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LARS Symposia Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing
1-1-1981
Extraction of Geological Lineaments from
LANDSAT Imagery by Using Local Variance and
Gradient Trend
S. R. Xu
C. C. Li
N. K. Flint
This document has been made available through Purdue e-Pubs, a service of the Purdue University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for
additional information.
Xu, S. R.; Li, C. C.; and Flint, N. K., "Extraction of Geological Lineaments from LANDSAT Imagery by Using Local Variance and
Gradient Trend" (1981). LARS Symposia. Paper 415.
http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/lars_symp/415
Reprinted from
Seventh International Symposium
Machine Processing of
Remotely Sensed Data
with special emphasis on
Range, Forest and Wetlands Assessment

June 23 - 26, 1981

Proceedings


Purdue University
The Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 USA



Copyright © 1981
by Purdue Research Foundation, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. All Rights Reserved.
This paper is provided for personal educational use only,
under permission from Purdue Research Foundation.
Purdue Research Foundation
EXTRACTION OF GEOLOGICAL LINEAMENTS
FROM LANDSAT U1AGERY BY USING LOCAL
VARIANCE AND GRADIENT TREND
S,R, xU
J
C,C, LIJ N,K, FLINT
university of Pittsburgh
pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
ABSTRACT
A method for computer extraction of
geological lineaments from LANDSAT images
is presented. The variance thresholded
map of each image is separated into eight
gradient direction maps, where basic
linear segments are determined each of
which is based on the principal eigen
vector of a cluster of pixels whose
gradient direction is orthogonal to its
orientation. A special linking algorithm
operates on the basic linear segments to
give a candidate lineament segment. The
method has been experimented on LANDSAT
images of a small region southwest to
Pittsburgh. The preliminary result is
encouraging and further work for improve-
ment is suggested.
I. INTRODUCTION
Interpretation of lineaments from
LANDSAT images has significant applica-
tions to geological studies. They may
reflect structural features as surface
manifestation of possible fractures and
faults, and may be used to aid in the
placement of geological measurements for
exploration of petroleum/gas and mineral
resources. 1 -
4
Lineaments are usually
situated in a highly textured image back-
ground. Some lineaments appear rather
prominent while others subtle; their
visual interpretation is often quite
sUbjective. 5 Linear enhancement and
computer-aided extraction of lineaments
have been studied by Podwysocki, et al.
6
and Chavez, et al.
7
A technique for
digital enhancement by combining
principal component analysis with multi-
spectral classification was developed by
Fontanel, et al. 8 and applied by
Hilali, et al.9 The performanc e of
algorithms of linear, semilinear, and
nonlinear detectors was examined. and an
algorithm fer iterati.ve pnhancement of
linear features was developed by
Vanderbrug.
10
Match filters were used
by Ehrich in preprocessing for automatic
extraction of lineament segments which
were then linked by means of dynamic
programming.
ll
Recently, Jackson, et al.
conducted an extensive study by various
methods on enhancement of inter-
pretative lineaments in the remotely
sensed images of Cottageville, West
Virginia, and developed a method of
gradient filtering for enhancement of
directional trends.
12
,13 All of these
studies have been directed towards
providing an improved capability of
computer-aided interpretation of
geological lineaments. This paper
intends to present our progress in this
area.
Lineaments are line-like features
in a terrain. Along a lineament, the
transverse changes in gray value persist,
but its edge characteristics may vary.
Hence, it must be perceived both locally
and globally. Three characteristics of
a lineament are noted: (1) within its
small neighborhood, one side shows darker
shade while the other side is brighter;
(2) the variance of grayness in its small
neighborhood is often large to account
for the change in grayness across the
lineament; and (3) the pixels along a
lineament mostly have more or less the
same gradient direction, although their
directions may be reversed at some
places, and their trend must continue
for a significant length. These features
are incorporated in our lineament model
for algorithm development.
1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
113
I
II. DETECTION OF BASIC LINEAR SEGMENTS
Each of the multispectral images
under consideration is preprocessed first
by level slicing to stretch its gray
range to 2S6 levels. Consider a small
nxn window (for example, n = 3) centered
around each pixel (i,j), and compute its
mean gray level "Eij and its variance 0ij
within the window. These local
statistics may be used for contrast
enhancement and noise filtering.
14
By
choosing an appropriate threshold value
0t of the local variance, a region of
high nonhomogeneity is segmented by
locating those pixels whose local vari-
ance 0ij is greater than 0t. Within such
a variance thresholded map, the narrow
region around a lineament segment is
expected to lie. The local variance
parameter has also been used in pro-
cessing SEASAT SAR images for classifying
statistically homogeneous subregions in
the polar ice region.
lS
From the pool of
pixels in the variance thresholded map,
their gradient directions are examined
