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Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 4 I- 44 (1992) 577-588

Elsevier

577

Fluctuating Pressure on Two Circular Cylinders at High Reynolds Numbers

T.F.

Sun a,

Z.F.

Gu a,

D.X.

He ~andL.Lo

Zbang b

~Department of Mechanics, Peking University, Beijing 100871,

China

blnstitute of Low Speed Aerodynamics, CARDC,

Siehuan 62100,

China

Abstract

In this paper the fluctuating pressure on two circular cylinders in a number of arrangements (including in tandem, side-by-side and staggered) subjected in a smooth cross flow are given at high subcritical Reynolds number (3.25 X 105) and supercritical Reynolds number (6.5)< 105) respectively. The results show that the interference effect on fluctuating pressure are weaker at supercritical Reynolds number than that at subcritical ones. In certain eases it may have very different features at these two Reynolds numbers.

1. INTRODUCTION

In many cases of engineering practices and structures, circular cylinder is one of the structural components mostly employed and they often appear in group, e. g. , groups of chimney stacks, overhead power-line bundles, tubes in heat ex- changers, chemical reaction-towers, off-shore platforms, etc. The pressure dis- tribution and forces acting on cylinder in group may be very different from that of sin$'c (isolated) one due to mutual interference. On the other hand, many in- teresting or unexpected fluid phenomena may happen[-l ] and therefore grouping- effect is also a very interesting subject of fundamental research in fluid mechan- ics. Two circular cylinders is the simplest ease of group and thus attracts the at- tention of many research workers, especially in the last two decades. Extensive reviews were given by ZdravkovichE2-1 and Ohya, et al. !-3-1 But most work on cylinder group reported in literatures so far are limited to subcritieal Reynolds number and low-turbulence flow. To the authors' knowledge, the only work on two circular cylinders in supereritical Reynolds number was done by Okajima~4, 5"1. As in the case of a single circular cylinder in cross-flow, each of the individ-

0167-6105/92/S05.00 © 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

578

ua! cylinders in a group will be subjected to both time-varying and time-mean pressures and forces, even more pronounced due to grouping-effect. These pres- sores vary with the arrangement of cylinders, which are usually classified as tan- dem, side-by-side and staggered. Moreover, as for flow around single cylinder, Reynolds number, turbulence intensity of oncoming flow and the surface rough- hess are the most important influential parameters. It is well known that the problems of wind loadings on the structures mentioned above are usually related with high Reynolds number of order 107 , high turbulence intensity larger than 100~ in oncoming flow and rough surfaces of cylinders. Okajima['4-I studied two tandem circular cylinders, at Reynolds number from 0. 8 X 105 to 4.0 X 105 by means of measuring forces and of using the surface oil-flow technique for flow visualization. He noted that in the suberitical flow regime, there occurred distinct step-like jumps of drag coefficients at critical gap ratio of 3.8, and in supereritical flow regime the positiol~s of the laminar bubbles and flow separation hardly changed with the gap ratios. The latter means that the drag coefficients of two tandem cylinders remain nearly constant, regardless of the gap ratio. Okajima et al. [5 ] also studied two side-by-side cylinders for Reynolds numbes from 0. 25 X 105 to 4.5 )< 105. No biased flow like that at sub- critical Reynolds number may be observed ,tt supercritieal one. Effect of differ- ent intensities of turbulence on aerodynamic forces of two circular cylinders at Reynolds number of I )< 105 was investigated by Zhang and Melbourne['6]. As for fluctuating pressure, the results are very limited. Arie, et al. [-7]presented fluctuating pressure on the surface of two tandem circular cylinders at high sub- critical Reynolds number of Re-----1.57 )< 10 s. It shows that the rms surface pres- sure was much higher for the rear cylinder than for front cylinder and that, for both cylinders, the rms pressure obtained a highest level just beyond the critical gap ratio of 3. 8. No results of fluctuating pressures at supercritical Reynolds number has been known to the present authors. In recent years, the pressure distributions (time-mean as well as fluctuating) and aerodynamic forces on two two-dimensional circular cylinders at high Reynolds numbers have been studied systematically by Peking University using

wind tunnel tests. The test Reynolds

numbers range from

2. 5 )< 105 to

9 X 10 s ,

and gap ratios from 1.05 to 7. The arrangements of two circular cylinders in- elude tandem, side-by-side, and staggered. Two different uniform oncoming streams of intensites of turbulence of 0. 12 ~ and 10 ~ have been tested. The re-

suits of fluctuating pressure on two cylinders in several eases at Reynolds num-

bers of 3.25 × 10 s and 6.5)< 10 s in low turbulent

this paper.

uniform flow are presented in

2. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND DATA REDUCTION

Test was done in uniform stream of a Io v-speed wind tunnel at CARDC (Chi-

na Aerodynamic Research and Development Center).

