/"

Report No. M-932-69

_

_MISSION OPERATION REPORT

APOLI 0 SUPPLEMENT

DATE
¢'

OPR

--

_

#

T

I-0LY 1969

PGM SUBJECT --,---'-

StG, NATOR LOC '" :

OFFICEOF Prepared by: MANNEDSPACEFLIGHT AF_IIo Program Office - MAO

I REVlSION 2I
FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

FOREWORD

MISSION OPERATION REPORTS are published expressly for the use of NASA Senior Management, as required by the Administrator in NASA Instruction 6-2-10, dated 15 August 1963. The purpose of these reports is to provide NASA Senior Management with timely, complete, and definitive information on flight mission plans, and to establish official mission objectives which provide the basis for assessmentof mission accomplishment. Initial reports are prepared and issued for each flight project just prior to launch. Following launch, updating reports for each mission are issued to keep General Management currently informed of definitive mission results as provided in NASA Instruction 6-2-10. Because of their sometimes highly technical orientation, distribution of these reports is provided to personnel having program-project management responsibilities. The Office of Public Affairs publishes a comprehensive series of prelaunch and postlaunch reports on NASA flight missions, which are available for general distribution. APOLLO MISSION OPERATION REPORTS are published in two volumes: the MISSION OPERATION REPORT(MOR); and the MISSION OPERATION REPORT, APOLLO SUPPLEMENT. This format was designed to provide a mission-oriented document in the MOR, with supporting equipment and facility description in the MOR, APOLLO SUPPLEMENT. The MOR, APOLLO SUPPLEMENT is a program-oriented reference document with a broad technical description of the space vehicle and associated equipment; the launch complex; and mission control and support facilities.

_--_

Published and Distributed by PROGRAM and SPECIAL REPORTS DIVISION (XP) EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT- NASA HEADQUARTERS

-_,

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

CONTENTS Page Space Vehicle ............................... Saturn V Launch Vehicle ....................... S-IC Stage ............................ S-II Stage .......................... S-IVB Stage ......................... Instrument Unit ...................... Apollo Spacecraft ....................... Spacecraft-LM Adapter ................... Service Module ....................... Command Module ...................... Common Spacecraft Systems ................. Launch Escape System ..................... Lunar Module ......................... Crew Provisions ............................ Apparel .......................... Unsuited ..................... Suited .................... Extravehicular ................. Item Description ............... Foodand Water .................. Couches and Restraints ..................... CommandModule .................... Lunar Module ......................... Hygiene Equipment ......................... Operational Aids .......................... Emergency Equipment ........................ Miscellaneous Equipment ...................... Launch Complex ............................... General ................................ LC-39 Facilities and Equipment .................... Vehicle Assembly Building ..................... Launch Control Center ....................... Mobile Launcher° , ........................ Launch Pad • • • ....._......._........ Apollo Emergency Ingress/Egress'and'Escape'System......-. Fuel System Facilities ....................... LOX System Facility ........................ Azimuth Alignment Building .................... I 2 2 6 10 16 21 21 23 27 40 43 46 60 60 60 6O 60 62 64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 69 69 69 69 69 72 77 79 81 82 82

"

July 1969

i

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f

Pag___ee Photography Facilities ........................ Pad Water System Facilities ..................... Mobile Service Structure ...................... Crawler-Transporter .... Vehicle Assembly and Checkout _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i _ i _ i _ _ i _ _ _ _ _ Mission Monitoring, Support, and Control ................. i ___ _ ..... 82 82 82 84 83 85 86 85 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 96 96 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 101 103 103 104 105 105 106

General • Vehicle FiightControlCapabil_ty_ _______ ____i _ Space Vehicle Tracking CommandSystem .................... Display and Control System .................... Contingency Planning and Execution .................. MCC Role in Aborts ......................... Vehicle Flight Control Parameters ................... Parameters Monitored by LCC ................. Parameters Monitored by BoosterSystemsGroup ....... Parameters Monitored by Flight Dynamics Group ..... ParametersMonitored by Spacecraft SystemsGroup ..... ParametersMonitored by Life SystemsGroup ........ Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS) .............. MSFC Support for Launch and Flight Operations ............ Manned Space Flight Network ..................... Ground Stations .......................... Range Instrumentation Ships ..................... Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft ................ NASA Communications Network ..................... Recovery and Postflight Provisions ...................... General ................................. Recovery Control Room .......................... Prime Recovery Equipment ........................ Primary Recovery Ship ....................... Support Aircraft ........................... Biological Isolation Garment ..................... Mobile Quarantine Facility ....................... Transfer Tunnels ........................... Lunar Receiving Laboratory ....................... Design Concept and Utilities .................... Administrative and Support Area .................. Crew Reception Area ........................ Sample Operations Area .......................

July 1969

ii

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
r /

Mission Data Acquisition .......................... Photographic Equipment........................ 16mmData Acquisition Camera.................. 70mmHasselbladElectric Camera ................ 70mmHasselbladElectric Data Camera.............. Automatic Spotmeter ....................... Apollo Lunar Surface CI ose- Up Camera ............ Television .............................. Scientific Equipment ........................ Stowage ............................ Modularized EquipmentStowage Assembly ........... Early Apollo Scientific ExperimentsPackage .......... Solar Wind CompositionExperiment .............. LunarGeological Experiment................... Cosmic Ray Experiment ...................... Apollo LunarSurface ExperimentsPackage ............ Abbreviations and Acronyms ........................
f

108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 111 115 115 116 116 122

F

July 1969

iii

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Title Apollo/Saturn V Space Vehicle S-IC Stage S-II Stage S-IVB Stage APS Functions APS Control Module Saturn Instrument Unit IU Equipment Locations Spacecraft-LM Adapter SLA Panel Jettisoning Service Module Command Module CM/LM Docking Configuration Main Display Console Telecommunications System CSM Communication Ranges Location of Antennas ELS Major Component Stowage Guidance and Control Functional Flow Launch Escape System Lunar Module LM Physical Characteristics LM Ascent Stage LM Descent Stage LM Communications Links Apol Io Apparel LM Crewman at Flight Station LM Crewmen Rest Positions Launch Complex 39 Vehicle Assembly Building Mobile Launcher Holddown Arms/Tail Service Mast Mobile Launcher Service Arms Launch Pad A, LC-39 Launch Structure Exploded View Launch Pad Interface System Elevator/Tube EgressSystem Slide Wire/Cab EgressSystem Mobile Service Structure Crawler Transporter Page 1 3 7 11 14 15 16 17 21 22 24 28 32 33 35 36 37 39 41 44 46 47 49 50 57 61 66 66 70 71 73 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 83 83

July 1969

iv

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

BasicTelemetry, Command, and Communication Interfaces for Flight Control MCC Organization Information Flow Mission Operations Control Room MCC Functional Configuration Manned Space Flight Network Typical Mission Communications Network Helicopter Pickup Biological Isolation Garment Mobile Quarantine Facility and Interfaces Mobile Quarantine Facility Internal View Lunar Recelving laboratory Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package/LM Interface PaSsiveSeismic Experiment Deployed Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector Deployed Solar Wind Array Astronaut Placing Lunar Sample in Sample Return Container AI.SEPArray A Subpackage No. ! ALSEPArray A Subpackage No. 2 ALSEP Deployment Arrangement

86 87 88 89 95 97 100 101 101 102 104 111 112 113 114 115 116 120 120 121

July 1969

v

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement SPACEVEHIC LE The primary flight hardware of the Apollo Program consists of a Saturn V Launch Vet_icle and an Apollo Spacecraft. Collectively, they are designated the Apollo/Saturn V Space Vehicle (SV) (Figure 1). APOLLO/SATURN V SPACE VEH ICE#
r_

INSTRUMENT UNIT

S-IVB LAUNCH SCAPE SYSTEM INTERSTAGE

PT',d{'_, BOOST
PROTECTIVE COVER

_-_

_

_

COM/_D

MODULE

S-II

SERVICE MODULE

STAGE

i

363FT

INTER-

i

S-IC

SPACECRAFT

SPACE VEHICLE

LAUNCH VEHICLE

July 1969 Page 1

Fig. 1

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f--

SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE The Saturn V Launch Vehicle (LV) is designed to boost up to 285,000 pounds into a 105-nautical mile earth orbit and to provide for lunar payloads of 100,000 pounds. The Saturn V LV consists of three propulsive stages (S-IC, S-II, S-IVB), two interstages, and an Instrument Unit (IU). S-IC Stage General The S-IC stage (Figure 2) is a large cylindrical booster, 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, powered by five liquid propellant F-1 rocket engines. These engines develop a nominal sea level thrust total of approximately 7,650,000 pounds. The stage dry weight is approximately 295_300 pounds and the total loaded stage weight is approximately 5,031,500 pounds. The S-IC stage interfaces structurally and electrically with the S-II stage. It also interfaces structurally_ electrically, and pneumatically with Ground Support Equipment (GSE) through two umbilical service arms, three tail service mastst and certain electronic systemsby antennas. The S-IC stage is instrumented for operational measurementsor signals which are transmitted by its independent telemetry system. Structure The S-IC structural design reflects the requirements of F-1 engines, propellants, control, instrumentation, and interfacing systems. Aluminum alloy is the primary structural material. The major structural componentsare the forward skirt, oxidizer tank, intertank section, fuel tank, and thrust structure. The forward skirt interfaces structurally with the S-IC/S-II interstage. The skirt also mounts vents, antennas, and electrical and electronic equipment. The 47,298-cubic foot oxidizer tank is the structural link between the forward skirt and the intertank structure which provides structural continuity between the oxidizer and fuel tanks. The 29,215-cubic foot fuel tank provides the load carrying structural llnk between the thrust and intertank structures. Five oxidizer ducts run from the oxidizer tank, through the fuel tank, to the F-1 engines. The thrust structure assembly redistributes the applied loads of the five F-1 engines into nearly uniform loading about the periphery of the fuel tank. Also, it provides support for the five F-1 engines, engine accessories, base heat shield, engine fairings and fins, propellant lines, retrorockets, and environmental control ducts. The lower thrust ring has four holddown points which support the fully loaded Saturn V Space Vehicle (approximately 6,483,000 pounds) and also, as necessary, restrain the vehicle during controlled release.

July 1969

Page 2

M-932-69 Apollo
/f

Supplement

S-I C STAGE
FLIGHT TERMINATION RECEIVERS (2) -_33 FT

INSTRUMENTATION GOX DISTRIB

'_ //,/_ 120.7 IN .{j_ i --

FORWARD SKIRT

i

HELIUM CYLINDERS (4) LINE i i 76 IN OXIDIZER TANK

_/'

_

e.---"-)
I-" ANNULAR RII_ BAFFLES /" _ _ ; CENTER ENGINE SUPP: _ , LINE TUNNELS (5) SUCTION LIHES (5) FUEL IN TANK 262.4 IN _ SECTION INTERTANK FORM BAFFLE

w 1 FUEL SUCTION LINES_.. HEAT '/ \

TUNNEL UPPER THRUST RIHG

,]51

LOWE R

_ "_

_,,/II

(5)

INSTRUMENTATION RETROROCKETS

FLIGHT CO,JTROL HEAT SHIELD.--] _ SERVOACTUATOR

AND FIN

Fig. 2 July 1969 Page 3

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement Propulsion The F-1 engine is a single-start, i,530,000-pound fixed-thrust, calibrated, bipropellant engine which uses liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer and Rocket Propellant-1 (RP-1) as the fuel. The thrust chamber is cooled regeneratively by fuel, and the nozzle extension is cooled by gas generator exhaust gases. Oxidizer and fuel are supplied to the thrust chamber by a single turbopump powered by a gas generator which usesthe same propellant combination. RP-1 is also used as the turbopump lubricant and as the working fluid for the engine hydraulic control system. The four outboard engines are capable of gimbaling and have provisions for supply and return of RP-1 as the working fluid for a thrust vector control system. The engine contains a heat exchanger system to condition englne-supplled LOX and externally supplied helium for stage propellant tank pressurization. An instrumentation system monitors engine performance and operation. External thermal insulation provides an allowable engine environment during flight operation. The normal infllght engine cutoff sequence is center engine first, followed by the four outboard engines. Engine optical-type depletion sensorsin either the oxidizer or fuel tank initiate the engine cutoff sequence. In an emergency, the engine can be cut off by any of the following methods: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Command Cutoff, Emergency Detection System, or Outboard Cutoff System.
f

Propellant Systems The propellant systemsinclude hardware for fill and drain, propellant conditioning, and tank pressurlzation prior to and during flight, and for delivery to the engines. Fuel tank pressurization is required during engine starting and flight to establish and malntain a Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) at the fuel inlet to the engine turbopumps0 During flight, the source of fuel tank pressurization is helium from storage bottles mounted inside the oxidizer tank. Fuel feed is accomplished through two 12-inch ducts which connect the fuel tank to each F-1 engine. The ducts are equipped with flex and sliding joints to compensate for motions from engine glmbaling and stage stresses. Gaseous oxygen (GOX) is used for oxidizer tank pressurization during flight. A portion of the LOX supplied to each engine is diverted into the engine heat exchangers where it is transformed into GOX and routed back to the tanks. LOX is delivered to the engines through five suction lines which are supplied with flex and sliding joints. Flight Control The 5-1C thrust vector control consists of four outboard F-1 engines, glmbal blocks to attach these engines to the thrust ring, engine hydraulic servoactuators (two per engine), and an engine hydraulic power supply. Engine thrust is transmitted July 1969 Page 4

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

to the thrust structure through the engine gimbal block. There are two servoactuator attach points per engine, located 90 degrees from each other, through which the gimbaling force is applied. The gimbaling of the four outboard engines changes the direction of thrust and as a result corrects the attitude of the vehicle to achieve the desired trajectory. Each outboard engine may be gimbaled -+5° within a square pattern at a rate of 5 ° per second. Electrical The electrical power system of the S-IC stage consists of two basic subsystems: the operational power subsystemand the measurements power subsystem. Onboard power is supplied by two 28-volt batteries. Battery number 1 is identified as the operational power system battery. It supplies power to operational loads such as valve controls, purge and venting systems, pressurization systems, and sequencing and flight control. Battery number 2 is identified as the measurement power system. Batteries supply power to their loads through a common main power distributor, but each system is completely isolated from the other. The S-IC stage switch selector is the interface between the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) in the IU and the S-IC stage electrical circuits. Its function is to sequence and control various flight activities such as telemetry calibration, retrofire initiation, and pressurization.
f

Ordnance The S-IC ordnance systems include propellant dispersion (flight termination) and retrorocket systems. The S-IC Propellant Dispersion System (PDS) provides the means of terminating the flight of the Saturn V if it varies beyond the prescribed limits of its flight path or if it becomes a safety hazard during the S-IC boost phase. A transmitted ground command shuts down all engines and a second command detonates explosives which longitudinally open the fuel and oxidizer tanks. The fuel opening is 180° (opposite) to the oxidizer opening to minimize propellant mixing. Eight retrorockets provide thrust after S-IC burnout to separate it from the S-II stage. The S-IC retrorockets are mounted in pa|rs external to the thrust structure in the fairings of the four outboard F-1 engines. The firing command originates in the IU and activates redundant firing systems. At retrorocket ignition the forward end of the fairing is burned and blown through by the exhausting gases. The thrust level developed by seven retrorockets (one retrorocket out) is adequate to separate the S-IC stage a minimum of six feet from the vehicle in less than one second.

July 1969

Page 5

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

S-II Stage General The S-II stage (Figure 3) is a large cylindrical booster, 81.5 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, powered by five liquid propellant J-2 rocket engines which develop a nominal vacuum thrust of 230,000 pounds each for a total of 1,150,000 pounds. Dry weight of the S-II stage is approximately 80, 115 pounds. The stage approximate loaded gross weight is 1,059t640 pounds. The S-IC/S-II interstage weighs 11,490 pounds. The S-II stage is instrumented for operational, and research and development measurementswhich are transmitted by its independent telemetry system. The S-II stage has structural and electrical interfaces with the S-IC and S-IVB stages, and electric, pneumatic_ and fluid interfaces with GSE through its umbilicals and antennas. Structure Major S-II structural components are the forward skirt_ the 37,737-cubic foot fuel tank, the 12,745-cubic foot oxidizer tank (with the common bulkhead), the aft skirt/thrust structure, and the S-IC/S-II interstage. Aluminum alloy is the major structural material. The forward and aft skirts distribute and transmit structural loads and interface structurally with the interstages. The aft skirt also distributes the loads imposed on the thrust structure by the J-2 engines. The S-IC/S-II interstage is comparable to the aft skirt in capability and construction. The propellgnt tank walls constitute the cylindrical structure between the skirts. The aft bulkhead of the fuel tank is also the forward bulkhead of the oxidizer tank. This common bulkhead is fabricated of aluminum with a fiberglass/phenolic honeycomb core. The insulating characteristics of the common bulkhead minimize the heating effect of the relatively hot LOX (-297°F) on the LH2 (-423°F). Propulsion The S-II stage engine system consists of five single-start, high-performance_ highaltitude J-2 rocket engines of 230,000 pounds of nominal vacuum thrust each. Fuel is liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the oxidizer is liquid oxygen (LOX). The four outer J-2 engines are equally spaced on a 17.5-foot diameter circle and are capable of being gimbaled through 4-7 degrees square pattern to allow thrust vector control. The fifth engine is fixed and is mounted on the centerline of the stage. A capability to cutoff the center engine before the outboard engines may be provided by a pneumatic system powered by gaseous helium which is stored in a sphere inside the start tank. An electrical control system that usessolid state logic elements is used to sequence the start and shutdown operations of the engine. Electrical power is stage-supplied.

F

July 1969

Page 6

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

S-IISTAGE

_" _, TUNNEL VEHICLE STATION

'--}II-1/2 __L

FORWARDSKI RT FEET

2519

___ ! / i i _ "\ z /

'

LIQUID TANK

HYDROGEN

,,_, '_i"_----/i

(37,737 56 :EET

CU FT)

/

_II_! _ 81-I/2

,..i,,._qiE_l_

LH2/LOX COMMON BULKHEAD

FEET

_"

---f22 FEET TANK LIQUID OXYGEN i L 1 (12,745.5 CU _)

iL A_ BKIRT 1___,_ FEE_ T.ROBT
STRUCTURE 18-1/4 VEIIICLE STATION 1541 " 33 FEET FEET

/-

Fig. 3

July 1969

Page 7

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The J-2 engines may receive cutoff signals from several different sources. These sources include engine interlock deviationss Emergency Detection System automatic or manual abort cutoffs, and propellant depletion cutoff. Each of these sources signals the LVDC in the IU. The LVDC sendsthe engine cutoff signal to the S-II switch selector, which in turn signals the electrical control packages which controls all local signals necessary for the cutoff sequence. Five discrete liquid level sensorsper propellant tank provide initiation of engine cutoff upon detection of propellant depletion. The cutoff sensorswill initiate a signal to shut down the engines when two out of five engine cutoff signals from the same tank are received. Propellant Systems The propellant systemssupply fuel and oxidizer to the five engines. This is accomplished by the propellant management components and the servicing, conditioning, and engine delivery subsystems. The propellant tanks are insulated with foam-filled honeycomb which contains passagesthrough which helium is forced for purging and leak detection. The LH2 feed system includes five 8-inch vacuumjacketed feed ducts and five prevalves. During powered Flight, prior to S-II ignition, gaseous hydrogen (GH2) for LH2 tank pressurization is bled from the thrust chamber hydrogen injector manifold of each of the four outboard engines. After S-II engine ignition, LH2 is preheated in the regenerative cooling tubes of the engine and tapped off from the thrust chamber injector manifold in the form of GH 2 to serve as a pressurizing medium. The LOX feed system includes four 8-1nch, vacuum-jacketed feed ducts, one uninsulated feed duct, and five prevalves. LOX tank pressurization is accomplished with GOX obtained by heating LOX bled from the LOX turbopump outlet. The propel lant management system monitors propellant massfor control of propel lant loading, utilization, and depletion. Components of the system include continuous capacitance probes, propellant utilization valves, liquid level sensors, and electronic equipment. During flight, the signals from the tank continuous capacitance probes are monitored and compared to provide an error signal to the propellant utilization valve on each LOX pump. Basedon this error signal, the propellant utilizaHon valves are positioned to minimize residual propellants and assure a fuel-rich cutoff by varying the amount of LOX delivered to the engines. The proceding description is termed "closed loop" operation. Some missions may k_e flown "open loop" whereby the propellant utilization valve is shifted in accordance with a predetermined schedule.

io

July 1969

Page 8

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Flight Control Each outboard engine is equipped with a separate, independent, closed-loop, hydraulic control systemthat includes two servoactuatorsmountedin perpendicular planes to provide vehicle control in pitch, roll, and yaw. The servoactuatorsare capable of deflectlng the engine +_7degrees in the pitch and yaw planes (+10 degrees diagonally) at the rate of 8 degrees per second. Electrical The electrical systemis comprised of the electrical power and electrical control subsystems. The electrical power subsystem provides the S-II stage with the electrical power source and distribution. The electrical control subsystem interfaces with the IU to accomplish the mission requirements of the stage. The LVDC in the IU controls inflight sequencing of stage functions through the stage switch selector. The stage switch selector outputs are routed through the stage electrical sequence controller or the separation controller to accomplish the directed operation. These units are basically a network of low-power transistorized switches that can be controlled individually and, upon command from the switch selector, provide properly sequenced electrical signals to control the stage functions. "Ordnance The S-II ordnance systemsinclude separation, ullage rocket_ retrorocket, and propellant dispersion (flight termination) systems. For S-IC/S-II separation, a dual-plane separation technique is used wherein the structure between the two stages is severed at two different planes. The second-plane separatlon jettisons the interstage after S-II engine ignition. The S-II/S-IVB separation occurs at a single plane located near the aft skirt of the S-IVB stage. The S-IVB |nterstage remains as an integral part of the S-II stage. To separate and retard the S-II stage, a deceleration is provided by the four retrorockets located in the S-II/S-IVB interstage. Each rocket develops a nominal thrust of 34,810 pounds and fires for 1.52 seconds. All separations are initiated by the LVDC located in the IU. To ensure stable flow of propellants into the J-2 engines, a small forward acceleration is required to settle the propellants in their tanks. This acceleration is provided by four ullage rockets mounted on the S-IC/S-II interstage. Each rocket develops a nominal thrust of 23,000 pounds and fires for 3.75 seconds. The ullage function occurs prior to second-plane separation. The S-II Propellant Dispersion System (PDS) provides for termination of vehicle flight during the S-II boost phase if the vehicle flight path varies beyond its prescribed limits or if continuation of vehicle flight creates a safety hazard. The S-II PDSmay be safed after the Launch Escape Tower is jettisoned. The fuel tank linear-shaped

._

July 1969

Page 9

M -932 -69 Apollo Supplement
f

charge, when detonated, cuts a 30-foot vertical opening in the tank. The oxidizer tank destruct charges simultaneously cut 13-foot lateral openings in the oxidizer tank and the S-II aft skirt. S-IVB Stage General The S-IVB stage (Figure 4) is a large cylindrical booster 59 feet long and 21.6 feet in diameter, powered by one J-2 engine. The S-IVB stage is capable of multiple engine starts. Engine thrust is 203,000 pounds. This stage is also unique in that it has an attitude control capability independent of its main engine. Dry weight of the stage is 25,090 pounds. The launch weight of the stage is 259, 160 pounds. The interstage weight of 8100 pounds is not included in the stated weights. The stage is instrumented for functional measurementsor signals which are transmitted by its independent telemetry system. Structure The major structural components of the S-IVB stage are the forward skirt, propellant tanks, aft skirt, thrust structure, and aft interstage. The forward skirt provides structural continuity between the fuel tank walls and the IU. The propellant tank walls transmit and distribute structural loads from the aft skirt and the thrust structure. The aft skirt is subjected to imposed loads from the S-IVB aft interstage. The thrust structure mounts the J-2 engine and dlstributes its structural loads to the circumference of the oxidizer tank. A common, insulated bulkhead separates the 2830-cubic foot oxidlzer tank and the 10,418-cubic foot fuel tank and is similar to the common bulkhead discussed in the S-II description. The predominant structural material of the stage is aluminum alloy. The stage interfaces structurally with the S-II stage and the IU. Main Propulsion The high-performance J-2 engine as installed in the S-IVB stage has a multiple start capability. The S-IVB J-2 engine is scheduled to produce a thrust of 203,000 pounds during its first burn to earth orbit and a thrust of 178,000 pounds (mixture massratio of 4.5:1) during the first 100 secondsof translunar injection. The remaining translunar injection acceleration is provided at a thrust level of 203,000 pounds (mixtore massratio of 5.0:1). The engine valves are controlled by a pneumatic system powered by gaseoushel|um wh|ch is stored in a sphere inside a start bottle. An electrical control system that uses solid stage logic elements is used to sequence the start and shutdown operations of the engine. Electrical power is suppl|ed from aft battery No. 1.

