angle frames (see the above-mentioned Table). These types are hereafter referred to. such increased frames may be reduced in number to two. the latter are to be increased in scantlings. The length of scarfs is to be not less than 6 times the width.1 Floors may be made of wood or metal (steel or aluminium alloy). are to be maintained for 0. The Table scantlings. Frames adjacent to masts are to be strengthened on each side as follows. 4.

(2) The scantlings of bars are given for guidance purposes.20 305 322 340 355 375 390 408 For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel. a floor is to be fitted in way of every grown. may be assumed in place of 0. or laminated frames. Table 2 : Frames TYPE II Grown frames. so as to be not less than three and a half times the diameter of the bolt. The frame spacing is intended as that measured amidships of the frames widths. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. floors are to be fitted inside 0.6 L amidships.20 TYPE III Main frames (grown or laminated) alternated with bent frames Spacing between main frames and intermediate frames 1 bent frame mm 515 560 590 620 650 680 - Bent frames length mm 43 45 48 50 53 56 - 2 bent frames mm 620 650 690 725 765 800 - 3 bent frames mm 695 730 770 800 840 870 - depth mm 33 35 39 43 47 51 - For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel.5 14.75 D1.5 width mm 57 62 67 72 77 82 - depth mm 40 43 46 49 52 55 - width mm 61 68 75 81 87 94 100 depth mm at heel 74 83 91 100 112 124 140 at head 53 58 68 80 92 100 117 depth mm 52 59 66 74 84 94 102 Scantlings mm (2) 50x50x5 60x30x6 65x50x7 75x50x6 80x60x7 90x60x7 90x60x8 3.00 3. 5. if necessary.1 The scantlings of floors are given in Tables 4 and 5. • on every second frame inside 0. • on every second frame if the hull depth does not exceed 2. 0.25. and their height at the ends is to be not less than half the height of the throat.4 6 7. a floor is to be fitted on the central frame. • on every third frame elsewhere. Solution I is only applicable where D1. Where Type III framing is adopted.25.9 10. Sec 4 5. does not exceed 3. At the hull ends.40 3.00 4.Pt B.75 D1.60 metres.00 3. For yachts with a drop keel.00 4. and outside such area over an extent corresponding to the length on the waterline. Where three intermediate bent frames are arranged.6 L amidships.80 4.60 metres. floors are to be fitted on bent frames located inside 0. Where the ballast keel bolts cross wooden floors.75 D1.60 3.2. (1) Table 3 : Frames Depth D1 mm (1) 3.6 L amidships as follows.3. or steel frames only Grown frames spacing mm 288 Depth D1 mm (1) TYPE I Bent frames only spacing mm 215 225 235 245 255 265 - Laminated frames width mm 81 93 103 117 122 131 143 Steel frames Section modulus cm3 3. For yachts with a drop keel. laminated or angle frame. the length of arms need not exceed one third of the frame span. the value 1.20 3.40 3. The frame spacing is intended as that measured amidships of the frames widths.20 3.15 D is taken in lieu of D1. the value 1. may be assumed in place of 0.40 metres. the width of the latter at the throat is to be locally increased.2 Arrangement of floors depth D exceeds 2.75 metres and on every frame in hulls of greater depth.80 4.3 Scantlings and fastenings 5.60 3. Solution I is only applicable where D1 does not exceed 3. Ch 5. Wooden floors are to be made of suitably grained or laminated timber.15 D is taken in lieu of D1. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. (1) 180 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 4.75 D1.2 12. Where one or two intermediate bent frames are arranged. 0.1 Where Type I framing with bent frames is adopted (see Tables 2 and 3). and the 5.

