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The foul drainage and sewer line system shall be carried out strictly in
accordance with the relevant by-laws and if the work fails to satisfy the
Local Authority concerned, the Contractor shall rectify the defects at his
own expense. The Contractor shall provide suitable qualified personnel to
do the section of the work.

The pipes shall be laid to even falls to gradients shown on the drawings.

Cement, sand, aggregates, steel reinforcement and piles to be as
previously described under the appropriate trade specification sections.


Cast iron drain pipes shall comply with BS 437 and shall be with spigot
and socket ends.
Cast iron bends, branches, traps, gullies and other fitting shall be of the
pattern and dimensions stated in BS 1130 and shall be sound, free form
cracks and other defects. All cast iron pipes and fittings shall be coated
inside and outside with an approved bituminous solution.

Joints between cast iron pipes and fittings shall be with molten lead and
tarred yarn wound round and well caulked in unless otherwise stated


Cast iron drain pipes shall be laid on properly prepared beds in straight
lines and to even gradients. Great care shall be exercised in setting out
and determining the levels of the pipes for which the Contractor shall
provide suitable instruments and set up and maintain all sight rails,
boning rods and bench marks, etch, necessary for the purpose.

Pipes shall be laid with the sockets leading up-hill and shall rest on solid
and even foundations for the full length of the barrel.

Setting out

Excavation for the trenches shall be to straight lines and gradients

required for the pipes and beds as specified. The trench bottom shall be
of sufficient width to allow adequate working space for the pipe layers and
jointers but beyond these requirements the width must be kept to a

Before any work commences the sewer trace shall be set out. The
manhole centres shall be marked by a centre peg whose location shall be
tied to 3 pegs situated outside the working area.

Sight rails shall be set up painted black and white to mark the centre line
of the sewer, and boning rods shall be used to give the distance from the
sight rails to the invert of the sewer. It is desirable that no fewer than 3
sight rails be set up on each line so that if one is disturbed it would be
obvious. The maximum distance between sight rails should be 23m.

The Contractor shall maintain the setting up of pipelines not less than
460m in advance of pipelying and shall carry such exploratory excavation
as may be required by Employer.

For the length of the pipelines which are curved on plan or in elevation the
curve shall be obtained by deflecting the pipes at each joint.

Strongly constructed, clearly painted boning rods shall be provided at

each length where work is in progress. Such boning rods shall be designed
to show the pipeline invert level below the sight rails.

When excavation is complete and before any further work commences

wooden pegs are to be driven into the formation at not more than 5 m
centres the level of each peg being adjusted to the proposed sewer invert
by the use of the sight rails and boning rods.


The bedding for the pipes shall be thoroughly compacted. The pipes shall
be laid evenly on the barrel at the required level. There should be no
hollows, voids or foreign material under the pipe. Any concrete blocks or
wedges should be removed on completion of bedding. The bedding
should be completed to the correct profile as shown in the drawing.

The bedding should at all stages of the construction be well compacted.

Water shall be added to the granular material as laid to obtain optimum
moisture content for compaction and sufficient mechanical tampers,
vibrators or other approved method of compaction shall be employed at
all times.
Particular care must be taken to ensure that proper bedding is obtained at
and on either side of the pipe joints. Where pipe jointing holes are left the
bedding particular care must be taken to ensure complete and proper
filling of the holes after pipe testing.


The concrete bed foundation and Type Section for the pipes shall consist
of the concrete or reinforced concrete as shown in details on the Contract

In all cases the concrete shall be well rammed or vibrated and worked
under and around the pipes. No concrete shall be placed around the
pipes until the pipe joints have been inspected and approved.

At approximately every four pipes or 6m whichever is the less interval the

Contractor shall form a joint in the concrete bed or surround with 25mm
thick fibreboard, timber or other approved material. The shuttering
material shall be left in to form a permanent joint. Where the concrete
bed is required to be reinforced all reinforcement shall stop on either side
of the joint.

In placing the concrete in surround the Contractor is required to concrete

right against the side of the trench excavation. Where the excavation has
been carried out to a greater width than the required Type Section or
approved width, the Contractor will be required to provide the additional
concrete necessary to the sides of the excavation.