for possible trends of lineament
For those pixels which exist in the
variance thresholded map, their Sobel
gradients are evaluated. Each of these
pixels, (i,j), and its 3x3 neighbors in
the image are convolved by operators HI
and H2 to give the horizontal and verti-
cal differences Sl(i,j) and S2(i,j)
respectively. Both the magnitude and
direction of the Sobel gradient S(i,j)
are computed. The gradient direction is
quantized into eight direction numbers
(0,1,2, .••.• ,7), with ° direction
pointing to the east and 1 direction
pOinting to the northeast, etc. Each
pixel in the variance thresholded map
may then be labeled by its direction
code. Eight gradient direction maps are
then separated, each of which represents
those pixels whose gradient directions
are coded by the same number q,
(q = 0,1,2, .... ,7). Search is then
attempted in e.ach direction map to obtain
pixels forming possible linear segments
with a direction orthogonal to the
gradient direction of the map.
Consider a square wind.ow of mxm
pixels (m = 32 in this study) in a direc-
tion map with direction q. Examine the
number and distribution of pixels in the
window, and evaluate eigen values (AI
and A2) and eigen vectors and of
this cluster of pixels. If there exists
a single cluster of contiguous pixels
which are aligned linearly with a direc-
tion orthogonal to the gradient direc-
tion q, these pixels naturally form a
segment of a possible lineament. If a
cluster of sufficient number of pixels,
not necessarily contiguous, is signifi-
cantly elongated, the principal eigen
vector passing through the cluster
center may be an adequate representation
of a linear segment. Let N be the number
of pixels in the cluster in a window, and
r = Al/A2 be the ratio of eigen values of
the cluster. If Nand r are greater then
their respective threshold values Nt and
r
t
, and furthermore, if the direction of
its principal eigen vector is orthogonal
to the gradient direction within ±22.So
tolerance, this eigen vector extending
between two sides of the square window,
as shown in Figure 1, is accepted as a
basic linear segment whose orientation
is now not restricted to a quantized
direction. The use of the cluster eigen
vector permits us to detect a possible
lineament segment even when it is
interrupted in the middle as long as the
gradient directions of the pixels are
consistent so as to provide a lineament
trend.
This process is repeated in all
successive windows in a given direction
map and for all directions to detect all
baSic linear segments in an image. It
should be noted that any two successive
windows are overlapped SO% either
horizontally or vertically in order to
take care of the cases where a cluster
may be split by a window into two small
parts below the threshold size.
III.
LINKING OF BASIC LINEAR SEGMENTS
The process of linking basic linear
segments should be viewed as a means
of approximation. It is not often to
find two basic linear segments which are
precisely aligned or which can be con-
nected from end to end. Thus, the
linking of two segments is
achieved by connecting their respective
cluster centers to provide a piecewise
linear approximation.
For a basic linear segment Lk
in "window k", search is made to link
it with another basic linear segment,
if exists, in one of its three neighbor-
ing windows. Depending upon whether the
orientation of Lk is closer to the ver-
tical, horizontal, or diagonal direction,
the three neighboring windpws are spec-\.-
fied by "window k+l", "window k+2" and
"window k+3" as shown in Figure 2 (a),
1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
114
(b) and (c); and they are searched in
that order. If a basic linear segment
Lk+l exists in "window k+l" and if the
difference in orientation between Lk and
Lk+l is less than 4S
o
, they are allowed
to be linked together by connecting their
respective cluster centers Ck and Ck+l as
illustrated in Figure 3. Otherwise, their
directions are inconsistent, so L
k
+
l
should not be linked to Lk. If there is
no basic linear segment, in "windows k+l,
k+2 and k+3", which can be connected to
Lk,the next set of three windows should
be searched as indicated by "window k+4",
"window. k+S" and "window k+6" in Figure
2 (d), (e) and (0. If the search is
successful, the current linking process
can be continued forward; otherwise,
the process stops at Lk and a new linking
effort will start at another window. As
shown in Figure 3, the successful linking
of a series of basic linear segments pro-
vides an extended piecewise linear
structure following a trend which is orth-
ogonal to the average gradient direction
of the pixels on the line. In this way,
candidate lineaments are extracted from
those pixels having the similar gradient
direction and being not too far separated
even though not contiguous.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
A portion of LANDSAT-l image of a region
southwest to Pittsburgh has been experi-
mented by the above-described method.
The images from four spectral bands
are shown in Figure 4 (a), (b), (c) and
(d). Each image is of S12 x 1024 size.
A lineament map in this region as viewed
by two geologists is shown in Figure S.
A total of 20 lineaments were mapped.
Only one half on each image consisting
of 512 x S12 pixels was processed at a
time; the results were then combined.
The variance threshold at for each image
was chosen as that value of a such that
the upper 10% under the variance histo-
gram was covered for a > at. In the de-
tection of basic linear segments, two