Pt B. The scantlings of angle floors are given for guidance purposes.20 3.00 4. however.00 3.60 3.5 - Plate floors on grown or steel floors for 2/3 L amidships mm 300x5 320x5 330x5 340x6 345x6 350x6 360x6 at the ends mm 24x6 25x6 27x6 28x6 - scantlings mm 40x40x4 40x40x4 40x40x4 40x40x4 - outside 2/3 L amidships mm 200x4 220x4 230x4 240x4 245x4 250x4 260x4 3. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. 0. Floors are to be connected to frames by at least three bolts for arms with length l < 250 mm and at least 6 bolts for greater l. stiffeners are to be fitted to prevent excessive discontinuity due to the interruption of the deck. At the end of the hull.90 6.80 4. When the weather deck is not continuous owing to the presence of raised decks.. Lugs for the connection of angle or plate floors to the wooden keel.60 3. for diameters of bolts.00 4.00 10.60 5. reverse lugs are to be fitted in order to allow connection to the beam shelf. whenever practicable. Scarfs are generally arranged vertically.15 D is taken in lieu of D1. may be assumed in place of 0.25.15 D is taken in lieu of D 1.25.90 9.20 3.5 1. the value 1. If metal frames are adopted. For yachts with a drop keel. if penetrated by the ballast keel bolts. For bolt scantlings.1. waterway and bracket joints.1 Beam shelves.5 mm. the connection is to be effected by means of glued scarfs adequately arranged so as to be staggered in respect of the sheerstrake.25 circa. are to have a flange width at least three times the diameter of the bolt and thickness equal to that of the plate floor plus 2.4 1.0 scantlings mm 45x45x5 50x50x6 55x55x8 60x60x8 60x60x8 65x65x9 70x70x9 (1) (2) For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel.4 1. The scantlings of frames may be required to be increased.70 6. at the end. the frames are to be attached to the centre structure by means of three through-bolts. the value 1.20 Length of arms forged floors at throat mm 56x22 60x24 64x26 69x28 73x30 77x31 80x31 wooden floors width mm 51 56 60 64 70 75 80 steel angle floors (2) for 3/5 L amidships mm 580 610 650 680 720 750 780 outside 3/5 L amidship mm 430 460 500 530 560 590 620 at the ends mm 50x12 52x13 54x14 56x16 58x17 61x18 63x20 depth mm 135 148 160 170 180 190 200 section modulus cm3 2. Outside such zone. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. the cross-section may be gradually decreased to reach. the shelf is to extend to the hull end or. For yachts with a drop keel. When Type III framing is adopted. 0. Where angle frames are employed.40 3.1 The cross-sectional area of beam shelves through 0. The scantlings of angle floors are given for guidance purposes.80 4.20 (1) (2) For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel. see Table 10. 6 6. The shelves are to be connected to each frame by a through bolt for heights < 180 mm and by two through bolts for greater heights. Sec 4 Table 4 : Frames FLOORS ON BENT FRAMES Depth D1 mm (1) Length of arms mm 430 465 495 530 - forged at throat mm 29x15 31x16 33x17 35x17 - steel angle floors (2) section modulus cm3 1. Ch 5. bilge stringers Beam shelves 6.6 L amidships is to be not less than that indicated in Table 6. Where beam shelves are made of two or more pieces.75 D1. the shelf is to rest on the bent frames with interposition of suitable chocks. when frames are continuous through the centre structure. bolting of the shelf is to be effected on a reverse lug. può essere assunto 0.75 D1 may be assumed in place of D1.40 3.75 D1.00 3. see Table 10. alternatively.40 3. beam clamps in way of masts. floors need not be fitted. The cross-section to be considered is to be inclusive of the dappings for fixing of beams. a value equal to 75% of that shown. Table 5 : Frames FLOORS ON GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES Depth D1 mm (1) 3. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 181 .

1 In way of masts. these are to be connected to the stringer by means of a reverse lug.50 6. The greater dimension of the stringer is to be arranged against the frames. Ch 5. these are to be connected by means of glued scarfs parallel to the planking.6 L amidships not less than that given in Table 6. Outside such zone. When Type III framing is adopted. and s1 the assumed spacing. may be arranged so that its wider side is faying to the beams and leaning against the shelf or. mm 61 72 78 85 93 98 107 116 128 140 Depth at midbeam mm 72 80 90 99 106 114 121 129 132 146 at beam ends mm 50 57 63 69 75 80 86 92 96 105 at midbeam mm 54 61 67 74 80 87 95 103 113 125 at beam ends mm 43 48 53 57 62 65 69 71 74 76 at mid-beam mm 81 91 101 111 120 128 136 144 156 168 at beam ends mm 61 72 78 85 93 98 107 116 128 140 3. 7.00 7.1 The beam shelves and the stringers are to be connected to each other at the hull ends.50 5.50 7.50 4. Where the spacing adopted is other than that shown in the Table. such breasthooks are to be given adequate attention. Such scarfs are to be properly staggered in the port and starboard stringers and arranged clear of the joints of other longitudinal elements.4. of length approximately equal to the hull breadth in the same position. a beam clamp is to be arranged. two side stringers having crosssection equal to 60% of that required for the bilge stringer may be fitted. 6.00 4.4 End breasthooks 6. In lieu of a bilge stringer. following correction as necessary for the weight of the timber employed. a bilge stringer is to be arranged.1 Beams Scantlings of beams 6. at the ends.2 Beam clamps in way of masts 6. 6. alternatively. HALF BEAMS Depth Width mm 39 47 48 52 57 59 62 64 67 69 STRONG BEAMS Depth Width. having cross-section for 0.00 3.50 350 390 430 480 520 560 600 640 680 720 182 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .2. the cross-section may be decreased to reach.3.Pt B. Such clamp. Laminated beams may be reduced in width by 15%. chocks are to be fitted for the connection between stringer and intermediate bent frames. Where angle frames are adopted.1 The scantlings of beams are given in Table 7.1. Strong beams are to be fitted in way of openings which cause more than two beams to be cut and in way of masts. a1 and b2 are the width and height of the modified section. by means of suitable breasthooks or brackets. s is the Rule spacing. it may be arranged below the shelf.00 6.1 In hulls with Type I or Type III framing. Table 6 : Beam shelves and bilge stringers Length L (m) 24 26 28 30 Cross-sectional area of beam shelves cm2 190 220 250 280 Cross-sectional area of bilge stringers cm2 140 160 175 190 Table 7 : Beams ORDINARY BEAMS FOR 3/5 L AMIDSHIPS Length of beam m Spacing mm Widt h mm 45 51 57 62 68 72 78 83 86 95 ORDINARY BEAMS OUTSIDE 3/5 L AMIDSHIPS. with cross-section equal to approximately 75% of that required for shelves.3 Bilge stringers 7 7. are to be modified in accordance with the following relationship: 2 2 s a 1 b 1 = a ⋅ b --s 1 where a and b are the width and height of the Rule crosssection.00 5. a value equal to 75% of that required. When the stringer is built of two or more pieces. when deemed necessary by RINA. In hulls with exceptionally raked ends. the scantlings. and with the centreline structure. Sec 4 6.