The

test section

is

4m

wide, 3m high and 8m long. Maximum speed may reach 90 m/s and turbulent

intensity is 0. 12 ~.

579

The circular cylinders tested were seamless steel tube with machine-finished surface. They were of :identical size of diameter of 198 mm. Each circular cylin- der was composed of three sections. Pressure taps were provided every ten de-

~:o'ees around circumference at mid-span of the middle

section. The cylinders

were set up vertically in guide-ways fixed on upper and lower turning tables in

the center of test section.

No end plates were used.

The measurement ~ystem of the surface pressure consisted of pressure trans- ducers (PDCR-- 23D), Scanivalve (SGM-- 48), DC amplifier (6M72) and tape recorder (TEAC XR--23C). The signals on the tape were analyzed later by A/D converter and ndcro-computer (IBM PC/XT) to obtain the rms values and power spectra. In order to obtain frequ~mcy response as high as possible, the Scanivalve set was mounted inside t.he cyli~nder. Plastic tubes with restrictors connecting the taps to Scanivalve were about 200mm long. The frequency response of this system was measured such that, when the frequency was below 125 Hz, the relative er- ror of value of aml/~litude was less than 1~ and phase delay might be ignored. Only one cylinder was instrumented. The other one was used as dummy for in- terference effect. By interchanging their positions, one has pressure distributions for both cylinders.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing arrangement of two circular cylinders

Schematic diagram showing various arrangements of tkv cylinders is shown in Fig. 1. The diameter of cylinder is denoted by d and distance between centers of two cyli~ders by N. N/d gives the gap ratio between two cylinders. The angle of wind direction [~ is defined as the angle between the oncoming flow and the line connectiLng centers of two cylinders. According to usual practice, the measured instantaneous pressure P (0, t) is ex- pressed as the sum of time-mean pressure P(0) and fluctuating pressure P' (0,t). Mean t~ressure coefficient Cp(0) and fluctuating pressure coefficient Cp' (0) are defined, respectively, as

580

 

[-P(0)--Poo]

Cp' (0)

Crp (0)

Cp(0)=

1/2pooVoo2 '

1/2pooV~o2

where 0 is the azimuth angle measured from the wind direction, positive clock-

wise. t is

the time.

P~,

pod and Voo denote the pressure, density and velocity of

oncoming flow respectively, err(0) is the rms value of P' (0,t). Reynolds number Re is defined as p~,Vood/~t, where ~t is the viscosity of fluid. Only two Reynolds numbers were used in the measurement of fluctuating pres- sure, i.e. 3.25 X 105 as the high subcritical Reynolds number and 6.5 X 106 as the supercritieal one.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Single cylinder

Pressure distributions around single cylinder were measured first and were used as the basis of comparison and discussion for interference effect. The mean pres- sure distributions over single cylinder are shown in Fig. 2 for two Reynolds numbers. At Re= 3.25)< 105 , the Cp vs. 0 curve has the general characteris- tics of the laminar-separated flow around cylinder at suberitieal Re, with separa- tion angle at 0=-90*,instead of 80* for Re of order of 104. At Re=6.5)< 10 s, the Cp vs. 0 curve has a small plateau after Cpmi,, a typical "laminar separation bubble". It means that there exists a laminar separation, followed by transition, reattaehment and finally turbulent separation around 120". For the fluctuating (rms) pressure distributions(Fig. 4,5), there are significant difference between these two Reynolds numbers. The values of amplitude of Cp' at supereritieal Reynolds number are much smaller than that at suberitieal one and the Ideation of

the peak value of Cp' shifts backward 5 degrees. The agreement

of the present

results of Cp' vs. 0 at these two Reynolds numbers and that given by Cheung ~. Melbourne C7~ is satisfactory, considering the difference of the test Reynolds numbers and of turbulence intensities. The power spectra of pressure (Exam- ples at 0= 90* are shown in Fig. 3) at Re= 3.25 × 105 show that from 0= 0* to 120", the peaks can be observed clearly at frequency of 24.5 Hz. It means that there are regular vortex shedding from the surface of cylinder, a well-known feature of suberitical flow regime. According to definition of Strouhal number St

=f~d/V~o (where f, denotes frequency of vortex shedding) the present result gives

S, =

0.

19.

At Re=

6.5

X

105 no peak value can be observed around

the entire

circumference of cylinder.

3.2 Two cylinders in tandem

At ['-3=0 °,

the cylinders are in tandem arrangement.

Fig.

2 shows

the mean

pressure distributions on front and rear cylinders at two Reynolds numbers.

In

general, at either Reynolds number there are certain effects of rear cylinder upon

581

front one, essentially on the values of minimum pressure Cp,,i, and of base pres- sure Cpb. These effects are due to proximity in nature and are relatively stronger at subcritical Reynolds number than at supercritical one. On the other hand, wake effect of front cylinder on rear cylinder is very pronounced. At subcritical Reynolds number, the pressure on rear cylinders at N/d-- 2. 2, 3. 5 and 4.0 are all negative and Cp vs. 0 curves have different characteristics for different gap ra- tios. At supereritical Re, the pressures around the stagnation of rear cylinder are positive and the Cp,,,i, and Cp~ decrease as N/d increases. The latter effect is obvi- ously the result of narrower wake regions at supercritical Re. The fluctuating pressure distribution Cp' vs. 0 curves of front and rear cylinders at different gap ratios N/d are given in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 for suberitical and supereritieal Reynolds

number respectively. When Re = 3.25 )< 105 ,

the values of Cp' of front cylin-

der, compared with single one, reduce by a large amount (Fig. 4 (a)). It

means that the existence of rear cylinder suppresses the pressure flutuation on two

Cp

1.0 Ik

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

P=O ° = 0.5 Re:6.5OxlO Cp ---- Rear Front Cyl~.. 0.0 ¢) [- -0.5 -1.0 -1.5
P=O °
=
0.5
Re:6.5OxlO
Cp
----
Rear Front Cyl~..
0.0
¢)
[-
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
oooo N/.d=2.2
NZd=2a
AA&& N/.d:3.5
N/.d=3.5
...
o
N/d:4.0
-2.5
N/d-4.0
• • * • Single
~0o"• °" Single
,
i
I
*
.
I
.
*
I
I
l
|
I
'
I
.
8" -3.0
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
(a)
Re=3.25X
106
(b)
Re=6.5
×
1 0 s

Figure 2.

Mean pressure distributions on single cylinder and on two cylinders in

tandem arrangement

582

Sp

Single

Cyl. OS

Re=3.25x1

8=90 °

s°ll

Single Cyl. Re=6^SOxl 0 s

8=90"

0

30

60

90

120

Hz

150

0

(a)

Re=3.25X

10 ~

30

60

90

120

Hz

150

(b)

Re--6.5X

105

Figure 3. Power spectra for single circular cylinder at 0=90 °

 

C ~'

Cp'

0.5

0.5

 

Front

Cvl.

Re=3.2~×105

 

0.4

oooo ,,., z~A NXd=3.5 N/.d=2.2

0.4

 

SlngTe

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0,0

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

o o

0

(a)

Front cylinder

30

60

go

120

150

O

180

(b)

Rear cylinder

Figure 4.

Fluctuating pressure distributions on single cylinder and on two cylin-

ders in tandem arrangement at

Re=. 3. 25 X

l0 ~

583

sides of

the

front

one.

The

corresponding spectrum

(not

shown

in

text)

also

shows that the energy contained becomes smaller and the shedding frequency of

vortices reduces. For rear cylinder (Fig.

4

(b)),

owing to wake

flow of the

front one,

Cp* increases tremendously,

with peaks occurring first at 0=50 ° and

then in the neighborhood of 1 ] 0 °. At N/d = 4.0, the rms pressures obtained

reach a very high level,

which agrees with the results given in ET-]. When Re=

6.5X

105 ,

the effect of rear cylinder on front one

(Fig.

 

5

(a))

may be neglect-

ed,

including the effect of different

N/d ~ s.

Values

of

Cp*s of

rear

cylinder

(Fig.

5(b))

are larger than of single one but much smaller than

that at

3.25 X

] 05.