_-

/

July 1969

Page 10

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
f-

During engine operation, the oxidizer tank is pressurized by flowing cold helium (from helium spheres mounted inside the fuel tank) through the heat exchanger in the oxidizer turbine exhaust duct. The heat exchanger heats the cold helium, causing it to expand. The fuel tank is pressurized durlrig engine operation by GH2 from the thrust chamber fuel manifold. Thrust vector control in the pitch and yaw planes during burn periods is achieved by glmbaling the entire engine. The J-2 engines may receive cutoff signals from the following sources: Emergency Detection System, range safety systems, "Thrust OK" pressure switches, propellant depletion sensors, and an IU-programmed command (veloclty or timed) via the switch selecto_r. The restart of the J-2 engine is identical to the initial start except for the fill procedure of the start tank. The start tank is filled with LH2 and GH2 during the first burn period by bleeding GH2 from the thrust chamber fuel injection manifold and LH2 from the Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) fuel line to refill the start tank for engine restart. /Approximately 50 secondsof mainstage engine operation is required to recharge the start tank.) To insure that sufficient energy will be available for spinning the fuel and oxidizer pump turbines, a waiting period of between approximately 80 minutes to 6 hours is required. The minimum time is required to build sufficlent pressure by warming the start tank through natural meansand to allow the hot gas turbine exhaust system to cool. Prolonged heating will cause a loss of energy in the start tank. This loss occurs when the LH2 and GH2 warm and raise the gas pressure to the relief valve setting. If this venting continues over a prolonged period the total stored energy will be depleted. This limits the waiting period prior to a restart attempt to six hours. Propel lant Systems /OX is stored in the aft tank of the propellant tank structure at a temperature of -297°F. A slx-inch, low-pressure supply duct supplies LOX from the tank to the engine. During engine burn, LOX is supplied at a nominal flow rate of 392 pounds per second, and at a transfer pressure above 25 psla. The supply duct is equipped with bellows to provide compensating flexibility for engine gimbaling, manufacturing tolerances, and thermal movement of structural connections. The tank is prepressurlzed to between 38 and 41 ps|a and is maintalned at that pressure duri_ngboost and engine operation° Gaseous helium is used as the pressurizing agent. The LH2 is stored in an insulated tank at less than -423°F. LH2 from the tank is su. ppljed to the J-2 engine turbopump by a vacuum-jacketed, low-pressure, 10-inch duct. This duct is capable of flowing 80 pounds per second at -423°F and at a transfer pressure of 28 psia. The duct is located in the aft tank side wall above the common bulkhead joint. Bellows in this duct compensate for engine gimbaling,

°

r

_f

July 1969

Page 12

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement .f manufacturing tolerances, and thermal motion. 28 psia minimum and 31 psia maximum. The fuel tank is prepressurized to

The propellant utillzation (PU) subsystemprovides a meansof controlllng the propellant massratio_ It consists of oxidizer and fuel tank massprobes, a PU valve, and an electronic assembly. These components monitor the propellant and maintain command control. Propellant utilization is provided by bypassing oxidizer from the oxidizer turbopump outlet back to the inlet. The PU valve is controlled by signals from the PU system. The engine oxldizer/fuel mixture massratio varies from 4.5:1 to 5.5:1. Flight Control System The Flight Control System incorporates two systemsfor flight and attitude control. During powered flight, thrust vector steering is accomplished by glmbaling the J-2 engine for pitch and yaw control and by operating the Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) engines for roll control. The engine is gimbaled in a-+7.5 degree square pattern by a closed-loop hydraulic system. Mechanical feedback from the actuator to the servovalve provides the closed engine position loop. Two actuators are used to translate the steering signals into vector forces to position the engine. The deflection rates are proportional to the pitch and yaw steering signals from the Flight Control Computer. Steering during coast flight is by use of the APS engine alone. Auxiliary Propulsion System The S-IVB APS provides three-axis stage attitude control (Figure 5) and main stage propellant control during coast flight. The APS engines are located in two modules 180° apart on the aft skirt of the S-IVB stage (Figure 6). Each module contains four engines: three 150-pound thrust control engines and one 70-pound thrust ullage engine. Each module contains its own oxidizer, fuel, and pressurization system. A positive expulsion propellant feed subsystem is used to assure that hypergolic propellants are supplied to the engines under "zero g" or random gravity conditions. Nitrogen tetroxide (N204) is the oxidizer and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) is the fuel for these engines.

f_

July 1969

Page 13

Apollo

M-932-69 SuppJement

F

APS FUNCTIONS

+X ULLAGE -PITCH

Fig. 5 July 1969 Page 14

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f

APS CONTROLMODULE

o
/

/

/

OLFFER MODULE FAIRING HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM OXIDIZER fFUEL 150 LB.PITCH ENGI 150 LB.ROLL AND YAW ENGINE 70 LB, ULLAGE

Fig. 6

Electrical The electrical system of the S-IVB stage is comprised of two major subsystems: the electrical power subsystemwhich consists of all the power sources on the stage; and the electrical control subsystemwhich distributes power and control signals to various loads throughout the stage. Onboard electrical power is supplied by four silver-zinc batteries. Two are located in the forward equipment area and two in the aft equipment area. These batteries are activated and installed in the stage during the final prelaunch preparations. Heaters and instrumentation probes are an integral part of each battery.

July 1969

Page 15

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Ordnance The S-IVB ordnance systemsinclude the separation, ullage rocket, and Propellant Dispersion System (PDS) systems. The separation plane for S-II/S-IVB staging is located at the top of the S-II/S-IVB interstage. At separation four retrorocket motors mounted on the interstage structure below the separation plane fire to decelerate the S-II stage with the interstage attached. To provide propellant settling and thus ensure stable flow of fuel and oxidizer during J-2 engine start, the S-IVB stage requires a small acceleration. This acceleration is provided by two jettisonable ullage rockets for the first burn. The APS provides ullage for subsequent burns. The S-IVB PDS provides for termination of vehicle flight by cutting two parallel 20-foot openings in the fuel tank and a 47-inch diameter hole in the LOX tank. The S-IVB PDS may be safed after the Launch Escape Tower is jettisoned. Following S-IVB engine cutoff at orbit insertion, the PDS is electrically safed by ground command. Instrument Unit
f

General The Instrument Unit (IU) (Figures 7 and 8), is a cylindrical structure 21.6 feet in diameter and 3 feet high installed on top of the S-IVB stage. The unit weighs 4310 pounds. The IU contains the guidance, navigation, and control equipment for the launch vehicle. In addition, it contains measurementsand telemetry, command communications, tracking, and Emergency Detection System components along with supporting electrical power and the Environmental Control System. SATURN INSTRUMENU T NIT

July 1969

Page 16

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

IU EQUIPMENT LOCATIONS
6D30 COOLANT -PUMP NO 1 6D10 BATTERY BATTERY 6040 BATTERY TM POWER DIVIDER

COS TELEMETER ANTENNA

THERMISTOR

UMBILICAL AUXILIARY POWER DISTRIBUTOR POWER DISTRIBUTOR

"A"

"C" SELECTO_

60!
. A • DOOR GN PILL ST*124M-3 PLATFORM ASSEMBLY PCM /_CB TM ANTENNA _._ _ ST-124M-3 PLATFORM ELECTRON, D ASSEMBLY LAUNCH J'BOX VEHICLE AOAPTEI DATA -IU C0t_MAND DECODER ASSY COS TELEMETER ANTENNA EASURING RACK ELECTRONLC CONTROL ASSV MEASURING RACK .56 VOLT POWER SUPPLY ASSY

AL

VHF TM GN2 FILLVALFiLVE ANTENNA

O-BANOTRANSPOODER
COS TELEMETER ANTENNA " CDS POWER R AMPLWIE CCS TRANSPONDER 603 1".1_4 _ J I Z,_Ar3_F I SUPPLY "C"

../-OORTROLO,STR,RUTOR
ENG NE CUTOFF ENABLE f--TIMER SWITCH SELECTOR i : :. . :" • i " :::" ::.:. i "'>" Z_ld , , ' B S POWER CC DIVIDER

....... I i
COMPUTER _

\

_

_'_

_DDASCOMPUTER

ANTENNA SWITCH MULTIPLEXER

CONTROLsIGNAL EDS DISTRIBUTOR

FI RF ASSY

TMPCM/DDASAsSY F CCS TELEMETER ANTENNA

REMOTE D_GITAL MULTIPLEXER MEASURING DISTRIFJUTOR CPI MULTIPLEXER

MEASURING

FLIGHT CO COMPUTER "B" } !}: .0

VHF TM ANTENNA MEASURING RACK "A" AUXILIARy POWER DISTRIBUTOR

"R"

/

/

I __THERMAL MEASURING RACK SURING RAcK

pRONE/

_____,, A COB 2 ND XPDR PDR

--TM COUPLER DIRECTfONAL

p:_\_--

THERMAL PROBE TM RF COUPLER

Z ,

CONT_EoI RATE GYRO

ZTASTI_III

VOLTAGE SUPPLY

_TMPOWE CARAND LIBRATOR CONTROL ASSY

L-'-- MOO DFI MUL 270TIPLEXER Fig . 8

July 1969

Page 17

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement Structure The basic IU structure is a short cylinder fabricated of an aluminum alloy honeycomb sandwich material. Attached to the inner surface of the cylinder are "cold plates" which serve both as mounting structure and thermal conditioning units for the electrical/electronic equipment. Navlgationl Guidance_ and Control

The Saturn V Launch Vehicle is guided from its launch pad into earth orbit primarily by navigation1 guidance, and control equipment located in the IU. An all-inertial system utilizes a space-stabilized platform for acceleration and attitude measurements. A Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) is used to solve guidance equations and a Flight Control Computer (FCC) (analog) is used for the flight control functions. The three-gimbal, stabilized platform (ST-124-M3) provides a space-fixed coordinate reference frame for attitude control and for navigation (acceleration) measurements. Three integrating accelerometers, mounted on the gyro-stabilized inner gimbal of the platform, measure the three components of velocity resulting from vehicle propulsion. The accelerometer measurementsare sent through the Launch Vehicle Data Adapter (LVDA) to the LVDC. In the LVDC, the accelerometer measurementsare combined with the computed gravitational acceleration to obtain velocity and position of the vehicle. During orbital flight_ the navigational program continually computes the vehicle position_ velocity_ and acceleration. Guidance information stored in the LVDC (e.g._ position_ velocity) can be updated through the IU command system by data transmission from ground stations. The IU command system provides the general capability of changing or inserting information into the LVDC. In the event of failure of the ST-124-M3_ the crew may select the Command Module Computer (CMC) and the Command Module Inertial Measurement Unit as a guidance reference by placing the guidance switch to the "CMC" position. Prior to S-IC/S-II staging_ space vehicle attitude error signals are generated automatically in the backup mode. After first stage separation_ attitude error signals are generated by the crew utilizing the Rotational Hand Controller and spacecraft attitude and performance displays. These induced attitude error signals are routed via the LVDC, LVDA, and FCC to the launch vehicle control system. The backup guidance capability is dependent upon a prior sensedfailure of the ST-124-M3 platform except for S-IVB orbital coast phases. The control subsystem is designed to control and maintain vehicle attitude by forming the steering commands to be used by the controlling engines of the active stage. The control system accepts guidance commandsfrom the LVDC/LVDA guidance system. These guidance commands_which are actually attitude error July 1969 Page 18

F

F

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
i

signals, are then combined with measureddata from the various control sensors. The resultant output is the command signal to the various engine actuators and APS nozzles. The final computations (analog) are performed within the FCC. The FCC is also the central switching point for command signals. From this point, the signals are routed to their associated active stages and to the appropriate attitude control devices. Measurements and Telemetry The instrumentation within the IU consistsof a measuring subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, and an antenna subsystem. This instrumentation is for the purpose of monitoring certain conditions and events which take place within the IU and for transmitting monitored signals to ground receiving stations. Command Communications System The Command Communications System (CCS) provides for digital data transmission from ground stations to the LVDC. This communications link is used to update guidance information or command certain other functions through the LVDC. Command data originates in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and is sent to remote stations of the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) for transmission to to the launch vehicle. Saturn Tracking Instrumentation The Saturn V IU carries two C-band radar transponders for tracking. Tracking capability is also provided through the CCS. A combination of tracking data from different tracking systemsprovides the best possible trajectory information and increased reliability through redundant data. The tracking of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle may be divided into four phases: powered flight into earth orbit, orbital flight, injection into mission trajectory, and coast flight after injection. Continuous tracking is required during powered flight into earth orbit. During orbital flight, tracking is accomplished by S-band stations of the MSFN and by C-band radar stations. IU Emergency Detection SystemComponents The Emergency Detection System (EDS) is one element of several crew safety systems. There are nine EDS rate gyros installed in the IU. Three gyros monitor each of the three axes (pitch, roll, and yaw) thus providing triple redundancy. The control signal processor provides power to and receives inputs from the nine EDS rate gyros. These inputs are processedand sent on to the EDSdistributor and to the FCC. The EDS distributor serves as a junction box and switching device to furnish the spacecraft display panels with emergency signals if emergency conditions exist. It also contains relay and diode logic for the automatic abort sequence. July 1969 Page 19

/_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement An electronic timer in the IU allows multiple engine shutdowns without automatic abort after 30 secondsof flight. Inhibiting of automatic abort circuitry is also provided by the vehicle flight sequencing circuits through the IU switch selector. This inhibiting is required prior to normal S-IC engine cutoff and other normal vehicle sequencing. While the automatic abort is inhibited, the flight crew must initiate a manual abort if an angular-overrate or two englne-out condition arises. Electrical PowerSystems Primary flight power for the IU equipment is supplied by silver-zlnc batteries at a nominal voltage level of 28-1-2vdc. Where ac power is required within the IU it is developed by solid state dc to ac inverters. Power distribution within the IU is accomplished through power distributors which are essentially junction boxes and switching Circuits. EnvironmentalControl System The Environmental Control System (ECS) maintains an acceptable operating environment for the IU equipment during preflight and flight operations. The ECS is composed of the following:
f_

1.

The Thermal Conditioning System (TCS) which maintains a circulating coolant temperature to the electronic equipment of 59 ° +l°F. Preflight purging system which maintains a supply of temperature and pressure regulated air/gaseous nitrogen in the IU/S-IVB equipment area. Gas bearing supply system which furnishes gaseousnitrogen to the ST-124-M3 inertial platform gas bearings. Hazardous gas detection sampling equipment which monitors the IU/S-IVB forward interstage area for the presence of hazardous vapors.

2.

3.

4.

July 1969

Page20

M-932-69
s

Apol Io Supplement APOLLO SPACECRAFT The Apollo Spacecraft (S/C) is designed to support three men in space for periods up to two weeks, docking in space, landing on and returning from the lunar surface, and safely reentering the earth's atmosphere. The Apollo S/C consists of the SpacecraftLM Adapter (SLA), the Service Module (SM), the Command Module (CM), the Launch Escape System (LES), and the Lunar Module (LM). The CM and SM as a unit are referred to as the Command/Service Module (CSM). Spacecraft-kM Adapter General The SLA (Figure 9) is a conical structure which provides a structural load path between the LV and SM and also supports the LM. Aerodynamically, the SLA smoothly encloses the irregularly shaped LM and transitions the space vehicle diameter from that of the upper stage of the LV to that of the SMo The SLA also encloses the nozzle of the SM engine and the high gain antenna.

SPACECRAFT-LM ADAPT,ER
F I UPPER (FORWARD) 21'JETTISONABLE PANELS (4 PLACES) LINEAR-SHAPEDCHARGE IRCUMFERENTIAL LINEAR-SHAPEDCHARGE (4 PLACES) PYROTECHNICTHRUSTERS (4 PLACES) CIRCUMFERENTIAL LOWER (AFT) 7' FIXED PANELS t (2) IAR-SHAPED CHARGE THRUSTER/HINGE (4 PLACES) IU Structure Fig. 9

F

The SLA is constructed of 1.7-inch thick aluminum honeycomb panels. The four upper jettisonable, or forward, panels are about 21 feet long, and the fixed lower, or afb panels about 7 feet long. The exterior surface of the SLA is covered completely by a layer of cork. The cork helps insulate the LM from aerodynamic heating during boost. The LM is attached to the SLA at four locations around the lower panels. July 1969 Page21

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement SLA-SM Separation The SLA and SM are bolted together through flanges on each of the two structures. Explosive trains are used to separate the SLA and SM as well as for separating the four upper jettisonable SLA panels. Redundancy is provided in three areas to assure separation_redundant initiating signals, redundant detonators and cord trains, and "sympathetic" detonation of nearby charges. Pyrotechnic-type and sprlng-type thrusters (Figure 10) are used in deploying and :_f?. _ : jettisoning the SLA upper panels. The four double-piston pyrotechnic thrusters are located inside the SLA and start the panels swinging outward on their hinges. The two pistons of the thruster push on the ends of adjacent panels thus providing two separate thrusters operating each panel. The explosive train which separates the panels is routed through two pressure cartridges in each thruster assembly. The pyrotechnic thrusters rotate the panels 2 degrees establishing a constant angular velocity of 33 to 60 degrees per second. When the panels have rotated about 45 degrees, the partial hinges disengage and free the panels from the aft section of the SLA, subjecting them to the force of the spring thrusters.

, ,,{_

SLA PANELJETTISONING

F

!

/_-_-_J UPPER

PAN_ /

/\/

_JPPER HINGE

1 "--IF'

_

SUPPORT INGE,

LOWER HINGE SPRINGTHRUSTER AFTERPANEL DEPLOYMENT AT , STARTOF JETTISON

_' _ hO_ER SPRINGTHRUSTER BEFORE PANEL DEPLOYMENT Fig. I 0

July 1969

Page 22

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

The spring thrusters are mounted on the outside of the upper panels. When the panel hinges disengage, the springs in the thruster push against the fixed lower panels to propel the panels away from the vehicle at an angle of 110 degrees to the centerllne and at a speed of about 5-1/2 miles per hour. The panels will then depart the area of the spacecraft. SLA-LM Separation + Spi'ing thrusters are also used to separate the LM from the SLA. After the CSM has docked with the LMt mild charges are fired to release the four adapters which secure the LM in the SLA. Simultaneously, four spring thrusters mounted on the lower (fixed) SLA panels push against the LM Landing Gear Truss Assembly to separate the spacecraft from the launch vehicle. The separation is control led by two LM Separation Sequence Controllers located inside the SLA near the attachment point to the Instrument Unit (IU). The redundant controllers send signals which fire the charges that sever the connections and also fire a detonator to cut the LM-IU umbilical. The detonator impels a guillotine blade which severs the umbilical wires. Service Module General The Service Module (SM) (Figure 11) provides the main spacecraft propulsion and maneuvering capability during a mission. The SM provides most of the spacecraft consumables (oxygen, water, propellant, and hydrogen) and supplements environ ° mental, electrical power, and propulsion requirements of the CMo The SM remains attached to the CM until it is jettisoned just before CM atmospheric entry. Structure The basic structural components are forward and aft (upper and lower) bulkheads, six radial beams, four sector honeycomb panels, four Reaction Control System honeycomb panels, aft heat shield, and a fairing. The forward and aft bulkheads cover the top and botton of the SM. Radial beam trussesextending above the forward bulkhead support and secure the CM. The radial beamsare made of solid aluminum alloy which has been machined and chem-milled to thicknesses varying between 2 inches and 0.018 inch. Three of these beamshave compression pads and the other three have shear-compression pads and tension ties. Explosive charges in the center sections of these tension ties are used to separate the CM from the SM.

July 1969

Page 23

Apollo
/

M-932-69 Supplement

• SERVICE MODULE
RED DOCKING SMREACTION CONTROL SUBSYSTEM II_ C*'*) _-:_' 'FLYAWAY UMBILICAL I FLOODLIGHT DOCKING LIGHT

POWER SUBSYSTEM RADIATORS

_"

j-,,¢_
SCIMITAR ANTENNA

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLSUBSYSTEM' RADIATOR _/,./NOZZLEEXTENSION

F

• -,,%

UM TANKS OXIOIZER

UELTANXS TANKS
("_R EACTIO N I Icl]NTROL FORWARD BULKHEAD INSTALL, ] FUELCELLS / PR ESSURtZATIGN _ _\\ ,.J J [SUBSYSTEM IUAOS 14) OXYGENTANKS

SYBTEM PANEL, L
SECTOR 2 SERV,cli pFRTo1pON uIL SUB _, SYBTEM HYDROGEN TANKS_-_

SECTOR4 SECTOR3 SECTOR 5 _ SECTOR 6 ._

OXYGEN TANKS.HYDROGENTANKS FUE . LCELLS SERVICE OXIDIZERTANK PROPULSIO S S NUBSYSTEM FUELTANKS

S'BANDHIGHGA,NANTENNA /_c _/" SERVICE PROPULSION ENGINE

_ f--_ c p_ _

AI_ BULKHEAD

CENTER SECTION -SERVICEPROPULSION ENGINE AND HELIUM TANKS

_-

Fig.

11

July

1969

Page 24

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement An aft heat shield surroundsthe service propulsion engine to protect the SM from the engine's heat during thrusting. The gap between the CM and the forward bulkhead of the SM is closed off with a fairing which is composed of eight Electrical Power System radiators alternated with eight aluminum honeycomb panels. The sector and Reaction Control System panels are one inch thick and are made of aluminum honeycomb core between two aluminum face sheets. The sector panels are bolted to the radial beams. Radiators used to dissipate heat from the environmental control subsystemare bonded to the sector panels on opposite sides of the SM. These radiators are each about 30 square feet in area. The SM interior is divided into six sectors and a center section. "_ Sector one is

currently void. It is available for installation of scientific or additional equipment should the need arise. Sector two has part of a space radiator and an Reaction Control System (RCS) engine quad (module) on its exterior panel and contains the Service Propulsion System (SPS)oxidizer sump tank. This tank is the larger of the two tanks that hold the oxidizer for the SPSengine. Sector three has the rest of the space radiator and another RCSengine quad on its exterior panel and contains the oxidizer storage tank. This tank is the second of two SPSoxidizer tanks and is fed from the oxidizer sump tank in sector two. Sector four contains most of the electrical power generating equipment. It contains three fuel cells, two cryogenic oxygen and two cryogenic hydrogen tanks and a power control relay box. The cryogenic tanks supply oxygen to the environmental control subsystemand oxygen and hydrogen to the fuel cells. Sector five has part of an environmental control radiator and an RCSengine quad on the exterior panel and contains the SPSengine fuel sump tank. This tank feeds the engine and is also connected by feed lines to the storage tank in sector six. Sector six has the rest of the environmental control radiator and an RCSengine quad on its exterior and contains the SPSengine Fuel storage tank which feeds the fuel sump tank in sector five. The center section contains two helium tanks and the SPSengine. The tanks are used to provide helium pressurant for the SPSpropellant tanks. Propulsion Main spacecraft propulsion is provided by the 20,500-pound thrust Service Propulsion System (SPS). The SPSengine is a restartable, non-throttleable engine which usesnitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer and a 50-50 mixture of hydrazine and unsymmetrical-dlmethylhydrazine as fuel. This engine is used for major velocity changes during the mission such as midcourse corrections, lunar orbit insertion, transearth injection, and CSM aborts. The SPSengine respondsto automatic firing commandsfrom the guidance and navigation system or to commandsfrom manual controls. The engine assembly is glmbal-mounted to allow engine thrust-vector alignment with the spacecraft center of massto preclude tumbling. Thrust vector alignment control is maintained automatically by the Stabilization and Control System or manually by the crew. The Service Module Reaction Control System (SM RCS)provides for maneuvering about and along three axes. (See Page42 for more comprehensive descrlption.) July 1969 Page 25

_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f-

Additional SM Systems In addition to the systemsalready described the SM has communication antennas, umbilical connections, and several exterior mounted lights. The four antennas on the outside of the SM are the steerable S-band high-gain antenna, mounted on the aft bulkhead; two VHF omnidirectional antennas, mounted on opposite sldes of the module near the top; and the rendezvous radar transponder antenna, mounted in the SM fairing. The umbilicals consist of the main plumbing and wiring connections between the CM and SM enclosed in a fairing (aluminum covering), and a "flyaway" umbilical which is connected to the Launch Escape Tower. The latter supplies oxygen and nitrogen for cabin pressure, water-glycolr electrical power from ground equipment, and purge gas. Seven lights are mounted in the aluminum panels of the fairing. Four lights (one red, one green, and two amber) are used to aid the astronauts in docking, one is a floodlight which carl be turned on to give astronauts vlsibility during extravehicular activities, one is a flashing beacon used to aid in rendezvous, and one is a spotlight used in rendezvous from 500 feet to docking with the LM. SM/CM Separation Separation of the SM from the CM occurs shortly before reentry. The sequence of events during separation is controlled automatically by two redundant Service Module Jettison Controllers (SMJC) located on the forward bulkhead of the SM. Physical separation requires severing of all the connections between the modules, transfer of electrical control, and firing of the SM RCSto increase the distance between the CM and SM. A tenth of a second after electrical connections are deadfaced, the SMJC's send signals which fire ordnance devices to sever the three tension ties and the umbilical. The tension ties are straps which hold the CM on three of the compression pads on the SM. Linear-shaped charges in each tension tle assembly sever the tension ties to separate the CM from the SM. At the same time, explosive charges drive guillotines through the wiring and tubing in the umbilical. Simultaneously with the firing of the ordnance devices, the SMJC's send signals which fire the SM RCS. Roll engines are fired for five seconds to alter the SM's course from that of the CM, and the translation (thrust) engines are fired continuously until the propellant is depleted or fuel cell power is expended. These maneuvers carry the SM well away from the entry path of the CM.

July 1969

Page 26

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
/

Command Module General The Command Module (CM) (Figure 12) serves as the command, control, and communications center for most of the mission. Supplemented by the SM, it provides all life support elements for three crewmen in the mission environments and fo_ their safe return to earth's surface. It is capable of attitude control about three axes and some lateral lift translation at high velocities in earth atmosphere. It also permits LM attachment, CM/LM ingress and egress, and serves as a buoyant vessel in open ocean. Structure The CM consists of two basic structures joined together: the inner structure (pressure shell) and the outer structure (heat shield). The inner structure, the pressurized crew compartment, is made of aluminum sandwich construction consisting of a welded aluminum inner skin, bonded aluminum honeycomb core and outer face sheet. The outer structure is basically a heat shield and is made of stainless steel-brazed honeycomb brazed between steel alloy face sheets. Parts of the area between the inner and outer sheets are filled with a layer of fibrous insulation as additional heat protection.

f

Thermal Protection (Heat Shields) The interior of the CM must be protected from the extremes of environment that will be encountered during a mission. The heat of launch is absorbed principally through the Boost Protective Cover (BPC), a fiberglass structure covered with cork which encloses the CM. The cork is covered with a white reflective coating. The BPC is permanently attached to the Launch Escape Tower and is jettisoned with it. The insulation between the inner and outer shells, plus temperature control provided by the environmental control subsystem, protects the crew and sensitive equipment in space. The principal task of the heat shield that forms the outer structure is to protect thecrew during reentry. This protection is provided by ablative heat shields of varying thicknesses covering the CM. The ablc_tive material is a phenolic epoxy resin. This material turns white hot, chars, and then melts away, conducting relatively little heat to the inner structure. The heat shield has several outer coverings: a pore seal, a moisture barrier (white reflective coating), and a silver Mylar thermal coating.