the length of knee arms may be not more than one third of the span of the beam or frame.3 metres. 8 8.6 mm for every 100 mm of difference if Type I framing is adopted.4 Lower deck and associated beams 7. In the above-mentioned Table. After correction for spacing as indicated above. four strong beams are to be fitted.00 5. 7.50 7. Sheathing of the hull is not required.50 6.2 End attachments of beams 7. para.1 Planking Shell planking 8.1 Beams are to be dovetailed on the shelf. but constant section equal to that indicated for amidships. the thickness may be decreased by 25% where the frames have not been reduced in respect of the requirements of the Table.4. where necessary. If the frame spacing is other than that indicated in Table 2. Ch 5. The beams are to be arranged. the planking thickness may be reduced: by 10% if arranged in diagonal or longitudinal double skin. vertical knees are to be arranged no smaller in scantlings than prescribed in Table 8 as a function of the beam span.00 4. measured as specified above. by 10% if laminated and cold moulded in loco. or may be reduced where there is smaller spacing. When the depth. and in way of foundations of winches.00 3.1 The beams and decks are to be locally strengthened at the attachments of halliards. by: .50 14. with scantlings as prescribed in Table 7.1. At the ends of the hull. All openings on deck are to be properly framed so as to constitute an effective support for half beams. in copper or reinforced plastics. e.8). where envisaged.6 h for naturally curved wooden knees and not less than 1. Vertical knees are to be fitted. metres. in this case. Each arm of the knees is to be connected to the shelf and the frame by means of 4 bolts.00 16.00 4. Such thickness is to be modified as follows. Horizontal knees are to be fitted in way of hatch-end beams and beams adjacent to mast wedgings.00 7.50 Number (1) of knees on each side 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 LENGTH OF ARMS for 3/5 L amidships mm 400 440 490 530 570 610 650 700 740 780 FORGED KNEES at throat mm 34x17 41x20 48x23 53x26 57x28 62x30 67x32 72x34 78x35 81x37 STEEL ANGLE KNEES dimensionamento (2) mm 40x40x5 50x50x5 55x55x5 60x60x6 75x50x6 75x50x7 90x60x7 90x60x8 100x65x7 100x65x8 outside 3/5 L amidships mm 320 350 390 420 450 490 520 560 590 620 at the ends mm 30x7 37x7 42x8 46x9 49x10 52x11 54x12 55x14 57x16 58x17 section modulus cm3 1. a lower deck or cabin deck is to be arranged and fitted with beams having scantlings not less than 60% of those of the weather deck. with a diameter as shown in Table 10. to the extent required in Table 8.00 PLATE KNEES thickness mm 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 (1) (2) The number of knees is given on the basis of the maximum breadth B of the hull. 7. In way of mast weldings. Bulkheads of adequate scantlings. using the column for the length of beam. bollards and cleats. to strong beams and to suitably distributed ordinary beams.2.4 h for laminated wooden knees. The scantlings of angles are only given as indications.1 In hulls with depth. .3. measured from the upper side of the wooden keel to the weather deck beam at side > 3 m. h being the depth at heel of a grown frame. the thickness may be reduced in relation to the type of framing adopted. in proximity of the web frames dealt with in 4.Pt B. in place of the dovetail a simple dapping may be adopted. and in number equal to half of those required for the weather deck. connected to the beam and frame. the beam is to be fastened to the shelf by means of a screw or pin.30 5. it will be considered by RINA on a case-by-case basis (see Sec 6.50 5.00 6. the scantlings of forged plate knees are given.70 3.1 The basic thickness of shell planking is given in Table 9. the depth at the throat is to be not less than 1.90 7.50 4. the maximum reduction permitted is 25%. 1.4 mm for every 100 mm of difference if Type II or III framing is adopted.2.30 11. and for the weight of the timber. When plywood deck planking is employed. can be considered as substitutes for knees.3 Local strengthening 7. when the frames are reduced in scantlings by 25% in respect of the value given in Table 2.g. as far as practicable. When plywood is employed. 7. exceeds 4.50 9. which need not go through the planking.00 19. the thickness is to be increased where there is greater spacing. These knees need not be arranged when plywood deck planking is adopted. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 183 . having depth not less than 1/4 of the beam depth. Sec 4 Table 8 : Vertical knees of beams Length of beams m 3. at skylight ends.