sets of threshold parameters Nt and rt
were used. If N > Nt = 32, then r>rt=l.S.
If 322. N>16, then r>rt=8. The length of
the basic linear segments varied between
16 pixels to 32 pixels, corresponding to
the actual length of approximately 1 to
2 km. .
The processing results obtained for
the images of all 4 spectral bands are
shown in Figure 6 (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Combining these results, 13 segments of
lineaments were extracted by this method.
Many spurious short linear segments
were found, which were not true linea-
ment segments.
V. DISCUSSIONS
It is apparent that the experi-
mental result gave a considerable
amount of error in the automatic de-
tection of lineaments. A close ex-
amination suggested several problems
for further consideration. Long
lineaments were not fully tracted by
computer processing because the thresh-
holded variance maps failed to provide
sufficient regions for extraction of
basic linear segments. A more refined
preprocessing should be performed in
order to improve the detection
A larger window (for example, 64x64
pixels) and separate cluster seeking
may be preferred for more reliable
identification of basic linear
A more global trend search should be
further developed to identify the
possible alignment of several linear
segments which are separated far a-
part. Some of the spurious short seg-
ments may then be discarded as they in-
dividually do not fit into a longer
trend. These aspects are being pre-
sently investigated for further im-
provement.
1.
VI. REFERENCES
Smith, W.L., ed., "Remote-Sensing
Applications for Mineral Explor-
ation," Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross,
Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa., 1977.
2. Sabins, F.F., Jr. ,"Remote Sensings:
Principles and Interpretation,"
W.H. Freeman and Co., San Franciso,
Ca., 1978.
3. Werner, E., "Application of Remote
Sensing Studies to the Interpreta-
tion of Fracture Systems and
Structural Styles in the Plateau
Regions of Eastern Kentucky, South-
western Virginia and Southwestern
West Virginia for Application to
Fossil Fuel Extraction Processes,"
Final Report, UGR File No. 040,
DOE Morgantown Energy Technology
Center, December 1977.
4. Goetz, A.F.H. and L.C. Rowan.
"Geologic Remote Sensing," Science,
Vol. 211, pp. 781-791, 20 February
1981.
1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
llS
:'l
I ill
h
: iii
5. Siegal, B.S. and N.M.Short, "sig-
nificance of Operator Variation
and the Angle of Illumination in
ment Analysis on Synoptic Images,"
Modern Geology, Vol. 6, pp.75-85,
1977.
6. Podwysocki, M.H., J.G. Moik and W.C.
Shoup, "Quantification of Geologic.
Lineaments by Manual and Machine Pro-
cessing Techniques," Proc. NASA
Earth Resources Survey Symposium,
Houston, Tx, Vol. I-B, pp. 885-903,
June 1975.
7. Chavez, P.S., Jr., G.L. Berlin and
A.V. Acosta, "Computer Processing
of LANDSAT MSS Digistal Data for
Linear Enhancements," Proc. 2
nd
8.
Annual W.T. Pecora Memorial Symposium,
Mapping with Remote Sensing Data,
Sioux Falls, S.D., pp. 235-250,
October 1976.
Fontanel, A., C. Blanchet and C.
Lallemand, "Enhancement of LANDSAT
Imaginery by Combination of Multi-
spectral Classification and Princi-
pal Component Analysis," Pr-oc. NASA
Earth Resourcws Survey Symposium,
Houston, Tx, Vol. I-B, pp. 991-1012
June 1975.
9. Hilali, E., A. Demnati, J.C. Rivereau
and B. Soulhol, "Contribution Des
Images LANDSAT A La Prospection
Geologique Dans Regions De La
Mediterranee Occidentale," Proc.
International Conference on Earth
Observations from Space and Manage-
ment of Planetary Resources, Toulouse,
France, European Space Agency SP-134,
pp. 133-140, May 1978.
10. Vanderbrug, G.J., "Line Detection in
Satellite Imagery," IEEE Trans. on
Geoscience Electronics, Vol. GE-14,
No.1, pp. 37-44, January 1976.
11. Enrich, R.W., "Detection of Global
Edges in Textured Images," IEEE
Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-26,
No.6, pp. 589-603, June 1977.
12. Jackson, P.L., H.L. Wagner and R.A.
Schuchman, "Geologic Remote Sensing
Over The Cottageville, West Virginia,
Gas Field," Final Report No. 130700-
13-F, Environmental Research Insti-
tute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
February 1979.
13. Wagner, W.L .. and Jackson,
"Feature Enhancement Using Digital
Shaded Relief Processing Techniques,"
Proc. 13th International Symposium
on Remote Sensing of the Environment,
Ann Arbor, Mich., pp. 1721-1725,
1979.
14. Lee, J.S., "Digital Image Processing
by Use of Local StatistiCS," Proc.
IEEE Conference on Pattern Recognit-
ion and Image Processing, Chicago,
IL, pp. 55-61, 1978.
15. Tang, G.Y., "Classification of
SEASAT-1 SAR Images of Polar Ice
Regions," presented at the IEEE
Workshop on Digital Signal and
Waveform Analysis, Miami Beach,
FL, December 5, 1980.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The pattern recognition and image
processing research facility used was
supported in part by the Natural Science
grants ENG 79-11371 and
77-09374.
A cluster of pixels whose gradient
direction is q
nx32
window
cluster center
Principal eigen vector with
orientation orthogonal to
the gradient direction q
Pigure 1 - Basic linear segment deter-
mined by the principal eigen vector of
a cluster of pixels in a gradient
direction map.
1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
116
Window k
r-- -
I, ,
I I: ,
I I' ,
I ' ,: \j :
LL
I Window k+l \
Window k+2 Window k+3
(a)
W Fj-_j"
, .
· ,
· , ,
·
,
( b)
r-- ..... -----.,
, , Window
Window kJ Window k
: ......L!+6
'\ ,
J t
,
,
,