The peak values reach 0. 3 approximately at 0--- 30 o and

1 00 °.

It may

be in-

teresting to note that C,' distribution curve at N/d=

3.5

 

is very

close to that

at

4.0,

and is different

from that at

2.2.

Another interesting feature at supercriti-

cal Reynolds number is that the rms values at stagnatioq points of rear cylinder

are almost same for differnt gap ratios.

3.3 Two cylinders in staggered arrangement

At 0 °~13~90 °,

two cylinders are in staggered arrangement.

Only one case of

C::)'

0.5

Cp'

0.5

Front Cyl. 5 Z,e=6.5xl 0 oooo N/d=2.2 z~zxz~zxN"d=3.5 0.4 0.4 I :3==~ N~'d=4.0 Single 0.3 0.3
Front
Cyl.
5
Z,e=6.5xl 0
oooo N/d=2.2
z~zxz~zxN"d=3.5
0.4
0.4
I
:3==~ N~'d=4.0
Single
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
8
°
--U-T
1
n
J
I
l
1
I
u
I
1
I
I
I
'
i
0.0
0.0
180
0
0
30
60
90
~,20 ~.50
(a)
Front cylinder
 

Rear

Cyl. OS

Re=6.Sxl

 
 

oooo N/d=2.2

zxzxzxzx N, ~d=3.5 Nz, d=4.0

nnmm

Single

 

(9 °

30

60

90

120

150

180

 

(b)

Rear cyfinder

 

Figure 5. Fluctuating pressure distributions on single cylinder and on two cylin- ders in tandem arrangement at Re= 6.25 X l0 s

584

N/d =

2.2

and

13= 12. 5* will be presented here.

The fluctuating pressure distri-

butions Cp' vs.

0 curves are

given in Fig.

6.

At Re=

3.25 X

105 ,

it

is seen that

most of the

values of

Cp ~ of the front cylinder is only half

of

that

of single one,

but Cp'

over a rather

large region of the inner side of the rear cylinder are much

larger than that of single one with peak values ~ttaining

0.

4 4.

Spectrum of rear

cylinder at 0=0"

(Fig.

7 (a))

shows that the peak

frequencies are two times of

that of front cylinder at 0=90* (Fig. 7 (b)). It may be interpreted that rear

cylinder

is acted

upon

by

the

vortices shedding

alternately from

both

sides of

front one.

This is in contrast

to

the

fact

that

vortex shedding are suppressed for

two tandem cylinders at N/d= 2.2. During the test, vibrations of rear cylinder

were observed with bare eyes and the wind tunnel itself shook for 8"<13< 18*, but not other 13' s. It might be the result of resonance due to the coincidence of the natural frequency of tunnel-model system and the shedding frequency of

large vortices in the gap between these two staggered cylinders['9-].

Its mecha-

nism needs further detailed investigation.

At Re=

6.5

X

105 ,

no visual vibra-

tions of rear cylinder and tunnel were observed and no peak frequency might be identified in the spectra (Fig. 8).

0,5

Cp'

0.4

0.3

P

t x

~,

t

e

id~

t

~

t ~

i 9,,

I

I

t

I t

tl

a I

I ~,

~

O6

0,2

I

E e=

..

,

P

I

I

~"mmmt=

I

,=

X,ID

X

X

',

0.1

0,0

-180

-90

0

N/d=2.2

/Y=12.5

°

0 5

o .. = = o o o Re=6.50x1Re=3"25xlos

~

Cyl.

A

---

Cyl.

B

Ib

¥I

"_',

j

90

0 °

180

Figure 6. Fluctuating pressure distributions on two cylinders in staggered ar- rangement of 13= 12.5*, N/d= 2.2

585

Sp

 

Cyl.

B (Reor)

 

Sp

Cyl.

A

(Front)

 
 

N/d=2.~

./d=2~

 

p= Re=3.25x1 12.5

OS

B= Re=3.25x1 12.5

OS

O=O=

e--900

 
 

Hz

Hz

 

~=.

I

..

I

 

-

=--

'

I

-=---

_

 

_

_

0

30

60

90

120

150

0

30

60

90

120

 

150

 

(a)

Cyl.

B

(rear),

0--0 °

 

(b)

Cy].

A (front),0---90 °

Figure 7.

Power spectra of pressures on two cylinders in staggered arrangement

of

[3-- 12.5 °,

N/d=2.