• plywood with associated planks as above. reinforced plastics or other approved coverings. the seams are to be made watertight by the application of a suitable elastic compound approved by RINA.2 3. the timber is to be protected by suitable preservative solutions or paints. or steel frames mm 8 9 10 12 12 14 14 14 16 16 Bent frames mm 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 - ≤2. • if plywood is adopted in association with planking. In addition.2. when the planking thickness is less than 19 mm. the thickness may be reduced by 30%. or steel frames mm 12 12 14 14 16 18 20 20 20 22 in the arms Bent frames mm 8 9 10 12 12 14 14 - Grown.2 Deck planking 8.8 3 3. and the combined thickness may be reduced by 30%. or less than 6. Guardrail stanchions are to be fastened by at least two pins. • if plywood is employed. The fixed fittings on deck. Ch 5. ballards and fairleads.1 Deck planking may be: • constituted by planks parallel to the gunwale limited by a stringer board at side and by a kingplank at the centreline.5 47.5 mm. A further reduction of 1. • plywood. Before applying such insulating materials to the basements.basic thickness Length L m 24 26 28 30 Shell and deck planking mm 45.6 3.6 2.Pt B. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the combined thickness.5 mm may be applied to the deck thickness when the deck is sheathed with nylon.2 FASTENINGS OF LONGITUDINAL STRUCTURES Diameter of bolts Length of yacht L m Centreline structures of yachts mm Scarfs and breasthook arms mm 14 14 16 18 Beamshelves and beam knees mm 11 11 12 14 24 26 28 30 20 20 22 22 184 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . one of which is to be a through pin. Sec 4 8.5 50 52 Deck planking in deckhouses and coachroofs mm 26 27 28 29 Coamings of coachroofs mm 36 36 36 36 Table 10 : Floor fastenings Diameter of bolts Depth of yacht D m at throat Grown. The thickness of the deck is given in Table 9 and is subject to the following modifications: • if the beam spacing is other than that indicated in Table 7. Table 9 : Planking .4 3.4 2. are to be well secured on suitable basements and isolated by means of coatings of appropriate materials. the specific mass of the plywood/planking assembly is to be not less than 430 kg/m3. or laminated. or laminated. windlasses.8 4 4. in particular winches. the thickness is to be modified by 3 mm for every 100 mm of variation in spacing.

Sec 4 8.Pt B. If the beam spacing is other than that indicated in Table 5.37 9. The scantlings of masts and rigging are left to the experience of builders and shipowners. and in stainless steel AISI 316 18/10 (ASTM-A 368-55) 1x19 wires. For shrouds and stays in wire and not in rod. The wedging on deck is to be provided with watertight means. The structure of deckhouses is to be similar to that required for coachroofs. 2 8. the hull is to be strengthened in way by means of a bulkhead or a stiffened frame. 1 Col. the thickness is to be modified by 3 mm for every 100 mm of difference in spacing.22 52. they are to have a coaming fastened to the beams and carlings by means of through bolts. Deck openings for skylights are to be well framed and provided with shutters of adequate thickness. in spiral shape. Ch 5.63 7. 1).2 59.1 Each yacht is to be provided with masts.73 21. deckhouses are to be adequately stiffened to the satisfaction of RINA.3.2 for the weather deck. The mast step is to be of strong construction.2 38. When deckhouses are adopted.55 14.0 Col. in spiral shape (col. Depending on their size. and is to be extended so as not to be connected to the transverse and longitudinal framing of the bottom of the hull. the breaking loads of wires in galvanised steel 160 UNI 4434.5 29.3 Superstructures . Care will be taken by the RINA Surveyor. the underlying structure is to be strengthened in way such as to avoid giving way. The coachroof deck is to have sheathing as prescribed in Table 9. though such sheathing may be reduced in thickness in accordance with the specifications in 8.90 41.39 117. 2) are included below for information purposes.36 13. however.2 21. When the mast rests on deck. in verifying that the attachments of 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 7.75 13.97 83.60 29.Skylights 8.1 When coachroofs are adopted. shrouds and stays to the hull are such as to withstand at least twice the load expected on such rigging.73 122. rigging and sails sufficient in number and in good condition.94 65. Table 11 Breaking load kN Diameter (mm) Metallic cross-section (mm2) 5. 1x19 wires (col.72 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 185 .73 20. If the mast rests on a coachroof. the opening on deck is to be well framed and the coaming on the weather deck is to be not less in thickness than that required in Table 9.43 40.7 86.60 54.4.10 30.4 Masts and rigging 8.