July 1969

Page 27

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
/

COMMAND MODULE
_X +Y

-Y FORWARD HEAT SHIELD

-X

z_

LAUNCH ESCAPETOWER ATTACHMENT (TYPICAL)

SIDE WINDOW (TYPICAL 2 PLACES)

;ATIVE PITCH ENGINES

CREW COMPARTMENT H_,TSHIELD (RENDEZVOUS) WINDOWS

HATCH A[T HEATSHIELD SEA ANCHOR ATTACH POINT

YAW EN _ BAND ANTE STEAM VENT URINE DUMP S BAND ANEENNA WASTE WATER ROLL F NGINES (TYPICAL) AIR VENT DSITIVF PITCH ENGINES

+X

_y

+Z _-Z -Y LEFT HAND

-X COMBINED TUNNEl HATCH

EORWCOMPARTM A.O ENT\ /PO.WARE O QUIPMEN _V_T
COMPARTMENT _. EOUIPMENT BAY FORWARD

COUCH CR_W CREW ( TYPICAL) AT It r4UATION I JY'PI( AI

_OWER OM'A._ME_, "X__tI'_:rr._\X..'ZEOU,,MENT _-_,c _.alll' ,n,___,,,',, CREW
/ 2 .._ FORWARD PARTM[NT

LEFT HAND EQUIPMENT BAy AFT COMPARTMENT

RIGHT HAND EQUIPMENT BAY AFT COMPARTMENT

F-

Fig. 12

July 1969

Page 28

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Forward Compartment The forward compartment is the area around the forward (docking) tunnel. It is separated from the crew compartment by a bulkhead and covered by the forward heat shield. The compartment is divided into four 90-degree segments which contain earth landing equipment (all the parachutes, recovery antennas and beacon light, and sea recovery sling_ etc.), two RCSengines, and the forward heat shield release mechanism. The forward heat shield contains four recessed fittings into which the legs of the Launch Escape Tower are attached. The tower legs are connected to the CM structure by frangible nuts containing small explosive charges, which separate the tower from the CM when the Launch EscapeSystem is jettisoned. The forward heat shield is jettisoned at about 25_000 feet during return to permit deployment of the parachutes. Aft Compartment The aft compartment is located around the periphery of the CM at its widest part1 near the aft heat shield. The aft compartment bays contain 10 RCSengines; the fuel, oxidizer, and helium tanks for the CM RCS;water tanks; the crushable ribs of the impact attenuation system; and a number of instruments. The CM-SM umbilical is also located in the aft compartment. Crew Compartment The crew compartment has a habitable volume of 210 cubic feet. Pressurization and temperature are maintained by the Environmental Control System (ECS). The crew compartment contains the controls and displays for operation of the spacecraft, crew couches, and all the other equipment needed by the crew. It contains two hatches, five windows, and a number of equipment bays. EquipmentBay's The equipment bays contain items needed by the crew for up to 14 days, as well as much of the electronics and other equipment needed for operation of the spacecraft. The bays are named according to their position with reference to the couches. The lower equipment bay is the largest and contains most of the guidance and navigation electronics, as well as the sextant and telescope, the Command Module Computer (CMC), and a computer keyboard. Most of the telecommunications subsystem electronics are in this bay, including the five batteries, inverters, and battery charger of the electrical power subsystem. Stowage areas in the bay contain food supplies_ scientific instruments, and other astronaut equipment.
/f-

_-

July 1969

Page 29

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

The left-hand equipment bay contains key elements of the ECS. Space is provided in this bay for stowing the forward hatch when the CM and LM are docked and the tunnel between the modules is open. The left-hand forward equipment bay also contains ECS equipment, as well as the water delivery unit and clothing storage. The right-hand equipment bay contains Waste Management System controls and equipment, electrical power equipment, and a variety of electronics_ including sequence controllers and signal conditioners. Food also is stored in a compartment in this bay. The rlght-hand forward equipment bay is used principally for stowage and contains such items as survival kits, medical supplies_ optical equipment_ the LM docking target_ and bioinstrumentation harness equipment. The aft equipment bay is used for storing space suits and helmets_ life vests, the fecal canister, Portable Life Support Systems (backpacks), and other equipment, and includes space for stowing the probe and drogue assembly. Hatches The two CM hatches are the side hatch, used for getting in and out of the CM, and the forward hatch, used to transfer to and from the LM when the CM and LM F are docked. The side hatch is a single integrated assembly which opens outward and has primary and secondary thermal seals. The hatch normally contains a small window_ but has provisions for installation of an airlock. The latches for the side hatch are so designed that pressure exerted against the hatch serves only to increase the locking pressure of the latches. The hatch handle mechanism also operates a mechanism which opens the access hatch in the BPC. A counterbalance assembly which consists of two nitrogen bottles and a piston assembly enables the hatch and BPC hatch to be opened easily. In space, the crew can operate the hatch easily without the counter balance_ and the pi-ston cylinder and nitrogen bottle can be vented after launch. A second nitrogen bottle can be used to open the hatch after landing. The side hatch can readily be opened from the outside. In case some deformation or other malfunction prevented the latches from engaging, three jackscrews are provided in the crew's tool set to hold the door closed. The forward (docking) hatch is a combined pressure and ablative hatch mounted at the top of the docking tunnel. The exterior or upper side of the hatch is covered witha half-inch of insulation anda layer of aluminum foil. This hatch hasa sixpoint latching arrangement operated by a pump handle similar to that on the side hatch and can also be opened from the outside. It has a pressure equalization valve so that the pressure in the tunnel and that in the LM can be equalized before the hatch is removed. There are also provisions for opening the latches manually if the handle gear mechanism should fail.

°

July 1969

Page 30

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
/

Windows The CM has five windows: two side (numbers I and 5), two rendezvous (numbers 2 and 4), and a hatch window (number 3 or center). The hatch window is over the center couch. The windows each consist of inner and outer panes. The inner windows are made of tempered silica glass with quarter-inch thick double panes, separated by a tenth of an inch. The outer windows are made of amorphous-fused silicon with a single pane seven tenths of an inch thick. Each pane has an antireflecting coating on the external surface and a blue-red reflective coating on the inner surface to filter out most infrared and all ultraviolet rays. The outer window glass has a softening temperature of 2800°F and a melting point of 3110°F. The inner window glass has a softening temperature of 2000°F. Aluminum shades are provided for all windows. Impact Attenuation During a water impact the CM deceleration force will vary considerably depending on the shape of the waves and the dynamics of the CM's descent. A major portion of the energy (75 to 90 percent) is absorbed by the water and by deformation of the CM structure. The impact attenuation system reduces the forces acting on the crew to a tolerable level. The impact attenuation system is part internal and part external. The external part consists of four crushable ribs (each about four inches thick and a foot in length) installed in the aft compartment. The ribs are made of bonded laminations of corrugated aluminum which absorb energy by collapsing upon impact. The main parachutes suspend the CM at such an angle that the ribs are the first point of the module that hits the water. The internal portion of the system consists of eight struts which connect the crew couches to the CM structure. These struts absorb energy by deforming steel wire rings between an inner and an outer piston. Docki ng A docking capability is provided utilizing design interfaces of the CM tunnel and the LM tunnel(Figure 13). The CM components include a CM docking ring with 12 automatic docking latches and provision for mounting the retractable, extendable, and collapsible probe, and electrical umbilical cables for supplying CSM power to the LM during translunar mission phases. The CM has provision for controlling tunnel pressure independent of hatch-mounted pressure equalization and dump valves. The CM forward hatch is completely removable. The LM tunnel contains a removable drogue, a circumferential llp to engage the 12 CM automatic docking latches and an upper, hinged hatch. When the CM and LM contact, capture latches on the probe engage the drogue and the docking latches secure the interface. The probe and drogue may be removed for tunnel transit and reinstalled after transit. Manned LM separations rely upon the capture latches of the probe to maintain docking contact as the docking latches are manually released. Vehicle

.

"_-

_-

July 1969

Page 31

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

CM/LM DOCKING CONFIGURATION LM TUNNEL CAPTURE I LATCHES

LM UPPERHATCH

DROGUE

II//_
I'_r I

;X",."%"_II_oc,ING
.I_I_-.---[ \N\ "_II

I1_/// 2 _\\\\11
17 / _r i \_ X _II

_A]T_HES

I

JL _-"1

f

__]]¢ISEPARATION _

_l_#_/z_"//"

,..]I

I

CMTUNNEL
,f

HATCH FOLDED PROBE-CM REMOVAL

INSTALLED PROBE

FOLDED PROBE-LMREMOVAL

HANDLE EXTENDED FORRATCHETING

Fig. 13

July 1969

Page 32

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

separation occurs as the probe capture latches and extension latches are remotely unlocked during probe extension. Final separation of the unmanned LM is accomplished by explosively severing the docking ring from the CM at the CM/docklng ring interface. The jettisoned LM carries away the docking ring and probe (if instal led). Display and Controls

:

The Main Display Console (MDC) (Figure 14)has been arranged to provide for the expected duties of crew categories of Commander, CM Pilot, and LM Pilot, occupying the left,

MAIN

DISPLAY
/

CONSOLE
SERVICE

mombers The . e 'a",nto
__,_, __ V'_\_fSCSPOWERPANEL

CRYOGENICS J_'IL__J_4J/P_/_ AUOI0 ,,_ C r_'----J1--/-km/'_,_

AUDIO CONTROL

The CM Pilot alsoacts as the _rincloal navigator. All controls have been center, andrightcouchesrespecfively. designed they can be operated by astronauts so wearing gloves. The con trois are predominantly of four basic types: toggle switches, rotary switches with cllck-stops, thumb-wheels, and push buttons. Critical switches are guarded so that they cannot be thrown inadvertently. In addition, some critical controls have locks that must be released before they can be operated. Flight controls are Iocatedon the left-

ENVIRONMENTAL CO NTRO L'_

._

• LAUNCH VEHICLE EMERGE DETECT NCY ION e PROPELLANT GAUGING • FLIGHT ATTITUOE • ENVIRONMENT CONTROL • MISSION SEQUENCE • COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL
• VELOCITYCHANGE MONITOR • ENTRYMONITOR ..-f"q • POWER DISTRIBUTION • CAUTION& WARNING

_ IJJ_ _, ,I .... J\ FLIGHTCONTROLSS _ YSTEMS CONTROLS_IL

_

_

poslte nder. These in center the and Comma left side of the MDC ,clude opizat on and , propulsion , stabilcrew coni trols for control such subsy stems as safety, earth landing, and emergency detection. One of two guidance and navigation computer panels also is Iocated here, as are velocity, attitude, and altitude indicators.

_

k-_l__l_l_:;:_.__._

_'_,-,,,_I'_[_/,/,//"",,.N,,,-I_JI///"_ _ "\ /" \', // "/ 7", COMMANDER CM PILOT

LM PILOT Fig. 14

The CM Pilot faces the center of the console and thus can reach many of the flight controls, as well as the system controls on the right side of the console. Displays and controls directly opposite him include reaction control, propellant management, caution and warning, environmental control, and cryogenic storage systems. July 1969 Page 33

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The LM Pilot couch faces the rlght-center and right side of the console. Communications, electrical control, data storage, and fuel cell system components are located here, as well as service propulsion subsystempropellant management. Other displays and controls are placed throughout the cabin in the various equipment bays and on the crew couches. Most of the guidance and navigation equipment is in the lower equipment bay, at the foot of the center couch. This equipment, including the sextant and telescope, is operated by an astronaut standing and using a simple restraint system. The non-tlme-crltlcal controls of the Environmental Control System are located in the left-hand equipment bay, while all the controls of the Waste Management System are on a panel in the right-hand equipment bay. The rotation and translation controllers used for attitude, thrust vector, and translation maneuvers are located on the arms of two crew couches. In addition, a rotation controller can be mounted at the navigation position in the lower equipment bay. Critical conditions of most spacecraft systemsare monitored by a Caution And Warning System. A malfunction or out-of-tolerance condition results in illumination of a status light that identifies the abnormality. It also activates the master alarm circuit_ which illuminates two master alarm lights on the MDC and one in the lower equipment bay and sendsan alarm tone to the astronauts' headsets. The master alarm lights and tone continue until a crewman resets the master alarm circuit. This can be done before the crewmen deal with the problem indicated. The Caution And Warning System also contains equipment to sense its own malfunctions. Two switches on the MDC affect the launch vehicle. They are the S-II/S-IVB LV stage switch and the guidance switch. The S-II/S-IVB LV stage switch allows the crew to initiate early staging of the S-II from the S-IVB if an incipient failure of the S-II is observed. This switch may also be used to initiate manual cutoff of the S-IVB engine during third-stage flight. The guidance switch has two positions, "IU" and "CMC," which select one of two guidance reference systemsfor the launch vehicle. The "IU" position selects the primary system which uses the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) and the ST-124-M3 Inertial Platform in the IU for the generation of launch vehicle attitude error signals. The "CMC" position utilizes the CMC and the CM Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to generate LV attitude error signals via the /VDC. During S-IC stage flight, the vehicle automatically follows a stored program in the CMC. During S-II and S-IVB stage flight, attitude error signals are generated by the crew by deflecting the Rotational Hand Controller in responseto attitude and performance displays. Except for S-IVB orbital coast phases, the "CMC" capability is dependent and interlocked with a sensed failure of the ST-|24-M3 Inertial Platform.
f

s_

July 1969

Page 34

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

Telecommunications The telecommunications system (Figure 15) provides voice, television, telemetry, tracking, and ranging communications between the spacecraft and earth, between the CM and LM, and between the spacecraft and astronauts wearing the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). It also provides communications among the astronauts in the spacecraft and includes the central timing equipment for synchronization of other equipment and correlation of telemetry equipment. For convenience, the telecommunications subsystemcan be divided into four areas: intercommunications (voice), data, radio frequency equipment, and antennas.

TELECOMMUNI CATIONSSYSTEM
HIGHANTENNA 3) ANTENNA (41

_SMC_'_ W_LsS
MSFN.EVA& 't' ½ _sQ. 7 MC _LMVOICG fl IRAN VHS FMIIIER AM I i UP-DATA _._ S-! PC E ND R

®........... I
PIT PIT I HEADSET , I._ •14--I " ............. AUDIO CENIE R (_

RECEIVER

LINK

I

UP VOICE DA T TO P& CM 22 /A 2.5 M_ _AMP[ :lfR UNIFIED S-BAND EMERGENCV YOICE ] Ei_MENI PM FM

.,TRANSM'T 08 '' REGE ''C , I 'MCT.A

VOICE

OWNVOICE

PREMU PROCES DUL SOAT R ION REAL-TIMEVOICE & DATA

-K_

,

uPv_mCE RELAY .

RE^L-h A _ NA_. DO AG T
STORED DATA & VOICE VIDEO

VIDEO

T RATE TIMING

IV UMBILICAL

Fig. 15

Intercommunications The astronauts' headsets are used for all voice communications. Each astronaut

_-

has an audio control panel on the Main Display ConSole which enables him to control what comes into his headset and where he will send his voice. The three headsetsand audio control panels are connected to three identical audio center modules. The audio center is the assimilation and distribution point for all spacecraft voicesignals. The audio signals can be routed from the center to the

July 1969

Page 35

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement appropriate transmitter or receiver, the Launch Control Center (for prelaunch checkout), the recovery forces intercom, or voice tape recorders. Two methods of voice transmission and reception are possible: the VHF/AM transmitter-receiver and the S-band transmitter and receiver. The VHF/AM equipment is used for voice communications with the Manned Space Flight Network during launch, ascent, and near-earth phasesof a mission. The S-band equipment is used during both near-earth and deep-space phasesof a mission. When communications with earth are not possible, a limited number of audio signals can be stored on tape for later transmission. The CSM communication capability with regard to range is depicted in Figure 16.

CSMCOMMUNICATION RANGES
* ? I VffF OMNI _2,600 N_

VOICE
ZInC OMNI

_
, _8w(]O0 k_

DOWN VOICE

_

"

,

,

UP-DATA
BACKUP VOICE & EMERGENCY KEY TM ILOWBIT P_T_= TM (HIGH BIT RATE: 2'KMC HIGH-GAIN U DP-DATA,UP-VOICE NVOICE, DN 1M PRN i I . j

!
I

i
#_r

i
I 220 KN_

!
_L

I
"_ !' "'1 I : _22.000_ i j i , .

,
J

i
J

_
J i f_ t

200Kt¢_
:

WIDE t BEAih_ - t [ DEEP-SPACEBLIND

i _

MEDIUM BEAM ;

i • _

j W BEAM NARRO

1VNEA_EARTH & DEEP-SPACE LUNAR OPERATIONS: VHF, VOICE CM-L_V RENDEZVOUS RADAR HIGH-GAINA/_'ENNA L .)..4 4.6 5.0 28.0 3D.C 40 i 56 _ TRANSPONDER.CM-LM ZIO

RANGE FROM EARTH'S SURFACE IN NAUTICALMILES (THOUSANDS_

Fig. 16 A capability exists for using the CSM/LM VHF transceivers to generate LM-CSM range information in the CSM as a backup to the LM rendezvous radar. It has an accuracy of 250 Feet at 200 miles. Data The spacecraft structure and subsystemscontain sensorswhich gather data on their status and performance. Biomedical, TV, and timing data also are gathered. These various forms of data are assimilated into the data system, processed, and then transmitted to the ground. Some data from the operational

F

July 1969

Page 36

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement systems, and some voice communications, may be stored For later transmission or for recovery after landing. Stored data can be transmitted to the ground simultaneously with voice or realtime data. Radio Frequency Equipment The radio frequency equipment is the meansby which voice information, telemetry data, and ranging and tracking information are transmitted and received. The equipment consists of two VHF/AM transceivers in one unit, the unified S-band equipment (primary and secondary transponders and an FM transmitter), primary and secondary S-band power amplifiers (in one unit), a VHF beacon, an X-band transponder (for rendezvous radar), and the premodulatlon processor. The equlpment provides for voice transfer between the CM and the ground, between the CM and LM, between the CM and extravehicular astronauts, and between the CM and recovery forces. Telemetry can be transferred between the CM and the ground, from the LM to the CM and then to the ground, and from extravehicular astronauts to the CM and then to the ground. Ranging information consists of pseudo-random noise and double-Doppler ranging signals from the ground to the CM and back to the ground, and of X-band radar signals from the LM to the CM and back to the LM. The VHF beacon equipment emits a 2-second signal every 5 seconds For line-of-sight direction finding to aid recovery forces in locating the CM after landing. Antennas LOCATION OF ANTENNAS There are nine antennas (Figure lWOSCIMITARVHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS 17) on the CSM, not counting (1800EGREESAPART) which is an integral part of the rendezvous radar transponder. the rendez vous radar antenna These antennas can be divided into four groups: VHF, S-band, FOURS-BA OM ND NIDIRECTIONAL
ANTENNAS A

f

__-_y,_l_

s_ LL _

\sa _ _

CM__I;, _ OUS RENDEZV RADAR

)

recovery, and beacon. two J'_\_t VHF antennas (called sThe cimitars becauseof their shape)are omnidirectional and are mounted 180 degrees apart on the SM. There are five S-band antennas, one mounted at the bottom of the SM andfour located 90 degreesapart around the CM. The steerable _ July 1969 _ _]ILL_ _ _
--

_,,_RANSPD NOER ANTE NNA __=_'_.:'-_'_,----.-I"INOVHEBLADE _ STEERABLE S-BAND _"'_-" _RECDVERYANTENNAS

\

HIGH-GA AN ITE N NNA F_g. 17

S-band high-galn _antennaon the SMWused Fordeep space communications, is composedof four 31-inch diameter reflectors surrounding an 11-1nch square Page 37

r_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement reflector. At launch'it is folded down parallel to the SPSengine nozzle so that it fits within the Spacecraft-LM Adapter (SLA). After the CSM separates from the SLA the antenna is deployed at a right angle to the SM center line. The four smaller, surface-mounted S-band antennas are used at near-earth ranges and for deep-space backup. The hlgh-gain antenna is deployable after CSM/SLA separation. It can be steered through a glmbal system and is the principal antenna for deep-space communications. The four S-band antennas on the CM are mounted flush with the surface of the CM and are used for S-band communications during near-earth phasesof the mission, as well as for a backup in deep space. The two VHF recovery antennas are located in the forward compartment of the CM, and are deployed automatically shortly after the main parachutes deploy. One of these antennas is also connected to the VHF recovery beacon. Environmental Control System The Environmental Control System (ECS) provides a controlled environment for three astronauts for up to 14 days. For normal conditions, this environment includes a pressurized cabin (five pounds per square inch), a t00 percent oxygen atmosphere, and a cabin temperature of 70 to 75°F. The system provides a pressurized suit circuit for use during critical mission phasesand for emergencies.

f_

The ECS provides oxygen and hot and cold water1 removes carbon dioxide and odors from the CM cabin1 provides for venting of waste, and dissipates excessive heat from the cabin and from operating electronic equipment. It is designed so that a minimum amount of crew time is needed for its normal operation. The main unit contains the coolant control panel, water chiller, two water-glycol evaporators, carbon dioxide odor-absorber canisters, suit heat exchanger, water separator, and • compressors. The oxygen surge tank, water glycol pump package and reservoir, and control panels for oxygen and water are adjacent to the unit. The system is concerned with three major elements: oxygen, water_ and coolant (water-glycol) . All three are interrelated and intermingled with other systems. These three elements provide the major functions of spacecraft atmosphere, thermal control, and water management through four major subsystems: oxygen, pressure suit circuit, water, and water-glycol. A fifth subsystem, postlanding ventilation, also is part of the ECS_ providing outside air for breathing and cooling prior to hatch opening. The CM cabin atmosphere is 60 percent oxygen and 40 percent nitrogen on the launch pad to reduce fire hazard. The mixed atmosphere supplied by ground equipment will gradually be changed to pure oxygen after launch as the FCS maintains pressure and replenishes the cabin atmosphere.

July 1969

Page 38

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
F _

During prelaunch and initial orbital operation, the suit circuit supplies pure oxygen at a flow rate slightly more than is needed for breathing and suit leakage. This results in the suit being pressurized slightly above cabin pressure, which prevents cabin gases from entering and contaminating the suit circuit. The excess oxygen in the suit circuit is vented into the cabin. Spacecraft heating and coollng is performed through two water-glycol coolant loops. The water-glycol, initially cooled through ground equipment, is pumped through the primary loop to cool operating electric and electronic equipment, the space suits, and the cabin heat exchangers. The water-glycol also is circulated through a reservoir in the CM to provide a heat sink during ascent. Earth Landing System The Earth Landing System (ELS) (Figure 18) provides a safe landing for the astronauts and the CM. Several recovery aids which are activated after landing are part of the system. Operation normally is automatic, timed, and activated by the Sequential Control System. All automatic functions can be backed up manually.

_

ELSMAJORCOMPONENT STOWAGE
PARACHUTE MORTAR 'OROGUE (2 PLACES) LAUNCHESCAPE TOWER ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE

July 1969

Page 39

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement For normal entry, about 1.5 secondsafter forward heat shield jettison, the two drogue parachutes are deployed to orTent the CM properly and to provide inltial deceleratlon. At about 10,000 feet, the drogue parachutes are released and the three pilot parachutes are deployed; these pull the main parachutes from the forward sectlon of the CM. The maln parachutes inltlally open partlally (reefed) for 10 secondsto llmlt deceleration prior to full-dlameter deployment. The main parachutes hang the CM at an angle of 27.5 degrees to decrease impact loads at landlng. After landing the crew releases the main parachutes. The recovery aids consist of an uprlghting system, swimmer's umbilical cablet a sea dye marker, a flashing beacon, and a VHF beacon transmitter. The two VHF recovery antennas are located in the forward compartment with the parachutes° They are deployed automatically 8 secondsafter the main parachutes. One of them is connected to the beacon transmitter which emits a 2-second signal every 5 seconds to ald recovery forces in locating the CM. Tt_eother is connected to the VHF/AM transmitter and receiver to provide voice communlcatlons between the crew and recovery forces. A sea recovery sling of steel cable is provided to llft the CM aboard a recovery ship. Three inflatable uprlghtlng bags_ stowed under the main parachutes, are available for uprlghting the CM should it stabilize in an inverted floating position after landing. Common Spacecraft Systems Guidance and Control The Apollo Spacecraft is gulded and controlled by two interrelated systems (FTgure 19). One is the Guidance, Navigatlon, and Control System (GNCS); the other is the Stabilization and Control System (SCS). The two systemsprovide rotational, llne-of-flight, and rate-of-speed information. They integrate and interpret this information and convert it into commandsfor the spacecraft propulsion systems. Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Guidance and navigatlon is accomplished through ]'hree major elements: the inertial, optical, and computer subsystems. The inertial subsystemsensesany changes in the velocity and angle of the spacecraft and relays this information to the computer which transmits any necessarysignals to the spacecraft engines° The optical subsystem is used to obtain navigation sightlngs of celestial bodies and landmarks on the earth and moon° It passesthis information along to the computer for guidance and control purposes. The computer subsystemuses information from a number of sources to determine the spacecraft position and speed and, in automatic operation, to give commandsfor guldance and control. July 1969 Page 40

_-

M-932--69 Apollo Supplement
/

GUIDANCE ANDCONTROL FUNCTI 0NALFLOW
VEHICL£ DYNAMICS

NOTATION

TNANO_TION

6UIC

_

STABILIZATION

T_:NS_T'0N CONTROLS

O0--N_ ° i

_NAV

_:N _0

C0NTN 0 L SOl_4_J ASSEMOLY

:_p!J_011N

J_

I

A

REACTION

"

:
ASTRONAUT ROTA'rlON CONTROL BREAKOUTSWITCHES

:

CONTROL

I
OIRECTR_ NOTATION VEHICLE OYNANICS

I1

II

Fig. 19

Stabilization and Control System The Stabilization and Control System (SCS) operates in three ways: it determines the spacecraft's attitude (angular position); maintains the spacecraft's attitude; and controls the direction of thrust of the service propulsion engine. Both the GNCS and SCS are used by the computer in the CM to provide automatic control of the Spacecraft. Manual control of the spacecraft attitude and thrust is provided mainly through the SCS equipment. The Flight Director Attitude Indicators (FDAI) on the main console show the total angular position, attitude errors, and their rates of change. One of the sources of total attitude information is the stable platform of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The second source is a Gyro Display Coupler (GDC) which gives a reading of the spacecraft's actual attitudes as compared with an attitude selected by the crew. Information about attitude error also is obtained by comparison of the IMU gimbal angles with computer reference angles. Another source of this information is gyro assembly No. 1, which sensesany spacecraft rotation about any of the three axes. Total attitude information goes _o the CMC as well as to the FDAI's on the console. If a specific attitude or orientation is desired, attitude error signals are sent to the reaction jet engine control assembly. Then the proper reaction jet automatically fires in the direction necessary to return the spacecraft to the desired position.