At every point of loading or unloading pipes or castings must be handle by

approved lifting tackle. Unloading by rolling down planks or any other
form of inclined ramp will not be allowed. Pies are to be carefully stacked
on site with timber packings under and between the pipes. Where pipes
are stacked, the height shall never exceed 2m.


All pipes shall be carefully brushed out inside and shall be tested for
soundness before being laid. The pipes shall be laid separately to true
inverts, straight lines and falls, each pipe being separately boned between
sight rails and bearing evenly upon the solid ground or concrete for its full

Where pipes are laid without a concrete bed, holes shall be cut in the
bottom of the trench os such size and depth as to allow the joints to be
properly made and the barrel of the pipe to bear evenly on the solid
ground for its full length.

Where pipes are to be laid on rock formation the excavation shall be taken
down to 1.2 m below bed level and great care shall be taken to ensure
that there are no projecting pieces of rock on which the pipe will ride. The
bed will then be made up to its true line and level by refilling with either
100mm of consolidated selected material from the excavation well
rammed, and watered if necessary, or with 100 mm of concrete 1:3:6 or
as per contact drawings.

The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that all blocks and
wedges are of sufficient size and strength to prevent settlement of the

The excavation of the bottom 150mm of the trench and laying of screed
or any other surface preparation shall be done immediately in advance of
pipe laying but no pipes shall be laid until a distance of at least 10m along
the trench has been prepared and bottomed up to the receive the pipes.
The trenches and joint holes shall be kept free from water until the pipes
are laid, jointed and surrounded with concrete. No water from the
trenches shall be allowed to endter the new pipes and no re-filling of
trenches will be allowed until the joints of the pipes have been tested,
inspected and approved.

Properly fitted stoppers shall be provided and constantly used to close the
ends of all uncompleted pipe lines. The stoppers are only to be removed
when necessary.


Reinforced concrete (Grade 30-20 mm aggregates) manholes shall each

be of the internal plan sizes and depths indicated on the drawing. Unless
otherwise specified, manholes not exceeding 1.0m deep from cover to
invert are to be 450mmx690mm on plan internally and those exceeding
915mm deep are to be 600mmx1000mm, the length being increased of
necessary to accommodate the branch drains. All reinforced concrete
bases, walls and cover slabs shall be 150mm thick as shown and
reinforced with mild steel rod reinforcement.
Form rebated opening in cover slab for manhole cover and frame. The
manhole shall be benched with plain concrete (Grade 25) by using
sulphate resisting cement and with half round or three quarter section
salt-glazed ware channels bedded on. Provide galvanized malleable step
irons to all man holes exceeding 915mm deep.


Where detailed R.C manholes are to be built in the positions shown on in

accordance with the details in the approved Drawings.

The chamber and shaft rings may be supplied in different lengths and
each section will be provided with lifting holes. The joints between the
sections shall be of an ogee joint with cement mortar to form a watertight
joint. Before completion of the manhole all the lifting holes, ogee and
other joints shall be neatly pointed.

The reinforced concrete slabs covering the chambers and the shafts of the
manholes shall be set and pointed in cement mortar to form watertight

The reinforced concrete slabs covering the chambers and the shafts of the
manholes shall be set and pointed in cement mortar to form watertight

At all points where pipes are built into walls, or floors, great care shall be
taken that the joint is watertight joint. If found to be otherwise, the
concrete shall be cut away and replaced with concrete, to make a
watertight joint.

Manhole covers and frames are to be set in cement mortar and

surrounded with Grade B concrete and covers left flush with the
surrounding ground or road surface as the case may be and shall be set
on two courses of 225mm brickwork. The fine adjustment of cover levels
shall be effected by creasing courses of hard burnt tile. Care shall be
taken to ensure that the cover is level with and sloped to any fall or grade
to the surrounding surfaces.


Where detailed, tumbling bay, or backdrop are to be constructed in

accordance with the details on the approved drawings.
Special spigot and socket, tumbling bay, or backdrop junctions shall be
used in the junction between the two lines of pipes.

Tumbling bay backdrop pipes are to be built in the walls of the man hle by
cutting a neat hole in the precast concrete rings sufficient for building in
the pipes and pointed in cement mortar. The joint shall be finished flush
with the inside of the manhole and neatly splayed on the outside to form a
watertight joint.