Floors 11 .Stringers 17 .External ballast Figure 1 : Sailing yachts .Constructional profile 3 .Stempost RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 6 .Stern counter 14 .Upper stern 15 .Rudder 9 . Sec 4 1 .Rabbet 5 .Mizzen step 7 .186 Pt B.Wood keel 8 .Frames 16 .Knee 13 . Ch 5.Beams 2 .Shelves 18 .Hog 4 .Propeller aperture 10 .Sternpost .Mainmast step 12 .

Deck planking 14 .Sheerstrake 10 .Beam clamp 12 .Top "Coachroof" RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 187 . Ch 5.Ballast 3 .Bottom simple planking 7 .Side planking "Coachroof" 20 . Sec 4 Figure 2 : Midship section 1 .Half beams 13 .Floor 5 .Stay seam 17 .Seam 16 .Planking outer skin 9 .Shelf 11 .Coaming "Coachroof" 19 .Beam "Coachroof" 21 .Shelf "Coachroof" 22 .Stringers 6 .Waterway 15 .Pt B.Planking inner skin 8 .Wood keel 2 .Carling 18 .Frame 4 .

Hog 6 .Rudder 8 .Propeller aperture 9 . Sec 4 1 .Stern counter 10 .188 Figure 3 : Sternframe Pt B.Rabbet 4 .Sternpost RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 5 . Ch 5.External ballast 3 .Knee .Heel piecedl 2 .Wood keel 7 .

Sec 4 Figure 4 : Typical floors L = lenght of arms ANGLE FLOOR WOOD FLOOR h = height of floor ANGLE FLOOR PLATE FLOOR RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 189 .Pt B. Ch 5.

comprising those between the chine stringers and the waterways.Pt B. if bolted.1. beams. or yachts with round keels. Such scantlings are to be maintained up to the stem end. The scarfs are to be 6 times the thickness and of hooked or tabled type. The thickness of transom planking is to be equal to that given in Table 2 (col. Stempost scantlings are given in Table 1 and a typical sternframe is shown in Figure 3.1. the scantlings are determined by equivalence criteria. are butted in way of the centreline and connected by means of a double plywood floor. arranged in way of keel and bottom girders. are to have a cross-section with a height equal to that of the side frames and width increased by 50%. The transom structure consists of a frame having profile parts with a cross-section not less than 120% of bottom frames. one port and one starboard of the keel. 3 3.1 Transom The bottom frames.1 The minimum breadth of the keel and the aggregate cross-sectional area of keel and hog frame are given in Table 1. side frames.1 The scantlings in this Section apply to yachts of length L ≤ 35 metres with a chine hull of the type shown in Figures 1 and 2 and speed not exceeding 40 knots.1. while they may be reduced by 30% at the stern end. if glued. the keel and hog frame are to be scarfed.1. 190 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . Where they are made from a number of pieces. the length may be reduced to not less than 4 times the thickness where the scarf is bolted and glued. Ch 5. 2 2. The keel scarfs are to be spaced not less than 1. generally made of two pieces.1 The ordinary framing of the hull is divided into three parts: bottom frames. 2).1 Keel . 4.5 metres apart from those of the hog frame. 3. the structure's vertical stiffeners.stempost 4 4.1 General 1.1 Floors and frames General 2.1 som. The side frames are in one piece connected to the bottom frames by means of double plywood brackets. Sec 5 SECTION 5 STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF MOTOR YACHTS 1 1. comprising those between the keel and the chine stringers. or of plain type. For yacht which differ substantially from the above as regards dimensions and/or speed. moreover. In chine hulls. with any modifications required in accordance with those specified for shell planking. side frames or beams. The stiffeners above are generally to be spaced not more than 600 mm apart. the sternpost is replaced by a tran- The beams are connected to the side frames by means of double plywood brackets.