_

July 1969

Page 41

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The CMC provides primary control of thrust. The flight crew pre-sets thrusting and spacecraft data into the computer by meansof the display keyboard. The forthcoming commands include time and duration of thrust. Accelerometers sense the amount of change in velocity obtained by the thrust. Thrust direction control is required because of center of gravity shifts caused by depletion of propellants in service propulsion tanks. This control is accomplished through electromechanical actuators which position the gimbaled SPSengine. Automatic control commands may originate in either the guidance and navigation subsystemor the SCS. There is also provision for manual controls.
n

Reaction Control Systems Both the CommandModule and the Service Module have their own independent Reaction Control System (RCS) - the CM RCSand the SM RCS, respectively. The SM RCShas four idenHcal "quads" mounted around the SM 90 degrees apart. Each quad has four 100-pound thrust engines, two fuel and two oxidizer tanks, and a helium pressurization sphere. The SM RCSprovides redundant spacecraft attitude control through cross-coupling logic inputs from the stabilization and guidance systems. Small velocity change maneuvers can also be made with the SM RCS. The CM RCSconsists of two independent subsystemsof six 94-pound thrust engines each. Both subsystemsare activated after separation from the SM; one is used for spacecraft attitude control during entry. The other serves in standby as a backup. Propellants for both CM and SM RCSare monomethyl hydrazine fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with helium pressurization. These propellants are hypergolic, i.e., they burn spontaneously when combined without need for an igniter. Electrical Power System The Electrical Power System (EPS)provides electrical energy sources, power generation and control, power conversion and conditioning, and power distribution to the spacecraft throughout the mission. The EPSalso furnishes drinking water to the astronauts as a by-product of the fuel cells. The primary source of electrical power is the fuel cells mounted in the SM. Each cell consists of a hydrogen compartment, an oxygen compartment, and two electrodes. The cryogenic gas storage system, also located in the SM, supplies the hydrogen and oxygen used in the fuel cell power plants, as welt as the oxygen used in the ECS. Three silver-zinc storage batteries supply power to the CM during entry and after landing, provide power for sequence controllers, and supplement the fuel cells during periods of peak power demand. These batteries are located in the CM lower equipment bay. A battery charger is located in the same bay to assure a full charge prior to entry.

July 1969

Page 42

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Two other silver-zlnc batterlest independent of and completely isolated from the rest of the dc power system, are used to supply power for explosive devices for CM/SM separation, parachute deployment and separation_ thlrd-stage separation_ Launch Escape Tower separation, and other pyrotechnic uses. Emergency Detection System The Emergency Detection System (EDS) monitors critical conditions of launch vehicle-powered flight. Emergency conditions are displayed to the crew on the Main Display Console to indicate a necessity for abort. The system includes provisions for a crew-inltiated abort with the use of the Launch Escape System or with the SPSafter tower jettison. The crew can initiate an abort separation from the LV from prior to liftoff until the planned separation time. A capability also exists for commanding early staging of the S-IVB from the S-II stage when necessary. Also included in the system are provisions for an automatic abort in case of the following time-critical conditions: 1. 2. ._ 3. Lossof thrust on two or more engines on the first stage of the LV. Excessive vehicle angular rates in any of the pitch, yaw, or roll planes. Lossof "hotwire" continuity from SM to IU.

The EDS will automatically initiate an abort signal when two or more first-stage engines are out or when LV excessive rates are sensed by gyros in the IU. The abort signals are sent to the master events sequence controller, which initiates the abort sequence. The engine lights on the Main Display Console provide the following information to the crew: ignition, cutoff, engine below pre-speclfled thrust level, and physical stage separation. A yellow "S-II Sep" light will illuminate at second-stage first-plane separation and will extinguish at secondplane separation. A high-lntenslty, red "ABORT" light is illuminated if an abort is requested by the Launch Control Center for a pad abort or an abort during llftoff via updata link. The "ABORT" light can also be illuminated after llftoff by the Range Safety Officer or by the Mission Control Center via the updata link from the Manned Space Flight Network. _aunch Escape System General The Launch Escape System (LES) (Figure 20) includes the LESstructure, canards, rocket motors, and ordnance. The LES provides an immediate meansof separating the CM from the LV during pad or suborbital aborts up through completion of second stage ignition. During an abort, the LESmust provide a satisfactory earth return trajectory and CM orientation before jettisoning from the CM. The jettison or abort can be initiated manually or automatically. July 1969 Page 43

M-932-69 Apollo SuppLement

LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM
NOSE CONE & O BALL BALLAST PITCH CONTROL MOTOR TOWER JETTISON MOTOR

LAUNCH STRUCTURAL SKIRT CANAR0 ACTUATOR ILiD PROPELLANT

LAUNCH ESCAPEMOTOR THRUST ALIGNMENT FITTING_

\

STUOS &

& INSTRUMENTATION

WIRE HARNF._

f OISCONNECT FI'n'IN GS BOOST PROTECTIVE COVER (APEX SECTION)

Fig. 20

Assembly The forward or rocket section of the system is cylindrical and housesthree solidpropellant rocket motors and a ballast compartment topped by a nose cone and "Q-ball" which measuresattitude and flight dynamics of the space veh|cle. The 500-pound tower is made of titanium tubes attached at the top to a structural skirt that covers the rocket exhaust nozzles and at the bottom to the CM by meansof explosive bolts. A Boost Protective Cover (BPC) is attached to the tower and completely covers the CM. It has 12 "blowout" ports for the CM reaction control engines, Vents, and an 8-1nch window. This cover protects the CM from the rocket exhaust and also from the heat generated during launch vehicle boost. It remains attached to the tower and is carried away when the assembly is jettisoned. Two canards mounted near the forward end of the assembly aerodynamically tumble the CM in the pitch plane during an abort so that the heat shield is forward. The assembly is commonly referred to as the LET (Launch Escape Tower) or simply "tower."

July 1969

Page 44

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
/r-

Propulslon Three solid propellant motors are used on the LES. They are: 1. Thelaunch escape motor which provides thrust for CM abort. It weighs 4700 pounds and provides 147,000 pounds of thrust at sea level for approximately eight seconds. Thepitch control motor which provides an iniHal pitch maneuver toward the Atlantic Ocean during pad or low-altitude abort. It weighs 50 pounds and provides 2400 pounds of thrust for half a second. The tower jettison motor, which is used to jettison the LET, provides 31,500 pounds of thrust for one second.

2.

3.

System Operation The Launch EscapeSystem is activated automatically by the EDS in the first 100 secondsor manually by the astronauts at any time from the pad to jettison altitude. The assembly is jettisoned at about 295,000 feet, or about 30 secondsafter ignition of the second stage. After receiving an abort signal, the booster is cut off (after 30 secondsof flight), the CM-SM separation charges are fired, and the launch escape motor is ignited. The launch escape motor lifts the CM and the pitch control motor (used only at low altitudes) directs the flight path off to the side. Two canards are deployed 11 secondsafter an abort is initiated. Three seconds later on extreme low-altitude aborts, the tower separation devices are fired and the jettison motor is started. Theseactions carry the LET, BPC, docking ring, and probe away from the CM's landing trajectory. Four-tenths of a second after tower jettisoning, the CM's Earth Landing System is activated and begins its sequence of operations to bring the CM down safely. All preceeding automatic sequencescan be prevented, interrupted, or replaced by crew action. During a successful launch the LETwith attached BPC is jettisoned by the astronauts, using the digital events timer and the "S-II Sep" light as cues. The jettisoning of the LETdisables the EDSautomatic abort circuits. In the event of tower jettison motor failure, the launch escape motor may jettison the LET.

f

,f

July 1969

Page 45

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Lunar Module General The Lunar Module (LM) (Figure 21) is designed to transport two men safely from the CSM, in lunar orbit, to the lunar surface and return them to the orbiting CSM. The LM provides operational capabilities such as communicatlons, telemetry, environmental support, the transport of scientific equipment to the lunar surface, and the return of surface sampleswith the crew to the CSM. Physical characteristics are shown in Figure 22. LUNARMODULE
S-lLANO STRIIAIEL! OOCKING WINOOW ASCiNT STAGE O_ HATCH VHF _ EVA ANTENNA DOCKING

\
IIAI_I!

AmiN_

(2Ix

ASSI_W.Y

UOm(2

+z

July 1969

Page 46

M-932-69 Apollo
F"

Supplement

LM PHYS ICALCHARACTERI STICS
-14' I"

TOTAL

-4m
\ I _ _"X._

WEIGHT(PROPELLANT & CREW) 33,200LB. WEIGHT(LESSPROP) 9,520LB. ASCENT STAGE WEIGHT(LESSPROP) USABLEPROPELLANT (APS) USABLEPROPELLANT (RCS). 4,860LB. 5,170LB. 590 LB.

OESCENT STAGE
WEIGHT
1'0.291"

4,660LB.

t

J

_USABLE

PROPELLANT (DPS)

17,920LB.

-_-

13' I_'

_]_ 3 ! .0'

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The Lunar Module consists of two stages; the Ascent Stage, and the Descent Stage. The stages are attached at four fittings by explosive bolts. Separable umbillcals and hardllne connections provide subsystemcontinuity to operate both stages as a single unit until separate Ascent Stage operation is desired. The LM is designed to operate For 48 hours after separation from the CSM, with a maximum lunar stay time of 44 hours. Ascent Stage The Ascent Stage (AS) (Figure 23) accommodates two astronauts and is the control center of the LM. The stage structure provides three main sections consisting of a crew compartment and mld-section, which comprises the pressurized cabins and the unpressurized aft equipment bay. Other component parts of the structure consist of the Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA) cluster supports and antenna supports. The cylindrical crew compartment is of semi-monocoque, aluminum a|l_y construction. Large structural beamsextend up the front face and across the top of the crew compartment to distribute loads applied to the cabin structure. The structural concept utilizes beams, bulkheads, and trussesto "cradle" the cabin assembly. The cabin volume is approximately 235 cubic feet. The entire Ascent Stage structure is enveloped by a vented blanket shield suspended at least two inches from the main structure. The thermal and micrometeoroid shield consists of multlple-layer aluminized mylar, nickel foil, inconel mesh, inconel sheet, and, in certain areas, H-film. The shield nominally provides thermal insulation against +350° F temperatures; with H-film, provides protection up to +1000°F. The flight station area has two front windows, a docking window, window shades, supports and restraints, an Alignment Optical Telescope (AOT), Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), data files, and control and display panels. Two hatches are provided for ingressand egress. The inward-opening forward hatch is used for extravehicular activity exit and entry. The overhead hatch seals the docking tunnel which is used for the transfer of crew and equipment internally between the docked CSM and LM. The Ascent Stage isthe nucleus of all LM systems. Two Portable Life Support Systemsare stowed in the LM and provisions have been made for their replenishment. Stowage is provided for docking equipment, extravehicular visors, extravehicular gloves, lunar boots, and crew provisions in general. The Ascent Stage also provides external mounting for a CSM-active docking targeb tracking and orientation lights, two VHF antennas, two S-band inflight antennas, an S-band steerable antenna, and a rendezvous radar antenna.

July 1969

Page 48

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
/ f_

LM ASCENT STAGE
i

KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Abort sensor assembly Alignment optical telescope Inertial measurement unit Pulse torque assembly Cabin dump and relief valve (upper hatch) CSM/LM electrical umbilical fuiring Aft equipment boy bulkhead Watertank 21. Signal.conditioning and electronic replaceable assembly No. 2 22. Pulse-code-modulation and timing equipment assembly 23. Signal-conditioning and electronic replaceable assembly No. ! 24. RCSquadrant 2 25. Gaseous oxygen tank 26. Heliumtank 27. RCSfueltank 28. APS fuel tank 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. RCS helium tank RCStank module Helium pressurisation module Oxidizer service panel RCSoxidizer tank RCSquadrant| Lighting control ascembly Auxiliary switching relay box Cabin dump and relief valve (forward hatch) RCSquadrant 4

9. Rendezvaus radar electronics assembly 10. Propellant quantity gaging system control unit 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Caution and warning electronics.assembly Electricalcantralassembly Attitude and translation control assembly S-bond power amplifier and diplexer S-band transceiver Abort electranic assembly Signal pracester assembly VHF transceiver and diplexer Inverter Batteries

,,_, July 1969 Page 49

Fig. 23

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement _The Ascent Propulsion System provides for major +X axis translations when separated from the Descent Stage and a Reaction Control System (RCS) provides attitude and translational control about and along three axes. Descent Stage , , ._; _ :._ .... : :"i_ _ . The Descent Stage (DS) (Figure 24) is the unmanned portion of the LM. It provides for major velocity changes of the LM to deorbit and land on the lunar surface. The basic structure consists of four main crossed-beamswhose ends define the octagon shape of the stage. The major structural material is aluminum alloy. Thermal and micrometeoroid shielding is similar to that used on the Ascent Stage but with additional base heat shielding of nickel foil, H-film, Fibrocel, and Fiberfrax protecting the stage base from engine heat radiation.

LM DESCENTSTAGE
AFT INTERSTAGE FITTING _ ENGINE MOUNT -__ PLSS SUBSYSTEM BATTERIES DESCENT STRUCTURAL QUADRANT 1 ENGINE SKIN INSULATION THERMAL AND MICROMETEOROID SHIELD

INTIERSTAGE

ION FUEL TANK

FITTING

f QUADRANT 2 ' '

QUA_ANT

4

WATER TANK _''_

I OUTRIGGER (8 EA) __ f_

"' _ _ _"_

EL TR,CAL EXPLOSIVE
DEVICES SUBSYSTEMS BATTERIES LOCATION

POINT (4 EA) OXYGEN TANK ATTACHMENT _ _

SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM TANK

HELIUM TANK FWD GIMBAL RING "t- Z LANDING GEAR LANDING GEAR LANDING GEAR LANDING GEAR DESCENT PRIMARY STRUT FOOTPAD SECONDARY STRUT TRUSS ASSEMBLY ENGINE SKIRT Landing gear is shown in retracted AMBIENT position. Ladder ond platform are not shown.

Fig. 24

July 1969

Page 50

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The Descent Stage has a landing gear systemto absorb landing shock and to support the Descent Stage which must serve as a launch pad for the Ascent Stage. The Descent Stage engine nozzle extension is designed to collapse up to 28 inches and will not have any influence on LM lunar surface stability. Impact attenuation is achieved by compression of the four main struts against crushable aluminum honeycomb. The landing gear trussesalso provide the structural attachment points for securing the LM to the lower (fixed) portion of the Spacecraft-LM Adapter (SLA). A ladder, integral to a primary landing gear strut, provides access to and from the lunar surface Fromthe ten-foot high forward hatch platform. The Descent Stage contains the Descent Propulsion System as well as electrical batteries, landing radar, supplements Forthe Environmental Control System, six batteries for the Portable Life Support Systems, spare lithium hydroxide canisters, a storage area for Scientific equipment, an erectable S-band antenna, pyrotechnics, and a Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly. Guidance, Navigation, and Control System The Guidance, Navigationz and Control System (GN&CS) provides vehicle guidance, navigation, and control required for a manned lunar landing mission. The GN&CS utilizes a Rendezvous Radarand a Landing Radar to aid in navigation. The major subsystemsof the GN&CS system are designated Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem, Abort Guidance Subsystem, and the Control Electronics Subsystem. The GN&CS has a primary and alternate system path. The primary guidance path comprises the Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem, Control Electronics Subsystem, Landing Radar, RendezvousRadar, and the selected propulsion system. The alternate system path comprises the Abort Guidance Subsystem, Control Electronics Subsystem, and the selected propulsion system. The term Primary Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (PGNCS) appears in certain technical mission documentation and connotes use of systemsin the primary path of the LM Guidance, Navigation, and Control System. Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem - The Primary Guidance and Naviation Subsystem(PGNS) establishes an inertial reference for guidance with an Inertial Measurement Unitt usesoptics and radar for navigation, and a digital LM Guidance Computer (LGC) for data processing and generation of flight control signals. The inertlally stabilized accelerometers sense incremental changes of velocity and attitude. Comparison of sensedinstantaneous conditions against software programs generates corrections used to control the vehicle. The reference for the inertial system is aligned using the Alignment Optical Telescope, stars, horizons, and the computer. The PGNS, in conjunction with the CES, controls LM attitude, ascent or descent engine firing, descent engine thrust, and thrust vector. Control under the PGNS mode ranges from fully automatic to manual.

_"

--

F

July 1969

Page 51

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

Abort Guidance Subsystem - The Abort Guidance Subsystem(AGS) provides an independent backup for the PGNS. The section is not utilized during aborts unless the PGNS has failed. The AGS is capable of determining trajectories required for a coelllptlc rendezvous sequence to automatically place the vehicle in a safe parking/rendezvous orbit with the CSM or can display conditions to be acted upon by the astronauts to accomplish rendezvous. The activated AGS performs LM navigation, guidance, and control in conjunction with the Control Electronics Subsystem. The AGS differs from the PGNS in that its inertial sensors are rigidly mounted with respect to the vehicle rather than on a stabilized platform. In this mode, the Abort SensorAssembly (ASA) measuresattitude and acceleration and supplies data to the Abort Electronics Assembly (AEA) which is a high-speed digital computer.

Control Electronics Subsystem- The Control Electronics Subsystem(CES) controls LM attitude and translation about and along three axes by processing commands from the PGNS or AGS and routing on/off commandsto 16 reaction control engines, ascent engine, or descent engine. Descent engine thrust vector is also controlled by the CES.

--

Rendezvous Radar - The RendezvousRadar (RR)tracks the CSM to provide relative llne-of-sight, range and range rate data for rendezvous and docking. The transponder in the CSM augments the transmitted energy of the RR thus increasing radar capabilities and minimizing power requirements. Radardata is automatically entered into the LGC in the PGNS mode. During AGS operation, data inputs are entered into the Abort Electronics Assembly through the Data Entry and Display Assembly (DEDA) by the crew from cabin displays. Radardata is telemetered to the Manned Space Flight Network and monitored for gross inaccuracies.

Landing Radar - The Landing Radar (LR) provides the I.GC with slant range and velocity data for control of the descent to the lunar surface. Slant range data is available below lunar altitudes of approximately 25,000 feet and velocity data is available below approximately 18,000 feet.

Main Propulsion Main Propulsion is provided by the Descent Propulsion System (DPS)and the Ascent Propulsion System (APS). Each sytem is wholly independent of the other. The DPSprovides the thrust to control descent to the lunar surface. The APScan

July 1969

Page 52

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement provide the thrust for ascent from the lunar surface. In case of mission abort, the APS and/or DPS can place the LM into a rendezvous trajectory with the CSM from any point in the descent trajectory. The choice of engine to be used depends on the cause for abort, on how long the descent engine has been operating, and on the quantity of propellant remaining in the Descent Stage. Both propulsion systems use identical hypergollc propellants. The fuel is a 50-50 mixture of hydrazlne and unsymetrical-dimethylhydrazine and the oxidizer is nitrogen tetroxide. Gaseous helium pressurizes the propellant feed systems. Helium storage in the DPS is at cryogenic temperatures in the super-crltlcal state and in the APS it is gaseousat ambient temperatures. Ullage Forpropellant settling is required prior to descent engine start and is provided by the +X axis reaction engines. The descent engine is gimbaled, throttleable and restartable. The engine can be throttled from 1050 pounds of thrust to 6300 pounds. Throttle positions above this value automatically produce full thrust to reduce combustion chamber erosion. Nominal full thrust is 9870 pounds. Gimbal trim of the engine compensatesfor a changing center of gravity of the vehicle and is automatically accomplished by either the PGNS or AGS. Automatic throttle and on/off control is available in the PGNS mode of operation. TheAGS commands on/off operation but has no automatic throttle control capability. Manual control capabillty of engine firing functions has been provided. Manual thrust control override may, at any time, command more thrust than the level commanded by the LGC. The ascent engine is a fixed, non-throttleable engine. The engine develops 3500 pounds of thrust, sufficient to abort the lunar descent or to launch the Ascent Stage from the lunar surface and place it in the desired lunar orbit. Control modesare similar to those described for the descent engine. The APS propellant is contained in two spherical titanium tanks, one for oxidizer and the other for fuel. Each tank has a volume of 36 cubic feet. Total fuel weight is 2008 pounds of which 71 pounds are unusable. Oxidizer weight is 3170 poundsof which 92 pounds are unusable. The APS has a limit of 35 starts, must have a propellant bulk temperature between 50°F and 90°F prior to start, must not exceed 460 seconds of burn time, and has a system life of 24 hours after pressurization. In general, the main propulsion systemsuse pyrotechnic isolation valves in pressurization and propellant lines to prevent corrosive deterioration of components. Once the APS or DPS is activated, its reliable operating time is limited but adequate for its designed use. Reaction Control System The Reaction Control System (RCS)stabilizes the LM, provides ullage thrust for the DPSor APS, helps to maintain the desired trajectory during descent, and controls LM attitude and translation about or along three axes during hover. Sixteen engines

_

'

_

July 1969

Page 53

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement termed Thrust Chamber Assemblies (1"CA's)of 100 pounds thrust each are mounted symmetrically around the LM Ascent Stage in clusters of four. The RCScontains two independent, parallel systems(A&B) controlling two TCA's in each cluster. Each system, operating alone, can perform all required attltude control requirements, however translational performance is slightly degraded under single system operation. The independent propellant systemshave a crossfeed capability For increased operational dependability. During APS thrusting, APS propellant can supplement the RCSsystem. The propellant tanks utilize bladders to achieve positive expu|slon feed under zero-g gravity conditions. Malfunctioning TCA pairs can be deactivated by manual switches. The RCSTCA firing is accomplished by the CES of the GN&CS in responseto manual commandsor signals generated in the PGNS or AGS modes. The RCS modesof operation are automatict attitude hold (seml-autornatic), and manual override. The TCA's firing time ranges from a pulse of less than one second up to steady state operation. Thlrty-two heaters are used to heat the 16TCA's. TCA temperature requlrements ranging from 132°F to 154°F are important to safe and proper TCA operation. Propellant capacity of each system of the RCSis: oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxlde)207.5 pounds, 194.9 pounds usable; fuel (50-50 mixture of monomethyl hydrazine and unsymetrical-dimethylhydrazi ne)-106.5 pounds, 99.1 pounds usable. In order to ensure reliable RCSoperation, firing time for each TCA must not exceed 500 seconds with firing times exceeding one second, and 1000 secondsof pulses with firing times less than one second. RCSoperation requires propellant tank temperatures between 40°F and 100°F. Firing time of vertically mounted thrusters is limited to prevent damage to Descent Stage insulation or the Ascent Stage antennas. Electrical Power System The Electrical Power System (EPS)contains six batteries which supply the electrical power requirements of the LM during undocked mission phases. Four batteries are located in the Descent Stage and two in the Ascent Stage. Batteries for the Explosive Devices System are not included in this system description. Postlaunch LM power is supplied by the Descent Stage batteries until the LM and CSM are docked. While docked1 the CSM suppl|es electrical power to the LM up to 296 watts (peak). During the lunar descent phase1 the two Ascent Stage batteries are paralleled with the Descent Stage batteries for additional power assurance. The Descent Stage batteries are utilized for LM lunar surface operations and checkout. The Ascent Stage batteries are brought on the line just before ascent phasestaging. All batteries and bussesmay be Jndlvidually monitored for load, voltage, and failure. Several isolation and combination modesare provided.

_

,_

July 1969

Page 54

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

Two Inverters, each capable of supplying full load, convert the dc to ac for 115-volt, 400-hertz supply. Electrical power is distributed by the following buses: LM Pilot's dc bus, Commander's dc bus, and ac busesA & B. The four Descent Stage silver-zlnc batteries are identical and have a 400 amperehour capacity at 28 volts. Because the batteries do not have a constant voltage at various states of charge/load levels, "high" and "low" voltage taps are provided for selection. The "low voltage" tap is selected to initiate use of a fully charged battery. Cross-tie circuits in the bussesfacilitate an even discharge of the batteries regardless of distribution combinations. The two silver-zinc Ascent Stage batteries are identical to each other and have a 296 ampere-hour capacity at 28 volts. The Ascent Stage batteries are normally connected in parallel for even discharge. Becauseof design load characteristics, the Ascent Stage batteries do not have and do not require high and low voltage taps_ Nominal voltage for Ascent Stage and Descent Stage batteries is 30.0 volts. Reversecurrent relays for battery failure are one of many components designed into the EPSto enhance EPSreliability. Cooling of the bat_erles is provided by the Environmental Control System cold rail heat sinks. Available ascent electrical energy is 17.8 kilowatt hours at a maximum drain of 50 amps per battery and descent energy is 46.9 kilowatt hours at a maximum drain of 25 amps per battery. Environmental Control System The Environmental Control System (ECS)provides a habitable environment for two astronauts for a maximum of 48 hours while the LM is separated from the CSM. Included in this capability are four cabin decompression/repressurlzatlon cycles. The ECS also controls the temperature oEelectrlcal and electronic equipment, stores and provides water for drinking, cooling, fire extingusihing, and food preparation. Two oxygen and two water tanks are located in the Ascent Stage. One larger oxygen tank and a larger water tank is located in the Descent Stage. The ECS is comprised of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS), an Oxygen Supply and Cabin PressureControl Subsystem(OSCPCS), a Water Management Subsystem(WMS), a Heat Transport Subsystem (HTS), and an oxygen and water supply to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS)_ The ARS cools and ventilates the PressureGarment Assemblies, controls oxygen temperature, and the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, removes odors, particles, noxious gases, and excess moisture.

J uIy 1969

Page 55

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

Oxygen Supply and Cabin PressureControl Subsystem The Oxygen Supply and Cabin PressureControl Subsystem (OSCPCS) stores gaseous oxygen and maintalns cabin and suit pressure by supplying oxygen to the ARS. This replen|shes lossesdue to crew metabolic consumption and cabin or su|t leakage. The oxygen tank in the Descent Stage provides oxygen during the descent and lunar-stay phasesof the mission, and the two in the Ascent Stage are used durinq the ascent and rendezvous phasesof the mission. Water Management Subsystem The Water Management Subsystem (WMS) supplies water for drinking, cooling, fire extinguishlng, and food preparation_ for refilling the PLSScooling water tank_ and for pressurization of the secondary coolant loop of the HTS. It also provides for delivery of water from ARS water separators to HTS subllmators and from the water tanks to ARS and HTSsublimators. The water tanks are pressurized before launch to maintain the required pumping pressure in the tanks. The Descent Stage tank supplies most of the water required until staging occurs. After staging, water is supplies by the two Ascent Stage storage tanks. A self-sealing "PLSS DRINK" valve dellvers water for drinking and food preparation. Heat Transport Subsystem The Heat Transport Subsystem (HTS) consists of a primary coolant loop and a secondary coolant loop. The secondary loop serves as a backup loop and functions in the event the primary loop fails. A water-glycol solution clrculates through each loop. The pr|mary loop provides temperature control for batteries, electronic equipments that require active thermal control, and for the oxygen that circulates through the cabin and pressure suits. The batteries and electronic equipment are mounted on cold plates and rails through which coolant is routed to remove excess heat. The cold plates used for equipment required for mission abort contain two separate coolant passages, one for the primary loop and one for the secondary loop. The secondary coolant loop serves only abort equipment cold plates. In flight, excess heat rejection from both coolant loops is achieved by the primary and secondary sublimators which are vented overboard. A coolant pump rec|rculation assembly contains all the HTS coolant pumpsand associated check and relief valves. Coolant flow from the assembly is directed through parallel clrcuits to the cold plates for the electronic equipment and the oxygento-glycol heat exchanger in the ARS.