1
ip
Ih
r-- -r=-- 'r-----
I ! I: • :
I :: I '
f I I: .
Li _L .. L_\J ___ '.l
\. Window k+4 \
,
I 1
____
Window k+5
Window k+5 Window k+6
(d) ( e)
r- -------- -:Window k+3

,
- --,'
I
I "
I
1 ' ,--;--"'"
'{ __ Window
Window k+2
k+l
(c)
Window k+6
i----\----:
, I
, ,
I ,
-,:
1 " I "
: IL - - - -1- - -L
, I ,
I \L I J Window
L __ \ .... k+4
Window k+5
(f)
Figure 2 - Neighbouring windows of "window k" specified in search for connection
of basic linear segments,
'I,
" : C
:: k+l
: ,-----
" '
"
::: C
k
+
2
r - .' - _.-
Figure 3 - Linking a series of basic linear segments
1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
117
, '
,
" i
(3) Band 4
(b) Band 5
Figure 4 - LANDSAT - l images of a region southwest to Pittsburgh, PA.
1981 h10chine of Remotely Sensed Dota Symposium
11.
(c) Band 6
(d) Band 7
Bigure 4 - (Continued)
1981 .Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
119
;;
I
I '
r
'I
I
I
, I
I
1
,
i'
120
Figure 5 _ A lineament map determined by two geologists for a region
defined in Figure 4.
1981 h1achine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium
(a) Band 4
(b) Band 5
Figu r e 6 - Lineaments extract ed by computer processi ng .
1981 Machine Processing of Remofely Sensed Dafa Symposium
121
' 22
-------- - --
(e) Band 6
(d) Band 7
Figu r e 6 - (Continued)
1981 h1achine Processing of RemollZly Sensed Data Symposium