so as to constitute main transverse strengthening elements of the hull. alternatively.1 The connection of bottom frames to side frames and of the latter to beams is to be achieved be means of double brackets similar to those described for floors.2 Bottom and side frames 4. extend at the yacht's centreline to a height not less than twice that prescribed for the heel of such frames and over- Table 2 : Shell and deck planking Lenght L m 1 24 26 28 30 SHELL PLANKING Type I and II framing mm 2 32 34 36 37.5 Weather deck planking mm 4 32 34 36 37.3 Floors 4. Ch 5. the scantlings are as prescribed for Type I frames. deckhouses. 4. a reduction in keel area of 10% in respect of that prescribed may be permitted. In lieu of the brackets above. this type of framing is to be associated with double-skin cross planking or cold moulded laminated multi-layer planking or. Type II : solid or laminated frames.85 of that given in col. Only the former are connected by means of floors and brackets. A keel cross-section reduced such as to be not less than 0. at the centreline. preferably dovetailing the beam on the shelf (with glueing and pivoting). 4 and 5. associated with bent longitudinals. but overlapping both frames and beams by a distance not less than twice their respective depths (see Figures 5 and 6). and provided that transverse bulkheads are arranged. with spacing not exceeding approximately 2 metres.2. Sec 5 Table 1 : Keel and stempost KEEL Length L m 1 24 26 28 30 STEMPOST Cross-section at heel cm2 5 413 462 516 570 Minimum breadth mm 2 230 245 260 280 Cross-section of keel or keel and hog (1) cm2 3 413 462 516 570 Width at heel and at head mm 4 230 245 260 280 Cross-section at head cm2 6 289 324 361 399 (1) Where there is no hog frame.Pt B.1) are to have thickness equal to half that required for the latter.4. of constant scantlings throughout the length of the hull. with plywood planking. lap the frames by a distance not less than 2. the frames may be shaped so as to have. 4.5 Type III framing mm 3 28.5 30 32 33. and that no superstructure is arranged on the weather deck. 3 may be accepted provided that the difference is compensated by an increased cross-section of girders. For floors.5 times their depth so as to constitute an effective connection by means of glue and clenched bolts. the frame-beam connection may be effected by simply overlapping.3. alternated with one or two bent frames. Type III : solid or laminated frames. see Figure 4. a depth above the keel equal to that required for the heel of the frames.4 Frame and beam brackets 4.5 Deck of superstructures (quarterdeck. where three different types of frames are considered: Type I : solid or laminated frames.1 Frame scantlings are given in Tables 3.1 The floors connecting bottom frames (see 4. trunks) mm 5 21 21 21 21 Table 3 : Frames RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 191 . coachroofs. alternatively. The space between the two floors above the frames is to be fitted with a chock. 4.

but in such case the bottom planking thickness given in Table 2 is to be augmented such as to achieve a cross-section throughout the bottom increased by at least half that of the longitudinals. Table 5 : Frames TYPE III FRAMING (GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES OR BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS) Depth D m Spacing of web mm width mm 3.5 3.65 of those described above and not fastened to the planking.7 3. continuous over bottom frames.1 3.3 3.7 3. at least two continuous girders are to be fitted each side. mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth mm 85 94 103 114 125 143 3.9 Spacing between main frames and alternate frames one bent frame mm 560 590 620 two bent frame mm 650 690 725 three bent frames mm 730 770 800 width mm 36 38 40 Bent frames depth mm 25 27 30 - 5 5.3 3. Sec 5 TYPE I FRAMING (EITHER GROWN.5 3.1 3. mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth at heel mm 127 140 148 162 178 200 at head mm 116 127 135 148 162 182 Laminated frames width. OR LAMINATED FRAMES ONLY) BETWEEN KEEL AND CHINE Depth D m Spacing of web mm 322 340 355 375 390 408 Grown frames width. Such girders.9 Table 4 : Frames TYPE II FRAMING (EITHER GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES WITH BENT FRAMES IN BETWEEN) Depth D mm 3.9 640 680 710 750 780 820 37 41 46 52 58 62 BETWEEN KEEL AND CHINE Grown frames depth at heel mm 148 160 176 192 208 232 at head mm 126 136 150 163 176 197 width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 depth mm 92 103 112 124 135 156 Laminated frames width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 BETWEEN CHINE AND DECK Grown frames depth at heel mm 104 112 122 135 146 160 at head mm 94 106 110 115 122 129 width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 depth mm 84 93 103 113 123 142 Laminated frames Table 6 : Frames 192 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 . but with a cross-section reduced to 0. Ch 5.1. Such longitudinal may be omitted where Type III framing is adopted. set on a bent longitudinal continuous through the floors and connected to the planking. with a cross-section not less than 90 cm 2.1 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.Pt B. is to be fitted on side frames.0 3.1 On bottom frames. mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth mm 93 104 113 125 135 157 width mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 BETWEEN CHINE AND DECK Grown frames depth at heel mm 103 117 122 131 143 156 at head mm 90 108 110 115 123 130 Laminated frames width. A similar longitudinal.1 Side girders and longitudinals 5.0 3. The chocks and the bent longitudinal may be omitted. are to be connected to the bottom planking by means of chocks between frames.