July 1969

Page 56

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement Communications System The Communications System (CS) provides the links between the LM and the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), between the LM and the CSM, and between the LM and any extravehicular astronaut. The following information is handled by the CS: tracking and ranging, Voice, PCM telemetry (LM status); biomedical data, computer updates, Morse code, television, EVA/LM EMU data, and LM/CSM telemetry retransmission. The communications links and their functions are listed in Figure 25. The CS includes all S-band, VHF, and signal processing equipment necessary to • transmit and receive voice, tracking, and ranging data, and to transmit telemetry and emergency keying.

LM COMMUNICATIONS LINKS
Link MSFN-LM-MSFN Pseudorandom Mode noise Band S-band Purpoee Ranging and tracking MSFN In-flight In-flight Conference relay) by

LM-MSFN LM-CSM CSM-LM-MSFN

Voice Voice Voice

S-band VHF simplex VHF and S-band

communications communications (with LM as

f

LM-CSM

Low-hit-rate

talemetry

VHF (one way)

CSM record and retransmtt to earth Ranging by CSM

CSM-LM-CSM

Ranging

VHF duplex

MSFN-LM MSFN-LM

Voice Upiink data or upllnk voice backup

S-band S-band

In-flight

communications

Update LGC or voice backup for in-flight corn municatio_ Transmission of biomed and vehicle atatas data Conference as relay) EVA direct tion Conference relay) Conference LM relay) (with earth

LM-MSFN

Biomnd-PCM

telemetry

S-band

LM-MSFN-CSM

Voice

S-band

EVA-I_M-EVA

Voice

and data; voice

VHF duplex

communica-

EVA-LM-MSFN

Voice

and data

VHF,

S-band

(with LM as

CSM-MSFNLM-EVA

Voice

and data

S-band,

VHF

(via MSFN-

Fig. 25

F"

July 1969

Page 57

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The CS antenna equipment consists of two S-band inflight antennas, an S-band steerable antenna_ two VHF inflight antennas and dlplexer, and RF selector switches for S-band and VHF. The "line-of-sight" range of the VHF transmitter is limited to 740 nautical miles. The LM S-band capability covers earth-lunar distances. Explosive Devices System The Explosive Devices System (EDS)usesexplosives to activate or enable various LM equipment. The system deploys the landing gear, enables pressurization of the descent, ascent, and RCSpropellant tanks, venting of descent propellant tanks, and separation of the Ascent and Descent Stages. There are two separate systems in the EDS. The systemsare parallel and provide completely redundant circuitry. Each system has a 37.1-volt (no load) battery, relays, time delay circuits, fuse resistors, buses and explosive cartridges. Two separate cartridges are provided for each EDS function. Each cartridge is sufficient to perform the function without the other. The EDS supports the main propulsion systems by clearing the valves isolating pressurantsand propellants. Other pyrotechnic devices guillotine i nterstage umbillcals in addition to the structural connections. System performance is indicated to the crew by instrumentation and to the MSFN by telemetry. The two EDS batteries use silver-zinc plates and are rated at 0.75 ampere-hour. Battery outl_ut/voltage status is displayed to the crew. One battery is located in the Descent Stage and one is in the Ascent Stage. Instrumentation System The Instrumentation System (IS) monitors the LM subsystems, performs inflight checkout, prepares LM status data for transmission to the MSFN, provides timing frequencies and correlated data for LM subsystems, and stores voice and time correlation data. During the lunar mission, the IS performs lunar surface LM checkout and provides scientific instrumentation for lunar experiments. The IS consists of system sensors, a Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly (SCEA), Pulse-Code-Modulatlon and Timing Electronics Assembly (PCMTEA), Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly (CWEA), and a Data Storage Electronics Assembly (DSEA). The CWEA provides the astronauts and MSFN with a continuous rapid check of data supplied by the SCEA for malfunction detection. The CWEA provides signals to caution lights, warning lights, component caution lights, and "Master-Alarm" pushbutton lights.

s

July 1969

Page 58

M-932--69 Apollo Supplement Lighting Interior lighting is designed to enhance crew performance by reducing crew fatigue in an environment of interior-exterior glare effects. Exterior lighting includes a radioluminescent docking target, five docking lights, and a high intensity tracking light. The five docking lights are automatically turned on prior to the First CSM docking and are turned off after docking. They indicate gross relative attitude of the vehicle and are color discernible to a distance of 1000 feet. The flashing, high-intensity, tracking light on the LM facilitates CSM tracking of the LM. It has a beam spread of 60 degrees and flashes 60 times per minute.

f_

July 1969

Page59

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement CREW PROVISIONS APPAREL The combination of items a crewman wears varies during a mission (Figure 26). There are three basic configurations of dress: unsuited, suited, and extravehicular. A brief description of each item is contained in the latter part of this section. Unsuited This mode of dress is worn by a crewman in the Command Module (CM) under conditions termed "shirt-sleeve envlronment." The crewman wears a bioinstrumentation harness, a communications carrier, the Constant Wear Garment (CWG), the Inflight Coverall Garment (ICG), and booties. This unsuited mode is the most comfortable, convenient, and least fatiguing of the dress modes. When unsuited, the crewman relies on the CM Environmental Control System to maintain the proper cabin environment of pressure, temperature and oxygen. Suited This mode enables a crewman to operate in an unpressurized cabin up to the design life of the pressuresuit of 115 hours. The intravehicular configuration includes: the PressureGarment Assembly (PGA) made up of a torso-limb suit, pressure helmet, and pressure gloves; the Fecal Containment System (FCS); CWG; bioinstrumentation harness; communications carrier; Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly (UCTA); and a PGA with an integral Thermal Meteoroid Garment (TMG). The CM Pilot does not participate in full extravehicular activity, permitting substitution of a lighter, fire-resistant covering over the PGA in lieu of the TMG. Various suit fittings and hardware required for Lunar Module (LM) and extravehicular operations are also omitted from the CM Pilot's suit. Extravehicular In the extravehicular configuration, the CWG is replaced by a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) and four items are added to the PGA: Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly (LEVA), extravehicular gloves, lunar boots_ and a connector cover which fits over umbilical connections on the front of the suit. The,addition of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS)and Oxygen Purge System (OPS) backpack completes the configuration termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). In addition to providing a life supporting_ pressurized atmosphere_ the EMU protects the astronaut from radiation_ micrometeorold impact, and lunar surface temperatures ranging from +250°F to -250°F.

I

July 1969

Page 60

)
=_
,,< O_ ,,O


APOLLO APPAREL

!

BIOINSTRUMENTATIONHARNESS

FECAL _ CONTAINMENT[ (_

FECAL
SYSTEM ENT CONTAINM

CO_UHICATIONS
CARRIER CO WEA NS RT_T GARME NT _

SYSTe._I

_
_'" URINE

:l

FCS

j_

LIQUID COOLED

L _

_

( _ /\_ AI_-_

COLI-ECTICN } TRANSFER ASSEMBL y

COLLECTION TRANSFER ASSEMBLY "1o Q (.Q O,

URINE

_/ PRESSURE GARMENT ASSEMBLY N . _ _

..__ LUNA E XTRA R •VISOR ASSEMBLY PRESSURE HELMET)

COVERALL GARMENT

EXTRA VEHICU GLOVE _ _J

_ ,..... " _""',IF--

.ES RE GARMENT
ASSEMBLY WITH "n _" INTRAVEHICULAR COVER" LUNAR BOOT

_'1t

..EMBLY,
INTEGRAL THERMAL METEOROID GARMENT

-O

-..F-

_/_ __ ___

_,

UNSUITED

SUITED

EXTRa.VEHICULAR

_

_&

.-, ,o

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement"

Item Description Torso-Limb Suit The torso-limb suit is the basic pressure envelope for the astronaut. It contains connectors for oxygen, water (for the LCG), communication, biomedical data, and urine transfer. PressureHelmet The pressure helmet provides visibility and continues the environmental envelope. It is basically a polycarbonate plastic shell. It contains a vent manifold and an alr-tlght feed port for eatingt drinking, and purging. The astronaut can turn his head within the fixed helmet. Pressure G love The pressure glove provides for required digital dexterity and continues the environmental envelope. It is basically made of nylon tricot dipped in neoprene. A fingerless glove, inner and outer covers, and a restraint system complete the assembly. The extravehicular glove is a modified pressure glove with additional layers of thermal and protective material. Thermal Meteoroid Garment The integral TMG provides external thermal and micrometeoroid protection for the astronaut. This garment is sewn over the torso-limb suit. Construction utilizes multilayered combinations of Beta cloth, aluminized Kapton film, Beta Marquisette, neoprene-coated nylon Ripstop, and ChromeI-R. Snap-secured covers are located for inner access to some PGA areas and pockets are provided for specified items. The LM restraint rings are integrated into the hip area. Bootsare attached over the PGA with slide fasteners and loop tape. Lunar Boot The lunar boot is worn over the PGA boot and meets the extensive, additional, thermal, and protective requirements for a lunar excursion. Materials used in its construction are teflon-coated Beta cloth, Kapton film, Beta Marquisette, Beta felt, silicon rubber, and ChromeI-R. LunarExtravehicular Visor Assembly The LEVA is a light- and heat-attenuatlng assembly which fits over and clamps around the base of the pressure helmet assembly. It is designed to provide heat insulation and added protection from micrometeoroids, solar radiation and July 1969 Page 62

F

_--

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
F-

accldenta! impact damage to thepressure helmet assembly. Major components of the LEVA include two external eye shades, a gold-coated sun visor, a protective visor affording impact and ultraviolet ray protectlont the main polycarbonate shell assembly-with mounting latches and hinges, and a hood-like shell cover assembly consisting of teflon-coated Beta yam over 13 alternating layers of aluminized mylar and non-woven dacron. , Liquid Cooling Garment The LCG consistsof a network of Tygon tubing interwoven in nylon Spandex material. Water from the PLSScirculates through the tubing to maintain the desired suit temperature. An inner liner is fabricated from nylon chiffon. The integral socksdo not contain cooling tubes. ConstantWear Garment The CWG is an undergarment for the flight co_,erallsand the [ntravehlcular space suit configuration. It is fabricated in one piece, encloses the feet, and has short sleeves, a waist-to-neck zipper, and lower torso openings front and rear. Inflight Coverall Garment
//-

ICG is the outer garment for unsuited operation. construction with zipper and pockets.
The

It is of two-plece Beta cloth

Booties Bootiesare worn with the ICG and have Velcro hooks that engage Velcro pile patches attached to the floor to hold the crewman in place during weightlessness. They are made of Beta cloth and have the Velcro hook material bonded to the soles. Communications Carrier and Bioinstrumentatlon Harness The communications carrier is a polyurethane foam headpiece which positions two independent earphonesand microphones. The bioinstrumentationharnesscarries signal conditioners and convertersto transmit heart beat and respiration rates of the astronauts. The wiring of the blolnstrumentatlon harnessand communications carrier join a commonelectrical connector which interfaces with the PGA or an adapter when unsuited. Urine Collection and TransferAssembly The UCTA is a truss-like garment which functions by useof a urinal cuff, storage compartment, and tube which connects to the external collection system. It is worn over the CWG or/CG. July 1969 Page 63

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

Fecal Containment System The FCS is an elastic underwear with an absorbent liner around the buttock area. This system is worn under the LCG or CWG to allow emergency defecation when the PGA is pressurized. Protective ointment is used on the buttocks and perineal area to lessen skin irritation. Portable Life SupportSystem The PLSS is a portable, self-powered, rechargeable environmental control system with a communications capability. It is carried as a backpack in the extravehicular suited mode and weighs about 70 earth pounds. The PISS supplies pressurized oxygen to the PGA, cleans and cools the suit atmosphere, cools and circulates water through the LCG, and provides radio communications with a dual VHF transceiver. The PLSScan operate for up to 4 hours in a space environment before replenishment of water and oxygen is required. The 17-volt PISS battery can supply 280 watt-hours of electrical power to meet a nominal usage rate of 50 watts per hour. Oxygen Purge System ;_A detachablet non-rechargeable OPS attaches to the top of the PLSS. The system can supply 30 minutes of regulated flow to the PGA independent of the PISS for contingency operations. The OPS may be removed from the PISS and used as an emergency source of oxygen at any time. The OPS also serves as a mount for the PISS antenna. FOOD AND WATER Food supplies in the LM and CM are designed to supply each astronaut with a balanced diet of approximately 2800 calories per day. Most of the food is either freeze-dried or concentrated and is carried in vacuum-packaged plastic bags. Each bag of freeze-dried food has a one-way valve through which water is inserted and a second valve through which food passes. Concentrated food is packaged in bite-slze units and needs no reconstitution. Several bags are packaged together to make one meal bag. The meal bags have red, white, and blue dots to identify them for each crewman, as well as labels to identify them by day and meal. The food is reconstituted by adding hot or cold water through the one-way valve. The astronaut kneads the bag and then cuts the neck of the bag and squeezesthe food into his mouth. A "feed port" in the pressure helmet allows partaking of liquid food and water while suited. Food preparation water is dispensed from a unit which supplies 150°F and 50°F water in the CM and 90°F and 50°F water in the LM.

July 1969

Page64

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
/P-

Drinking water comes from the water chiller to two outlets: the water meter dispenser and the food preparation unit. The dispenser has an aluminum mounting bracket, a 72-1nch coiled hose, and a dispensing valve unit in the form of a button-actuated j0istol. The pistol barrel is placed in the mouth and the button is pushed for each halfounce of water. The meter records the amount of water drunk. A valve is provided to shut off the system in case the dispenser develops a leak or malfunction. COUCHES AND RESTRAINTS Command Module The astronaut couches are individually adjustable units madeof hollow steel tubing and covered with a heavy, fireproof, fiberglass cloth. The couches rest on a head beamand two slde-stabilizer beamssupported by eight cycllc-type attenuator struts (two each for the Y and Z axes and four for the X axis) which absorbthe impact of landing. These couchessupportthe crewmenduring acceleration and deceleration, position the crewmen at their duty stations, and provide supportfor translation and rotation hand controls, lights, and other equipment. The cQuches can be folded or adjusted into a numberof seat positions. The one used mostis the 85-degree position assumed for launch, orbit entry, and landing. The 170-degree (flat-out) position is used primarily for the center couch, so that crewmen can move into the lower equipment bay. The armrests on either side of the center couch can be folded footward so the astronauts from the two outside couches can slide over easily. The hip pan of the center couch can be disconnected and the couch can be pivoted around the head beam and lald on the aft bulkhead floor of the CM. This provides room for the astronauts to stand and easier access to the side hatch for extravehicular activity. Two armrests are attached to the back pan of the left couch and two armrests are attached to the right couch. The center couch has no armrests. The translation and rotation controls can be mounted to any of the four armrests. A support at the end of each armrest rotates 100 degrees to provide proper tilt for the controls. The couch seat pan and leg pan are formed of framing and cloth, and the foot pan is all steel. The foot pan contains a restraint device which holds the foot in place. The couch restraint harness consists of a lap belt and two shoulder strapswhich connect to the lap belt at the buckle. The shoulder straps connect to the shoulder beam of the couch. Other restraints in the CM include handholds, a hand bar, hand straps, and patches of Velcro which hold the crewmen when they wear booties.

F

July 1969

Page 65

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The astronauts may sleep in bags under the left and right couches with heads toward the hatch or in their couches. The three sleeping bags are made of lightweight Beta fabric 64 inches long, with zipper openings for the torso and a 7-inch diameter opening for the neck. They are supported by two longitudinal straps that attach to storage boxes in the lower equipment bay and to the CM inner structure. The astronauts sleep in the bags when unsuited and are restrained on top of the bags when suited. Lunar Module The crew support and restraint equipment _n the LM includes armrests, hand holds, Velcro on the floor to interface with the PGA Boots, and a restraint assembly operated by a rope-and-pully arrangement that holds the LM crewmen in a standing position. The restraint assembly attaches to "D" rings located at the hips of the astronaut's suit and holds him to the cabin floor with a force of about 30 pounds (Figure 27). The armrests restrain the crewmen laterally. The LM crew membersrest positions are shown in Figure 28.

_

LN1 CREWMAN ATFLIGHT STATION

LM CREWMEN REST POSITIONS

Fig. 27 HYGIENE EQUIPMENT

Fig. 28

Hygiene equipment includes wet and dry cloths for cleaning, towels, toothbrushes, ingestible toothpaste, and the Waste Management System (WMS). The WMS controls and disposesof waste solids, liquids, and gases. The major portion of the system is in the right-hand equipment bay. The system stores feces, removes odors, dumps urine overboard, and removes urine from the space suit. In the CM, urine is dumped overboard, whereas in the LM, it is stored.

July 1969

Page 66

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
S

OPERATIONAL AIDS Operational aids include external tracking and orientation lights, floodlights, utility lights, flashlights, the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), a monocular, data files, tools, window shades, calibrated window reference marks, storage bags, straps, tape, space suit repair kit, and labels. Also included are provisions for using the urine system hose for vacuuming liquid and a brush head for the vacuum hose connected to the cabin air inlet of the Environmental Control System for general housekeeping as part of the decontamination procedure. EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT Emergency equipment includes fire extinguishers, oxygen masks, medical supplies, and survival equipment. The CM has one fire extinguisher located adjacent to the left-hand and lower equipment bays. The extinguisher weighs about 8 pounds. The extinguishing agent is an aquaeous gel expelled in 2 cubic feet of foam for approximately 30 seconds at high pressure. Fire ports are located at various panels so that the extinguisher nozzle can be inserted to put out a fire behind the panel. Oxygen masksare provided for each astronaut in case of smoke, toxic gas, or other hostile atmosphere in the cabin while the astronauts are out of their suits in the CM. Oxygen is supplied through a flexible hose from the emergency oxygen/repressurization unit in the upper equipment bay. Medical supplies are contained in an emergency medical kit, about 8 x 5 x 5 inches, which is stored near the I.M Pilot. It contains oral drugs and pills (pain capsules, stimulant, antibiotic, motion sickness, diarrhea, decongestant, sleeping, and aspirin), injectable drugs (for pain and motion sickness), bandages, topical agents (first-aid cream, sun cream, and an antibiotic ointment), and eye drops. Also included are an oral thermometer and four spare bioinstrumentation harnesses. The small medical kit in the I.M data file contains pain pills, aspirin, eye drops, diarrhea pills, stimulants, and sleeping pills. survival equipment, intended for use in an emergency after landing, is stowed in two rucksacks in the right-hand forward equipment bay. One of the rucksacks contains a three-man rubber life raft with an inflation assembly, a carbon dioxide cylinder, a sea anchor, dye marker, and a sunbonnet for each crewman. The other rucksack contains a beacon transceiver, survival lights, desaher kits, a machete, sun glasses, water cans, and a medical kit. Thesurvival medical kit contains the same type of supplies as the emergency medical kit: six bandages, six injectors, 30 tablets, and one tube of allpurpose ointment.

s_

July 1969

Page 67

M-932-69 ApolIo Supplement MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT Each crewman is provided a 64-cubic inch container for personal items, and a twocompartment temporary storage bag. A special tool kit is provided which also contains three jack screws for contingency hatch closure.

f

July 1969

Page 68

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
7_

LAUNCH COMPLEX GENERAL Launch Complex 39 (LC-39), located at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the facility provided for the assembly, checkout, and launch of the Apollo/Saturn V Space Vehicle. Assemblyand checkout of the vehicle is accomplished on a Mobile Launcher in the controlled environment of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The space vehicle and the Mobile Launcher are then moved as a unit by the Crawler-Transporter to the launch site. The major elements of the launch complex shown in Figure 29 are the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the Launch Control Center (LCC), the Mobile Launcher (hAL), the Crawler-Transporter (C/T), the crawlerway, the Mobile Service Structure (MSS), and the launch pad. LC-39 FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT Vehicle AssemblyBuilding The VAB provides a protected environment for receipt and checkout of the propulsion stages and IU, erection of the vehicle stagesand spacecraft in a vertical position on the ML, and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. The VAB, as shown in Figure 30, is a totally enclosed structure covering eight acres of ground. It is a structural steel building approximately 525 feet high, 518 feet wide, and 716 feet long. The principal operational elementsof the VAB are the low bay and high bay areas. A 92-foot wide transfer aisle extends through the length of the VAB and divides the low and high bay areas into equal segments. The low bay area provides the facilities for receiving, uncrating, checkout, and preparation of the S-II stage, S-IVB stage, and the IU. The high bay area providesthe facilities for erection and checkout of the S-IC stage; mating and erection operationsof the S-II stage, S-IVB stage, IU, and spacecraft; and integrated checkout of the assembledspacevehicle. The high bay area contains four checkout bays, each capable of accommodatinga fully assembledApollo/Saturn V Space Vehicle. Launch Control Center The LCC, Figure 30, serves as the focal point for overall direction, control, and monitoring of space vehicle checkout and launch. The LCC is located adjacent to the VAB and at a sufficient distance from the launch pad (three miles) to perrrllt the safe viewing of liftoff without requiring site hardening. The LCC is a four-story structure. The ground floor is devoted to service and support functions. The second floor housestelemetry and tracking equipment, in addition to instrumentation and data reduction facilities. The third floor is divided into four separate but similar control areas, each containing a firing room, a computerroom,

_

s

F-_

July 1969

Page 69

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

LAUNCH COMPLEX 39

s

AREAB

LAUNCH AREA A

CRAWLERWAY MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE PARK AREA CONVERTER/ COMPRESSI

ORDNANCE

MOBILE LAUNCHER REFURBISH ARE_

BARGECANAL JM/NITROGEN STORAGE BASIN

VEHICLEASSEMBLY BUILDING

CONTROL CENTER Fig. 29

July

1969

Page

70

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

F

VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING

VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING

_ _-

HIGH BAY AREA

_--_.,._._ LOW /'BAY

_ii _

Fig. 30 July 1969 Page 71

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

a mission control room, a test conductor platform area, a visitor gallery, and offices. The four firing rooms, one for each high bay in the VAB, contain control, monitoring and display equipment for automatic vehicle checkout and launch. The display rooms, offices, Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) rooms, and mechanical equipment are located on the fourth floor. The power demandsin this area are large and are supplied by two separate systems, industrial and instrumentation. This division between power systems is designed to protect the instrumentation power system from the adverse effects of switching transients, large cycling loads and intermittent motor starting loads. Communication and signal cable troughs extend from the LCC via the enclosed bridge to each ML location in the VAB high bay area. Cableways also connect to the ML refurbishing area and to the Pad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR)at the launch pad. Antennas on the roof provide an RF llnk to the launch pads and other facilities at KSC. Mobile Launcher The ML (Figure 31) is a transportable steel structure which, with the C/T, provides the capability to move the erected vehicle to the launch pad. The ML is divided into two functional areas, the launcher base and the umbilical tower. The launcher base is the platform on which a Saturn V Vehicle is assembled in the vertical position, transported to a launch site, and launched. The umbilical tower provides access to all important levels of the vehicle during assembly, checkout, and servicing. The equipment used in the servicing, checkout, and launch is installed throughout both the base and tower sections of the ML. The launcher base is a steel structure 25 feet high, 160 feet long, and 135 feet wide. The upper deck, designated level 0, contains, in addition to the umbilical tower, the four hold-down arms and the three tail service masts. There is a 45-foot square opening through the ML base for first stage exhaust. The base has provisions for attachment to the C,/1", six launcher-to-ground mount mechanisms, and four extenslble support columns. All electrical/mechanlcal interfaces between vehicle systemsand the VAB or the launch site are located through or adjacent to the base structure. The base housessuch items as the computer systems test sets, digital propellant loading equipment, hydraulic test sets, propellant and pneumatic lines, air-conditlonlng and ventilating systems, electrical power systems, and water systems. Fueling operations at the launch area require that the compartments within the structure be pressurized with a supply of uncontaminated air.

F_

July 1969

Page 72

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

MOBILELAUNCHER
GSCU FLOW CONTROL VALVE BOX

IU GROUND SUPPORT IU PNEUMATIC CONSOLE COOLING UNIT (2 UNITS)

S-IVB

GAS HEAT EXCHANGER

S-IVB

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE "A"

:

! i

S-IVB

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE "B"

S-IVB

APS PNEUMATIC CONSOLE

S-II

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE$7-41A

S-ll

LH2 HEAT EXCHANGERA7-71

f_ S-II PNEUMATIC CONSOLE$7-41B

S-IC FWD UMBILICAL SERVICE CONSOLE

S-II

PNEUMATIC CONSOLES7-41C

Fig. 31 July 1969 Page 73

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement The primary e|ectrical power supplied to the ML is divided into four separate services: instrumentation, industrial, in-translt, and emergency. Emergency power is supplied by a diesel-drlven generator located in the ground facilities. It is used for obstruction lights, emergency lighting, and for one tower elevator. Water is supplied to the ML for fire, industrial, and domestic purposes. The umbilical tower is a 380-foot high, open steel structure which provides support for eight umbilical service armsl Apollo Spacecraft access arms 18 work and access platformss distribution equipment for the propellant, pneumatic, electrical, and instrumentation subsystems,and other ground support equipment. Two high-speed elevators service 18 landings from level A of the base to the 340-foot tower level. The structure is topped by a 25-ton hammerhead crane. Remote control of the crane is possible from numerous locations on the ML. The four holddown arms (Figure 32) are mounted on the ML deck, 90°apart around the vehicle base. They position and hold the vehicle on the ML during the VAB checkout, movement to the pad, and pad checkout. The vehicle base is held with a pre-loaded force of 700,000 pounds at each arm. At engine ignition, the vehicle is restrained until proper engine thrust is achieved. The unlatching interval for the four arms should not exceed 0.050 second. If any of the separators fall to operate in 0. 180 second, release is effected by detonating an explosive nut llnk. At launch, the holddown arms quickly release, but the vehicle is prevented from accelerating too rapidly by the control led-release mechanisms (Figure 32). Each controlled-release mechanism basically consists of a tapered pin inserted in a die which is coupled to the vehicle. Upon vehicle release, the tapered pin is drawn through the die during the first six inches of vehicle travel. There are provisions for as many as 16 mechanismsper vehicle. The precise number is determined on a mission basis. The three Tall Service Mast 0"SM) assemblies (Figure 32) support service lines to the S-IC stage and provide a meansfor rapid retraction at vehicle liftoff. The TSM assembliesare located on level 0 of the ML base. Each TSM is a counterbalanced structure which is pneumatlcally/electrlcally controlled and hydraulically operated. Retraction of the umbilical carrier and vertical rotation of the mast is accomplished simultaneously to ensure no physical contact between the vehicle and mast. The carrier is protected by a hood which is closed by a separate hydraulic system after the mast rotates. The nine service arms provide access to the space vehicle and support the service lines that are required to sustain the vehicle, as described in Figure 33. The service arms are designated as either preflight or inflight arms. The preflight arms are retracted and locked against the umbilical tower prior to liftoff. The inflight arms retract at vehicle liftoff. Carrier withdrawal and arm retraction is accomplished by pneumatic and/or hydraulic systems.

