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Assignment no. ICA-1 Module -MMD1002-N

**B Engg (Hons) Civil Engineering
**

1 Teesside University

2.4 V-notch weir 1.3 Combination weir 1.Index 1.2.5 Minimum Energy Loss weir Aim of the experiment Theory and formula used Procedure Results Discussions Conclusion References 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 9 10 10 1.2.8 1.7 1.2.6 1.1 Introduction: 2 .2 Introduction Types of weirs 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.1 Broad-crested weir 1.3 1.

weirs are often referred to as notches and invariably are sharp edged and manufactured from thin plate material. This type of weir typically made by 1/4" thick or thinner metal plates. 1. The flow pattern over a notch or weir is complex and there is no analytical solution to the relationship between discharge and head so that once again a semi-empirical approach has to be used.1: Weir water flow 1. 1.2. 1. such as trapezoidal. For small scale applications.3 Combination weir: The sharp crested weirs can be identified into three groups as their geometry: a) the rectangular weir. Fig.1 Broad-crested weir: This weir has flat-crested structure with a long crest as compare to the flow thickness. they are of particular use in large scale situations such as irrigation schemes. canals and rivers.2 Types of weirs: 1.In open channel hydraulics.2. Upper edge of section is kept above water level.2. Combination of above mentioned weirs are generally taken for accurate flow measurement where wide range of flow rates occurs 1.4 V-notch weir: Small discharge values are measure by V-notch type weir. 1.2. 1. Rectangular. weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate.2 Sharp crested weir or fayoum weir: Water falls cleanly away from the sharp crested weir.5 Minimum Energy Loss weir: Such type of weirs was developed to transfer fluid with minimal energy loss and afflux where total head is constant. V-notch and Cipolletti weirs come in these type weirs.2.3 Aim of the experiment: 3 . b) the V or triangular notch and c) special notches. circular or parabolic weirs.

Thin plate weir consist mostly rectangular notch. To regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate weirs are used in open channel flows. Above given formula will be used for this purpose. To get over this problem a semi empirical approach is established. The flow over notch is complexes so no analytical relation can be generated to get relation between discharge coefficient and head. A comparison is made in calibration while taking data with the help of instruments and practically known approach. Discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of flow rate practically calculated to flow rate theoretically calculated. A rectangular notch made by thin metal plate is put in a manner that water flow over it. Cd = Qact/Qth Another aim of experiment is the calibration of weir.4 Theory and formula used: A rectangular notch in a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir channel as shown in figure 2. For same geometry discharge coefficient will be same. To minimize error any device must be calibrated. This is the benefit of calibrated instrument. 1. Here in present case.2: Rectangular sharp crested weir and it nomenclature The following are the formulas associated with the type of weir used for this laboratory report: • Actual Discharge Formula: 4 . Figure 1. calculate actual or practically determine flow rate and theoretical flow rate from weir and then get its coefficient of discharge.Aim of the experiment is the measurement of discharge coefficient and analysis of its relation with flow rate and depth of head by plotting graph and examine whether standard formulas for sharp crested weir suits or not. Calibration is called the validation of specific scientific method and technique to get correct measurement of equipment.

Keep repeating this procedure for different head (H) while adjusting valve.6 Results: The following contains data obtained by experiment as well as calculated values of actual flow rate. H is the head above crest. where log k is the intercept on y axis and n is its slope. K and n are constants which depend on the geometry of the weir. 5 . Also take down time for predetermined volume to be flown out of tank. the calibration equation is formulated as. This time reading should be taken by two persons separately to reduce error. Now open the valve and let water flow above the weir notch. Note down height of water using vernier. 1. log H will give values of K and n. Qact = K x H n Where.5 Procedure: a. 1. theoretical flow and coefficient of discharge. b. Take reading using vernier when there is no discharge or flow. In this steady flow condition. c. log Qact = log K + n log H Which denotes an equation of a straight line. Wait till flow becomes steady and uniform. d. can be determined by taking account of volume flow per unit time taken in the laboratory.Q actual. f. e. Difference of these vernier readings will be head of weir. The graph log Qact Vs. • Theoretical Discharge Formula: Now. however. adjust the vernier to touch the new water level and note down the reading. By taking logarithm on both sides we will have.