The manhole covers and frames shall be of the cast iron machines type
and of approved size, weight and pattern. The heavy duty type shall be
used in roadways and paved area.

Manhole covers and frames shall comply with BS 497 and be of the
standard type and size and shall be accordance with the drawings. The
cover and frame shall be cast from a mixture of cast iron scrap and a
suitable grade of pig iron. The mixture of the resultant metal shall be free
from air and sand holes and from cold shuts. They shall be neatly dressed
and carefully fettled. All casting shall be free from voids, whether due to
shrinkage, gas inclusion or other causes.

Manhole covers and frames shall be supplied coated with a black

bituminous composition. They shall be well fitted, flush at the top and
should not rock.

After the sewers have been laid they shall be inspected by the Employer
for grade, line and level and appearance of inner surface. Any sewers
inaccurately laid to grade, line and depth, or if the interior shows open
joints, ragged edges or protruding mortar, or which are not alignment,
shall be made good and relaid so as to conform to the drawings and
specification and at the Contractor’s expenses.

Sewers shall then be subjected to water or air test, at the discretion of the
Employer, for which the Contractor shall provide all necessary testing
apparatus, including expanding plugs, flexible bag stoppers, smoke
cartridges, etc. together with any other apparatus and labour which may
be required for the proper testing of the sewers. These tests shall be
carried out before backfilling and again after completion of backfilling and
Sewer with caulked joints shall not be tested until at least 24 hours after

The sewer or drain shall be tested in sections consisting of the length of

pipe between two adjacent manholes.

Water test

The test before backfilling shall be commenced as soon as practical after

laying but the sewer or drain shall have been filled for approximately one
hour before test readings are taken.

A test pressure of 1.2m head above the soffit of sewer or drain shall be
applied at the high end but no more than 2.4m at the low end. Steeply
graded sewers or drains shall be tested in stages where the above
maximum head would be exceeded if the whole section were tested at

The loss of water over a period of 30minutes shall be measured by adding

water from a measuring vessel at regular intervals of 10 minutes and
noting the quantity required to maintain the original water level in the
stand pipe. The average quantity of water added for sewers or drains up
to 300mm nominal bore shall not exceed 0.1 gallon per hour per 30 linear
metre per 25mm of nominal bore of the sewer and drain.

The test after completion of backfilling shall be described above.

The length of sewer or drain shall be effectively plugged with suitable

expanding plugs between manholes, and the air pumped in with an
approved air testing machine until a pressure of 100mm head of water is
indicated in U-tube connected to the system. The air pressure shall not
fall to less than 75mm head of water during a period of 5 minutes, without
further pumping, after a period for requisite stabilization drains which
incorporate traps shall be tested to 50mm head of water and the
permissible loss shall be 12mm head of water in 5 minutes.

Should the pressure not be maintained for the required time a smoke test
shall applied for the purpose of locating the fault.


After testing of the pipelines as specified, the interior of the pipelines shall
be inspected to ascertain that the pipes are entirely clear of obstruction
and that the invert is smooth.
In the case of pipes which cannot be inspected from the inside, generally
under 600mm in diameter, a loose plug shall be passed through each
pipeline to ensure that the pipes are entirely clear of obstruction and that
the invert is smooth. The loose plug shall be in the form of a cylinder with
solid ends made of timber not less than 25mm in thickness.

The outside diameter of the ends of the plug shall not be smaller than
25mm less than the diameter of the pipe through which it is to be passed
and its length shall not less than its diameter.

Any obstruction in the pipelines shall be removed and any unevenness of

the invert shall be made good.


In the event of pipes being fractured after properly laid whether due to
imperfect beds having been formed or the material for refilling having
been improperly selected or to any other causes, the Contractor in every
instance, will be held responsible and he will be called upon to replace
such defective pipes at his won cost, if such defect appears before the
expiration of the period of maintenance.

Any pipe or length of pipes found to be defective shall be immediately

removed and replaced at the Contractor’s expense and leaking joints shall
be remade; the inspections and test shall then be repeated as often as
necessary until the whole lines under inspection or test is accepted by the