_

s

july 1969

Page 74

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
F

HOLDDOWN ARMS/TAIL SERVICE MAST

TOWER

, TAIL SERVICE

ENGINE _-_---_

I

_

ENGINE

NO. 2

I\_ _______

_ MAST I-2

_T 3-2_ MAST3-4_'_ITAIL SERVICE

--_ _

_TAIL

SERVICE

N_ 3 V _

_

_

_

_

\%IN_ 4

IENGIN E

HOLDDOWN ARM
(TYP 4 PLACES)

I

' ENGINE/HOLD_I_N A_TAIL

. SERVICE MAST ORIENTATION

STA 113.31 4 DIE

VE,ICLE
TAPERED PIN /,:\ /_ BRACKET CONTROLLED RELEASE MECHANISMS

HOLDDOWN ARM

TAIL SERVICE MAST

Fig. 32 July 1969 Page 75

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

MOBILELAUNCHER SERVICE ARMS
_> S-IC (preflight). fill Intertank and drain interfaces. Provides Umbilical lox withdrawal by pneumatically driven compound parallel linkage device. Am may be reconnectedto vehicle from LCC. Retract time is 8 seconds. Reconnect time is approximately 5 minutes. S-IC Forward (preflight). Provides pneumatic, electrical, and air-conditioning interfaces. Umbilicalwithdrawal by pneumatic disconnect in conjunctionwith pneumatically driven block and tackle/lanyard device. Secondary mechanical system. Retracted at T-20 seconds. Retract time is 8 seconds. (preflight). 19) Command _ Provides access Module Access to spacecraft Arm through environmental chamber. Arm may be retracted or extended from LCC. Retracted 12° park position until T-4 minutes. Extend time is 12 seconds from this position.

_>

S-II Aft (preflight). Provides to vehicle. Arm retracted prior toaccess liftoff as requi red. S-II and Intermediate (inflight). Provides LH2 lox transfer, vent line, pneumatic, instrument cooling, electrical,and air-conditioning interfaces. Umbilical withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward with additionof a pneumatic cylinderactuated lanyard system. This system operates if primary withdrawal system fails. Retract time is 6.4 seconds (max). S-II Forward (inflight). Provides GH2 vent, electrical, and pneumatic interfaces. Umbilical withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward. Retract time is 7.4 seconds (max). S-IVB Aft (inflight). Provides LH2 and lox transfer, electrical, pneumatic, air-conditioning interfaces. Umbilical withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward. Also equipped with line handling device. Retract time is 7.7 seconds (max).

_>

_-.

_>

_>

_>

S-IVB Forward (inflight). Provides fuel tank vent, electrical,pneumatic, air-conditioning,and preflight conditioninginterfaces. Umbilical withdrawal by pneumatic disconnectin conjunctionwith pneumatic/hydraulic redundant dual cylinder system. Secondary mechanical system. Arm also equipped with line handling device to protect lines during withdrawal. Retract time is 8.4 seconds (max).

_>

'f_

Service Module (inflight). Provides airconditioning,vent line, coolant,electrical, and pneumatic interfaces. Umbilical withdrawal by pneumatic/mechanical lanyard system with secondarymechanical system. Retract time is g.o seconds (max).

Fig.33

July 1969

Page 76

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Launch Pad The launch pad (Figure 34) provides a stable foundation for the ML during Apollo Saturn V launch and prelaunch operations and an interface to the ML for ML and vehicle systems. There are presently two pads at LC-39 located approximately three miles from the VAB area. Each launch site is approximately 3000 feet across.

LAUNCH PADA. LC-39

S

_

Fig. 34 The launch pad is a cellular, reinforced concrete structure with a top elevation of 42 feet above grade elevation. Located within the fill under the west side of the structure (Figure 35) is a two-story concrete building to house environmental control and pad terminal connection equipment. On the east side of the structure within the fill, is a one-story concrete building to house the high-pressure gas storage battery. On the pad surface are elevators, staircase, and interface structures to provide service to the ML and the MSS. A ramp with a five percent grade provides access from the crawlerway. This is used by the C/I" to position the ML/Saturn V and the MSS on the support pedestals. The azimuth alignment building is located on the approach ramp in the crawlerway median strip. A flame trench 58 feet wide by 450 feet long bisects the pad. This trench opens to grade at the north end. The 700,000 pound, mobile, wedgetype flame deflector is mounted on rails in the trench.

f_

July 1969

Page 77

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
f-

LAUNCH STRUCTURE EXPLODED VIEW

_"

3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0

HIGH PRESSURE GAS PTCR2ND FLOOR EGRESS SYSTEM PTCRTUNNEL ECS TUNNEL PTCR ECS BUILDING COOLING TOWER SUBSTATION FLUSHINGAND COOLING TANK

Fig. 35 The Pad Terminal Connection Room(PTCR) (Figure 35) provides the terminals for communication and data llnk transmission connections between the ML or MSS and the launch area facilities and between the ML or MSS and the LCC. This facility also accommodatesthe electronic equipment that simulates functions for checkout of the facilities during the absence of the launcher and vehicle. The EnvironmentalControl System(ECS) room, located in the pad fill west of the pad structure and north of the PTCR(Figure 35), housesthe equipmentwhich furnishes temperature and/or humldity-controlled air or nitrogen for space vehicle cooling at the pad. The ECS room is 96 feet wide by 112 feet long and housesair andnltrogen handling units, liquid chillers, air compressors, a 3000-gallon water-glycol storage tank, and other auxiliary electrical and mechanical equipment. The high-pressure gasstorage facility at the pad provides the launch vehicle with high-pressurehellum and nitrogen. The launch pad interface system(Figure 36) provides mountingsupportpedestalsfor the ML and MSS, an engine access platform, and supportstructuresfor fueling, pneumatic, electric power1 and environmental control interfaces.

"'-_

July 1969

Page 78

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

LAUNCHPAD INTERFACE SYSTEM
ENGINE SERVICING RP-I PNEUMATI( , _H2 GH 2 MOUNT MECHANISM (6 PLACES) _.

ELECTRICAL POWER FACILITIES ACCESS STAIRWAY ECS

k0X

FApollo EmergencyIngress/Egress and EscapeSystem

Fig. :36

The Apollo emergency ingress/egress and escape system provides access to and from the Command Module (CM) plus an escape route and safe quarters for the astronauts and service personnel in the event of a serious malfunction prior to launch. The system includes the CM Access Arm, two 600-feet per minute elevators from the 340foot level to level A of the ML, pad elevator No. 2, personnel carriers located adjacent to the exit of pad elevator No. 2, the escape tube, and the blast room. The CM Access Arm provides a passagefor the astronauts and service personnel from the spacecraft to the 320-foot level of the tower. Egresslngpersonnel take the highspeed elevators to level A of the ML, proceed through the elevator vestibule and corridor to pad elevator No. 2, move down this elevator to the bottom of the pad, a.d enter armored personnel carriers which remove them from the pad area. When the state of the emergency allows no time for retreat by motor vehicle, egresslng personnel_ upon reaching level A of the ML, slide down the escape tube into the blast room vestibule, commonly called the "rubber room" (Figure 37). Entrance to the blast room is gained through blast-proof doors controllable from either side. The blast room floor is mounted on coil springs to reduce outside acceleration forces to between 3 and 5 g's. Twenty people may be accommodated for 24 hours. Communication facilities July I969 Page 79

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

ELEVATOR ITUBE EGRESS SYSTEM

are provided in the room, including an emergency RF link. An underground air duct from the vicinity of the blast room to the remote air intake facility permits egress from the pad structure to the pad perimete r. Provision is made to decrease air velocity in the duct to allow personnel movement through the duct. An alternate emergency egresssystem (Figure 38) is referred to as the "Slide Wire." The system consists of a winch-tensloned cable extending from above the 320-foot level of the ML to a 30-foot tall tower on the ground approximately 2200 feet (horizontal projection) from the launcher. A nine-man, tubular-frame cab is suspended from the cable by two brake-equipped trolleys. The unmanned weight of the cab is 1200 pounds and it traverses the distance to the "landing area" in 40 seconds. The cab is decelerated by the increasing drag of a chain attached to a plcked-up arresting cable. The occupants of the cab then take refuge in a bunker constructed adjacent to the landing area. The cable has a minimum breaking strength of 53.2 tons and is varied in tension between 18,000 and 32,000 pounds by the winch located beyond the tall tower. The lateral force exerted by the tensioned cable on the ML is negligible relative to the massof the launcher and the rigidity of the ML tower precludes any effect on tolerances or reliabi l ity of tower mechanisms.

July 1969

Page 80

M-932--69 Apol Io Supplement

SLIDE WlRE/CAB EGRESS SYSTEM
I

EGRESS STATION 320. LEVEL (443' ABOVE GROUND LEVEL)

9-MAN CAB
m_

ARRESTOR

LANDING AREA TAIL TOWER BUNKER / c_.,_.

_

"_ WINCH Fig.38

FuelSystemFacilities The RP-1 facility consists of three 86,000-gallon steel storage tanks, a pump house, a circulating pump, a transfer pump, two filter-separators, an 8-inch stainless steel transfer line, RP-1 foam generating building, and necessary valves, piping, and controls. Two RP-1 holding ponds (Figure 32), 150 feet by 250 feet, with a water depth of two feet, are located north of the launch pad, one on each side of the north-south axis. The ponds retain spilled RP-1 and discharge water to drainage ditches. The LH2 facility (Figure 34) consists of one 850, O00-gallon spherical storage tank, a vaporizer/heat exchanger which is used to pressurize the storage tank to 65 psi, a vacuum-jacketed, lO-inch invar transfer line and a burn pond venting system. Internal tank pressure provides the proper flow of LH2 from the storage tank to the vehicle without using a transfer pump. Liquid hydrogen boil-off from the storage and ML areas is directed through vent-piping to bubble-capped headers submerged in the burn pond where a hot wire ignition system maintains the burning process.

July 1969

Page 81

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
,f

LOX System Facility The LOX (liquid oxygen) facility (Figure 34) consists of one 900,000--gallon spherical storage tank, a LOX vaporizer to pressurize the storage tank, main fill and replenish pumps, a drain basin for venting and dumping of LOX, and two transfer lines. Azimuth Alignment Building The azimuth alignment building (Figure 34) housesthe auto-collimator theodolite which senses, by a light source, the rotational output of the stable platform in the Instrument Unit of the launch vehicle. This instrument monitors the critical inertial reference system prior to launch. Photography Facilities These facilltJes support photographic camera and closed circuit television equlpment to provide real-time vlewing and photographic documentation coverage. There are six camera sites in the launch pad area. These sites cover prelaunch activities and launch operations from six different angles at a radial distance of approximately 1300 feet from the launch vehlcle. Each site has four engineering, sequential cameras and one fixed, hlgh-speed metrlc camera. Pad water SystemFacilities The pad water systemfacilities furnish water to the launch pad area for fire protection, cooling, and quenching. Specifically, the systemfurnisheswater for the industrial water system, flame deflector cooling and quench, MI. deck cooling and quench, ML tower fogging and service arm quench, sewage treatment plant, Firex water system, liquid propellant facilities, ML and MSS fire protection, and all fire hydrants in the pad area. Mobile Service Str_cture The MSS (Figure 39) providesaccess to thoseportions of the space vehicle which cannot be serviced from the ML while at the launch pad. The MSS is transportedto the launch site by the C/T where it is usedduring launch pad operations. It is removed from the pad a few hoursprior to launch and returned to its parking area 7000 feet from the nearest launch pad. The MSS is approximately 402 feet high and weighs 12 million pounds. The tower structure restson a base 135 feet by 135 feet. At the top, the tower is 87 feet by 113 feet.

July 1969

Page 82

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

The structure contains five work platforms which provide access to the space vehicle. The outboard sections of the platforms open to accept the vehicle and close around it to provide access to the launch vehicle and spacecraft. The lower two platforms are vertically adjustable to serve different parts of the launch vehicle. The upper three platforms are fixed but can be disconnected from the tower and relocated as a unit to serve different vehicle conflgurations. The second and third platforms from the top are enclosed and provide environmental control for the spacecraft. The MSS is equipped with the following systems: alr-condltioning, electrical power, various communication networks, fire protection, compressedair, nitrogen pressurization, hydraulic pressure, potable water, and spacecraft fueling.
f-

MOB ILE SERVICE

STRUCTURE

Crawler-Transporter The C,/1" (Figure 40) is used to transport the ML, including the space vehicle, and the MSS to and from the launch pad. The C/T is capable of lifting, transporting, and lowering the M/or the MSS, as required, without the aid of auxiliary equipment. The C/T supplies limited electric power to the ML and the MSS during transit. The C/'_ consistsof a rectangular chassis which is supportedthrougha suspension systemby four dual-tread, crawler-trucks. : _..;_,_._ The overall length is 131 feet and the __ overall width is 114 feet. The unit weighs approximately six million pounds. The C/T is powered by self-contalned, dieselelectric generator units. Electric motordriven pumpsprovide hydraulic power for steering and suspension control. conditioning and ventilation are provided where required. .... .... Fig. 39

C,RAWLER TRANSPORTER

Fig. 40

Air-

July 1969

Page 83

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement The C/1" can be operated with equal facility in either direction. Control cabs are located at each end. The leading cab, in the direction of travel, has complete control of the vehicle. The rear cab, however, has override controls for the rear trucks only. Maximum C/T speed is 2 mph unloaded, 1 mph with full load on level grade, and 0.5 mph with full load on a Five percent grade. It has a 500-foot minimum turning radius and can position the ML or the MSS on the facility support pedestals withln_+2 inches. VEHICLE ASSEMBLYAND CHECKOUT The Saturn V Launch Vehicle propulsive stages and the IU are, upon arrival at KSC, transported to the VAB by special carriers. The S-IC stage is erected on an ML in one of the checkout bays in the high bay area. The S-II and S-IVB stages and the IU are delivered to preparation and checkout cells in the low bay area for inspection, checkout, and pre-erection preparations. All componentsof the space vehicle, including the Apollo Spacecraft and Launch Escape System, are then assembled vertically on the ML in the high bay area. Following assembly, the space vehicle is connected to the LCC via a hlgh-speed data link for integrated checkout and a simulated flight test. When checkout is completed, the C/T picks up the ML with the assembledspace vehicle and moves it to the launch site via the crawlerway. At the launch site, the ML is emplaced and connected to system interfaces for final vehicle checkout and launch monitoring. The MSS is transported from its parking area by the C,/1"and positioned on the side of the vehicle opposlte the ML. A flame deflector is moved on its track to its position beneath the blast opening of the ML to deflect the blast from the S-IC stage engines. During the prelaunch checkout, the final system checks are completed, the MSS is removed to the parking area, propellants are loaded, various items of support equipment are removed from the ML, and the vehicle is readied for launch. After vehicle launch, the C,/T transports the ML to the parking area near the VAB for refurbishment.

_-

July 1969

Page 84

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

MISSION MONITORING, GENERAL

SUPPORT, AND CONTROL

.

Mission execution involves the following functions: prelaunch checkout and launch operations; tracking the space vehicle to determine its present and future positions; securing information on the status of the flight crew and space vehicle systems(via telemetry); evaluation of telemetry information; command|ng the space vehicle by transmitting real-time and updata commands to the onboard computert and voice communication between flight and ground crews. These functions require the use of a facility to assemble and launch the space vehicle (see Launch Complex); a central flight control facil|ty; a network of remote stations located strategically around the world; a method of rapidly transmitting and recelv_ing information between the space vehicle and the central flight control facility; and a realtime data display system in which the data is made available and presented in usable form at essentlallythe same time that the data event occurred.

The flight crew and the following organizations and facilities participate in mission control operations: 1. Mission Control Center (MCC), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), Houston, Texas. The MCC contains the communication, computer, display, and command systemsto enable the flight controllers to effectively monitor and control the space vehicle. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Cape Kennedy, Florida. The space vehicle is launched from KSC and controlled from the Launch Control Center (LCC), as described previously. Prelaunch, launch, and powered flight data are collected at the Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) at KSC from the launch pads, CIF receivers, Merrltt Island Launch Area (MII_A), and the downrange Air Force EasternTest Range (AFETR)stations. This data is transmitted to MCC via the Apollo Launch Data System _ALDS). Also located at KSC (ETR) is the Impact Predictor (IP), for range safety purposes. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. GSFC manages and operates the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) and the NASA communications (NASCOM) networks. During flight, the MSFN is under operational control of the MCC. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC, by meansof the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) provides

2.

3.

4.

July 1969

Page 85

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement F_ launch vehicle systemsreal-time support to KSC and MCC for preflight, launch, and flight operations. A block diagram of the basic flight control interfaces is shown in Figure 41.

BASI CTELEMETRY COMMA , ND I ANDCOMMUNI CATIONINTERFACES FORFLIGHT CONTROL
GODDARD HOUSTON LIEF MARSHALL

ALDS

I

VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL CAPABILITY Flight operations are controlled from the MCC. The MCC has two flight control rooms. Each control room, called _"Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR), is used independently of the other and is capable of controlling individual Staff Support Rooms (SSR's)located adjacent to the MOCR. The SSR'sare manned by flight control specialists who provide detailed support to the MOCR. Figure 42 outllnes the organlzat|on of the MCC for fl|ght control and briefly describes key responslbilltleSo Information flow within the MOCR is shown in Figure 43.

July 1969

Page 86

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

MCCORGANIZATION
MISSION OVERALL MISSION PUBLLC AFFAIRS MISSION STATUS TO PUBLIC DIRECTOR CONDUCT (MD) OF

DOD MANAGER RECOVERY AND OTHER MISSION SUPPORT

I

DECISIONS/ACTIONS ON SPACE VEHICLE SYSTEMS/DYNAMICS AND MCC/MSFN OPERATIONS FLIGHT DIRECTOR tFD)

1
MISSION COMMAND AND CONTROL GROUP SYSTEM'S GROUP OPERATIONS FLIGHT GROUP DYNAMICS MCC/MSFN MISSION TROL PROCEDURES; CONFLIGHT --MONITOR STATUS OF S-IC, _11, S-IV8 FLIGHT SYSTEMS | • IBOOSTER SYSTEMS ENGINEERS I_ MONITORS PRELAUNCH CHECKOU __ CONTROL SCHEDULING; MANNING; CONTROL FORMAT; DISPLAYS; TELETYPE TRAFFIC ANALYSIS OPERATIONS & PROCEDURES (O&P)

7
(BSEI |

POWERED FLIGHT EVENTS EVEN AND TS TRAJECTORIE S; REENTRY AND TRAJECTORIES FLIGHT DYN/M_'CS OFFICE R

(FDmI

MAINTAINS f_ I MSFN CONTROL; RADAR COMMAND HANDO VERS NEI_NORK /_ONTROL AND -/ EMUCENTER ENGINEERS (H I SUPPORT HUNTSVILLE OPERA TOSC) IONS CONSUMABLES " COMMUNICATIONS (VOICE AND SPACECRAFT _-ELECTRICAL. FLIGHT ACTIVITIES {FAD) FLIGHT PLAN DETAILED IMPLEMENTATION COMMUNICATION, SYSTEMS ENGINEERS .__ COMPUTER DATA 3 OF MONITORS UPDATE

UPDATED

ABORT

AND REENTRY PLAN; UPDATES IMPACT POINTOFFICER ESTIMATES RETROFIRE (RETRO)

GUIDANCE

ASSIGNED COMMANDS) SPACECRAFT

WITH

FUNCTIONS DURING POWERED F LIG:tT AND PREMANEUVE R

____

_ _DMONITOR

LIFE SUPPORT. STASILIZATION AND CONTROL. PROPULSION. AND GUIDANCE AND NAV, GATION INSTRUMENTATION. SEQUENTIAL. STATUS OF PREPARATION

I

SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT DATA(SEO) SPACE ENVIRONMENT

___

--

MONITORS PHYSI OLOGICAL AND ENVL IR ONMENTALSTATUSOF IFE SYSTEMS (SURGEON, FLIGHT CREW

I

IMPLEMENTATION

1

-

I
SYSTEMS SSR

]

1
SYSTEMS SSR

1_
DYNAMICS SSR

DIRECTOR SSR

AND ANALYSIS SSR

I
July 1969

i

1
MISSION EVALUATION ROOM

APOLLO SC PROGRAM OFFICE

J

i
KSC LAUNCH OPERATIONS

1t

I
Fig. 42

REAL-TIME AUXILIARY COMPUTING FACILITY

Page 87

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

INFORMATION FLOW MISS IONOPERATIONS ,CONTROL ROOM
MISSION DIRECTOR

VEHICLE SYSTEMS

_ H _ _

_ _

FLIGHT INFORMATION

FLIGHT GROUP

STATUS DIRECTOR STATUS

CONTROLLER

S/C COMMANDS AND DATA

MISSION _ MISSION ASSISTANT FLIGHT 1 PROCEDURE MCC/MSFNSTATUS _ I STATUS I I ] PROCEDURE_ ' f-OFFICER 0 "_IDP

T FLIGHT CREW _ _

I

'1 1

SPACECRAFT COMMUNICATOR

Fig.43

The consoles within the MOCR and SSR'spermit the necessary interface between the flight controllers and the spacecraft. The displays and controls on these consoles and other group dlsplays provide the capability to monitor and evaluate data concernlng the mission and, based on these evaluations, to recommendor take appropriate action on matters concerning the flight crew and spacecraft. Problems concerning crew safety and mission successare identified to flight control personnel in the following ways: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Flight crew observatlons; Flight controller real-time observations; Review of telemetry data received from tape recorder playback; Trend analysis of actual and predicted values; Revlew of collected data by systemsspecialists; Correlation and comparison wlth previous mission data; Analysis of recorded data from launch complex testlng.

July 1969

Page 88

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

The facilities at the MCC include an input/output processor designated as the Command, Communications, and Telemetry System (CCATS)and a computational facility, the RealTime Computer Complex (RTCC). Figure 44 shows the MCC functional configuration.

MCCFUNCTIONAL CONFIGURATION
I4OCR - SSR
RTCC - RECOVERY -COATS CONSOLES AND DISPLAYS

DISPLAY/CONTROL

&
DISTRIBUTION

,[

i

RTC COHNANDTABLES COFJ4ANDLOGIC

EOHI_ND PROCESSING

coATs
AI)DRESSING I)/C FORMATTING I

DECOMI4 PROCESS

eOUTE

SUPPORT

LAONEH

p

p

TELEBETRY PROCESSING

TPJ.JECTORY PROCESSING

BTCC

AND DATA SELECTION

CO_W4UN I CATIONS PROCESSING

_
CCBTS

VALICATIO_,

,sF,

AL0S

Fig. 44

The CCATS consists of three Univac 494 general purpose computers. Two of the computers are configured so that either may handle all of the input/output communications for two complete missions. One'of the computers acts as a dynamic standby. The third computer is used for nonmissionactivities. The RTCC is a groupof flve IBM 360 large-scale, general purposecomputers. Any of the five computersmay be designated as the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). The MOC performsall the required computationsand display formatting for a mission. One of the remaining computerswill be a dynamic standby. Another pair of computersmay be used for a second mission or s,mulat,on."

July 1969

Page 89

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

Space Vehicle Tracking From llftoff of the launch vehicle to insertion into orbit, accurate position data are required to allow the Impact Predictor (IP) to function effectively as a Range Safety device, and the RTCC to compute a trajectory and an orbit. These computations are required by the flight controllers to evaluate the trajectory, the orbit, and/or any abnormal situations to ensure safe recovery of the astronauts. The launch tracking data are transmitted from the AFETRsite to the IP and thence to the RTCC via highspeed data communications circuits. The IP also generates spacecraft inertial positions and inertial rates of motion in real-time. During boost the trajectory is calculated and displayed on consoles and plotboards in the MOCR and SSR's. Also displayed are telemetry data concerning status of launch vehicle and spacecraft Systems. If the space vehicle deviates excessively from the nominal flight path, or if any critical vehicle condition exceeds tolerance limits, or if the safety of the astronauts or range personnel is endangered, a decision is made to abort the mission. During the orbit phase of a mission, all stations that are actively tracking the spacecraft will transmit the tracking data through GSFC to the RTCC by teletype. If a thrusting maneuver is performed by the spacecraft, hlgh-speed tracking data is also transmitted. Command System The Apollo ground command systemshave been designed to work closely with the telemetry and trajectory systems to provide fl!ght controllers with a method of "closedloop" command. The astronauts and flight controllers act as links in this operation. To prevent spurious commandsfrom reaching the space vehicle, switches on the Command Module console block uplink data from the onboard computers. At the appropriate times, the flight crew will move the switches from the "BLOCK" to the "ACCEPT" positions and thus permit the flow of uplink data. With a few exceptions, commandsto the space vehicle fall into two categories: realtime commands, and command loads (also called compUter loads, computer update, loads, or update). Real-time commandsare used to control space vehicle systemsor subsystemsfrom the ground. The execution of a real-tlme command results in immediate reaction by the affected system. Real-time commandsare stored prior to the mission in the Command Data Processor (CDP) at the applicable command site. The CDP, a Univac 642B, general-purpose digital computer, is programmed to format, encode, and output commandswhen a request for upllnk is generated.