825 47.2196 11364.0 9 32.14 49.66137979 0.38 23.07408 -3.4252 4 24207.66571187 0.74400068 H5/2 log Q -2.995 33.Table 1.03448 10.9 5 49.35454 8.9783 7 2143.25 23.1 2 19.20148 10.64375143 0.4933 1 271.45 4568.50358 4.64073927 0.17019 -3.2005 5 514.09862 6.305 21.52035 -3.22606 12.3 3 21.56416 of discharge H3/2 Cd 0.98464 -3.65756356 0.36 99.7 2 38.605 19.025 42.70354308 0.4019 33024.67447809 0.62 29.36001 9.06 T2 (Sec) 18.9 36.97679 1.2 29.9 426.3832 8 6 .6914 5 733.66 47.68737 2.64205322 0.02898 -3.125 19.93414 525.8 7 T mean Q/T (m3/sec) (m3/sec) (Sec) *10-4 *10-4 18.4 352.5 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 5 18.9 476.36004 14.2566 34194.38017 -3.1: Data taken from experiment and resulted flow rates and Cd Flow rate Flow rate theoretical Q/T practical Coefficient Vol T1 H (mm) (Litre) (Sec) 65.52545 8.68416 15.69042 -3.965 11.5 1 23.03978 1.28 21.33 48.1671 3.1 64.63607407 0.2 61 56.95725 -2.8 2 29.9476 3 17589.06 156.99134 -2.15132 4.0175 2.72 29.28808 -3.4317 6.595 38.1 21.74866 10.32417 15.364 52.47 19.9 33.2 1 42.16374 15.9 41.84 43.1 513.8025 7884.7 4 19.6 29061.7579 5.1 64.9 9 48.1 217.47 38.2 32896.68522769 0.7 49.13 19.

4: Plot of Q Vs H1.3: Plot of Q Vs H Fig.5 7 . 1. 1.Fig.

5 Fig.5: Plot of Q Vs H2.Fig.6: Plot of log Q Vs H 8 . 1. 1.

7 Discussions: 9 . 1.8: Plot of Cd Vs H 1. 1.Fig.7: Plot of log Q Vs log H Fig.

"The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction. References: • • • Chanson. 1. UK. H or result of improper setup.2 and slop n = 1. ASTM Standard..5). This may be due to surface tension is higher for water coming out from the tank. Linear plot log Q Vs H again verifies this. shear forces of surfaces etc. “Standard method for open-channel flow measurement of water with thin-plate weirs”.8 Conclusion: After taking all data and plotting them of graph. 2nd edition (2004). pp. This statement is proven in plot of Cd Vs H (Fig. Curve between Q and H 1. Code ASTM D5242 (1993).4 and Fig.62899 Linear relation Qact = m H 1. 1.5 is clearly visible in plot (Fig. 1.e. Initially flow rate of water was high but when water is drained out it lowers (Fig. 630 Henderson. Established formula was generated while taking them ideal.3). F. MacMillan Company.. Oxford. "Open Channel Flow". type of flow lamellar or transient.5 shows linear behaviour as proportionality shown by formula.7)." ButterworthHeinemann.M. 1. formula for discharge coefficient and other relations verified. 10 .• • • • When we observe both volume flow rates (Q) actual and theoretical we will find that theoretically calculated flow rate is higher than actual flow rate for same H value. For a weir. The reason behind this is the flow behaviour of water where surface tension. H. Two other curves were also drawn (Fig. Graph between Qact and H (Fig.8) where Cd is constant although it deviate from linearity or low values of H which may be the effect of flow pattern at lower height i. • 1. 1. 1. It is taken for special geometry of weir which should be same for same geometry weir and should not fluctuate with head (H).66859298 We had equation log Qact = log K + n log H log k = . American Society for Testing and Materials. (1966). Flow rate is the increasing function in H. The calibrated value of Cd is calculated as Cd = 0.66859298 0.4. coefficient of discharge should be constant.3) shows the polynomial behaviour as stated by equation.

Kindsvater C. W. 11 . American Society of Civil Engineers. E. “Discharge characteristics of rectangular thin-plate weirs. Transactions”.• R.. 24 (1959). Carter. vol.

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