This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction A prominent concern in the international human resource management is the failure of expatriates (Black et al, 1988). The failure rate of the international managers or expatriates has been reported to range anywhere between 10-80%, costing multinational enterprise (MNEs) between US$40000-US$1 million for each failed assignment (Vogel 2008). Not including the ‘invisible’ or indirect costs which are harder to quantify in money terms but can prove to be more expensive for the company (textbook). Therefore, a proper recruitment and selection, preparation, training, support and development for expatriates are essential to address the problem. Training is the process of altering employee behaviour and attitudes to increase the probability of goal attainment (Hodgetts, 1993) where development aimed at improve abilities in relation to future expatriates. Stone (1998) stated that strategic training & development are virtually non-existent in most organisations as most organizations do not analyse the needs of training and development and top management viewed it as a necessary evil. However according to Fontaine (1997:631), if effective preparation, support and training were provided not only to expatriate but also their trailing families will ensure the success of international assignments. These were shown by the survey’s respondents from Windham international and the National Foreign Trade Council (1999) which cited family adjustment (65%), spousal resistance (53%) and spouse’s career (45%) as the most critical roadblock to acceptance and success of international assignments. Besides, Bross (2000) supports Fontaine in stating that the important of expatriates recruitment and selection then provide them with proper training will position them to be successful. Pre-departure training Once an employee has been selected, pre-departure training becomes the next critical step in attempting to ensure the expatriate’s effectiveness and success abroad (Mendenhall et al. 1987). Tung’s (1982) study showed US multinationals 32% tended to use training programs for expatriate less frequently than European 69% and Japanese 57% firms. However, GMAC 2004 Global Survey showed that provision of pre-departure training for expatriate and accompanying spouse/partners continued to increase. Cross-cultural training is beneficial for expatriates adapt to and not feel isolated from the host-country. Mendenhall et al. (1987) distinguish between three types of training, namely, (1) information giving approaches, which have a relative low level of rigor via lectures, movies or books; (2) affective approaches which address people’s feeling as well as ‘fact’ through culture assimilator and role playing; and (3) immersion approaches which are in-depth methods covering a broad range of topic and methods like field experiments and sensitivity training. In 1983, Intel launched its intercultural
Many MNEs have take advantages of relocation specialist/consultant to provide this practice assistance. 1985). Language ability and training are not considering in the selection process and predeparture training as English is the dominant role (Tung. Therefore. It can also assist expatriates and families gain access to new social support structures outside of work and the expatriate community. assistance in finding suitable accommodation and schooling for children. understanding the concepts on which leadership style will be most effective and consistent with the culture of the hostcountry need to be included during the selection and training. 1987). government and market. Besides development of cross-cultural awareness.training program offered in five areas which are intercultural awareness. training for international assignments and intact-team training. some MNEs also provided Family-friendly policies like inter-company networking (Joint-venture partner). some countries like France and Japan are very keen to use their national language instead of English. expatriate’s effectiveness and negotiating ability (Baliga and Baker. Therefore. It can also serves as part of the selection decision and for assignee (and spouse) to make more informed decision about accepting the international assignment. Anecdotal evidence suggests that in some firms pre-departure training may not be provided to TCNs being transfer to another subsidiary. For instances. Expatriates often find themselves training HCNs as their replacements. multicultural integration. 1982). Expatriates need to modify his managerial style accordingly based on the country of assignment (Torbiorn. intra-company employment. An expatriate fluent in the parent-country language and host-country language can become language nodes or perform a gate-keeping role while HCN need to train for corporate language. and for HCNs transferred into . Practical assistance helps in providing information that assists in relocation. training for training role is necessary for expatriates. cultural-specific training. Hofstede’s power distance index tends to be a determinant of the leadership styles of international managers (Tung. The cross-cultural training and language training will enhance the expatriate’s ability to train and interact effectively with HCN. Knowledge of host-country language can improve manager’s access to information of the host-country’s economy. Preliminary visit to host country helps enhance pre-departure preparation and to introduce expatriate candidates to the business context in the host location. and on assignment career support (Dual-career policy) for expatriate’s spouse. one must develop their ability to know when to seek additional cultural-specific information/support and training should be more oriented to life-long program than ‘one-shot’ program with an area-specific focus. Black (1990) points out that expatriate community as a support mechanism with information and advice to facilitate cross-cultural adjustment. Besides that. job hunting assistance. 1985). However.