All Rights Reserved. 1981 Proceedings Purdue University The Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing West Lafayette. Indiana 47907 USA Copyright © 1981 by Purdue Research Foundation. Purdue Research Foundation . under permission from Purdue Research Foundation. Indiana 47907. Forest and Wetlands Assessment June 23 . West Lafayette.26.Reprinted from Seventh International Symposium Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data with special emphasis on Range. This paper is provided for personal educational use only.

Along a lineament. the transverse changes in gray value persist. et al. and an algorithm fer iterati. et al. semilinear.R. although their directions may be reversed at some places. and may be used to aid in the placement of geological measurements for exploration of petroleum/gas and mineral resources. et al. it must be perceived both locally and globally. 6 A technique for and Chavez. 7 digital enhancement by combining principal component analysis with multispectral classification was developed by Fontanel.C. their visual interpretation is often quite sUbjective. A special linking algorithm operates on the basic linear segments to give a candidate lineament segment. xU J C. Hence. but its edge characteristics may vary. 5 Linear enhancement and computer-aided extraction of lineaments have been studied by Podwysocki. The variance thresholded map of each image is separated into eight gradient direction maps. FLINT university of Pittsburgh pittsburgh. This paper intends to present our progress in this area. where basic linear segments are determined each of which is based on the principal eigen vector of a cluster of pixels whose gradient direction is orthogonal to its orientation. LIJ N. INTRODUCTION nonlinear detectors was examined. one side shows darker shade while the other side is brighter. et al. and (3) the pixels along a lineament mostly have more or less the same gradient direction. et al. Interpretation of lineaments from LANDSAT images has significant applications to geological studies.ve pnhancement of linear features was developed by Vanderbrug. Some lineaments appear rather prominent while others subtle. 1 . (2) the variance of grayness in its small neighborhood is often large to account for the change in grayness across the lineament. They may reflect structural features as surface manifestation of possible fractures and faults. and their trend must continue for a significant length. The method has been experimented on LANDSAT images of a small region southwest to Pittsburgh. Lineaments are line-like features in a terrain. Three characteristics of a lineament are noted: (1) within its small neighborhood.EXTRACTION OF GEOLOGICAL LINEAMENTS FROM LANDSAT U1AGERY BY USING LOCAL VARIANCE AND GRADIENT TREND S.4 Lineaments are usually situated in a highly textured image background. I. West Virginia.13 All of these studies have been directed towards providing an improved capability of computer-aided interpretation of geological lineaments. ll Recently.K. 10 Match filters were used by Ehrich in preprocessing for automatic extraction of lineament segments which were then linked by means of dynamic programming. 8 and applied by Hilali. These features are incorporated in our lineament model for algorithm development. and 1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium 113 . The preliminary result is encouraging and further work for improvement is suggested. 12 . and developed a method of gradient filtering for enhancement of directional trends.9 The performanc e of algorithms of linear. Pennsylvania ABSTRACT A method for computer extraction of geological lineaments from LANDSAT images is presented. Jackson. conducted an extensive study by various methods on ~omputer enhancement of interpretative lineaments in the remotely sensed images of Cottageville.

It is not often to find two basic linear segments which are precisely aligned or which can be connected from end to end.j).. the three neighboring windpws are spec-\. The gradient direction is quantized into eight direction numbers (0. and r = Al/A2 be the ratio of eigen values of the cluster.So tolerance. "window k+2" and "window k+3" as shown in Figure 2 (a). If a cluster of sufficient number of pixels. if exists. Let N be the number of pixels in the cluster in a window. as shown in Figure 1. The use of the cluster eigen vector permits us to detect a possible lineament segment even when it is interrupted in the middle as long as the gradient directions of the pixels are consistent so as to provide a lineament trend. It should be noted that any two successive windows are overlapped SO% either horizontally or vertically in order to take care of the cases where a cluster may be split by a window into two small parts below the threshold size. and compute its mean gray level "Eij and its variance 0ij within the window. tion orthogonal to the gradient direction q. is significantly elongated. This process is repeated in all successive windows in a given direction map and for all directions to detect all baSic linear segments in an image.ach direction map to obtain pixels forming possible linear segments with a direction orthogonal to the gradient direction of the map. this eigen vector extending between two sides of the square window.II.. in one of its three neighboring windows. lS From the pool of pixels in the variance thresholded map. their Sobel gradients are evaluated. If Nand r are greater then their respective threshold values Nt and r t . search is made to link it with another basic linear segment. Search is then attempted in e.j) respectively.••. not necessarily contiguous. LINKING OF BASIC LINEAR SEGMENTS I The process of linking basic linear segments should be viewed as a means of approximation. Each pixel in the variance thresholded map may then be labeled by its direction code. n = 3) centered around each pixel (i. (i. . Consider a small nxn window (for example.j) and S2(i. is accepted as a basic linear segment whose orientation is now not restricted to a quantized direction. a region of high nonhomogeneity is segmented by locating those pixels whose local variance 0ij is greater than 0t. . For a basic linear segment Lk in "window k".7).2. each of which represents those pixels whose gradient directions are al~ coded by the same number q.j). If there exists a single cluster of contiguous pixels which are aligned linearly with a direc- 1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium 114 . if the direction of its principal eigen vector is orthogonal to the gradient direction within ±22. and its 3x3 neighbors in the image are convolved by operators HI and H2 to give the horizontal and vertical differences Sl(i. etc.• .fied by "window k+l".1. with direction pointing to the east and 1 direction pOinting to the northeast. and furthermore.1. Thus.2. Within such a variance thresholded map.7). The local variance parameter has also been used in processing SEASAT SAR images for classifying statistically homogeneous subregions in the polar ice region. Consider a square wind. Both the magnitude and direction of the Sobel gradient S(i. 14 By choosing an appropriate threshold value 0t of the local variance. Eight gradient direction maps are then separated. DETECTION OF BASIC LINEAR SEGMENTS Each of the multispectral images under consideration is preprocessed first by level slicing to stretch its gray range to 2S6 levels. ° III. the linking of two n~ighboring segments is achieved by connecting their respective cluster centers to provide a piecewise linear approximation. (q = 0. the narrow region around a lineament segment is expected to lie. Depending upon whether the orientation of Lk is closer to the vertical. their gradient directions are examined for possible trends of lineament segment~ For those pixels which exist in the variance thresholded map.. These local statistics may be used for contrast enhancement and noise filtering.j) are computed. . Each of these pixels. horizontal. the principal eigen vector ~l passing through the cluster center may be an adequate representation of a linear segment. these pixels naturally form a segment of a possible lineament. or diagonal direction. and evaluate eigen values (AI and A2) and eigen vectors (~l and ~2) of this cluster of pixels. Examine the number and distribution of pixels in the window.ow of mxm pixels (m = 32 in this study) in a direction map with direction q.

Combining these results.(b) and (c). If there is no basic linear segment. 13 segments of lineaments were extracted by this method. Werner. If the search is successful. (c) and (d). k+S" and "window k+6" in Figure 2 (d).. If a basic linear segment Lk+l exists in "window k+l" and if the difference in orientation between Lk and Lk+l is less than 4S o . and they are searched in that order. If 322. Otherwise. the process stops at Lk and a new linking effort will start at another window. . (c) and (d). and L. The length of the basic linear segments varied between 16 pixels to 32 pixels." Science. REFERENCES Smith. 1. (b).. 3. A close examination suggested several problems for further consideration. As shown in Figure 3. The processing results obtained for the images of all 4 spectral bands are shown in Figure 6 (a). In this way. 64x64 pixels) and separate cluster seeking may be preferred for more reliable identification of basic linear segment~ A more global trend search should be further developed to identify the possible alignment of several linear segments which are separated far apart. Jr. (e) and (0. A lineament map in this region as viewed by two geologists is shown in Figure S. A more refined preprocessing should be performed in order to improve the detection accurac~ A larger window (for example. pp. DISCUSSIONS It is apparent that the experimental result gave a considerable amount of error in the automatic detection of lineaments. Freeman and Co." W.H. . San Franciso. Southwestern Virginia and Southwestern West Virginia for Application to Fossil Fuel Extraction Processes. 211. Stroudsburg.. "window. 1978. Each image is of S12 x 1024 size. Inc." Dowden. DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center. F. 781-791. E.S.. which can be connected to Lk.. The variance threshold at for each image was chosen as that value of a such that the upper 10% under the variance histogram was covered for a > at. "Application of Remote Sensing Studies to the Interpretation of Fracture Systems and Structural Styles in the Plateau Regions of Eastern Kentucky. k+2 and k+3". Rowan.F."Remote Sensings: Principles and Interpretation. then r>rt=l. ed. A portion of LANDSAT-l image of a region southwest to Pittsburgh has been experimented by the above-described method. candidate lineaments are extracted from those pixels having the similar gradient direction and being not too far separated even though not contiguous. Sabins. Some of the spurious short segments may then be discarded as they individually do not fit into a longer trend. Long lineaments were not fully tracted by computer processing because the threshholded variance maps failed to provide sufficient regions for extraction of basic linear segments. 20 February 1981. Pa.the next set of three windows should be searched as indicated by "window k+4". "Remote-Sensing Applications for Mineral Exploration. These aspects are being presently investigated for further improvement. their directions are inconsistent. they are allowed to be linked together by connecting their respective cluster centers Ck and Ck+l as illustrated in Figure 3. In the detection of basic linear segments. Goetz." Final Report. W. VI. Ca. A total of 20 lineaments were mapped.L. in "windows k+l. two sets of threshold parameters Nt and rt were used. UGR File No.C. The images from four spectral bands are shown in Figure 4 (a). 4. Only one half on each image consisting of 512 x S12 pixels was processed at a time. 1977. the current linking process can be continued forward. "Geologic Remote Sensing. the results were then combined... 1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium llS . corresponding to the actual length of approximately 1 to 2 km. the successful linking of a series of basic linear segments provides an extended piecewise linear structure following a trend which is orthogonal to the average gradient direction of the pixels on the line. December 1977. If N > Nt = 32. IV. (b).. 2. N>16. otherwise. Vol.F. 040. V. which were not true lineament segments. so L k + l should not be linked to Lk. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Many spurious short linear segments were found. Hutchinson and Ross.H. A. then r>rt=8.

June 1975. June 1977.A. Moik and W. pp.. "Detection of Global Edges in Textured Images. NASA Earth Resourcws Survey Symposium. Chavez. Siegal. 11.C.M.Y. J.L. 8." Proc. "Geologic Remote Sensing Over The Cottageville. Gas Field.S." Modern Geology... 1980. pp. E." Pr-oc. W. R. pp." presented at the IEEE Workshop on Digital Signal and Waveform Analysis. on Geoscience Electronics.. Lineaments by Manual and Machine Processing Techniques. Toulouse. Rivereau and B. 2 nd Annual W.. West Virginia. "Classification of SEASAT-1 SAR Images of Polar Ice Regions. 9." Proc. 1979. Jackson. 37-44. 1978. Vol. pp. "significance of Operator Variation and the Angle of Illumination in Line~ ment Analysis on Synoptic Images. "Computer Processing of LANDSAT MSS Digistal Data for Linear Enhancements. G.T. May 1978. 1721-1725.Basic linear segment determined by the principal eigen vector of a cluster of pixels in a gradient direction map. 7. pp. International Conference on Earth Observations from Space and Management of Planetary Resources.. C-26. January 1976. A cluster of pixels whose gradient direction is q cluster center nx32 window 10. 991-1012 June 1975. Wagner. Soulhol. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan. J. Ann Arbor. 12. Jr. Demnati. G.Short. Ann Arbor. Mich. October 1976. Miami Beach. 14.. Houston.L. 1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium :'l 116 Iil h :ii . Vol.C.L . and N. 6. Sioux Falls.1. 133-140. Vol.L. Mich. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. "Quantification of Geologic. 885-903. Tx. 13th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment." Proc. Mapping with Remote Sensing Data. I-B. Tang. Jackson. "Line Detection in Satellite Imagery. France. Fontanel.5. "Enhancement of LANDSAT Imaginery by Combination of Multispectral Classification and Principal Component Analysis. IL. Principal eigen vector with orientation orthogonal to the gradient direction q Pigure 1 . G. M. Blanchet and C. pp." IEEE Trans. 13070013-F. Chicago.. C." IEEE Trans.. A.. Vanderbrug. December 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 6.S. Houston. Schuchman. The pattern recognition and image processing research facility used was supported in part by the Natural Science ~oundation grants ENG 79-11371 and ~CS 77-09374. FL." Proc.W. Lee. Acosta.G.S. Vol. Shoup. "Feature Enhancement Using Digital Shaded Relief Processing Techniques. Pecora Memorial Symposium. European Space Agency SP-134. February 1979. Wagner and R.V. Vol. H.L~. Enrich. No. Tx.D." Proc. pp.. 235-250. Berlin and A.75-85. GE-14. Podwysocki. "Contribution Des Images LANDSAT A La Prospection Geologique Dans L~s Regions De La Mediterranee Occidentale. P.J. 1977. Hilali. 55-61. 13. pp. 15. P. No. Lallemand." Final Report No. B.H. S.6. pp. A.. I-B. on Computers. IEEE Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing.. J. and P. "Digital Image Processing by Use of Local StatistiCS. 589-603.

-:Window I k+3 r-.-r=-.----" " ' . 'I. - :: " : C k+l r . I: I' . L_\J___'.l f I ! . r. ~ ____ ~J Window k+5 : I L __ \ " \L._.._ ....----1-----" I I I ' . . I .--r...... . .. LL J==k1-------~ I Window k+l \ Window k+2 (a) \j : ( b) r-.L!+6 .~. .~1.Linking a series of basic linear segments 1981 Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium 117 . I: : -. Window J r-.' Li _L.. .W~Il(h)!l_ Window k . -----.' " ~ . I 1 L..J Window Window k+2 (c) 1 ' ... ' .. i----\----: I Window k+6 ..' .: .!b~ ::: Ck + 2 Figure 3 . ...j:. .. Window k+4 \ Window k+5 Window k+6 (d) Window k+5 ( e) (f) " i Figure 2 .-1. I~ I. . I '{__l-_-_~-. . ..I I -L J .--"'" :-----~ I k+l Window k+3 Window kJ Window k'\ : .: " .--. IL . 1 . · Fj-_j" .Neighbouring windows of "window k" specified in search for connection of basic linear segments... · ..--.'r----I t • -----~ • ip Ih ~1 I :I: I .... ... .... ~_ I Window k+4 \...-------.. : ...

(3) Band 4 (b) Band 5 Figure 4 . PA. 1 h10chine Proc~ssing of Remotely Sensed Dota Symposium 981 11.LANDSAT . .l images of a region southwest to Pittsburgh.

Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium 119 .(c) Band 6 (d) Band 7 Bigure 4 - (Continued) 1981 .

I 1981 h1achine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium 1 . 120 i' . I I I ... I' 'I I r Figure 5 _ A lineament map determined by two geologists for a region defined in Figure 4.

1981 Machine Processing of Remofely Sensed Dafa Symposium 121 .(a ) Band 4 (b) Band 5 Figu r e 6 .Lineaments extract e d b y computer processi ng .

---.- -- (e) Band 6 (d) Band 7 Figu r e 6 - (Continued) 1981 h1achine Processing of RemollZly Sensed Data Symposium ' 22 .---.