T-

F_

r-_

July 1969

Page 90

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

Command loads are generated by the real-time computer complex on request of flight controllers. Command loads are based on the latest available telemetry and/or trajectory data. Flight controllers typically required to generate a command load include the Booster SystemsEngineer (BSE), the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the Guidance Officer (GUIDO), and the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). Display and Control System The MCC is equipped with facilities which provide for the input of data from the MSFN and KSC over a combination of high-speed data, low-speed data, wlde-band data, teletype, and televlslon channel_. These data are computer processed for display to the flight controllers. Several methodsof displaying data are used including television (projection TV, group displays, closed circuit TV, and TV monitors), console digital readouts, and event lights. The display and control system interfaces with the RTCCand includes computer request, encoder multiplexer, plotting display, slide file, digltal-to-TV converter, and telemetry event driver equipments. A control system is provided for flight controllers to exercise their respective functions for mission control and technical management. This system is comprlsed of different groups of consoleswith television monitors, request keyboards, communicationsequipment, and assorted modules added as required to provide each operational position in the MOCR with the control and display capabilities required for the particular mission. CONTINGENCY PLANNING AND EXECUTION

'_

Planning for a mission begins with the receipt of mission requirements and objectives. The planning activity results in specific plans for prelaunch and launch operations, preflight training and simulation, flight control procedures, flight crew activities, MSFN and MCC support, recovery operations, data acqulsition ancl flow, and other misslon-related operations. Numerous simulations are planned and performed to test procedures and train flight control and flight crew teams in normal and contingency operations. MCC Role in Aborts After launch and from the time the space vehicle clears the ML, the detection of slowly deteriorating conditions which could result in an abort is the prime responsibility of MCC; prior to this time, it is the prime responsibility of LCC. In the event such conditions are discovered, MCC requestsabort of the mission or, circumstances permitting, sends corrective commands to the vehicle or requests corrective flight crew actions. In the event of a noncatastrophic contingency, MCC recommendsalternate flight procedures, and mission events are rescheduled to derive maximum benefit from the modified mission. July 1969 Page 91

,_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
S

VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL PARAMETERS In order to perform flight control monitoring functions, essential data mustbe collected, transmitted, processed, displayed, and evaluated to determine the space vehicle's capability to start or continue the mission. ParametersMonitored by LCC The launch vehicle checkout and prelaunch operations monitored by the Launch Control Center (LCC) determine the state of readiness of the launch vehicle, ground support, telemetry, range safety, and other operational support systems. During the final countdown, hundreds of parameters are monitored to ascertain vehicle, system, and component performance capabilities. Among these parameters are the "redlines." The redline values must be within the predetermined limits or the countdown will be halted. In addition to the redlines, there are a number of operational support elements such as ALDS, range instrumentation, ground tracking and telemetry stations, and ground support facilities which must be operational at specified times in the countdown. ParametersMonitored by BoosterSystems Group The Booster SystemsGroup (BSG) monitors launch vehicle systems(S-IC, S-II, S-IVB, and IU) and advises the flight director and flight crew of any system anomalies. It is responsible for confirming inflight power, stage ignition_ holddown release, all engines go, engine cutoffs, etc. BSG also monitors attitude control, stage separations, and digital commanding of LV systems. Parameters Monitored by Flight DynamicsGroup The Flight Dynamics Group monitors and evaluates the powered flight trajectory and makes the abort decisions based on trajectory violations. It is responsible for abort planning, entry time and orbital maneuver determinatlons, rendezvous planning, inertial alignment correlation, landing point prediction, and digital commanding of the guidance systems. The MOCR positions of the Flight Dynamics Group include the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the Guidance Officer (GUIDO), and the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). The MOCR positions are given detailed, spec!alized support by the Flight Dynamics SSR. The surveillance parameters measuredby the ground tracking stations and transmitted to the MCC are computer processed into plotboard and digital displays. The Flight Dynamics Group compares the actual data with premissiont calculated, nominal data and is able to determine mission status.

s

July 1969

Page 92

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement ParametersMonitored by Spacecraft Systems Group The Spacecraft SystemsGroup monitors and evaluates the performance of spacecraft electrical, optical, mechanical, and life support systems; maintains and analyzes consumables status; prepares the mission log; coordinates telemetry playback; determines spacecraft weight and center of gravity; and executes digital commanding of spacecraft systems. The MOCR positions of this group include the Command/ServlceModule Electrical, Environmental, and Communications Engineer (CSM EECOM), the CSM Guidance, Navigation, and Control Engineer (CSM GNC), the Lunar Module Electrical, Environmental, and CommunicationsEngineer (LM EECOM), and the LM Guidance, Navigation, and Control Engineer (LM GNC). These positionsare backed up with detailed support from the Vehicle Systems SSR. ParametersMonitored by L!fe Systems Group The Life Systems Group is responsiblefor the well-being of the flight crew. The group is headed by the Flight Surgeon in the MOCR. Aeromedical and environmental control specialists in the Life Systems SSRprovide detailed supportto the Flight Surgeon. The group monitors the flight crew health status and envlronmental/blomedlcal parameters.
f-\

APOLLO LAUNCH DATA SYSTEM (ALDS) The Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS) between KSC and MSC is controlled by MSC and is not routed through GSFC. The ALDS consists of wlde-band telemetry, voice coordination circuits, and a high-speed circuit for the Countdown and Status Transmission System (CASTS). In addition, other circuits are provided for launch coordination, tracking data, simulations, public information, television, and recovery. MSFC SUPPORTFOR LAUNCH AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), by meansof the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC), provides real-tlme support of launch vehicle prelaunch, launch, and flight operations. The MSFC also provides support, via LIEF, for postfllght data delivery and evaluation. In-depth, real-tlme support is provided for prelaunch, launch, and flight operations from HOSC consoles manned by engineers who perform detailed system data monitoring and analysis. Prelaunch flight wind monitoring analysis and trajectqry simulations are jointly performed by MSFC and MSC personnel located at MSFC during the terminal countdown. Beginning at T-24 hours, actual wind data is transmitted periodically from KSC to the July 1969 Page 93

_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement HOSC. These measurementsare used by the MSFC/MSC wind monitoring team in vehicle flight digital simulations to verify the capability of the vehicle with these winds. In the event of marginal wind conditions, contingency data are provided MSFC in real-time via the Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF). DATA-CORE and trajectory simulations are performed on-line to expedlte reporting to KSC. During the prelaunch period, primary support is directed to KSC. At llftoff prlmary support transfers from KSC to the MCC. The HOSC engineering consoles provide support as required to the Booster SystemsGroup for S-IVB/IU orbital operations by monitorlng detailed instrumentation for the evaluation of system inflight and dynamic trends, assisting in the detection and isolation of vehicle malfunctions, and providing advisory contact with vehicle design specialists. MANNED SPACE FLIGHT NETWORK The Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) (Figure 45) is a global network of ground stations, ships, and aircraft designed to support manned and unmanned space flights. The network provides tracking, telemetry, voice and teletype communications, command, recording, and television capabilities. The network is specifically configured to meet the requirements of each mission. f_" Ground Stations

w

0

MSFN stations are categorized as lunar support stations (deep-space tracking in excess of 15,000 miles), near-space support stations with Unified S-Band (USB)equipment, and near-space support stations without USBequipment. The deep-space S-band capability is attained with 85-foot antennas located at: Honeysuckle Creek, Australia; Goldstone, California; and Madrid, Spain. MSFN stations include facilities operated by NASA, the United States Department of Defense (DOD), and the Australian Department of Supply (DOS). The DOD facilities include the EasternTest Range (ETR), Western Test Range (WI"R), Range Instrumentation Ships (RIS), and Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA). Range instrumentationShips The MSFN coverage by ground stations is supplemented by the four Range Instrumentation Ships. The number and position of the ships is determined for each mission. The USNS Vanguard, USNS Redstone, and USNS Mercury support earth-orbital insertion and translunar injection phasesof a mission. The USNS Huntsville supports reentry phasesof a mission. The ships operate as integral stations of the MSFN, meeting target acquisition, tracking, telemetry, communications, and command and control requirements. The USNS Huntsville has no telemetry computer: command control system, mission control center, or satellite communications terminal. The DOD operates the July 1969 Page 94

MANNED SPACEFLIGHT -NETWORK
c 60 _ _ ..

3o
""

,4

ls_,6 _\',,oc -J r

I
\m' O 3 5' 0

... ,

-J

L -"-_'_

'

\
i

f

9o

/
60 90

90

120

150

180

150

120

90

60

30

0

30,

, STATION
1. CAPE AREA 2. GBI GBM 3. GTK 4. BDA • "t'l _'. ¢h 5.ANT ANG b. C'Y

SUPPORT
A,B,C,D A,B,C,D B A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,C,D

STATION
7. MAD/MADX 8.ASC/ACN 9. PRE I0. TAN ll.CRO 12. HSK/HSKX

SUPPORT
A A,B,C,D B B,C,D A,B,C,D A, and TV

STATION
13 OWM 14. HAW 15. CAL 16. GDS/GDSX 17.GYM

SUPPORT
A, C,D

STATION
19.1"EX 20.INS SHIP 21. INJ SHIP 22. INJ SHIP

SUPPORT
A, ,C D _> "_ --" O _'_ "o_ U_o 3 _ _ _,o (_, ',O

'A,B,C,D B, D A A, C,D

A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A B,C,I) A,B,C D A, C,D

23.REENTRY SHI 24. A/RIA

CODE: A-USB (Includes Tracking, B-C-Band Tracking C-VHF T!.M D-VHF A/G Voice

TLM, CMD, Voice,

NOTE: A/RIA USB is ;'or TLM and voice only.

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

ships in support of NASA/DOD missions with an Apollo priority. The Militaty Sea Transport Service provides the maritime crew and the WI"Rprovides the instrumentation crews by contract. The WI"Ralso has the operational management responsibility for the ships. The ships may contribute to the recovery phase as necessary for contingency landings. Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft Eight modified C-135 aircraft supplement the ground stations and instrumentation ships as highly mobile "gap fillers." The ARIA support other space and missile projects when not engaged in their primary mission of Apollo support. The ARIA provide two-way relay of voice communications between the spacecraft and surface stations and reception, recording, and retransmlssion of telemetry signals from the spacecraft to the ground (postpass). The aircraft are used: shortly before, during, and shortly after injection burn_ from initial communications blackout to final landing_ for coverage of a selected abort area in the event of a "no-go" decision after injection_ or for any irregular reentry. The ARIA have an endurance of about 10 hours and a cruise airspeed of about 450 knots. NASA COMMUNICATIONS _ NETWORK

o

The NASA Communications (NASCOM) network (Figure 46) is a point-to-polnt communications system connecting the MSFN stations to the MCC. NASCOM is managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, where the primary communications switching center is located. Three smaller NASCOM switching centers are located at London, Honolulu, and Canberra. Patrick AFB, Florida and Wheeler AFB, Hawaii serve as switching centers for the DOD Eastern and Western Test Ranges, respectively. The MSFN stations throughout the world are interconnected by landline, undersea cable, radio, and communications satellite circuits. These circuits carry teletype, voice, and data in real-tlme support of the missions. Each MSFN USB land station has a minimum of five voice/data circuits and two teletype circuits. The Apollo insertion and injection ships have a similar capability through the communications satellites.

July 1969

Page 96

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

ACN ASCENSIONIS. (NASASTATION) ACSW CANBERRASWITCHINGSTA. ANG ANTIGUA ISLAND ANT AFETR SITE.ANTIGUAISLAND AOCC AIRCRAFTOPERATIONSCONTROL CENTER ARIA APOLLO RANGE INSTRUMENTATION AIRCRAFT BDA BERMUDA CAL CALIFORNIA(VANDENBERGAFB) CDSC COMMUNICATIONDISTRIBUTION SWITCHINGCENTER CRO CARNARVON,AUSTRALIA CYI GRAND CANARY ISLAND ETR EASTERNTEST RANGE GBM GRAND BAHAMA IS. GDS GOLDSTONE,CALIFORNIA GSFC GODDARDSPACE FLIGHT CENTER GWM GUAM GYM GUAYMAS,MEXICO HAW HAWAII

HSK HTV LLDN LROB MAD MER MCC MIL MSFC PGSW PHON RED TAN TEX VAN WHS WOM WTR

HONEYSUCKLECR. AUST. USNS HUNTSVILLE LONDON SWITCHINGCENTER MADRID, SPAIN SWITCHINGCENTER MADRID, SPAIN USNS MERCURY MISSION CONTROLCENTER MERRITT ISLAND,FLA. MARSHALLSPACE FLIGHTCENTER GUAM SWITCHINGCENTER HONOLULUSWITCHINGSTA. USNS REDSTONE. TANANARIVE,MALAGASY CORPUS CHRISTI,TEXAS USNS VANGUARD WHITE SANDS, NEW MEXICO WOOMERA,AUSTRALIA WESTERNTEST RANGE

Fig. 46

July

1969

Page 97

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement RECOVERYAND POSTI:LIGHT PROVISIONS GENERAL The recovery of Apollo flight crews and Command Modules with their contained lunar materials and mission equipment from the lunar landing missions requires rapid retrieval, maintenance of biological isolation during postflight operationst and special handling equipment for the preservation and preliminary examination of lunar samples prior to their distribution to principal investigators. The following is a description of the prime recovery equipment and facilities, the Mobile Quarantine Facility, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. RECOVERYCONTROL ROOM The Recovery Control Room(RCR)at the Mission Control Center is the command and control center for all recovery operations. Department of Defense (DOD) personnel command and control the recovery forces and NASA personnel interchange recovery information for mission support requirements. Primary command and control functions are exercised through two major Recovery Control Centers (RCC's) mat Kunai, Hawaii (Task Force 130) and at Norfolk, Virginia (Task Force 140). _ PRIME RECOVERYEQUIPMENT Primary Recovery Ship The primary recovery ship (PRS)is an aircraft carrier-type ship. Its primary purpose is retrieval of the Command Module (CM) and recovery of the astronauts within allowable limits of access/retrieval times in the primary landing area. The PRSis also utilized to support the secondary landing areas on the mid-Pacific recovery line during the translunar coast phase of the lunar landing mission. It is provided with specialized equipment in accordance with the requirements of each mission. The specialized equipment and facilities may include search and rescue helicopters with swimmer personnel, one or more Mobile Quarantine Facilities, medical personnel and facilities, a complete bioastronautic recovery sett firefighting equipment capable of containing hypergolic fuel firest and communications circuits to coordinate recovery, medical, and public affairs activities. The recovery ship usesexisting equipment to hoist the CM onto the spacecraft dolly. Post-recovery equipment required after a lunar landing includes a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) and a transfer tunnel, tractor trailer flat-beds for the ground transport of the CM and MQI:, and aircraft transport of the CM and MQl: to the Crew Reception Area (CRA) of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at MSC, Houston, Texas.

July 1969

Page 98

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Support Aircraft Airborne elements in the primary landing area during recovery operations will include: SARAH-equipped helicopters, each carrying a three-man swimmer team, to conduct electronic search. At least one of the swimmerson each team will be equipped with an underwater (Calypso) 35ramcamera.
J

A helicopter to carry photographers, as designated by the NASA Recovery Team Leader assigned to the PRS, in the vicinity of the target point. Aircraft to function as communications relay, stationed overhead at the scene of action. A fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft over the PRSto function as on-scene commander. HC-130's with operational AN/ARD-17 (Cook Tracker), three-man pararescue team, and complete Apollo recovery equipment uprange and one downrange.

.

Prior to CM entry, an Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft is on station near the primary landing area for network support. It is used to support the entry phase and recovery operations if required. The recovery helicopters are equipped with "Billy Pugh" Rescue Nets (BIPURN) (Figure 47) and transport specially trained underwater demolition team swimmers. Recovery units are equipped with flotation collars for the spacecraft, an auxiliary recovery loop (nylon) to supplement the integral recovery loop attached to the spocecraft for hoisting (Figure 18), a 7-man liferaft, Biological Isolation Garments, disinfectant, and appropriate communication and direction finding equipment. The CM may be in the Stable I position (apex up), or in the Stable II position (apex down). Biological Isolation Garment The Biological Isolation Garment (BIG) (Figure 48) provides biological isolation of the wearer from his environment. The garment is a Ioose-fltting, one-plece garment with an integral hood, face mask, boots, and gloves which completely cover the wearer. The garment is constructed of BARBACmaterial. Inhalation and exhalation is accomplished through check valves and filters. The face mask portion of the hood is designed to permit it to be torn away in an emergency. The BIG's are normally lowered into the raft alongside the CM. Breathing valve flow is arranged so that

July 1969

Page 99

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement HELICOPTER PICKUP

WINCH OPERATOR*

HELICOPTER

,J-

_

VHF ANTENNAS BEACON UPRIGHTING .... ...--"---. BAGS(3) FLOTAT ION ", COLLAR SWIMMER* ASTRONAUT* DYE MARKER_ & SEAANCHOR (NOT SHOWN) * WEARING BIOLOGICAL 7 MAN LIFERAFT A _ _;_ k_'' .CCAf"-" RRIER BIPURN _--> ........

ISOLATION GARMENT _ (BIG)
Fig. 47

July 1969

Page 100

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement inhalation by support personnel and exhalation by crew membersare biologically filtered. The BIG package contains four garments sealed in plastic bags. The garments are worn by the crew, the assistingswimmer, and the helicopter winch operator. The " BIG's are donned in the 7-man Iiferaft by the swimmer and in the CM by the crew. MOBILE QUARANTINE FACILITY The Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) (Figure 49) is designed to provide biological

BIOLOGICALISOLATION GARMENT /_ "_ _I_\ jc,_lj,\ )/__ \_-_ _ IC_

isolation for crewmen and material returning _ Fig. 48 from a lunar landing and for those personnel required to have immediate contact with them. The MQF, which is stationed in the immediate recovery area aboard ship, biologically isolatesthe crew during transit to the CRA of the LRL. MOBILE QUARANTINE FACILITY AND INTERFACES TRANSFER INTEGRAL AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT TUNNEL FRAMES MQ F CM

I

TRANSFER LOCK

DOLLY Fig. 49

The MQF (Figure 50) is 35 feet long, 9 feet wide, 8.5 feet high and weighs approximately 6 tons with personnel. Accommodations for six occupants are provided. In addition to six bunks, there is a galley, a lounge, and a lavatory/shower. Aircrafttype seats with safety behs are consistent with air transport requirements. Provision has been made for accidental loss of aircraft pressurization. Power is supplied from the ship or aircraft, the MQF Auxiliary Power Unit (diesel), or emergency batteries.

July 1969

Page 101

O

o-

f

M31A 7VN_31NI 11IlIOVa

3NIINV_VnO 37180N
D

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Biological containment is accomplished by maintaining a pressure in the MQF lower than ambient with two fans exhausting through filters that remove more than 98% of 0.5 micron particles. A double-door system transfer lock provides for submergence of existing items in a replenlshable solution of sodium hyprochlorite to accomplish sterilization. Items introduced through the lock are not submerged. The communication system is compatible with ship and aircraft communication systems to satisfy medical coordination, debriefing, public affairs information, radiotelephone, and general intercom requirements. Also provided in the MQF are pressure, power, and oxygen alarms; fire extinguishers; a unified control panel for systems;two air conditioners; and two heaters. Human metabolic wastes are stored in the MQF; other waste is treated and disposed of externally. A Flight Surgeon and a Recovery Technician occupy the MQF with the crew and are aided from the exterior as necessary. Failure modes, spare parts, and repair procedures have been anticipated. Transfer Tunnels Transfer tunnels (Figure 49_ are provided to interface the MQF entrance with the CM aboard ship and to the CRA entrance at the LRL. A transfer tunnel is used for maintaining biological isolation when entering the recovered spacecraft for microbial sampling, shutdown of CM systems, recording of switch positions, photography, and removal of Sample Return Containers, flight film, tape recorders, flight bags, and water samples. In add|tion, the hatch dump valve must be removed and replaced with the special fitting for later decontamination procedures at the LRL. Special 0.3-micron filters are also installed at this time to the steam duct and urine dump nozzles. The other tunnel is used to maintain isolation during personnel transfer to quarantine in the CRA. The transfer tunnel is constructed of heat-sealable plastic suspended from an exterior frame of aluminum tubing. Interfaces are sealed with tape. The durability of each unit is minimal but adequate. When transfer operations are completed, it is internally disassembled into the MQF/CRA, chopped, and disinfected. LUNAR RECEIVING LABORATORY The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) (Figure 51) is a facility designed, constructed, and equipped to support the post-recovery phase of a lunar landing mission under quarantine conditions.

,

*

July 1969

Page 103

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
,f

LUNAR RECEIVING

LABORATORY
RADIATION COUNTI NG SUPPORT

SECONDARY BIOLOGICAL ISOLAT ON I

SAMPLE OPERAT ON I S AREA

CHANGE ROOMS & LOCKS

SPACEC CREW RECEPTION AREA

ADMINISTRATI ONAREA

Fig. 51 The basic objectives of the LRLare to ensure protection of the public's health, agriculture, and other living earth resourcesand to preserve the scientific integrity of the samplesand provide for their distribution to approved scientific investigators. The LRL is located at MSC, Houston, Texas. The facility is divided into three distinct areas: the Crew Reception Area (CRA), including spacecraft storage area; a Sample Operations Area (laboratories); and an Administrative and Support Area. The LRL objectives may be expanded into five basic functions: to preserve, store, and account for the lunar samples; to provide for quarantine operations and tests; to examine samplesto support distribution decisions; to perform time-crltical experiments; to collect incidental information gathered from preliminary testing; and to serve as a central data center for lunar sample information. Design Concept and Utilities A primary and secondary biolog|cal barrier system has been implemented in the LRL. The primary barrier is established with cabinets operated at lessthan laboratory pressure. The secondary barrier is formed by the carefully sealed building structure separately enclosing the Sample Operations Area and the CRA. The secondary barrier primarily depends upon the reduced interior pressure for biological isolation. The secondary barrier integrity has been tested with fluorescent particles. Ultraviolet light airlocks are built into the CRA and Sample Operations Area for the introduction of samples. Showers, change rooms, controlled access to the LRLSample Operations Area, and complete quarantine of the CRA minimizes compromiseof the secondary barrier. July 1969 Page 104

S-

s_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement All air exhausted from the primary barrier is piped to one of five microbe incinerators in the mechanical equipment room of the LRI, where it is heated to 500°F and is forced through an absolute biological filter to the outside. Air filtration and pressure differential for the secondary barrier is accompllshed by the air-conditioning system. The Radiation Counting Laboratory and the Administration and Support Areas are not included in the biological barriers. All liquid effluent from the CRA or Sample Laboratory is routed to. the LRL tank farm where it is heat-sterillzed prior to transfer to the MSC sewage treatment plant. The tank farm is classed as part of the secondary biological bcirrier. All system elements within the primary and secondary biological barriers may be sterilized to permit replacement or repair should a failure occur. There are three electrical power supplysystemsm normal, continuous, and emerqency. The normal systemis supplied by two 1000-KVA transformers. If this is interrupted, the 30-KW continuousgenerator automatically suppliesthe most critical loads until the 350-KW emergency generator can be brought on the line as a prime power system. The LRI. is identified as a critical facility at MSC and in an emergency haspriority for the supply of power, steam, and water. Administrative and SupportArea FCoordination of quarantine and sample processingactivities within the LRLis conducted from the Central StatusStation (CSS)of the Administrative and Support Area. The CSS is mannedon a 24-hour basisby a Quarantine Control Officer and a Facilities and Support Engineer. The CSS contains instrumentation, alarms, and audlo-vldeo communication systems to monitor all activities and areas in the LRL. Change roomdoors may be remotely locked from the CSS. Crew ReceptionArea

The Crew Reception Area (CRA) provides living accommodations, office space, and equipment for the crew, medical team, and other supportpersonnel. The CRA will normally be occupied by approximately 12 personnelfor about 14 days. If a biological spill or break occurs in the primary biobarrier, the CRA can accommodateup to 120 people for a considerable duration of quarantine. The astronautsand medical team are assignedbedrooms and offices. Support personnel have dormitory accommodations. The CRA also includes medical examination rooms, a minor surgery room, an X-ray room, laboratories, closed--circuit and commercial television, a lounge, communication systems,a library, an exercise room, a dining room, a kitchen, a storage room, and biois01ateddebriefing and interview roomswith a glass interface. A computer room contains a data acquisition systemcapable of handling data from major instrumentation located in the biomedical laboratory. Data tape contents may be electronically transferred to the Administrative and Support Area. July 1969 Page 105

._"

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

The transitional areas of the CRA are: the interface with the docked MQF; the storage area for the spacecraft and its related decontamination equipment; the change room sealed door and a two-door sterilizer and dunk tank; and a double-door sterilizer and airlock to the service area and loading dock. Sample Operations Area Vacuum Laboratory Samples are introduced, weighed, sterilized, and opened in a glove chamber where contained residual gas is analyzed. After preliminary microscopic examination, the samplesare photographed and repackaged for transfer under vacuum to the gas analysis, biological preparation, physical-chemlcal tests, and radiation counting laboratories. Samples are vacuum transferred in cold-welded aluminum and copper cans. In an air environment, they are transferred in polyethylene vials or heatsealed teflon bags. Most of the sample remains in the vacuum lab where monopole, magnetics,, and reflectance experiments are performed. Test activities are monitored on closed-clrcuit television by observers not physically present in the lab. The vacuum laboratory cabinet utilizes gloves to enable vacuum handling of the sample in a vacuum of 10-7 Torr (millimeters of mercury). An ultra-high vacuum chamber is rated at 10 -!1 Torr and usesmechanical manipulators to processthe special lunar samples. Transfer of materials is accomplished through vacuum locks. Samples are stored in vacuum carousels for extended periods. This laboratory prepares the lunar Sample Return Containers prior to flight to assurea minimum of terrestrial influence on the sealed interior which is only opened to the lunar environment after preparation. Physlcai-Chemical Test Laboratory Samples are tested for their reactions to atmospheric gasesand water vapor. Detailed studies of the mineralogic, petrologic, geochemical_ and physical properties of the sample will be performed. Among the techniques of analysis utilized are X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, and optical emission spectrographs. The lab contains a darkroom for processing photographic film and spectrographic plates. Sub-laboratorles are termed the Thln-Section Lab which mechanically prepares samplesfor analysis and the Mineral Separation Facility which extracts identified minerals for analysis by specialists. Both sub-labs work with samples after quarantine release. Biological Test Laboratory Lunar samplesundergo tests to determine if there is life present that may replicate. This laboratory analyzes a selected sample of lunar material designated "Bio-Prime" for the specific purpose of establishing the quarantine clearance recommendation.