2,

Re-- 3.25X

l0 s

SPI

 

Cyl.

B (Rear)

 

Sp

Cyl.

A

(Front)

 
 

I

..

N/d=2~;!

J

N/d=2~

 

A=12.5 ~

II

t~=12.5

~e=6.50x10'

 

I B

~e=6.50x10 =

 
 

o

,l~i[

0:90°

 
 

i

,'

, ,',

qlfl, Hz

 

yz

0

30

60

90

120

150

0

30

60

90

120

 

150

 

(a)

Cy 1.

B (rear),

0= 0*

(b)

Cyl.

A (front),0--90 °

Figure 8. Power spectra of pressures on two cylinders in staggered arrangement

of 13--- 12.5 °, N/d--2.2, Re=6.50X 105

586

3.4 Two cylinders arranged side-by-side

At ~--90 °, the two cylinders are in side-by-side arrangement. Fluctuating pressure are investigated for N/d--2.2. At Re--3.25X 105(Fig. 9), peak val- ues of Cp ~ on the outer surfaces of both cylinders are larger than that of single one and move rearward to about 100 °. The Cp' values on inner sides reduces quite a lot, indicating that the existence of other cylinder suppresses the vortices shedding from the inner surfaces and hence the pressure fluctuation. Spectrum shows that there are peak frequencies on outside surfaces but none on inside ones.

On

the other

hand,

at supercritical Reynolds

number,

Re--6.

50 X

105 (Fig.

10),

Cp ~ values are much reduced,

compared to that of subcritical one,

but its

peak values are somewhat larger than that of single one.

0.5

Cp'

.8=90 °

0.4

N/d=2.2

 
 

M,

Reffi3"25x10=

 
 

:

',

oooo Cyl.

B

 

I~

0.3

f

~.

""""

Cvl

A

H

0.2

0.1

0.0

,.,J--i===t~t=-A--t

..

A,=-I

= L=A==4.=JI=.

I,

..

,A.

l=

I

..

~--I-.L.,.A--L~

t

...

,t.=t~

===

80

-90

0

90

I

10

o

Figure 9.

Fluctuating pressure distributions on two cylinders in side-by-side ar-

rangement of N/d-----2.2,

Re=3.25X105

587

0.5

Cp'

 

p=90

°

 

N/d---2.2

0.4

Re=6.5OxlO s

 

oooo

Cyl.

B

0.3

,~AAA Cyt.

""""

A

Smgle

 

0.2

II

"

0.1

o.0

0 °

-

180

-90

0

90

180

Figure

10.

Fluctuating pressure distributions on two cylinders in side-by-side ar-

rangement of N/d=2.

2,

Re=6.50><

]0 s

4. CONCLUSIONS

From the preliminary results given above and other cases tested in the present

program,

one may conclude:

1. The interference effects on the fluctuating pressures of two neighboring cir- cular cylinders of various arrangements are weaker at supercritical Reynolds number than that at subcritical one.

  • 2. For two cylinders in tandem arrangement, the minimum pressure and mean

pressure of the front cylinders increase algebraically and the pressure fluctuations are suppressed due to proximity effect of rear cylinders. Due to wake effect of front cylinders, the mean pressures on rear cylinders have very different features between suberitical and supereritical Reynolds number. The rms pressure on rear cylinder will reach a rather high level.

  • 3. For side-by-side arrangement, the fluctuating pressures on or the vortices

shedding from the inner surfaces of both cylinders are suppressed due the effects

of proximity.

  • 4. -- high level of unsymmetric distribution of fluctuating pressure has been observed at high suberitical Reynolds number, due to both wake and proximity effects. Strong vibration of rear cylinder results. More detailed investigation will be car- ried out.

(e.

g.

13=

2.

2)

For certain cases of staggered arrangement

1 2.5 ° ,

N/d

588

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The work described in this paper was supported by National Natural Science

Foundation of China. The authors are very grateful to their colleagues of Peking

University and Institute of Low-speed Aerodynamics, during the wind-tunnel tests.

CARDC,

for their helps

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618--633

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Hayashi,

M.

,

Chapter 10, Encyclopedia of Fluid

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K.

~

Mizota,

 

T.,

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~

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M.

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~

Mori,

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Trans.

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J.

C. K. ~

Melbourne,

W.

H.

,

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Yan, D.C.

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~

Li,

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