However. as they are often short-term. they are struggling to cope with readjustment challenge like career anxiety. 1997). They may not be regarded as ‘genuine’ expatriate postings like PCNs.the parent country operation. For those successful expatriates. 1987). physical relocation or practical assistance. 1999). Furthermore. senior expatriate managers. project-based assignments or for management development purpose. financial and tax assistance. Besides that. Post-assignments One of the hidden costs linked with expatriation is the inability to retain the expatriate upon return to the home country (Black et al. But for those who failed and most of the successful expatriates. Preparation and Re-entry training such as counseling workshops and career development consultations proved useful in the adjustment process (Sievers 1998). The two most important issues for repatriation programs are career planning and ‘reverse back shock’ (Hammer et al. counseling workshops and career . During assignments HR professionals should establish and coordinate a support system between the firm’s headquarters. headquarters may invite the expatriate to attend some of the home training courses and other events base on training budget. and acclimatized to host-country culture. Expatriates anticipate a lack of attractive positions to return to in the home-country and seek out better opportunities outside their company (GMAC global survey. and newly expatriated managers (Mendenhall. It appears from the research that the major cause of difficulty in reintegrating is the expatriate’s perceived loss of status. responsibility and autonomy on returning to the home country (Johnston 1991). The distribution of company newsletters to staff abroad or announcement that provided information to expatriates indicates a willingness to include them in the activities of the company. company and society changes. families’ adjustment. 2006). they may be promoted to senior position and continue to act as convenient contact between headquarters and subsidiaries which operate in the same local language. Superior-subordinate relationship or mentor system has kept the expatriate up to date with home-country developments. re-entry position and career path assistance (and spouse) as mentioned in pre-departure culture. Mentor should ensure that the expatriate is not forgotten when important decisions are made as to avoid the situation where the expatriate “goes native” thus causing a possible shift in allegiance between the host culture and headquarters. stress management and communication-related training should be provided for repatriation process. Hence. pre-departure training for non-traditional expatriate assignments should be provided by using CD-based and Web-based cross-cultural program. Mentor has also played an important role in training expatriate for repatriation process by discussing career development issues during the assignment and preparing the new job assignments. thus falling outside the ambit of the HR function. 1998). Successful assignments begin with repatriation planning at the time of expatriation (Latta.
A global mindset for key personnel takes a broader view is an important side of benefit. shared values. Developing staff through international assignments International assignments have long been recognized as an important mechanism for developing international expertise. preparation. International teams can be formed from those who have had international experience. and encouraging diverse inputs into decisions. Ehud & Yoram (1978) point out that attention should be paid on choosing the most suitable training contents and applying the most effective training method. .development consultations for re-entry training should be continuing until they are adapted to the home-country. how effective of those training to produce successful expatriates as there is an argument saying that what work for one may not work for another. Peterson (2003) found that western-based multinationals operating in Central and Eastern Europe were increasing the use of TCN and HCN expat transfers as a way of widening the ‘corporate talent pool’ Conclusion Numerous international literatures has emphasized on the training of expatriates. While Scullion (1992) saying that training and development programmes for local managers must be culturally adapted to local conditions’. the time between selection and departure normally was too short to conduct a very comprehensive training. The expected outcomes are management development where MNEs have a pool of experienced international operators to draw for future international assignments while individual gain international experience for career advancement. and repatriation process are essential for the successful of expatriates. a way of developing a global perspective. and to the host country as a temporary citizen (Cohen. supports. organizational development where MNEs accumulating stock of knowledge. However. Expatriate bears a responsible role to his company as an employee. organizational learning and the transfer of knowledge. ones may learn the leadership skills and highly motivated to reflect employee motivations to ensure the individual’s peak performance for the organization. 1977). Also. to his country as an ambassador. Therefore. problem solving and strategic assessments. Multinational would benefit from using international team as a mechanism for fostering innovation. training and development. skills and abilities for future growth from international assignments. From individual development. appropriate approaches for recruitment and selection.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.