1 Beams Table 7 Coefficients for calculation of beam section modulus Beam span (m) K1 At the At the At the ends centreline centreline ≤2 2.9 38.5 6. with bracket connection and intermediate beams. .7 28.1 18.4 35.7 12.3 3.8 35 40.3 17.1 36. Table 8 Length L of the hull (m) 24 26 28 30 32 35 Cross-sectional area of beam shelves (cm2) 95 110 125 140 155 177 Cross-sectional area of chine stringers (cm2) 112 128 140 152 164 182 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 193 .5 56.1 17.9 6 6.1. the section moduli Z1 and Z2 may be reduced to 0.2 23.5 3 3. Beams are to have width equal to that of the frames to which they are connected and section modulus. in cm s : beam spacing.3 18 22.5 14. Where laminated beams are arranged.5 70 73.5 81 K2 At the end 11.for hulls with Type I framing: beams on every frame.1 The arrangement of beams is generally to be carried out as follows: .1 Beam shelves and chine stringers 7.5 5 5. Sec 5 TYPE III FRAMING (GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES OR BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS) Depth D m BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS spacing mm 285 300 315 330 345 360 between keel and chine width mm 45 48 50 53 55 58 depth mm 30 33 36 39 42 45 between chine and deck width mm 45 48 50 53 55 58 depth mm 25 27 30 33 36 39 3.5 7 7.2 27.1.7 31.5 3.6 25.5 13.Pt B. where h is the depth and t the thickness of the bar.5 4 4. in cm 3.7 39.4 6.8 60 63.9 14. Ch 5.9 16.5 10.85 of those indicated above.1 The cross-sectional area of beam shelves and chine stringers is to be not less than that given by Table 8 below as a function of L and to have the ratio h/t < 3.7 22. 7 7.5 20.0 3.3 30.2 24.6 43. beams are to be fitted having a section modulus.4 15.43 8.7 52.7 28.2 45. let into the shelf. not less than: Z2 = K2 ⋅ a ⋅ s where: : section modulus of beams without planking Z1. in cm3 a : width of beams.7 3.K2 beam span.5 6 6.for hulls with Type II or III framing: beams in way of solid or laminated frames.6 48. not less than: Z1 = K1 ⋅ a ⋅ s At the ends of large openings.1 19. without brackets. in cm : coefficient given by Table 7 as a function of the K1. The cross-section of shelves and stringers is to be considered as inclusive of the dappings for beam and frame ends. in cm3.6 32.1 3.6 40.5 23 23 31 38.Z2 contribution.

2. Sec 5 8 8. the fastening of beams to side is to be completed by means of plywood brackets arranged at least at every second beam and having scantlings as prescribed in 4. the planking thickness may be reduced: by 10% if a diagonal or longitudinal double-skin planking is adopted. 9. by 10% for every 100 mm of difference. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the total thickness or less than 6 mm. measured between the upper keel side and the weather deck beam. Moreover.2 Superstructure decks Moreover.1.1 The thickness of planking of superstructure decks is given in Table 2. 9. by 15% if composite planking constituted by inner plywood skin and one or two outer longitudinal diagonal strakes is adopted. by 25% if laminated planking (i. as measured above. a lower or cabin deck is to be arranged.1. accordingly.3 Lower deck When the deadrise is between 25° and 30° and outer longitudinal strakes are fitted on the bottom planking.3.1 Deck planking Weather deck 8.2. the above increase in thickness may be reduced but is generally to be no less than half of the percentage values above.e. the planking thickness is to be increased or may be reduced. When the depth. If the frame spacing is other than that shown in Table 3.1 In hulls with depth. greater than or equal to 3. at least three coldmoulded layers) or plywood is adopted.1 The basic thickness of shell planking is given in Table 2. accordingly. with beams having a section modulus not less than 60% of that prescribed in Article 6 for weather deck beams and effectively fastened to the sides by means of a shelf with a ross-sectional area not less than 2/3 of that required in Table 8. yachts with speed > 25 knots are to have bottom frames (floors and longitudinals) stiffened in respect of the scantlings in this Section and planking thickness increased as follows (for deadrise = 25°) in respect of the values in Table 2: speed from 26 to 30 knots: 5% speed from 31 to 35 knots: 10% speed from 36 to 40 knots: 15%. 9. by 10% for every 100 mm of difference. If the beam spacing is other than that prescribed in 4.2.10 metres. 194 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .1 Deck planking may be constituted by planks flanked by a stringer board at side and by a kingplank at the centreline.Pt B. After correction for spacing.4. 9. the planking thickness is to be increased or may be reduced.1. Such thickness is subject to the reductions and increases for weather deck planking as provided for in 9. Such planking may be solely plywood or plywood with associated planking arranged as described above.1 Shell planking Thickness of shell planking 9 9. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the total thickness or less than 6 mm. After correction for spacing.30 metres. the planking thickness may be reduced by 30% if plywood or plywood associated with planking is employed. Ch 5. The thickness of deck planking is given in Table 2. The scantlings of the deck planking are to be not less than those required in 9. - 9. exceeds 4.

Grown frame Figure 1 : Motor yachts .Stempost Pt B. Ch 5.Beam 2 .Shelf 10 .Transom frame 14 .Chine knees 15 .Transom frame 7 .Chine stringer 5 .Beam knees 17 .Bent frame 6 .Keel 8 .Knee 11 .RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 1 . Sec 5 195 .Floors 16 .Constructional profile 4 .Stem 9 .Transom stiffeners 12 .Apron 13 .Hog 3 .

Deck planking .Side frame 5 .Deck planking . Sec 5 1 .Bent frame .Bottom frame 4 .Waterway RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 3 .Bottom and side planking Outer skin 17.Deadwood 12.Hog 8 .Beam 9 .Keel 2 .Outer skin 19.Double knee 10.Chine 7 .Bottom and side planking Inner skin 16.Shelf 14.Bottom stringers 11 .Side stringers 13. Ch 5.Carling 15.196 Figure 2 : Midship section Pt B.Double knee 6 .Inner skin 18.

Pt B, Ch 5, Sec 5

Figure 3 : Stem

4 - Stempost

5 - Apron 3 - Stem 2 - Hog

1 - Keel

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

197

198 Figure 4 : Detail of floor

Pt B, Ch 5, Sec 5

1 - Keel

4 - Bottom stringer 5 - Bent frame 6 - Planking - Inner skin

7 - Planking - Outer skin 8 - Double floor

2- Hog

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

3 - Bottom frame

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

Figure 5 : Detail of floor

1 - Bottom frame 2 - Side frame 3 - Double knees 4 - Chine stringer

5 - Planking - Inner skin 6 - Planking - Outer skin 7 - Chine

Pt B, Ch 5, Sec 5

199

200 Figure 6 : Detail of gunwale connection

Pt B, Ch 5, Sec 5

1 - Side frame 2 - Beam 3 - Double knees 4 - Shelf 5 - Hull planking - Inner skin

6 - Hull planking - Outer skin 7 - Deck planking - Inner skin 8 - Deck planking - Outer skin 9 - Waterway 10 - Rubbing piece

RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006

4 4. i.5 mm for every 100 mm of difference in spacing.e.1 Where ceilings or internal linings are arranged. Bulkheads are to be caulked or made watertight by means of suitable gaskets. Sec 6 SECTION 6 WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS. power and type of machinery. Connection to the hull is to be effected by means of a grown or laminated frame and made watertight by packing where necessary.1 The scantlings of floors. their suitability and that of associated connections is to be satisfactory with particular regard to engine running and navigation tests when required by these Rule. When all strakes are horizontal. MACHINERY SPACE 1 1. as far as practicable. Ch 5.1 Steel watertight bulkheads are to be of thickness as shown in Table 1 as a function of the spacing of stiffeners and the height of the bulkhead.1 Internal lining of hull and drainage 2 2. is to be scarfed or strapped in way of vertical stiffeners. any watertight bulkheads and doors are to be tested using a strong jet of water. As regards the number of watertight bulkheads. the thickness of the third and higher strakes may be decreased by a maximum of 0. and provided with watertight packing where necessary. The spacing of vertical stiffeners is not to exceed 600 mm for the collision bulkhead. Limber holes are to be provided in the bottom structures such as to allow the drainage of bilge liquids into suction wells. they are to be fitted so as to be. LINING. The scantlings of vertical stiffeners.1. The plywood.1.1. Glues for timber fastenings are to be of resorcinic or phenolic type.1 Steel bulkheads 2.Pt B. the thickness is to be modified by 0. 3 3. On completion. durable and water-resistant in particular. web frames and foundation girders are to be adequate for the weight. If the spacing is other than that shown in the Table. normally arranged in vertical panels. in respect of the Table thickness. attention is drawn to the provisions of Chapter I of Part B.5 mm per strake so as to reach a reduction of 25%.1 Wooden bulkheads where: Z h s S : : : : section modulus of vertical stiffener with associated strip of plating one spacing wide. easily removable for maintenance and painting of the underlying structures. without end connections are to be not less than: Z = ( 4. The connection of the bulkhead to planking is to be effected on grown or laminated frames.1 Wooden watertight bulkheads normally consist of plywood boards of adequate thickness in relation to the hull size and the spacing and strength of stiffeners. in cm3 distance from midpoint of stiffener to top of bulkhead.1 Machinery space structures 3 4. The scantlings are given on the assumption that the lowest strake is horizontal and subsequent strakes vertical. in m spacing of vertical stiffeners. in m aggregate span of vertical stiffeners. RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 201 . in cm . 1. for the highest strake. 2 + 4h )s ⋅ S 2 3.1. Linings are to allow sufficient ventilation of air spaces between them and planking.

60 4.00 4.5 5.Pt B.80 3.60 3.5 5.80 5.5 6 6 6 6 202 RINA Rules for Charter Yachts 2006 .20 4.80 4.5 4.5 6 6 6 6 6. Ch 5.60 2.5 Thickness of other strakes mm 3.5 6. Sec 6 Table 1 : Watertight steel bulkheads Height of bulkhead mm ≤2.5 6.40 2.5 5.5 6.40 3.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 5 5 5 5.20 3.00 3.40 4.00 Spacing of vertical stiffeners mm 375 390 410 425 440 460 475 490 510 525 540 560 575 590 Thickness of lower strake mm 4 5 5 5.