S-_

July 1969

Page 106

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement Germ-free animals (mice) and plants will be exposed to the lunar material. The biological test lab is subdivided into smaller labs -- bioprep, bioanalysis, germfree t histology, normal animals (amphibia and invertebrates), incubation r anaerobic and tissue culture, crew microbiology, and botanical laboratories. Possibly pathogenic material is transferred across the secondary biological barrier to "Class II1" cabinets through autoclaves. The Class Ill cabinets are designed to permit processing of the most highly pathogenic material known without exposure to operating personnel. Gas Analysis Laboratory The gas analysis lab will measureamounts and types of gases produced by lunar samples. A survey will be made of any rare, inorganic, or lightly-bound gases or volatile organic compounds possibly contained in the samples. Radiation Counting Laboratory The Radiation Counting Lab (RCL) extends to 50 feet below the LRL ground floor. This lab conducts low-background radioactive assaysof lunar samples, using gamma ray spectrometry techniques. The lab tests for short-lived, cosmic ray-induced radloactivitles_ sensesthe natural activities of potassium, uranium, and thorium in the sample, and provides for whole-body radiation counts of the astronauts. The RCL is the most advanced low-level radiation counting facility known in the world. The primary task of the RCL is to investigate for the rapldly-decaying, cosmic ray-lnduced radlonuclldes in the lunar material.

s-_

July 1969

Page 107

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement

MISSION DATA ACQUISITION Each Apollo mission contributes to the data base which advances knowledge in many engineering and scientific disciplines. "State of the art" systems, materials, and dynamic calculations mature under environmental conditions which are difficult to simulate on earth. Information acquisition that is unique to the space or lunar environment is acquired through instrumentation and telemetry, "live" televisionr photography, crew observationt and sample acquisition and analysis. PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT 16mmData Acquisition Camera The primary useof the Data Acquisition Camera is to obtain interior or exterior sequential photographic data during manned flights. The camera is electrically powered from the spacecraft 28-vdc utility receptacles through a 108-inch power cable. The camera features an externally mounted film magazine containing 140 feet of film_ permitting a maximum run time of 93 minutes at 1 frame per second. Other rate selections available are 6_ 12t and 24 frames per second. Shutter speed selections are 1/60; 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1000 of a second. The camera may be operated hand-held or boreslght-mounted to record through the Command Module rendezvous windows or the right Lunar Module window. The camera is designed for gloved hand operation. Five interchangeable lenses may be substituted: 5mm f/2 for extreme wide angle, close range data; 10mmmedium wide angle for internal detail data; 18mmfor intraand extravehicular general use; 75mm f/2.5 for medium telephoto use on distant objects and ground terrain; and 200mm f/5.5 for extreme telephoto requirements of recording detail at long ranges. A right-angle mirror is provided to align the optical axis properly out the rendezvous window when 75mm and 18ramlens are installed. 70ramHasselbladElectric Camera The 70mm Hasselblad is primarily used for high resolution still photography and may be operated hand-held or bracket-mounted. It is powered by internal batteries that power a motor that advances film and cocks the shutter after an exposure. An intervalometer_ powered by the camera batteries, may be externally mounted to activate the camera automatically every 20 seconds. Two types of magazines are used -- one for thln-base film and the other for standard-base film. Each film magazine has a capacity for 200 frames of thln-base black and white film or 160 frames of thin-base color film. Two lenses are interchangeable -- an 80mm f/2.8 is usually installed but a 250mm f/4 telephoto lens may be selected for high resolution photography of distant subjects. The telephoto lens provides a 3x magnification over the 80ramlens. Shutter speed selection ranges from 1 second to 1/500 second. Filters are provided to reduce or enhance optical effects on certain film types. A red filter is used for terrain photography when using black and white panchromatic film to reduce haze effects. A polarizing filter

_

s-

July 1969

Page 108

F

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement is used for lunar mapping photography under the high lighting conditions to reduce glare effects. The Photar 2A filter is used for color photography of earth. It produces good color rendition and improves color contrasts. 70mm Hasselblad Electric Data Camera The Hasselblad Electric (EL) Data Camera is intended for extravehicular use on the lunar surface. The EL Data Camera is operationally the same as the Hasselblad Electric Camera but has a Reseaugrid installed in front of the focal plane to provide photogrammetricinformation. The camera is equipped with a 60mm lensand has an aperture range from f5.6 to f45. Automatic Spotmeter The Automatic Spotmeter is a completely automatic, cadmium-sulflde, reflectance light meter with a 1-degree angle of acceptance of a light source. The meter scales automatically rotate to indicate the correct shutter speed and lens aperture values for a selected subject. The Automatic Spotmeter can accommodate a wide range of film ratings (ASA index - 3 to 25,000). • Apollo Lunar Surface Close-Up Camera The Apollo Lunar Surface Close-Up Camera (ALSCC) is a 35ramstereo camera used for photographing details of geographic features on the lunar surface. The camera can resolve 40 micron particles and obtain data on the undisturbed arrangement of matter and dust particles on the lunar surface. It has a motor-driven mechanism, powered by four nickel-cadmium batteries, that advances film and cocks the shutter after an exposure. A subject contact hood provides a fixed-focus reference and an electronic flash provides exposure light. A long handle is provided to eliminate stooping or bending by the operator during placement. The fixed aperture has a rating of f/22.6. The film magazine is capable of providing 100 stereo pairs with SO368 film. The camera is intended to be discarded on the lunar surface. TELEVISION Two types of television cameras are usedin the Apollo program -- one type for color and the other for black and white. The black and white camera is intended for lunar surface operations, weighs 7.25 pounds, and consumes6.5 watts of 28-vdc power. Light control is automatic and adjusts video gain to within 10% of the scanned scene. The scan rate is 10 or .625 frames per second at 320 lines per frame. The camera dimensions are 10.6 x 6.5 x 3.4 inches. Two lenses are provided, a wide angle (80°) and a lunar day lens (35°), designed for the recording of lunar surface data. A pair of polaroid filters allows variation of admitted light from 100% to zero. The black and white camera is stowed in the Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) designedinto the Lunar Module (LM) Descent Stage. The camera is automatically July 1969 Page 109

°

,_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

aligned upon deployment of the MESA to transmit data on the exit of the crew from the LM to the lunar surface. A cable and tripod is provided for placement of the camera to record experimental activities. The color television camera is operated in the Command Module (CM). It weighs 12 poundsand is equipped with a zoom lens. A 3-inch-screen black and white monitor may be mounted in the CM or on the camera. The color camera is synchronized to the standard 30-frame per second, 525-11ne per frame scan rate. SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT Scientific equipment includes sampling implements and containers, experimental equipment packages, and related special tools. Stowag.______e The Descent Stage quadrants of the Lunar Module (LM) provide an adequate volume for the stowage of equipment intended for use on the lunar surface. Quadrant 1 provides an attachment point for the S-band erectable antenna and the stage electrical power system components° Quadrant 2 housesan Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP)besides an Environmental Control System water tank. On LM-6 through LM-9, an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP)will replace the EASEPpackage. Quadrant 2 provides an external mounting for a fuel cask to power a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, wh|ch provides a long-term electrical power source for ALSEP on LM-6 through LM-9. Quadrant 4 housesthe Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly. Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly The Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) (Figure 52) pallet is located in Quadrant 4 of the Descent Stage. The MESA is deployed by the extravehicular astronaut when the LM is on the lunar surface. The pallet contains spare Portable Life Support System (PLSS)batteries and lithium hydroxide cartridges, a television camera, tripod, cable, tools for obtaining lunar geological samples, containers in which to store the samples, and other scientific devices. A work table folds out and _lso serves as a hanger for the equipment transfer bag and a support for Sample Return Containers. The transfer bag is used to transfer the PLSSbatteries and lithium hydroxide cartridges to the cabin.

¢

/f_

4

July 1969

Page 110

M-932-69 _. Apol Io Supplement MODULARIZED EQUIPMENT STOWAGE ASSEMBLY

TV CAMERA WIDE-ANGLE

AND LEN HANDLE

S-BAND ANTENNA RETURN CON3_AINERS

PLSS LiOH LUNAR HOLDER (2) l"V LENS (2)

GNOMON

FO_DING

TABLE

(EXTENDED)

COMPOSmO_ EQUIPMENT TRANSFER gAG

Fig. 52 Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package The Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (E,_EP) (Figure 53) is carried in the LM-5 DescentStage. it contains two experiments: PassiveSeismic and Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector. PassiveSeismic Experiment The scientific objectives of the PassiveSeismic Experiment (PSE)are to record moonquakesw lunar tides, and free oscillations. Fromthese data, calculations can be made of the distribution of seismic velocities within the moonto obtain data relative to determining if the moon hasa crustt mantle, and core. The instrument will also record seismicwaves from meteoroid impacts. The PassiveSeismic Experiment (Figure 54) consistsof a sensorassemblyin a cylindrical housing, solar panel power supply, antenna, and associated electronics. The sensorassemblyis made up of three long-period seismometers in a orthogonal arrangement and one vertical componentshort-perlod seismometer. The seismicboomsare approximately 12 cm long and the inertial masses weigh 0.75 kg. The short-period instrumentis a coil-magnet velocity transducer. The sensoris constructed primarily of beryllium, weighs

F_

July 1969

Page 111

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
i

EARLYAPOLLOSCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS PACKAGE/LM INTERFACE QUADRANT 4 _=_ (MESA)

QUADRANT 1 ( _._<i'_"._--.._l_ (ERECTABLE _ >,_" ,/(c)_I _x_ ANTENNA) <_-, __//_. __ .,_"

' I_ L/'_QUADRANT 3

_,'_,___NO STORAGE)

LM SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT BAY

@

(_)

_

"

i

LRRR

,,_-

PSE

Fig. 53

July 1969

Page 112

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

PASSIVESEISMIC EXPERIMENT DEPLOYED

ANTENNA

GNOMON
PASSIVE SEISMIC

EXPERIMENT

_

\
HEATER

ASTRONAUT HANDLE SOLAR PANEL DEPLOYMENT LfNKAGE

/WEST

ANENNA POSITIONING MECHANISM

CARRY HANDLE EAST ANTENNA MASI"

Fig.54 9.3 kg, and continuousl d y raws4.5 watts. Itiscylindrical inForm,witha dlameter of28 cm and height of38cm. Required adjustments and calibration are accomplished through a series of 15 commands sent Fromearth. The instrument is powered by solar panel arrays which generate 34 to 46 watts of electrical power. Operation of the instrument, therefore, will be limited to lunar day. Lifetime of the instrument is expected to be at least 1 year. Isotope heaters provide 30 watts of thermal energy for lunar nighttime survival of the electronics (down to -54°C). The instrument will operate at a nominal temperature of 60°C. Instruments scheduled For later flights will be powered by nuclear electric generators and will operate day and night. Each axis of the long-period seismometerdetects low frequency seismic signal and tidal signal. The short-period seismometer detects seismic signal only. The temperature of the sensor is monitored. A total of eight digital signals, therefore, are telemetered to earth. The data rate from the passive seismic experiment is 800 bits per second.

f--

July 1969

Page 113

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR)Experiment The scientific objectives of ranging to a retro-reflector include precise measurements of: the lunar orbital motion; lunar librations; the lunar radius; fluctuation in earth rotation rate; Chandler Wobble of the earth's axis; intercontinental drift rate; and secular change of the gravitational constant with time. The retro-reflector array (Figure 55) conslsts of 100 retro-reflector corner cubes held in an aluminum panel with 10 corners on a side. The reflectors are made of highly homogeneous fused silica 3.8 cm (1.5") in diameter. The reflectors are uncoated and use total internal reflection. Control of the temperature gradient is achieved by recessing each reflector by one-half its diameter into a circular socket. Each reflector is mounted with a teflon ring to provide thermal isolation. The reflectors will perform under essentially isothermal cond|tlons throughout lunar nights and most of lunar days. At no time during a lunar day are temperature gradients expected to degrade the optical performance to less than 40% of the maximum value. The package has been designed to provide a useful life of 10 years or more. An astronaut will ori_entthe array towards the center of the earth's Iibratlon pattern ta an accuracy of 5° or better. .JLASERRANGINGRETRO-REFLECTOR DEPLOYED

Fig. 55

July 1969

Page 114

M-932-69 APOlIo Supplement
/r

For nominal pointing accuracy achieved by the astronaut, obscuration of off-axis performance produced by the recessed mounting and the Iibration pattern will allow 40% or more of maximum return to be available for 60% of the time and 25% or more to be expected 90% of the time. Solar Wind CompositionExperiment 1he scientific objective of the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment is to determine the elemental and isotopic composition of the noble (inert) gasesin the solar wind. The solar wind composition detector consists of an aluminum foil 4 square feet in area and about 0.5 mils thick, rimmed by teflon for resistance to tear during deployment. A staff and yard arrangement is used to deploy the foil and to maintain the foil approximately perpendicular to the solar wind flux. The deployed configuration is shown in Figure 56. (The instrument in stowed configuration is shown in the astronaut's left hand.) Solar wind particles will penetrate into the foil and get firmly trapped at a depth of several hundred atomic layers. After exposure on the surface, the foil is rolled and returned to earth. SOLARWINDARRAY

_

F

OWED The exposed foil will be analyzed with mass spectrometers in an ultra-high vacuum environment at the University of Berne, DEPLOYED Swltzerland. The procedure consists of vaporizing the foil in an ultra-high vacuum system and then removing all the reactive gases before massspectrometric analysis. It is stowed in the MESA. Lunar Geological Experiment

Fig. 56

The purpose of this experiment is to gather data on the lunar geological processesby sampling, photogrdphy, and crew observation.

July 1969

Page 115

f-

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Lunar sampleswill be returned in two sealed box-llke Sample Return Containers (Figure 57). Certain sampies are specifically identified relative to the nature and location of the acquired sample, photographed, separately bagged, identified, and referred to as Documented Samples. Other sampleswill be taken and stored in core tubes and a gas analysis container. Tools used in acquisition or observation of samples are a large scoop, a hammer, an extension handle, and tongs. A gnomon is used to establish local verticals and a photographic dimension reference. A Contingency Sample Container is stored in the Ascent Stage to of about duration returned provide for collecting an immediate sample one liter in the event of an extremely short of extravehicular activity. Samples will be to earth for analysis. ASTRONAUT PLACING LUNARSAMPLEIN SAMPLERETURN CONTAINER

,_._

Fig. 57 Cosmic Ray Experiment The purpose of this experiment is to determine the energy of cosmic rays on the astrohaut helmet. Postflight analysis of the pressure helmet will measure the effects of radiation exposure to heavy energy particles from the sun and cosmic rays. No special activity or attention is required of the astronaut in conducting this experiment. Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package The purpose of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) is to facilitate the determination of the structure and state of the lunar interior, the composltion and structure of the lunar surface and modifying processes, and the evolutionary sequence of events leading to the present lunar configuration. To accomplish this purpose the ALSEP has been designed to perform eight scientific experiments in varying combinations to measure the geophysical characteristics of the moon. The resulting subsystemsare as follows: Passive Seismic Experiment Subsystem The PassiveSeismic Experiment (PSE)will measure seismic activity of the moon to obtain information regarding the physical properties of the lunar crust and interior. Seismic energy is expected to be produced in the lunar surface by meterold impacts and tectonic disturbances. The seismic activity is measuredby Iong-perlod and short-period seismometerswhich monitor the displacement of inertial massesfrom a zero position relative to sensitive transducers.

_

July 1969

Page 116

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Magnetometer Experiment Subsystem The Magnetometer Experiment (ME) will provide data pertaining to the magnetic field at the lunar surface by measuring the magnitude and temporal variations of the lunar surface equatorial vector magnetic field. Electromagnetic disturbances originating in the solar wind, plasma current informatlon, and subsurface magnetic material near the magnetometer site will also be detected. Solar Wind Experiment Subsystem The Solar Wind Experiment (SWE)will provide data pertaining to certain properties of the solar wind plasma at the lunar surface. It will measure temporal and directional variations in the flux, and the energy of the positive ions and the electrons that strike the lunar surface. The SWEwill use an array of seven modified Faraday cups to measure the numbert direction_ and energy of charged particles impinging on it. Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment Subsystem The Suprathermal Ion DetectorExperiment (SIDE) in conjunction with a Cold Cathode Ion Gauge (CCIG) will provide data pertaining to the density and temperature of the ionosphere near the lunar surface, and the neutral particle density at the lunar surface. The SIDE counts and measuresthe velocity and energy of detected ions. The CCIG measuresthe density of neutral particles at known gauge temperatures to determine the pressure of the ambient lunar atmosphere. Active Seismic Experiment Subsystem The Active Seismic Experiment _ASE)subsystemwill provide data pertaining to the physical properties, structure, elasticityt and bearing strength of lunar surface and near surface materials by measuring velocity of propagationt frequency spectra, and attenuation of selsmic compression waves through the lunar surface. The ASE provides for a controlled seismic energy of known distances_ charge sizes_ and timing. It also provides a meansof seismic exploration in the event the moon should be naturally seismically inert and seismic activity cannot be registered by passive seismometers. Heat Flow Experlment Subsystem The Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) subsystemwill provide data pertaining to the structure_ possible stratification_ and heat balance of subsurface materials by measuring the net outward heat flux from the interior of the moont thermal conductivity and dlffusivlty of lunar surface material, and heat fluctuations at the lunar surface. Two 2-section probes with heat sensorsand a heater at each end July 1969 Page 117

s _.

F-

f /

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement

of each section are used in conjunction with the HFE electronics package to measure absolute and differential temperatures and thermal conductivity of the lunar material. The probes are inserted into holes bored 3 meters deep into the lunar surface by the astronaut using the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill (ALSD). Use of the heaters to create a known quantity of heat at a known distance from a sensorestablishes the heat-conductivity of the lunar subsurface material by sensing and measuring the amount of heat that travels the known distance per unit of tlme. Charged Particle Lunar EnvironmentExperimentSubsystem The Charged Particle Lunar EnvironmentExperiment (CPLEE)subsystem will provide data pertaining to the solar wind, solar cosmic rays, and other particle phenomena by measuringthe energy distribution and time variations of the proton and electron fluxes at the lunar surface. It employs two particle detectors (analyzers) oriented in different directions for minimum exposureto the ecliptic path of the sun. Cold Cathode Gauge ExperimentSubsystem The Cold Cathode Gauge Experiment (CCGE) subsystem will provide data pertaining to the density of the lunar ambient atmosphere, including temporal variations, and the rate of lossof contamination left in the landing area by the astronautsand the LM. The CCGE usesa transducer, powered by a 4000-volt power supply, to detect the density of particles of the ambient atmosphereand to develop a proportional direct current signal which is converted from analog to digital data for downlink transmission. Structure/Thermal Subsystem The structure/thermal subsystemconsists of the subpackage support structures, the thermal control elements of the subpackages, and the fuel cask support structure. The primary function of the structure/thermal subsystemis to ensure the structural integrity and thermal protection of the ALSEP equipment and LM in transport and in the lunar environment (-300°F to +250°1:). This includes packaging, structural support, and isolation from heat, cold, shock, and vibration. A dust detector monitors accumulation of lunar dust. Electrical PowerSubsystem The electrical power subsystemgenerates 56 watts minimum of electrical power for the operation of the ALSEP system. The power is developed by a thermopile system which is heated by a radioisotope fuel capsule. The power is regulated, converted to the required voltage levels, and supplied to the data subsystemfor distribution to the support and experiment subsystems. Analog housekeeping data is supplied to the data subsystem for downllnk telemetry. July 1969 Page 118

f_

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement Data Subsystem The data subsystemreceives, decodes, and applies discrete logic commands from the MSFN to the deployed units of ALSEP. These commandsare used to perform power switching, thermal control, operating mode changes and experiment control. The data subsystemaccepts and processesscientific data from the experiments, engineering status data from itself and all the subsystems, and transmits the data to the MSFN receiving stations. The data subsystemalso performs the function of switching and distributing operating power to the experiment and support subsystems. Apollo LunarSurface Drill Subsystem The Apollo Lunar Surface Drill (ALSD) subsystemwill provide data on the physical properties of lunar surface and subsurface materials by extraction of cores obtained while boring emplacement holes for the HFE probes. The ALSD will be used to bore two holes 3 meters deep with a diameter of 2.54 to 2.86 centimeters. Cores produced from the holes will have a minimum diameter of 1.27 centimeters and a minimum solid length of 2.54 centimeters. Apollo Lunar Hand Tools Subsystem f-" The Apollo Lunar Hand Tools (ALHT) subsystemwill contribute to the overall geophysical exploration of the moon by facilitating the location, collectlon, measurement, and removal of representative samplesof the lunar surface. The samplescollected will be stowed in special containers and transported to earth for examination and study. The experiment and support subsystemsof the A/SEP system are mounted in two subpackages as shown in Figures 58 and 59 for storage and transportation in the LM. The deployment arrangement is shown in Figure 60. The ALSEP packages, including fuel capsule and cask, weigh approximately 282 earth pounds and, exoludlng the fuel capsule and cask, the two packages each measure approximately 25" x 27" x 22". The A/SEP will be deployed on the "H" Mission series at different landing sites to form a seismic network. The "H" Mission series will emphasize lunar surface science experlments.

July 1969

Page 119

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement ALSEPARRAYA SUBPACKAGE NO. 1

_

MAGNETOMETER EXPERIMENT (DEPLOYED)

ALSEPARRAYA SUBPACKAGE NO. 2

EXPERIMENT (DEPLOYE[I

APOLLO LUNAR NRAO TOOLS SUBPALLET i_ _ _ " TTACHMENT;. BOOM AB (DEPLOYED)

H
_-_, ; TOOL FUEL TRANSFER _ TOOC. iiASSEMBLY _L \ CUPPORT

\ "_ T__
p
STRUCTURE/THERMAL SUBSYSTEM COMPONENTS AIMING

OOME _AL TOOL _
\_ECTIONS _ /
\ _-_'N / AL RAROLING TOOLS

Fig.59

July 1969

Page 120

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement ALSEP DEPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENT

%
LUNAR NORTH

[
W ¢

!
S

E

RTG

ANTENNA

PASSIVE I SEISMIC RTGIPCU CABLE % APPROX• FEET °% • / ZZ _ _-_APPROX. % _'_ % _'%. _,S 0 18 FEET

WIND % SIDE % _"

,_
3 to 5 FEET /_CCIG

%
,_ _'_,

APPROX. /,.
RANGE OF M_AONETOMETERDEPLOYMENTO'_-: SELECTION X C

.

MAGNETOMETER

Fig. 60

,i--

July 1969

Page 121

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ac AEA AFB AFETR AGS ALDS ALHT ALSCC ALSD ALSEP AM AOT APS APS ARIA ARS AS AS ASA ASE ASI BIPURN BIG BPC BSE BSG CASTS CCATS CCGE CCIG CCS CDP CES CIF CM CMC COAS CPLEE CRA CS CSM CSS Alternating Current Abort Electronics Assembly Air Force Base Air Force Eastern Test Range Abort Guidance Subsystem Apollo Launch Data System Apollo Lunar Hand Tools Apollo Lunar Surface Close-up Camera Apollo Lunar Surface Drill Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Amplitude Modulation Alignment Optical Telescope Auxiliary Propulsion System (S-IVB) Ascent Propulsion System (LM) Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Apol Io/Saturn Ascent Stage (LM) Abort Sensor Assembly Active Seismic Experiment Augmented Spark Igniter "Billy Pugh" RescueNet Biological Isolation Garment Boost Protective Cover Booster SystemsEngineer Booster SystemsGroup Countdown and Status TransmissionSystem Communications, Command, and Telemetry System Cold Cathode Gauge Equipment Cold Cathode Ion Gauge Command Communications System Command Data Processor(MSFN Site) Control Electronics Subsystem Central Instrumentation Facility Command Module Command Module Computer Crewman Optical Alignment Sight Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment Crew Reception Area Communications System Command/Service Module Central Status Station

"

"_

_.

July 1969

Page 122

M-932-69 Apol Io Supplement
/f

f"

f_

C,/T CWEA CWG DATA-CORE dc DEDA DOD DOS DPS DS DSEA EASEP ECS EDS EDS EECOM EL ELS EMS EMU EPS ETR EVA FCC FCS FDAI FDO g GDC GH2 G N2 GNC G NCS GN&CS GOX GSE GUIDO GSFC H2 HF HFE HOSC HTS ICG IMU July 1969

Crawl er,/l"ransporte r_ Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly Constant Wear Garment CIF Telemetry Conversion System Direct Current Data Entry and Display Assembly Department of Defense Department of Supply (Australia) Descent Propulsion System (LM) Descent Stage (LM) Data Storage Electronics Assembly Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package Environmental Control System Emergency Detection System Explosive Devices System (LM) Electrical, Environmental, and Communications Engineer Hasselblad Electric Data Camera Earth Landing System Entry Monitor System Extravehicular Mobility Unit Electrical Power System Eastern Test Range Extravehicular Activity Flight Control Computer (IU, analog) Fecal Containment System Flight Director Attitude Indicator Flight Dynamics Officer Gravity force at sea level (1 g) Gyro Display Coupler Gaseous Hydrogen Gaseous Nitrogen Guidance, Navigation, and Control Engineer Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (CSM) Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (LM) Gaseous Oxygen Ground Support Equipment Guidance Officer Goddard Space Flight Center Hydrogen High Frequency Heat Flow Experiment Huntsville Operations Support Center Heat Transport Subsystem(LM) Inflight Coverall Garment Inertial Measurement Unit Page 123

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement F IP IS IU KSC LC LCC LCG LES LET LEVA LGC LH2 LIEF LM LN2 LOX, LO2 LR LRL LRRR LV LVDA LVDC MCC MDC ME MESA MILA ML MMH MOC MOCR MQF MSC MSFC MSFN MSS NASCOM N204 NPSH O2 OPS OSCPCS PCM PCMTEA Impact Predictor (at KSC) Instrumentation System (LM) Instrument Unit Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex Launch Control Center Liquid Cooling Garment Launch Escape System Launch Escape Tower Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly Lunar Module Guidance Computer Liquid Hydrogen Launch Information Exchange Facility Lunar Module Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Oxygen Landing Radar Lunar Receiving Laboratory Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector Launch Vehicle Launch Vehicle Data Adapter Launch Vehicle Digital Computer Mission Control Center Main Display Console Magnetometer Experiment Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly Merritt Island Launch Area Mobile Launcher Monomethyl Hydrazlne Mission Operations Computer Mission Operations Control Room Mobile Quarantine Facility Manned Spacecraft Center Marshall Space Flight Center Manned Space Flight Network Mobile Service Structure NASA Communications Network Nitrogen Tetroxide Net Positive Suction Head Oxygen Oxygen Purge System Oxygen Supply and Cabin PressureControl Subsystem Pulse Code Modulation Pulse Code Modulation and Timing Electronics Assembly

'_

F__,

......

July 1969

Page 124

M-932-69 Apollo Supplement
f

"*

_

,F_

PDS PGA PGNCS PGNS PLSS PSE PRS PTCR PU RCC RCL RCR RCS RETRO RETRO RF RIS RP-1 RR RTCC S/C SCS SCEA SIDE SLA SM SMJC SPS SRC SSR SV SWC SWE TCA TCS TMG TSM TV UCTA USB UHF VAB VHF WMS WMS WTR July 1969

Propellant Dispersion System PressureGarment Assembly Primary Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (LM) Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem(LM) Portable Life Support System PassiveSeismic Experiment Prime Recovery Ship PadTerminal Connection Room Propellant Utilization Recovery Control Center Radiation Counting Laboratory Recovery Control Room Reaction Control System Direction Opposite to Velocity Vector Retrofire Officer Radio Frequency Range Instrumentation Ship Rocket Propellant (refined kerosene) RendezvousRadar Real-Time Computer Complex Spacecraft Stabilization and Control System Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment Spacecraff-LM Adapter Service Module Service Module Jettison Controller Service Propulsion System Sample Return Container Staff Support Room Space Vehicle Solar Wind Composition Solar Wind Experiment Thrust Chamber Assembly Thermal Conditioning System Thermal Meteoroid Garment Tall Service Mast Television Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly Unified S-band Ultra-High Frequency Vehicle Assembly Building Very High Frequency Water Management System (LM) Waste Management System G_o878,_s3 Western Test Range Page 125

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful